WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional process writing

  1. Teaching the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, John

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines some cognitive process models of writing composition. Possible reasons why students' writing capabilities do not match their abilities in some other school subjects are explored. Research findings on the efficacy of process approaches to teaching writing are presented and potential shortcomings are discussed. Product-based…

  2. ENHANCING WRITING SKILL THROUGH WRITING PROCESS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at developing the implementation of Writing Process Approach (WPA) to enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. The study employed Classroom Action Research. The subjects of the study were 15 university students enrolled in the writing class. The data were gained from writing task, observation and field notes. The findings show that the implementation of WPA with the proper model procedures developed can enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. Before the strategy ...

  3. ENHANCING WRITING SKILL THROUGH WRITING PROCESS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at developing the implementation of Writing Process Approach (WPA to enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. The study employed Classroom Action Research. The subjects of the study were 15 university students enrolled in the writing class. The data were gained from writing task, observation and field notes. The findings show that the implementation of WPA with the proper model procedures developed can enhance the students’ skill in writing essay. Before the strategy was implemented, the percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to C (56-70 was 40.00% (6 students of the class. However, after the strategy was implemented in Cycle I, it enhanced enough to 60.00% (9 students of the class, but this result did not meet the criteria of success set up in the study. Next, in Cycle II it increased slightly to 86.67% (13 students of the class. Thus, the enhancement of the students’ skill in writing essay can be reached but it should follow the proper model procedures of the implementation of WPA developed. Keywords: writing process approach, writing skill, essay writing

  4. Scaffolding EFL Students' Writing through the Writing Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This research reports a study conducted at Koya University/English Language Department, and it aims at presenting the effect of scaffolding on EFL students' writing ability through the writing process. In this study, the students have taken the role of writers, so they need to follow the same steps that writers apply during their writing process.…

  5. Observing writing processes of struggling adult writers with collaborative writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra Sturm

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how struggling adult writers solve a writing task and what they know about writing and themselves as writers. The writing process of the adult writers was examined by combining three elements: the observation of collaborative writing tasks, analyses of their written texts, and structured individual interviews that included both retrospective and prospective parts. This methodical approach provides productive tools to assess writing processes and writing knowledge of struggling adult writers. The triangulation of data from the different sources is visualized in a case study. Findings from the case study suggest both similarities and differences between struggling adult and younger writers. Concerning the writing process of both groups, planning and revision play a limited role. However, alongside these similar limitations in their writing process, struggling adult writers distinguish themselves from their young counterparts through their relatively extensive knowledge about themselves as writers.

  6. Writing for publication Part II--The writing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L K

    1999-01-01

    You have selected a topic, gathered resources, and identified your target audience. The next step is to begin to write and organize your ideas. Initiating the actual writing process can be intimidating, especially for a novice author. This portion of the writing for publication series focuses on helping the writer to organize ideas and get started.

  7. Teaching Process Writing in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Fergal; Kyppö, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This reflective practice paper offers some insights into teaching an interdisciplinary academic writing course aimed at promoting process writing. The study reflects on students' acquisition of writing skills and the teacher's support practices in a digital writing environment. It presents writers' experiences related to various stages of process…

  8. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills and Writing Skills through the Variation in Non-Traditional Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, Parlindungan; Feranie, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to identify the impacts of embedding non-traditional writing tasks within the course of modern physics conducted to the students of Physics Education and Physics Study Programs. It employed a quasi-experimental method with the pretest-posttest control group design. The used instruments were tests on conceptual mastery, tests on…

  9. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived

  10. Combining Traditional and New Literacies in a 21st-Century Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Jennifer M.; McMackin, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how third graders combine traditional literacy practices, including writer's notebooks and graphic organizers, with new literacies, such as video editing software, to create digital personal narratives. The authors emphasize the role of planning in the recursive writing process and describe how technology-based audio…

  11. Design of Online Report Writing Based on Constructive and Cooperative Learning for a Course on Traditional General Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hao-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an online report writing activity that was a constructive and cooperative learning process for a course on traditional general physics experiments. Wiki, a CMC authoring tool, was used to construct the writing platform. Fifty-eight undergraduate students (33 men and 25 women), working in randomly assigned…

  12. Clinical report writing: Process and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical report writing in psychology and psychiatry is addressed. Audience/use analysis and the basic procedures of information gathering, diagnosis, and prognosis are described. Two interlinking processes are involved: the process of creation and the process of communication. Techniques for good report writing are presented.

  13. Evaluation of Candidate Teachers Related to the Weblog Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Tugba; Demirgünes, Sercan

    2016-01-01

    Weblogs offer a new writing and reading environment. Most people in the education process may improve their writing skills and achieve new perspectives related to writing via weblogs. In this study the changes that weblog writing process created in undergraduates'/candidate teachers' minds regarding writing are revealed. The weblog writing process…

  14. Teaching Process Writing with Computers. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randy, Ed.

    Focusing on the use of word processing software programs as instructional tools for students learning writing composition, this collection includes 14 research articles and position papers, 16 reports on lesson ideas and projects, 5 articles on keyboarding, and 18 product reviews. These materials relate to teaching writing through the process…

  15. Acts of Writing: A Compilation of Six Models That Define the Processes of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a developmental and flexible process. Using a prescribed process for acts of writing during instruction does not take into account individual differences of writers and generates writing instruction that is narrow, rigid, and inflexible. Preservice teachers receive limited training with theory and pedagogy for writing, which potentially…

  16. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  17. Teaching Psychological Report Writing: Content and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear…

  18. Can Weblogs and Microblogs Change Traditional Scientific Writing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Maurer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a follow-up Web 2.0 approach to a technology enhanced master course for students of Graz University of Technology. The lecture “Social Aspects of Information Technology” has a long tradition for using new didactical scenarios as well as modern e-Learning technologies. After using a blogosphere one year ago, this year microblog channels helped to expand the traditional lecture. Students choose (on a voluntary basis whether they want to participate in a blogging/microblogging group instead of using conventional methods called Scientific Writer/Scientific Reviewer. This study addresses the question whether this method can change the learning outcome into a more reflective one. Furthermore, peer-reviewing groups judge the quality of essays and blog contributions. In this paper we examine if microblogging can be an appropriate technology for assisting the process. This publication comes to the conclusion that an amazing potential and a new way to work with information is opened when using microblogging. Students seem to be more engaged, reflective and critical in as much as they presented much more personal statements and opinions than years before.

  19. "SCAFFOLDING" STUDENTS' WRITING IN EFL CLASS: IMPLEMENTING PROCESS APPROACH

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    Ekaning Dewanti Laksmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing process approach views a writing learner as a creator of text, and hence, he needs to experience what writers actually do as they write, and so do students in EFL writing classes. The approach offers an answer to the need of helping the students develop their writing skill without their having to master the basic fundamental elements of writing, i.e. grammar, prior to attending the writing courses. This article highlights the potential of the process approach-with which students go through a write-rewrite process-in giving students a scaffold to work in a real, live process of how a real writer engages in the process of writing. However, the most important harvest is the fact that students have become more confident in expressing their ideas in writings.

  20. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  1. PROCESS WRITING: SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL WRITERS; DISCOVERING WRITING BEHAVIOURS

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    Ismail Baroudy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful and unsuccessful strategies practically complied with in the act of writing have been so far experimentally tapped and scholastically rehearsed by several authors. In this study, a complementary task using a questionnaire worked out to comprehensively specify and cover almost all types of writing behaviours has been inquisitively manipulated. By analysing and inspecting the findings elicited from student-writers’ response sheets, successful and unsuccessful writing strategies are then contrastively identified, categorised and demonstrated. Based on the awareness accomplished, writing teachers’ consciousness will be raised and boosted, thus, helping their poor student-writers justifiably quit their debilitative habits and adopt instead, facilitative ones, those competent writers implement while writing. In the questionnaire, the student-writers would reflect upon their creeping experience and pass informative judgements about their own strategies. Student-writers will respond to fact-finding statements regarding five writing components delineated as rehearsing, drafting, revising, student-writers’ role and the role of instructional materials

  2. Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Process Approach to Writing on Senior Secondary Students' ... The study adopted a quasi-experimental non equivalent pretest-posttest research design. ... Key words: process approach, product approach, essay, writing, achievement.

  3. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  4. Process-Product Approach to Writing: the Effect of Model Essays on EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

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    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.

  5. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, July). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presented at the meeting of EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.

  6. Teachers' attitudes and understandings about process writing in the School of Foreign Languages at Muğla University

    OpenAIRE

    Gümüş, Özlem

    2002-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 2002. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2002. Includes bibliographical references leaves 96-99. In the last 25 years, process writing has grown to dominate the traditional approaches in writing instruction. Many studies have looked at process writing in terms of implementation or the composing processes of students using process writ...

  7. Using Desktop Publishing To Enhance the "Writing Process."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Patricia G.; Clark, Margaret P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development of an instructional technology course at Fairmont State College (West Virginia) for education majors that included a teaching module combining steps of the writing process to provide for the interdisciplinary focus of writing across the curriculum. Discusses desktop publishing, the National Writing Project, and student…

  8. The Emergent Writing Process of a Preschool Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Used writing samples, informal observations, and formal interviews and observations over 6 weeks to document a 4-year-old's emergent writing process. Found that the subject made the transition from the pre-phonetic to the semi-phonetic writing stages at an early age. Also found that young children's low tolerance level for frustration has…

  9. Simplifying the writing process for the novice writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Mary Connie

    2002-10-01

    Nurses take responsibility for reading information to update their professional knowledge and to meet relicensure requirements. However, nurses are less enthusiastic about writing for professional publication. This article explores the reluctance of nurses to write, the reasons why writing for publication is important to the nursing profession, the importance of mentoring to potential writers, and basic information about simplifying the writing process for novice writers. Copyright 2002 by American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses.

  10. Writing in dyslexia: product and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-08-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11 years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task was to type the sentence as correctly as possible, with no time constraints. The data were analysed from a product (spelling, grammar and semantics) and process (transcription fluency and revisions) perspective, using repeated measures ANOVA and t-tests to investigate group differences. Furthermore, the data were correlated with measures of rapid automatic naming and working memory. Results showed that the group with dyslexia revised their texts as much as the typical group, but they used more time, and the result was poorer. Moreover, rapid automatic naming correlated with transcription fluency, and working memory correlated with the number of semantic errors. This shows that dyslexia is generally not an issue of effort and that cognitive skills that are known to be important for reading also affect writing. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English

  12. The Dynamics of Narrative Writing in Primary Grade Children: Writing Process Factors Predict Story Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid

    2016-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local…

  13. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  14. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  15. Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

  16. Investigating IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 : Relationships between cognitive writing processes, text quality, and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Lee, MinJin

    2017-01-01

    This project examined the cognitive processes and online behaviours of second language writers while performing IELTS Academic Writing Test Task 2, and the ways in which the online behaviours of test-takers relate to the quality of the text produced. An additional aim was to assess whether writing

  17. Process-Product Approach to Writing: the Effect of Model Essays on EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Parastou Gholami Pasand; Eshrat Bazarmaj Haghi

    2013-01-01

    Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product app...

  18. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Writing and translation process research: Bridging the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Dam-Jensen & Carmen Heine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Writing and translation are traditionally addressed as two different objects of study. However, they also share many characteristics - as revealed by the research carried out in the two fields, which often uses the same methods to investigate both areas. In this introduction, it is suggested that writing and translation can be studied as types of text production. Different dimensions of text production are sketched as examples of research topics at the interface between writing and translation. The two articles that follow this introduction explore two such dimensions: competence and profiles.

  20. Indonesian EFL Students’ Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

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    Imelda Hermilinda Abas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students’ perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1 had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of Academic Writing and Research Methodology courses taken in UUM; (2 had written an unpublished thesis during their undergraduate studies in Indonesia and they are writing their master or doctoral thesis in English; (3 used English extensively in writing their assignments, and in daily activities. Pseudonyms were used to refer to the participants as Sukarno and Suharto. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with the participants. The interview sessions took approximately 15-20 minutes for each participant and were videotaped and audiotaped. Semi-structured interview with 15 questions and probes were used. The results showed that the two participants had positive feelings and attitudes towards writing in English. Although they had a hard time in English writing during their undergraduate in Indonesia, they become fond of writing in English in their postgraduate time due to the exposure to English extensively. In composing, they used brainstorming, drafting, pausing, revising and editing in a recursive manner. Keywords: in-depth interview, pilot study, writing process, English as a Foreign Language (EFL

  1. Toward a parallel and cascading model of the writing system: A review of research on writing processes coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Olive

    2014-01-01

    Efficient coordination of the different writing processes is central to producing good-quality texts, and is a fundamental component of writing skill. In this article, I propose a general theoretical framework for considering how writing processes are coordinated, in which writing processes are concurrently activated with more or less overlap between processes depending on their working memory demands, and with the flow of information cascading from central to peripheral levels of processing....

  2. Effects of Emotion on Writing Processes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartoukh, Michael; Chanquoy, Lucile; Piolat, Annie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the consequences of emotion during narrative writing in accordance with Hayes's model. In this model, motivation and affect have an important role during the writing process. Moreover, according to the emotion-cognition literature, emotions are thought to create interferences in working memory, resulting in an…

  3. Indonesian EFL Students' Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermilinda Abas, Imelda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students' perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1) had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of…

  4. Introducing the Process into Tertiary Level ESP Writing Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Simon; Brewster, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Insights from first- and second-language learning research have been used to help prepare a process-based writing course for large nonnative speaker classes at a commercial and technical university in Austria. Methods used during the 21-hour course are described, including think-aloud writing tapes. (Contains 32 references.) (Author/LB)

  5. The Writing Process for "Edutaining" CD-ROM Adventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2000-01-01

    Describes a CD-ROM adventure story written by the author to educate her students about the word relationships of synonyms and antonyms. Discusses how this interactive medium put a different twist on each of the stages of the writing process itself. Relates how two students enthusiastically used the program, and were inspired to write one of their…

  6. Coordination processes in computer supported collaborative writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Erkens, Gijsbert; Jaspers, Jos; Prangsma, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the COSAR-project a computer-supported collaborative learning environment enables students to collaborate in writing an argumentative essay. The TC3 groupware environment (TC3: Text Composer, Computer supported and Collaborative) offers access to relevant information sources, a private notepad, a

  7. Dissociation of writing processes: functional magnetic resonance imaging during writing of Japanese ideographic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Nakai, T; Kato, C; Moriya, T; Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Sakahara, H

    2000-06-01

    Dissociation between copying letters and writing to dictation has been reported in the clinical neuropsychological literature. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted in normal volunteers to detect the neurofunctional differences between 'copying Kanji', the Japanese ideographic characters, and 'writing Kanji corresponding to phonological information'. Four tasks were conducted: the copying-Kanji task, the writing-Kanji-corresponding-to-phonogram task, the Kanji-grapheme-puzzle task, and the control task. The right superior parietal lobule was extensively activated during the copying-Kanji task (a model of the copying letters process) and the Kanji-grapheme-puzzle task. These observations suggested that this area was involved in referring the visual stimuli closely related to the ongoing handwriting movements. On the other hand, Broca's area, which is crucial for language production, was extensively activated during the writing-Kanji-corresponding-to-phonogram task (a model of the writing-to-dictation process). The Kanji-grapheme-puzzle task activated the bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe, the left premotor area, and the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA). Since the Kanji-grapheme-puzzle task involved manipulospatial characteristics, these results suggested cooperation between visuospatial and motor executive functions, which may be extensively utilized in demanding visual language processing. The neurofunctional difference between 'copying Kanji' and 'writing Kanji corresponding to phonogram' was efficiently demonstrated by this fMRI experiment.

  8. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  9. Writing processes, text quality, and task effects; empirical studies in first and second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834068

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to advance our understanding of the writing process by linking process and product characteristics to each other. The underlying question was: how does the way in which writers use different cognitive activities, such as planning, generating ideas, and

  10. Incorporating A Structured Writing Process into Existing CLS Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Karen; Latshaw, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Good communication and critical thinking are essential skills for all successful professionals, including Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Laboratory Science (CLS/MLS) practitioners. Professional programs can incorporate writing assignments into their curricula to improve student written communication and critical thinking skills. Clearly defined, scenario-focused writing assignments provide student practice in clearly articulating responses to proposed problems or situations, researching and utilizing informational resources, and applying and synthesizing relevant information. Assessment rubrics, structured feedback, and revision writing methodologies help guide students through the writing process. This article describes how a CLS Program in a public academic medical center, located in the central United States (US) serving five centrally-located US states has incorporated writing intensive assignments into an existing 11-month academic year using formal, informal and reflective writing to improve student written communication and critical thinking skills. Faculty members and employers of graduates assert that incorporating writing intensive requirements have better prepared students for their professional role to effectively communicate and think critically.

  11. The Impact of Project Work and the Writing Process Method on Writing Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Ramírez, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of an investigation whose main goal was to implement the methodology of project work and a process approach in order to improve writing production in an English class of Colombian university students since their diagnostic tests showed that their written production had the lowest score. Based on data collected,…

  12. The text plan concept: contributions to the writing planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students - at different levels, ranging from early grades up to PhD - face problems both on comprehension and text production. This paper focuses on the text plan concept according to the DTA (Discourse Text Analysis approach, i.e., a principle of organization that allows students to put into practice the production intention as well as to arrange text information while producing; being responsible for the text compositional structure (Adam, 2008. The study analyzes the relation between text plan and the writing planning process, in which the first one provides the second with theoretical support. In order to develop such research, the study covers some issues related to the reading skill, analyzes an argumentative text as per its textual plan, and presents some reflections on the writing process, focusing on the relation between textual plan and the writing planning process.

  13. Pre-writing Techniques In The Writing Process For The L2 Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gülşah Geyimci

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated pre-writing techniques in the learning process to improve written communication skills of learners using qualitative research methods. This study was performed in a public school, Suphi Öner Primary School in Turkey, in Mersin. Students were seventh grade class that their level was pre-intermediate. This class was made up of twenty students. It took three weeks, the students' samples, drawings and blogs were documented by the students. In order to examine the results, ...

  14. Peer Review as a Strategy for Improving Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…

  15. Tracking the Muse: The Writing Processes of Poets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cherryl

    Focusing on the nature of revision in lyric poetry, a study investigated poets' writing processes. Primary data sources included poets' commentary, letters, recorded conversations, interviews, and essays. Two case studies were also conducted--an evaluation of two poets at work (one a novice and one an experienced poet) and a textual analysis of…

  16. Improving Process Writing with the Use Authentic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Noor; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses on how process writing is improved with the use of authentic assessment in an English Language classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah are the participants of the study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons and at the end of the series of…

  17. Teachers' implementation of writing as a process in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study investigated teachers' implementation of writing as a process in English classrooms of Ghimbi Preparatory School. To this effect, two basic research questions were raised. To deal with these research questions, observation, questionnaire and interview were used. One hundred and twenty students ...

  18. Harmonizing the Writing Process with Music Training Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Can music help students become better thinkers and writers? Over the past three years, the author has incorporated some basic music training techniques in her classrooms to help her teach the writing process to students who would otherwise click her off. The students have developed clearer thinking and organizational skills, and have increased…

  19. Elementary Teachers' Views on the Creative Writing Process: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to discover and evaluate both the areas of personal interest and the views of 4th and 5th grade classroom teachers regarding the creative writing process. In this study, one of the qualitative study methods, state study, and related to this, single state design which refers to the whole has been chosen. Research was…

  20. Teaching the Writing Process as a First and Second Language Revisited: Are They the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Felicia; Ben Idris, Anisa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the second writing process is not recent. Both first and second writing processes have been in the area of argument among scholars. It has been confirmed that both first and second writers nearly all practice similar physical activities pre-writing, during, and post writing stages; however, they still differ in the inner extra thinking…

  1. Progress in the development of the write process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guffey, F.D.; Fahy, J.; Worman, D.; Lowry, C.; Mones, C. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Corscadden, T.; Diduch, G. [MEG Energy Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the commercialization of a field deployable upgrader developed by the Western Research Institute (WRI). The WRI Thermal Enhancement (WRITE) process was first tested in a 1-bbl/day bench scale unit. Based on the results of the testing program, a 5 bbl/day WRITE Process pilot plant was designed and built. It is currently in operation at WRI's Advanced Technology Center in Laramie, Wyoming. The 5 bbl/day WRITE Process pilot plant includes a 5 bbl/day distillate recovery unit (DRU) and a continuous coker that receives the produced bottoms. The DRU recovers diluent for recycling. The bitumen undergoes thermal conversion in the WRITE reactor to produce a pipeline quality product. The pyrolyzate produced by the coker is blended with the DRU to produce a synthetic crude oil (SCO) that is pipelined to existing refineries. Studies are currently underway at the pilot plant using dilbit produced at EMG's Christina Lake site. This presentation described the experimental program that is in progress. It also discussed the commercial viability of the technology for producing a pipeline quality product. tabs., figs.

  2. Benchmarketing - Fashionable Term Concerning Traditional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Udrescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a major factor to boost the competitiveness of the firm in an environment which is more and more turbulent. It centers the company’s management as being the ideal satisfaction of the current and potential consumer. This is why, in our conception, the marketing’s management represents a subsystem of the company’s’ general management by which shall be administered to specific activities, and also designed to contour the company’s’ activity object. In this article, the intent is to highlight the fact that the benchmarketing has come loose from cultivating the traditional process to the innovative organizational culture product. In this paper, the authors consider benchmarketing as a process of qualitative organizational culture adaptation to market requirements, depending on the context, so as to ensure the improvement of the economic criteria of appreciation of the business lucrative activities. Based on direct observations concerning small firms, followed by analysis, comparison and synthesis, the authors suggest taking into consideration the theoretical and practical benchmarketings’ approach, as being the current strategy of acquiring and cultivating excellence, as initiation philosophy and business development.

  3. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  4. The Process Genre Writing Approach; An Alternative Option for the Modern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Emma

    2017-01-01

    "Writing involves knowledge about the language, the context in which writing happens and skills in using language. Writing development happens by drawing out the learners' potential and providing input to which learners respond" (Badger & White, 2000.) Taking this in to account, the Process Genre Approach in writing classes can be…

  5. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  6. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  7. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  8. Reflections on the Writing Process: Perspectives from Recent Hindi Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ghirardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patricia Waugh defined metafiction as ‘fictional writing which self-consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artefact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality’ . Metafictional works, she suggested, are those which ‘explore a theory of writing fiction through the practice of writing fiction’. They are characterised by a tendency to self-reflexivity or, in other words, by a tendency to call attention to the writing process itself. In actual fact, even in dedicated critical works, it is not easy to find a clear and all-encompassing definition of metafiction. Generally, various types of texts are mentioned under this term: texts recounting their origin and birth, dealing with the history of narrative, recounting stories of writers. Metafiction is generally considered an important feature of postmodern literature. In the postmodern era pure realistic writing is perceived as a limitation and an unsuitable device to render the complexity of the contemporary world. As Baudrillard said, we no longer live in a world made of unequivocal meanings, we live in a world of signs. In this context authors, by reflecting on the writing process, foreground the fictional nature of their narratives. Because of this, the role of metafiction (which obviously cannot be considered as an innovation introduced by postmodernism has become predominant in the postmodern era. Metafiction can follow different paths to reach its aims: its experimental component can be evident and radical or can be limited to a few pages or lines, without unduly affecting the perception of the story. In some cases, the reader will find no reflections on the structure or on the textual functions of the novel, but on its artistic and intellectual meaning. Within the history of Hindi literature (referring here to Khari Boli Hindi only probably the most famous example of metafictional novel is Suraj ka Satvan Ghoda (The Sun

  9. An Empirical Study on the Application of Process Approach in Non-English Majors' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Process approach has been introduced to China for more than two decades. This approach which views writing as a recursive mental cognitive process is one of the most popular methods for teaching writing. It attaches more importance to a series of activities in the process of writing and the interaction among the student writers. Meanwhile, it…

  10. Peer editing: a strategic source in EFL students’ writing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Mercedes Díaz Galvis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project focused on peer editing as a pedagogical tool to promote collaborative assessment in the EFL writing process. With teachers overstretched in the Bogotá public school system, a method needed to be found that would allow students to receive much needed feedback without overtaxing the teachers` resources. Peer editing, a phenomenon that often occurs naturally within the classroom, was therefore systematically implemented as a solution to the stated problem. The main aims of this study, conducted with a group of ninth grade student at a public school in Bogotá, were to determine the role of peer editing in the writing process and to characterize the relationships built when students corrected each others writings. The instruments used for collecting data were field notes, video recordings and students’ artifacts. The results showed that when students were engaged in peer editing sessions they created zones of proximal development in which high achiever students provided linguistic scaffolding and empowered low achievers. It was also found that students used thinking strategies such as noticing and explaining when they identified errors related to the formal aspects of the language.

  11. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  12. Characterizing Fiber Bragg Grating Index Profiles to Improve the Writing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, M.J.; Svalgaard, Mikael; Dyer, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate an accurate method for identifying both systematic and random errors in a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) writing system and show its application to calibration of the writing process. We first measure the FBG impulse response using low-coherence interferometry, and then we calculate......-beam dithered phase mask FBG writing system. We demonstrate the ability to identify errors in the writing process that would not likely be found from a measurement of the FBG reflection spectrum alone....

  13. Expressive Writing as a Therapeutic Process for Drug Dependent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshberg-Cohen, Sarah; Svikis, Dace; McMahon, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Background Although women with Substance Use Disorders (SUD) have high rates of trauma and post-traumatic stress, many addiction programs do not offer trauma-specific treatments. One promising intervention is Pennebaker’s expressive writing, which involves daily, 20-minute writing sessions to facilitate disclosure of stressful experiences. Methods Women (N = 149) in residential treatment completed a randomized clinical trial comparing expressive writing to control writing. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to document change in psychological and physical distress from baseline to 2-week and 1-month follow-ups. Analyses also examined immediate levels of negative affect following expressive writing. Results Expressive writing participants showed greater reductions in post-traumatic symptom severity, depression, and anxiety scores, when compared to control writing participants at the 2-week follow-up. No group differences were found at the 1-month follow-up. Safety data were encouraging; while expressive writing participants showed increased negative affect immediately after each writing session, there were no differences in pre-writing negative affect scores between conditions the following day. By the final writing session, participants were able to write about traumatic/stressful events without having a spike in negative affect. Conclusions Results suggest expressive writing may be a brief, safe, low cost, adjunct to SUD treatment that warrants further study as a strategy for addressing post-traumatic distress in substance-abusing women. PMID:24588298

  14. Pedagogy and Process: A Case Study of Writing in a Hybrid Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Jason F.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the perceived experiences and outcomes of writing in a hybrid model of instruction in a large suburban high school. In particular, the impact of a hybrid model on the writing process and on future writing performance were examined. In addition, teacher expectation and teacher attitude and their impact upon…

  15. Dual Rubrics and the Process of Writing: Assessment and Best Practices in a Developmental English Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pireh, Diane Flanegan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents strategies for using two types of essay-writing rubrics in a developmental English class of students transitioning into college-level writing. One checklist rubric is student-facing, designed to serve as a guide for students throughout the writing process and as a self-assessment tool. The other checklist rubric is…

  16. Designing a Website to Support Students' Academic Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Eva Svärdemo; Ståhle, Ylva; Engdahl, Ingrid; Knutes-Nyqvist, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing skills are crucial when students, e.g., in teacher education programs, write their undergraduate theses. A multi-modal web-based and self-regulated learning resource on academic writing was developed, using texts, hypertext, moving images, podcasts and templates. A study, using surveys and a focus group, showed that students used…

  17. The Oral Language Process in Writing: A Real-Life Writing Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuy, Roger W.; Robinson, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a real-life writing session involving a male executive in the construction business, his female secretary, and a male representing himself as a state official, working collaboratively to write a letter to a state official urging action on a long overdue claim. Discusses the quality of the drafts and the participants' roles. (KEH)

  18. A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin

    2010-12-06

    The basic aim of this paper is to suggest a flexible and individualized writing program as a tool for use during the grief process of bereaved adults. An open, qualitative approach following distinct steps was taken to gain a broad perspective on the grief and writing processes, as a platform for the writing program. Following several systematic methodological steps, we arrived at suggestions for the initiation of a writing program and its structure and substance, with appropriate guidelines. We believe that open and expressive writing, including free writing and focused writing, may have beneficial effects on a person experiencing grief. These writing forms may be undertaken and systematized through a writing program, with participation in a grief writing group and with diary writing, to achieve optimal results. A structured writing program might be helpful in promoting thought activities and as a tool to increase the coherence and understanding of individuals in the grief process. Our suggested program may also be a valuable guide to future program development and research.

  19. The writing process: A powerful approach for the language-disabled student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, J R; Bader, M S

    1985-01-01

    Our understanding of the writing process can be a powerful tool for teaching language-disabled students the "how" of writing. Direct, explicit instruction in writing process helps these students learn to explore their ideas and to manage the multiple demands of writing. A case study of one student, Jeff, demonstrates how we structure the stages of writing: prewriting, planning, drafting, revising, and proofreading. When these stages are clearly defined and involve specific skills, language-disabled students can reach beyond their limitations and strengthen their expression. The case study of Jeff reveals the development of his sense of control and his regard for himself as a writer.

  20. Learning Science Process Through Data Exploration and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most effective ways of teaching science process is to have students take part in the same activities that practicing scientists engage in. These activities include studying the current research in the field, discussing ideas with colleagues, formulating a research problem, making a proposal defining the problem and plan of attack, presenting and writing about the results of the study, and critically reviewing the work of others. An inquiry curriculum can use these activities to guide the scaffolding of assignments and learning experiences that help students learn science process. At UCSB, students in a large general education oceanography class use real Earth data to study plate tectonics, the Indian Monsoon, climate change, and the health of the world fisheries. The end product for each subject has been a science paper based on Earth data. Over a period of approximately 15 years, the scaffolding of activities to prepare each student for the written assignments has been modified and improved, in response to student feedback and their success with the assignments. I have found that the following resources and sequence of activities help the oceanography students write good science papers. 1. Lecture: motivation and the opportunity for feedback and questions. 2. Textbook: background information. It is also possible to get the information from the internet, but unless the scope of reading is strictly defined, students don't know when to stop reading and become unhappy. 3. Online assignments: automatically graded assignments that force the student to keep up with reading. 4. Questions of the day: in-class handouts, with diagrams that the students either complete, or answer questions about. They are handed in and tallied, but not graded. They also inform the instructor of misconceptions. 5. Thought questions: student answers are posted on a threaded discussion list, and are due prior to lecture. The answers provide instructor feedback and guide the lecture

  1. Comparison of pressure-driven membrane processes and traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article a comparison is made between drinking water production from surface water using pressure-driven membrane processes and using traditional surface water treatment systems. Three alternatives are considered: Traditional treatment using coagulation/flocculation, sand filtration, physicochemical softening, ...

  2. Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Marie O'Brien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Serena Heckler, ed. 2009. Berghahn Books, New York. Pp. 304, 21 illustrations, bibliography, index. $95.00 (hardback. ISBN 978-1-84545-549-1

  3. Modern Writing: The Effect of Process on Product and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    storytellers returning from war. With a vacuum in memoirs on the market, it has opened the door to joumalists who have publishers and advertisers behind them to...their accomplishments back home. The process of storytelling has evolved greatly from the days of oral tradition and the first "Romances" during the...Desert Storm. 17 MODERN STORyTELLING 20 CONCLUSION 25 ENDNOTES 27 BIBLIOGRAPHy 30 111 J Since WorId Wirr I, servicemembers have used the memoir to describe

  4. Feedback effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.

    2010-01-01

    Many students’ writing capacities remain insufficient during college years (Kellogg & Whiteford, 2009). Teachers try to improve students’ writing skills by providing them with feedback on their texts. Remarkably, research on the effects of feedback provided on written products is scarce (Graham &

  5. Exploring the Affordances of the Writing Portal (TWP) as an Online Supplementary Writing Platform (For the Special Issue of GLoCALL 2013 and 2014 Conference Papers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kean Wah; Said, Noraini; Tan, Choon Keong

    2016-01-01

    The writing process has traditionally been seen "as a lonely journey" to typify the lack of support that students experience for writing outside the classroom. This paper examines an attempt of The Writing Portal (TWP), a supplementary online writing platform, to support students' writing needs throughout the five stages of the writing…

  6. Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about writing proficiency among students of secondary education. Due to globalization, the ability to express oneself in a language other than the first language (L1) is increasingly becoming a condition for educational success. In The Netherlands, this ‘other’ or second language (L2)

  7. Process Writing and the Internet: Blogs and Ning Networks in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Isabela Villas

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the product approach to writing, which is based on studying and replicating textual models, the process approach involves multiple and repeated steps that compel the writer to closely consider the topic, language, purpose for writing, and social reality of an audience. In addition to discussing the benefits of the process approach…

  8. Process Writing in the Intermediate Grades: Magical Panacea or Oversold Cliche?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    Noting that the principles of writing process instruction typically offered to elementary teachers are less readily adaptable to intermediate classrooms emphasizing content area learning rather than basic skills, this paper explores two key themes important to the successful implementation of writing process instruction: (1) teachers' needs to…

  9. Exploring the Writing Process of Indonesian EFL Students: The Effectiveness of Think-Aloud Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Imelda Hermilinda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the writing process of the Indonesian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students and to find out the effectiveness of using think-aloud protocol to understand the writing process. The data were obtained from six proficient EFL students who were doing Postgraduate English Language Studies Program in…

  10. Writing Regulation Processes in Higher Education: A Review of Two Decades of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Bubaré, Anna; Castelló, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    In Higher Education (HE), writers need to regulate their writing processes in order to achieve their communicative goals. Although critical for academic success and knowledge construction, writing regulation processes have been mainly researched in compulsory education rather than in HE, with no systematic review focused on this context. The…

  11. Passionate Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte

    With care of writing as a method of inquiry, this paper engages in academic writing such as responsible knowledge development drawing on emotion, thought and reason. The aim of the paper is to better understand emancipatory knowledge development. Bodily experiences and responses shape academic...... writing and there are possibilities for responsible academic writing in that iterative process. I propose that academic writing can be seen as possibilities of passionate as well as passive writing....

  12. Communication pitfalls of traditional history and physical write-up documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    An unofficial standardized "write-up" outline is commonly used for documenting history and physical examinations, giving oral presentations, and teaching clinical skills. Despite general acceptance, there is an apparent discrepancy between the way clinical encounters are conducted and how they are documented. Fifteen medical school websites were randomly selected from search-engine generated lists. One example of a history and physical write-up from each of six sites, one teaching outline from each of nine additional sites, and recommendations for documentation made in two commonly used textbooks were compared for similarities and differences. Except for minor variations in documenting background information, all sampled materials utilized the same standardized format. When the examiners' early perceptions of the patients' degree of illness or level of distress were described, they were categorized as "general appearance" within the physical findings. Contrary to clinical practice, none of the examples or recommendations documented these early perceptions before chief concerns and history were presented. An examiner's initial perceptions of a patient's affect, degree of illness, and level of distress can influence the content of the history, triage decisions, and prioritization of likely diagnoses. When chief concerns and history are shared without benefit of this information, erroneous assumptions and miscommunications can result. This survey confirms common use of a standardized outline for documenting, communicating, and teaching history-taking and physical examination protocol. The present outline shares early observations out of clinical sequence and may provide inadequate context for accurate interpretation of chief concerns and history. Corrective actions include modifying the documentation sequence to conform to clinical practice and teaching contextual methodology for sharing patient information.

  13. PROCESS-GENRE APPROACH, PRODUCT APPROACH, AND STUDENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM IN TEACHING WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at revealing whether or not: (1 process-genre approach is more effective than product approach in teaching writing; (2 students who have high self-esteem have better writing skill than those who have low self-esteem; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching-learning approaches and students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. This experimental research involved two classes of third semester students of English Education Study Program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Each class consisted of 38 students. The writing test and questionnaire on self-esteem were used as the instruments to collect the data of this research. The results show that: (1 Process-Genre Approach is more effective than Product Approach in teaching writing; (2 the students who have high self-esteem have better writing skill than those who have low self-esteem; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching approaches and the students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. Therefore, it is suggested to implement Process-Genre Approach since the students can experience every stage of writing process in order to deliver the message in their writing properly.

  14. Process-Genre Approach, Product Approach, and Students’ Self-Esteem in Teaching Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at revealing whether or not: (1 process-genre approach is more effective than product approach in teaching writing; (2 students who have high self-esteem have better writing skill than those who have low self-esteem; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching-learning approaches and students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. This experimental research involved two classes of third semester students of English Education Study Program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Each class consisted of 38 students. The writing test and questionnaire on self-esteem were used as the instruments to collect the data of this research. The results show that: (1 Process-Genre Approach is more effective than Product Approach in teaching writing; (2 the students who have high self-esteem have better writing skill than those who have low self-esteem; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching approaches and the students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. Therefore, it is suggested to implement Process-Genre Approach since the students can experience every stage of writing process in order to deliver the message in their writing properly.

  15. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  16. The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

  17. Effect of Weblog-Based Process Approach on EFL Learners' Writing Performance and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mohammad Hosein

    2017-01-01

    This article investigated the effect of weblog use in a process-based writing course on the writing performance of students as well as on their level of learner autonomy. The participants were 43 English language learners who were doing their BA in the field of English Language Teaching. The control group (n = 19) went through in-class writing…

  18. Writing Process Products in Intermediate-Grade Children with and without Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014) writing process framework. Method: Sixty-four…

  19. Writing Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Six ideas for writing autobiographies with elementary school students include: model the writing process to get students started; read examples of autobiographies; brainstorm writing ideas; free-write the first draft; edit and revise; and publish the stories. Suggestions for mini-lessons are included. A student reproducible offers an editing…

  20. Traditional processing of masau fruits (Ziziphus mauritiana) in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of the traditional processing techniques of masau was conducted using a questionnaire and two focus group discussions in Mudzi, Mt. Darwin, and Muzarabani districts in Zimbabwe. Masau fruits form part of the family diet and generate additional income by selling at local markets. Surplus

  1. The Oshun Festival: An African Traditional Religious Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Oshun Festival, an African traditional religious festival, from a healing perspective. Highlights the value of religion in the African culture and discusses various myths. Explores the role of myths in and the place of beliefs in the healing process. Explains rituals and the healing environment, healers, and healing methods. Offers…

  2. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the stability of traditionally processed palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and sesame oil (SSO) and their blends as function of storage conditions by analysing their physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and ...

  3. Issues of IT-Professionals Training in Traditional Educational Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminov, Farid; Golitsyna, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents issues of modern IT-specialists training. Formation of information-educational environment of IT-professionals is discussed. Studying of enterprise infocommunication infrastructure and its management features within a framework of the traditional educational process is considered. [For the complete proceedings, see ED579395.

  4. Preparing Educators for Online Writing Instruction: Principles and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Beth L.; Ehmann, Christa

    2004-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical justification for online writing instruction (OWI) and a fully developed approach to training educators for such instruction--whether in networked classrooms, distance learning, e-mail- or Internet-based conferences, or online tutoring. The book includes concrete examples of asynchronous (non-real-time) and…

  5. Effects of processing adjuvants on traditional Chinese herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of Chinese medicines is a pharmaceutical technique that transforms medicinal raw materials into decoction pieces for use in different therapies. Various adjuvants, such as vinegar, wine, honey, and brine, are used in the processing to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Proper processing is essential to ensure the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs. Therefore, sound knowledge of processing principles is crucial to the standardized use of these processing adjuvants and to facilitate the production and clinical use of decoction pieces. Many scientific reports have indicated the synergistic effects of processing mechanisms on the chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients in TCMs. Under certain conditions, adjuvants change the content of active or toxic components in drugs by chemical or physical transformation, increase or decrease drug dissolution, exert their own pharmacological effects, or alter drug pharmacokinetics. This review summarizes various processing methods adopted in the last two decades, and highlights current approaches to identify the effects of processing parameters on TCMs. Keywords: Adjuvant, Processing, Synergism, Traditional Chinese medicine

  6. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  7. Free Computer-Based Assistive Technology to Support Students with High-Incidence Disabilities in the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Meyer, Nancy K.; Satsangi, Rajiv; Savage, Melissa N.; Hunley, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a neglected but critical component of education; yet, the writing process--from prewriting, to writing, and postwriting--is often an area of struggle for students with disabilities. One strategy to assist students with disabilities struggling with the writing process is the use of computer-based technology. This article…

  8. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  9. ECRANISATION, FROM TEXTUAL TRADITION TO CINEMA: THE INFIDELITY AGAINST THE VALUES OF LITERARY WRITING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadiyantha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecranization is a wide-screening or transferring process of a novel into the movie. Ecranization can be a process of sifting or transferring or removing characteristics of a novel into a film. This study is written descriptive-qualitatively based on data collected from the results of literature studies. The data include primary and secondary data. Primary data covers the novel of Ayat-Ayat Cinta published by PT Penerbit Republika-Basmala in 2005 which is also a material object, some quotes or dialogues in Ayat-Ayat Cinta (AAC by Habiburahman El Shirazy and the AAC film directed by Hanung Bramantyo. The study found that despite the fact both the title of the film and the names of the main characters are the same as the novel, but the rides from novel to film have separated and distinguished the distinctive features of the media itself with their respective rides, novel vehicles and movie rides. We can neither expect the loyalty of a film to the novel as the source of the story because there will certainly occur changes following the nature of the media and their respective lovers. It is important to emphasize that in distinguishing how to enjoy two different mediums it is necessary to appreciate the works of literature to avoid disappointment because of the natural differences that must exist between the film and the novel. Keywords: Ayat-Ayat Cinta, difference, ecranization, film, novel, media Abstrak Ekranisasi adalah proses pemutaran film layar lebar atau transfer sebuah karya novel ke dalam bentuk film. Ekranisasi merupakan proses penyaringan atau pemindahan karakteristik novel ke dalam sebuah film. Penelitian ini ditulis secara deskriptif-kualitatif berdasarkan data yang dikumpulkan dari hasil studi kepustakaan. Data meliputi data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer mencakup novel Ayat-Ayat Cinta yang diterbitkan oleh PT Penerbit Republika-Basmala pada tahun 2005 yang juga merupakan objek material, beberapa kutipan atau dialog dalam Ayat

  10. Lagging behind Writing Pedagogical Developments: The Impact of Implementing Process-Based Approach on Learners' Writing in a Vietnamese Secondary Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chau M.; Trinh, Lap Q.

    2011-01-01

    The field of English language education has seen developments in writing pedagogy, moving from product-based to process-based and then to genre-based approaches. In Vietnam, teaching secondary school students how to write in English is still lagging behind these growing developments. Product-based approach is commonly seen in English writing…

  11. Exploring the process of writing about and sharing traumatic birth experiences online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, Sarah H; Slade, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the experience of writing about a traumatic birth experience and sharing it online. Twelve women who had submitted their stories about traumatic birth experiences to the Birth Trauma Association for online publication were interviewed about their experiences. Women were interviewed shortly after writing but before posting and again 1 month after the story was posted online. All participants completed both interviews. These were transcribed and analysed using template analysis. Women described varied reasons for writing and sharing their stories, including wanting to help themselves and others. The process of writing was described as emotional, however was generally seen as a positive thing. Aspects of writing that were identified as helpful included organizing their experiences into a narrative, and distancing themselves from the experience. Writing and posting online about a traumatic birth is experienced positively by women. It may be a useful self-help intervention and is worthy of systematic evaluation. The mechanisms through which writing is reported to have impacted as described in the interviews link to the mechanisms of change in cognitive-behavioural approaches to post-traumatic symptoms. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Some women develop post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms following birth. These can impact on both themselves and their family, yet these women may not seek professional help. Writing about a traumatic event may be a useful approach for reducing post-traumatic stress symptoms, but the impact of online sharing is unknown. What does this study add? This study demonstrates that women report benefits from writing about their birth experiences. Writing enabled organizing the experience into a narrative and distancing from the trauma, which was helpful. Sharing the story online was an emotional experience for participants, however was generally seen positively. © 2014 The

  12. COGNITIVE PROCESS IN ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE INDONESIAN COLUMNISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrus Zaman Fadhly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at reconstructing cognitive processes experienced by Indonesian advancedwriters in five stages of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Three Indonesian advanced writers were involved to be sources to reveal the noumena or under-meaning structures that make their works come into existence. This research reveals that various ways experienced by every single writer in exploring inspiration, starting to write, developing ideas and arguments, revising draft, and determining them as final drafts.Learning from advanced writers isfruitful effortsto evolve our writing competence. Experiences, cognitions, interests, values, stylistics, metaphors, and mechanics are influential aspects in enriching their works.

  13. Static Analysis of Processes for No Read-Up and No Write-Down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, C.; Degano, P.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We study a variant of the no read-up/no write-down security property of Bell and LaPadula for processes in the π-calculus. Once processes are given levels of security clearance, we statically check that a process at a high level never sends names to processes at a lower level. The static check...

  14. How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in process and process-product relations in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether writers vary how they write under influence of the changing task situation when writing in a second language (L2) and, if so, whether differences in the way they write are related to variations in text quality. Twenty first year students wrote four texts each in their L2

  16. Traditional fish processing: technology, quality development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional fish processing technologies are important in the preservation and utilization of fish in many developing countries. These technologies as well as the quality of the products arc poorly defined and understood. This study therefore investigated the production, quality characteristics and utilization of traditional cured fish products using field surveys and laboratory techniques. It was found that simple traditional technologies for smoking, salting and drying are used to process fish in Ghana; infrastructural requirements for traditional fish processing have high local material input. The cured fish products have distinct sensory, physico-chemical properties and variable storage characteristics. Processors' perceptions of important quality attributes of cured fish products were linked to storage, marketing and other product delivery characteristics. Consumers' perceptions and expectations of desirable quality attributes however were found to he dependent upon the type of cured fish product and the food in which it is used. Cost was found to be the most important factor influencing the utilization of animal protein foods; other factors were nutritional quality, beliefs and food habits. Animal protein consumers showed a high preference for fish in general and cured fish products in particular. U sing central composite rotatable design for k = 3, representing salting time (0 - 24), drying temperature (40°C - 60°C) and drying time (6 - 20 hours), equations for predicting objective and subjective quality indices were developed. The critical salting time for attaining minimum moisture content were 20.5, 12 and 8.5 hours respectively for products dried at 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. At each salting time, the mean hardness score was dependent on the drying temperature and drying time whilst the mean colour and overall acceptability scores were influenced by drying temperature. It was found that the long salting time (24-72 hours) and drying time (5

  17. A Comparative Case Study of Implementation of Writing as a Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Anne Marie

    Implementation of a new program is a complex process of putting ideas into action. Program implementation can be characterized through the identification of interrelated factors which determine the success or failure of implementation of an innovation. Writing as a process has been perceived as a successful teaching methodology for many years, but…

  18. L2 Writing in Test and Non-test Situations: Process and Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraa Khuder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Test writers sometimes complain they cannot perform to their true abilities because of time constraints. We therefore examined differences in terms of process and product between texts produced under test and non-test conditions. Ten L2 postgraduates wrote two argumentative essays, one under test conditions, with only forty minutes being allowed and without recourse to resources, and one under non-test conditions, with unlimited time as well as access to the Internet. Keystroke logging, screen capture software, and stimulated recall protocols were used, participants explaining and commenting on their writing processes. Sixteen writing process types were identified. Higher proportions of the processes of translation and surface revision were recorded in the test situation, while meaningful revision and evaluation were both higher in the non-test situation. There was a statistically significant difference between time allocation for different processes at different stages. Experienced teachers awarded the non-test texts a mean score of almost one point (0.8 higher. A correlational analysis examining the relationship between writing process and product quality showed that while the distribution of writing processes can have an impact on text quality in the test situation, it had no effect on the product in the non-test situation.

  19. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to

  20. The Process of Writing Research Articles in English and Getting Published: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Başaran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Getting published in indexed English journals is a rather long and challenging process for non-native academics that have to write in English. In this study, we interview four Turkish academics (two physicists and two civil engineers, who use English as a foreign language, and analyze the processes they undergo while writing research articles (RA and striving to get them published. We also interview other four academics (a historian, a linguist, a sociologist and an educational scientist, who have no published works in indexed journals, to gain more insight about the difficulties entailed in getting published in English journals. In Turkey, it is a prerequisite to get published in indexed journals, most of which are English, in order to get a tenure position at Turkish universities. However, this process is much more difficult and demanding for those who have no US or UK background and who have had no formal education in writing of any kind. The interviews we conducted and the observation process hint that science and engineering articles have preset rules and conventions and that writing such articles is a mechanical process

  1. A Community of Writers: Peer Tutor Training for Writing Center Techniques Which Foster Dialogue in the Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Linda; Johnson, Candice

    After much trial and error, the Agricultural Technical Institute of the Ohio State University (ATI/OSO) discovered that training of writing lab tutors can best be done through collaboration of the Writing Lab Coordinator with the "Development of Tutor Effectiveness" course offered at the institute. The ATI/OSO main computer lab and…

  2. Enhancing Writing Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities Improves Their Writing Processes and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caso, Ana Maria; Garcia, Jesus Nicasio; Diez, Carmen; Robledo, Patricia; Alvarez, Maria Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of self efficacy has been suggested as an effective classroom intervention procedure. The present research examined the use of self-efficacy training on the writing of Spanish elementary student with learning disabilities. Objectives: We present a research study focused on the improvement of the writing product and the…

  3. Merging a Metalinguistic Grammar Approach with L2 Academic Process Writing: ELLs in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Paul J.; Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein

    2008-01-01

    This action research study evaluates a classroom approach incorporating a reflective, metacognitive component within a second language process-oriented writing environment. Inspired by the literature and developed by the first author, this approach seeks to provide English language learners (ELLs) with a command of metalinguistic principles…

  4. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically-Developing Sixth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how sixth grade children planned, translated, and revised written narrative stories using a task reflecting current instructional and assessment practices. A modified version of the Hayes and Flower (1980) writing process model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Two hundred one…

  5. Benefits of Traditional Hydro to MHK and the Regulatory Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2017-07-12

    Presentation discussing how traditional hydropower laws and regulations can be leveraged when developing marine and hydrokinetic projects as well as exceptions to FERC licensing for hydrokinetic projects.

  6. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  7. Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... 1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of ... need to educate traditional processors on good manufacturing practices, .... Table 3. Physical Contaminants in Fermented Cassava flour (“Kpor Umilin”) Samples.

  8. Writing Editorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a thematic unit for middle schools on editorial writing, or persuasive writing, based on the Pathways Model for information skills lessons. Includes assessing other editorials; student research process journals; information literacy and process skills; and two lesson plans that involve library media specialists as well as teachers. (LRW)

  9. Ideation in mathematical writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views...... are then related to two empirically found categories of functions that writing serves researchers in the field of mathematics, concluding that both views contributes to understanding the creative potential in relation to mathematical writing....

  10. A Structural Equation Model of the Writing Process in Typically Developing Sixth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    Educational reform initiatives of the last decade have focused on the three R's: reading, writing, and arithmetic, with writing receiving the least attention in the research literature (National Commission on Writing, 2003). Studies of writing performance in United States schoolchildren indicate that many are writing only at basic levels. The…

  11. Improving the quality of the order-writing process for inpatient orders and outpatient prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T A

    2000-12-15

    Because many preventable medication errors occur at the ordering stage, a program for improving the quality of writing inpatient orders and outpatient prescriptions at one institution was developed. To determine whether potential problems existed in the order-writing process for inpatients, all physician orders for a seven-day period in 1997 were reviewed (n = 3740). More than 10% of all orders had illegible handwriting or were written with a felt-tip pen, which makes NCR copies difficult to read. Other potential errors were also identified. Following educational programs for physicians and residents focusing on the importance of writing orders clearly, physician orders were reviewed for a 24-hour period (n = 654). The use of felt-tip pens decreased to 1.37% of all orders, and no orders had illegible handwriting. A similar quality improvement approach was used to evaluate the outpatient prescription-writing process. A review of all new prescriptions for a consecutive seven-day period at a local hospital-owned community pharmacy (n = 1425) revealed that about 15% of the prescriptions had illegible handwriting and roughly 10% were incomplete. Additional data were gathered through a survey sent to 71 outside provider pharmacies requesting information on problems related to prescriptions written by physicians from the institution; 66% responded. Failure to print prescriber name (96%), illegible signature (94%), failure to include DEA number (89%), and illegible handwriting other than signature (69%) were reported as the main problems. Each physician was given a self-inking name stamp to use when writing prescriptions. In addition, educational programs covering examples of poorly written prescriptions and the legal requirements of a prescription were held for physicians and residents. A follow-up survey showed that 72% of pharmacies saw stamps being used; when stamps were not used, however, illegible signatures continued to be a problem. Follow-up reviews of outpatient

  12. From Ideas in the Head to Words on the Page: Young Adolescents' Reflections on Their Own Writing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of the writing process make a distinction between the functions of planning and translation: the first to generate ideas, the second to represent these ideas in written linguistic conventions. For many writers however, ideas do not always appear to precede the act of writing, rather they appear to be discovered through it. This…

  13. Magazine Editors and the Writing Process: An Analysis of How Editors Work with Staff and Free-Lance Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Ann B.; Endres, Kathleen L.

    Editors of business and consumer magazines chosen by a random sample were asked in a mail survey what method they used in working with staff writers and free-lance writers. They were asked how they work with writers in the five stages of the writing process--idea, reporting, organizing, writing and rewriting. The first mailing to consumer…

  14. Bilingual practices in the process of initiating and resolving lexical problems in students' collaborative writing sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study deals with the sequential organization of language choice and code-switching between Persian as a first language and Swedish as a second language in the process of initiating and resolving a problem of understanding and producing the correct version of a lexical item. The data consist of detailed transcripts of audio tapings of two bilingual students' collaborative writing sessions within the frame of a one-year master's program in computer science in a mult...

  15. An emotional processing writing intervention and heart rate variability: the role of emotional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Saren H; Yanez, Betina; Stanton, Annette L; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    Expressing and understanding one's own emotional responses to negative events, particularly those that challenge the attainment of important life goals, is thought to confer physiological benefit. Individual preferences and/or abilities in approaching emotions might condition the efficacy of interventions designed to encourage written emotional processing (EP). This study examines the physiological impact (as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV)) of an emotional processing writing (EPW) task as well as the moderating influence of a dispositional preference for coping through emotional approach (EP and emotional expression (EE)), in response to a laboratory stress task designed to challenge an important life goal. Participants (n = 98) were randomly assigned to either EPW or fact control writing (FCW) following the stress task. Regression analyses revealed a significant dispositional EP by condition interaction, such that high EP participants in the EPW condition demonstrated higher HRV after writing compared to low EP participants. No significant main effects of condition or EE coping were observed. These findings suggest that EPW interventions may be best suited for those with preference or ability to process emotions related to a stressor or might require adaptation for those who less often cope through emotional approach.

  16. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat.

  17. Feedback providing improvement strategies and reflection on feedback use: Effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the

  18. The Cassava Processing Industry in Brazil: Traditional Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the evolution of cassava-based industrial production, processing and marketing in Brazil, in light of the great technological diversification to be found in Brazil. It discusses the private role of the small- and medium-scale food and related processing enterprises in the food industry, as they employ ...

  19. [Influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the writing process/product and on other psychological variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, Jesús N; Rodríguez Pérez, Celestino

    2007-05-01

    An experimental study of the influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the processes of writing composition and on the final product is presented. We studied 326 participants, age 10 to 16 years old, by means of a nested design. Two groups were compared: one group was aided in the writing process with a graphic organizer and the other was not. Each group was subdivided into two further groups: one with a mean recording interval of 45 seconds and the other with approximately 90 seconds recording interval in a writing log. The results showed that the group aided by a graphic organizer obtained better results both in processes and writing product, and that the groups assessed with an average interval of 45 seconds obtained worse results. Implications for educational practice are discussed, and limitations and future perspectives are commented on.

  20. Effect of Traditional Processing Techniques on the Nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Composition of African Bread-Fruit (Treculia africana) Seeds. *IFEOMA I IJEH .... located mainly in the seed coat (Kumar et al, 1979;. Singh ... development and control of some metabolic processes ... (1996). Regulation of selenoprotein gene.

  1. Researching the black box of wrItIng processes in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard Ernst Bengtsen, Søren; Jensen, Gry Sandholm

    Paper Presenter/author: Søren S.E. Bengtsen Title/position: PhD, Research assistant, Centre for Teaching Development and Digital Media, Aarhus University Postal Address: Paludan Müllers-Vej 48, 8200 Aarhus N. E-mail: ssbe@dpu.dk Co-author: Gry S. Jensen (co-author and co-presenter) Supervisory......, we wish to render visible such student thinking and writing processes. Drawing on phenomenological and linguistic research methods (Manen 2002; Manen 1997; Johnstone 1996) we argue that a new vocabulary for supervision on student texts must be developed for supervisors to more fully grasp...

  2. Content analysis of process based writing in web-supported environment at bits Pilani and its possible implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhach, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A digital environment for instructional purposes has been adopted in the form of a Learning Management System (LMS by educational institutions. The present study facilitates incorporation of online writing tutorials over LMS ‘Nalanda’ BITS Pilani with the objective of understanding the nature of the writing process while students accomplish their writing tasks on online forums. A paragogical framework has also been devised by keeping scaffolding as the theoretical basis of learning. The methodological strategy adopted to realize the objective and analyze the impact of the educational intervention was content analysis. Results of the content analysis, under the parameters corresponding to different stages of the writing process, suggest that students’ emphasis had been more on content development and critical thinking

  3. Non-traditional micromachining processes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, B; Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a complete coverage of micromachining processes from their basic material removal phenomena to past and recent research carried by a number of researchers worldwide. Chapters on effective utilization of material resources, improved efficiency, reliability, durability, and cost effectiveness of the products are presented. This book provides the reader with new and recent developments in the field of micromachining and microfabrication of engineering materials.

  4. Expressive writing as a therapeutic process for drug-dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshberg-Cohen, Sarah; Svikis, Dace; McMahon, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Although women with substance use disorders (SUDs) have high rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress, many addiction programs do not offer trauma-specific treatments. One promising intervention is Pennebaker's expressive writing, which involves daily, 20-minute writing sessions to facilitate disclosure of stressful experiences. Women (N = 149) in residential treatment completed a randomized clinical trial comparing expressive writing with control writing. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to document change in psychological and physical distress from baseline to 2-week and 1-month follow-ups. Analyses also examined immediate levels of negative affect following expressive writing. Expressive writing participants showed greater reductions in posttraumatic symptom severity, depression, and anxiety scores, when compared with control writing participants at the 2-week follow-up. No group differences were found at the 1-month follow-up. Safety data were encouraging: although expressive writing participants showed increased negative affect immediately after each writing session, there were no differences in pre-writing negative affect scores between conditions the following day. By the final writing session, participants were able to write about traumatic/stressful events without having a spike in negative affect. Results suggest that expressive writing may be a brief, safe, low-cost, adjunct to SUD treatment that warrants further study as a strategy for addressing posttraumatic distress in substance-abusing women.

  5. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  6. Image processing analysis of traditional Gestalt vision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2002-06-01

    In the late 19th century, the Gestalt Psychology rebelled against the popular new science of Psychophysics. The Gestalt revolution used many fascinating visual examples to illustrate that the whole is greater than the sum of all the parts. Color constancy was an important example. The physical interpretation of sensations and their quantification by JNDs and Weber fractions were met with innumerable examples in which two 'identical' physical stimuli did not look the same. The fact that large changes in the color of the illumination failed to change color appearance in real scenes demanded something more than quantifying the psychophysical response of a single pixel. The debates continues today with proponents of both physical, pixel-based colorimetry and perceptual, image- based cognitive interpretations. Modern instrumentation has made colorimetric pixel measurement universal. As well, new examples of unconscious inference continue to be reported in the literature. Image processing provides a new way of analyzing familiar Gestalt displays. Since the pioneering experiments by Fergus Campbell and Land, we know that human vision has independent spatial channels and independent color channels. Color matching data from color constancy experiments agrees with spatial comparison analysis. In this analysis, simple spatial processes can explain the different appearances of 'identical' stimuli by analyzing the multiresolution spatial properties of their surrounds. Benary's Cross, White's Effect, the Checkerboard Illusion and the Dungeon Illusion can all be understood by the analysis of their low-spatial-frequency components. Just as with color constancy, these Gestalt images are most simply described by the analysis of spatial components. Simple spatial mechanisms account for the appearance of 'identical' stimuli in complex scenes. It does not require complex, cognitive processes to calculate appearances in familiar Gestalt experiments.

  7. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  8. The Effect of the Process Approach on Students’ Writing Success: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kansızoğlu, Hasan Basri; Bayrak Cömert, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    Theaim of this study is to identify -by merging the results of a large number ofstudies conducted in related literature review- at which level “writing as aprocess” approach affects students’ writing success. Additionally, this paperinvestigates whether the writing success level differentiates depending oncertain study characteristic. Meta-analysis has been preferred as researchmethod in this study and among the studies which are associated withprocess-based writing practice, only the results...

  9. "No one does this for fun": Contextualization and process writing in an organic chemistry laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Andrea

    This study investigated the introduction of curriculum innovations into an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. Pre-existing experiments in a traditional course were re-written in a broader societal context. Additionally, a new laboratory notebook methodology was introduced, using the Decision/Explanation/Observation/Inference (DEOI) format that required students to explicitly describe the purpose of procedural steps and the meanings of observations. Experts in organic chemistry, science writing, and chemistry education examined the revised curriculum and deemed it appropriate. The revised curriculum was introduced into two sections of organic chemistry laboratory at Columbia University. Field notes were taken during the course, students and teaching assistants were interviewed, and completed student laboratory reports were examined to ascertain the impact of the innovations. The contextualizations were appreciated for making the course more interesting; for lending a sense of purpose to the study of chemistry; and for aiding in students' learning. Both experts and students described a preference for more extensive connections between the experiment content and the introduced context. Generally, students preferred the DEOI method to journal-style laboratory reports believing it to be more efficient and more focused on thinking than stylistic formalities. The students claimed that the DEOI method aided their understanding of the experiments and helped scaffold their thinking, though some students thought that the method was over-structured and disliked the required pre-laboratory work. The method was used in two distinct manners; recursively writing and revising as intended and concept contemplation only after experiment completion. The recursive use may have been influenced by TA attitudes towards the revisions and seemed to engender a sense of preparedness. Students' engagement with the contextualizations and the DEOI method highlight the need for

  10. Writing by the Book, Writing beyond the Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Writing has become more visible in academia through writing advice manuals and the faculty development activities they inspire. In this article, I examine writing advice manuals and argue they are epistemologically current traditional, which limits how well and how far they can support scholarly writers. Writing advice manuals and composition…

  11. Writing 'new' decalogues: Martin Luther’s development of the Pauline-Augustinian tradition of natural law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raath

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues in favour of Martin Luther subscribing to the theory of natural law in his theology. An in-depth study of Luther’s views on natural law finds support for Brown’s thesis that Luther’s contribution to the tradition of natural law cannot be taken to form the basis of the theory of divine right prominent in the seventeenth century. Without venturing into the debate on natural law versus legal positivism, it is found that the perspective emanating from Luther’s natural law theory has an important political message for mankind as a whole in its implicit warning against positivistic and legalistic perspectives on law because these are apt to lead to confusion, relativism and historicism. Man, according to Luther’s view, therefore, has to revert to more fundamental principles (or values, representative of “ideal,” “good,” or “true,” norms for testing manmade law. The more specific implications of Luther’s views on natural law for Christians concern an eschatological vision of Christians’ involvement and work in God’s creation. This vision concerns man’s divine appointment to hold office and promote peace in society, and to contribute humbly towards God’s involvement in societies suffering from the effects of legalism or torn apart by conflict.

  12. Experiential self-focus writing as a facilitator of processing an interpersonal hurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen; Russell, Daniel W; Abraham, W Todd

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the effects of experiential self-focus writing on changes in psychological outcomes (i.e., unforgiveness and negative affect) after an interpersonal hurt and the buffering effects of experiential self-focus writing on the association between anger rumination and these psychological outcomes. A sample of 182 college students who had experienced interpersonal hurt were randomly assigned to either the experiential self-focus writing condition, in which participants wrote about their feelings and experiences related to the hurt, or to a control writing condition in which they wrote about a recent neutral event. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that changes in unforgiveness over time did not differ between the experiential self-focus writing and the control writing conditions. However, relative to the control writing condition, negative affect decreased faster during writing and increased more slowly at follow-ups in the experiential self-focus writing condition. The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect resulting from an interpersonal hurt would significantly decrease over time among participants in the experiential self-focus writing group compared with the control group. Implications of experiential self-focus writing for interpersonal hurt and directions for future studies are discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Learning history by composing synthesis texts: Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes, and text quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, I.; Mateos, M.; Martín, E.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve learning from texts via strategies that train students how to process synthesis texts. Processing such texts requires goal-oriented interaction between reading and writing activities. The participants were 62 sixth-grade students, 33 in the experimental

  14. Development of a Vibration-Based Electromagnetic Energy Harvester by a Conductive Direct-Write Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Yun Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A conductive direct-write process of multilayered coils for micro electromagnetic generators is proposed. This novel approach of using silver ink to form the conductive structures largely reduces the fabrication complexity, and it provides a faster alternative to the conventional semiconductor methods. Multi-layered coils with insulation were accurately layered on a micromachined cantilevered diaphragm by a dispenser. Coils several layers thick could be used to increase the power output and double coils were separated by a layer of insulation. Six prototypes, all capable of efficient conversion of vibrational energy into electrical energy, were fabricated. The experimental results, which include measurements of the electromotive force and power output, are presented. Prototypes with two coils and thicker conducting layers had less resistance and the power output was much more than that of a single-coil unit. This generator can produce 82 nW of power at a resonance frequency of 275 Hz under 5 g excitation.

  15. Preparing a Health Care White Paper: Providing Structure to the Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Rotarius, Velmarie

    2016-01-01

    Health care leaders operate in a very complex and turbulent business environment. Both government regulations and market forces are very active in the industry. Thus, health care managers have many multifaceted and, sometimes, contradictory expectations placed upon them and their organizations. To ensure professional accountability, health care executives often join professional associations and strive for licenses and certifications that are intended to place the professional above the rest. One important avenue to achieve various licensing and certification accomplishments involves writing a white paper about a specific topic of interest to the industry and organization. Presented herein are structural processes that facilitate the creation and preparation of a health care white paper. Both conceptual and empirical structures of white papers are presented, with the similarities and the differences between conceptual and empirical papers highlighted.

  16. Improving the quality of the order-writing process for inpatient orders in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Peter A; Rylander, Jeanette; Dizon, Dominic T; Peterson, Michael W

    2007-01-01

    Physicians' illegible handwriting is a notorious contributing factor to medical errors. Furthermore, an illegible signature or failure to print prescribers' name interferes with the ability of staff to clarify orders. We surveyed support medical staff at a teaching hospital before and 2 months after providing all internal medicine department residents a self-inking stamp with their name and pager number. Responses were received from 51% at the first and 36% at the second survey of 401 eligible staff. Responses to questions regarding illegible or absent signature, illegible or absent pager number, and failure to print prescribers' name showed a significant improvement (P writing process. This kind of signature allows clarification of orders in a timely fashion.

  17. A predictive thermal dynamic model for parameter generation in the laser assisted direct write process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Shuo; Fearon, Eamonn; Wellburn, Dan; Sato, Taku; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2011-01-01

    The laser assisted direct write (LADW) method can be used to generate electrical circuitry on a substrate by depositing metallic ink and curing the ink thermally by a laser. Laser curing has emerged over recent years as a novel yet efficient alternative to oven curing. This method can be used in situ, over complicated 3D contours of large parts (e.g. aircraft wings) and selectively cure over heat sensitive substrates, with little or no thermal damage. In previous studies, empirical methods have been used to generate processing windows for this technique, relating to the several interdependent processing parameters on which the curing quality and efficiency strongly depend. Incorrect parameters can result in a track that is cured in some areas and uncured in others, or in damaged substrates. This paper addresses the strong need for a quantitative model which can systematically output the processing conditions for a given combination of ink, substrate and laser source; transforming the LADW technique from a purely empirical approach, to a simple, repeatable, mathematically sound, efficient and predictable process. The method comprises a novel and generic finite element model (FEM) that for the first time predicts the evolution of the thermal profile of the ink track during laser curing and thus generates a parametric map which indicates the most suitable combination of parameters for process optimization. Experimental data are compared with simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model.

  18. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  19. Robotic extrusion processes for direct ink writing of 3D conductive polyaniline structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, F. Benjamin; Price, Aaron D.

    2016-04-01

    The intractable nature of intrinsically conductive polymers (ICP) leads to practical limitations in the fabrication of ICP-based transducers having complex three-dimensional geometries. Conventional ICP device fabrication processes have focused primarily on thin-film deposition techniques; therefore this study explores novel additive manufacturing processes specifically developed for ICP with the ultimate goal of increasing the functionality of ICP sensors and actuators. Herein we employ automated polymer paste extrusion processes for the direct ink writing of 3D conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures. Realization of these structures is enabled through a modified fused filament fabrication delta robot equipped with an integrated polymer paste extruder. This unique robot-controlled additive manufacturing platform is capable of fabricating high-resolution 3D conductive PANI and has been utilized to produce structures with a minimum feature size of 1.5 mm. The required processability of PANI is achieved by means of a counter-ion induced thermal doping method. Using this method, a viscous paste is formulated as the extrudate and a thermo-chemical treatment is applied post extrusion to finalize the complexation.

  20. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  1. Keys to Detecting Writing Flexibility over Time: Entropy and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Erica L.; Allen, Laura K.; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Crossley, Scott A.; Perret, Cecile A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    Writing researchers have suggested that students who are perceived as strong writers (i.e., those who generate texts rated as high quality) demonstrate flexibility in their writing style. While anecdotally this has been a commonly held belief among researchers and educators, there is little empirical research to support this claim. This study…

  2. Developing Research Paper Writing Programs for EFL/ESL Undergraduate Students Using Process Genre Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Kim Thanh; Bin Osman, Shuki; Dan, Thai Cong; Ahmad, Nor Shafrin Binti

    2016-01-01

    Research Paper Writing (RPW) plays a key role in completing all research work. Poor writing could lead to the postponement of publications. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a program of (RPW) to improve RPW ability for EFL/ESL writers, especially for undergraduate students in Higher Education (HE) institutions, which has caught less attention…

  3. Affect and Cognition in the Writing Processes of Eleventh Graders: A Study of Concentration and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the writing experience of 40 eleventh graders and examines the social and pedagogical circumstances contributing to their limited concentration and motivation. Finds that emotion disrupts sustained and thoughtful attention to writing. Demonstrates the psychological toll of limited concentration, negative self-view, and limited…

  4. Rethinking the Writing Process: What Best-Selling and Award-Winning Authors Have to Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael R.; Ortlieb, Evan; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has been directed recently to literacy education as a means for disciplinary learning and career readiness. All the while, concepts of print have dramatically changed because the majority of reading and writing now occurs in digital formats. Therefore, it is an ideal time to investigate the complexities of the writing process…

  5. Crafting an Argument in Steps: A Writing Process Model for Graduate and Professional Students with LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallestinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses argument pedagogy for graduate and professional students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of academic writing. To understand the nature and types of writing problems that graduate and professional students with LD experience, the author presents results of a university-wide survey with the students who did and did…

  6. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  7. Improving Writing through Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Barreto, Adriana Maritza

    2011-01-01

    Writing as a means of communication is one of the basic skills students must master at the university level. Although it is not an easy task because students are usually reluctant to correct, teachers have great responsibility at the time of guiding a writing process. For that reason, this study aimed at improving the writing process in fourth…

  8. Comparative Study of Powdered Ginger Drink Processed by Different Method:Traditional and using Evaporation Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriyana, Wuri; Taufika Rosyida, Vita; Nur Hayati, Septi; Darsih, Cici; Dewi Poeloengasih, Crescentiana

    2017-12-01

    Ginger drink is one of the traditional beverage that became one of the products of interest by consumers in Indonesia. This drink is believed to have excellent properties for the health of the body. In this study, we have compared the moisture content, ash content, metal content and the identified compound of product which processed with traditional technique and using an evaporator machine. The results show that both of products fulfilled some parameters of the Indonesian National Standard for the traditional powdered drink. GC-MS analysis data showed the identified compound of both product. The major of hydrocarbon groups that influenced the flavor such as zingiberene, camphene, beta-phelladrine, beta-sesquepelladrine, curcumene, and beta-bisabolene were found higher in ginger drink powder treated with a machine than those processed traditionally.

  9. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  10. Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

  11. Feedback Providing Improvement Strategies and Reflection on Feedback Use: Effects on Students' Writing Motivation, Process, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…

  12. Toward a New Process-Based Indicator for Measuring Writing Fluency: Evidence from L2 Writers' Think-Aloud Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study aimed at testing the hypothesis that, because of strategic and temporal variables, composing rate and text quantity may not be valid measures of writing fluency. A second objective was to validate the mean length of writers' translating episodes as a process-based indicator that mirrors their fluent written…

  13. Why Are Some Texts Good and Others Not? Relationship between Text Quality and Management of the Writing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Caroline; Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether text quality is related to online management of the writing processes. Experiment 1 focused on the relationship between online management and text quality in narrative and argumentative texts. Experiment 2 investigated how this relationship might be affected by a goal emphasizing text quality. In both experiments,…

  14. Bullshit in Academic Writing: A Protocol Analysis of a High School Senior's Process of Interpreting "Much Ado about Nothing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Daigle, Elizabeth Anne; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy; Bynum, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of one high school senior's process of academic bullshitting as she wrote an analytic essay interpreting Shakespeare's "Much Ado about Nothing." The construct of bullshit has received little scholarly attention; although it is known as a common phenomenon in academic speech and writing, it has rarely been the subject…

  15. Process Features in Writing: Internal Structure and Incremental Value over Product Features. Research Report. ETS RR-15-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In educational measurement contexts, essays have been evaluated and formative feedback has been given based on the end product. In this study, we used a large sample collected from middle school students in the United States to investigate the factor structure of the writing process features gathered from keystroke logs and the association of that…

  16. Children’s Democratic Experiences in a Collective Writing Process – Analysing Classroom Interaction in Terms of Deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hultin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is twofold: firstly, it aims to explore the interactional conditions in terms of democratic qualities constituted in collective writing in a primary school classroom; and secondly, it aims to examine whether a set of deliberative criteria is fruitful as an analytical tool when studying classroom interaction. Theoretically, I turn to New Literacy Studies for understanding the writing classroom as a literacy practice and the actual (collective writing as literacy events. The study has an ethnographic approach in which classroom observations were conducted during a collective writing process involving six nine-year-old children and their teacher. The observations included, two lessons, divided into 3 hours, which were observed, videotaped, and transcribed. The teacher had planned for a strict interactional or didactical order during the collective writing in which the children were to respond individually. However, the children responded in a different manner by starting a vivid dialogue in which they negotiated both the form and the content of the story. The analysis shows some deliberative qualities in this classroom interaction, while some other qualities were not evident. Furthermore, the analysis showed that the set of deliberative criteria was useful in visualizing both existing deliberative qualities in the interaction and the potential for developing such qualities.

  17. Effect of aging, education, reading and writing, semantic processing and depression symptoms on verbal fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tasks are widely used in (clinical neuropsychology to evaluate components of executive functioning and lexical-semantic processing (linguistic and semantic memory. Performance in those tasks may be affected by several variables, such as age, education and diseases. This study investigated whether aging, education, reading and writing frequency, performance in semantic judgment tasks and depression symptoms predict the performance in unconstrained, phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. This study sample comprised 260 healthy adults aged 19 to 75 years old. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression models were used for data analysis. The variables under analysis were associated in different ways and had different levels of contribution according to the type of verbal fluency task. Education had the greatest effect on verbal fluency tasks. There was a greater effect of age on semantic fluency than on phonemic tasks. The semantic judgment tasks predicted the verbal fluency performance alone or in combination with other variables. These findings corroborate the importance of education in cognition supporting the hypothesis of a cognitive reserve and confirming the contribution of lexical-semantic processing to verbal fluency.

  18. Femtosecond laser-induced structural difference in fused silica with a non-reciprocal writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Dai, Ye; Song, Juan; Ma, Hongliang; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report a non-reciprocal writing process for inducing asymmetric microstructure using a femtosecond laser with tilted pulse fronts in fused silica. The shape of the induced microstructure at the focus closely depends on the laser scan direction. An elongated end is observed as a kind of structural difference between the written lines with two reverse scans along + x and - x, which further leads to a birefringence intensity difference. We also find a bifurcation in the head region of the induced microstructure between the written lines along x and y. That process results from the focal intensity distortion caused by the pulse front tilt by comparing the simulated intensity distribution with the experimental results. The current results demonstrate that the pulse front tilt not only affects the free electron excitation at the focus but also further distorts the shape of the induced microstructure during a high-energy femtosecond laser irradiation. These results offer a route to fabricate optical elements by changing the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort pulses.

  19. The Effect of Keyboard-Based Word Processing on Students with Different Working Memory Capacity during the Process of Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Steen, Steffie; Samuelson, Dianne; Thomson, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the current debate about the beneficial effects of text processing software on students with different working memory (WM) during the process of academic writing, especially with regard to the ability to display higher-level conceptual thinking. A total of 54 graduate students (15 male, 39 female) wrote one essay by hand and…

  20. The Effect of Keyboard-Based Word Processing on Students With Different Working Memory Capacity During the Process of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Steen, Steffie; Samuelson, Dianne; Thomson, Jennifer M.

    This study addresses the current debate about the beneficial effects of text processing software on students with different working memory (WM) during the process of academic writing, especially with regard to the ability to display higher-level conceptual thinking. A total of 54 graduate students

  1. The Effects of Wiki-Based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Kuen; Gong, Cheng; Tay, Boon Pei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore's Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students ("Students") received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45…

  2. The Effect of Process Oriented Writing Activities on the Achievement and Attitude of the Preservice Primary School Teachers: An Example of Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Emine Gül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether process oriented writing exercises/activities have any effect on the achievement and attitude of preservice teachers as well as to set forth the opinions of primary preservice teachers on process oriented writing approach. In the research one classroom was designated as experimental group (N = 35)…

  3. A Case Study on an Item Writing Process: Use of Test Specifications, Nature of Group Dynamics, and Individual Item Writers' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Chi, Youngshin; Huensch, Amanda; Jun, Heesung; Li, Hongli; Roullion, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a case study on an item writing process that reflects on our practical experience in an item development project. The purpose of the article is to share our lessons from the experience aiming to demystify item writing process. The study investigated three issues that naturally emerged during the project: how item writers use…

  4. Nanoscale Engineering in VO2 Nanowires via Direct Electron Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Guo, Hua; Ding, Wenqiang; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Yue; Ke, Xiaoxing; Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Furong; Sui, Manling

    2017-02-08

    Controlling phase transition in functional materials at nanoscale is not only of broad scientific interest but also important for practical applications in the fields of renewable energy, information storage, transducer, sensor, and so forth. As a model functional material, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) has its metal-insulator transition (MIT) usually at a sharp temperature around 68 °C. Here, we report a focused electron beam can directly lower down the transition temperature of a nanoarea to room temperature without prepatterning the VO 2 . This novel process is called radiolysis-assisted MIT (R-MIT). The electron beam irradiation fabricates a unique gradual MIT zone to several times of the beam size in which the temperature-dependent phase transition is achieved in an extended temperature range. The gradual transformation zone offers to precisely control the ratio of metal/insulator phases. This direct electron writing technique can open up an opportunity to precisely engineer nanodomains of diversified electronic properties in functional material-based devices.

  5. Opinions of Students Completing Master Thesis in Turkish Education Field about Academic Writing and Thesis Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Onur KAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this research is to evaluate opinions of students completing master thesis in the field of Turkish education about academic writing and process of forming thesis. The study has been devised using phenomenological design within the qualitative research methods. The study group of research is consisted of 9 participants completed master thesis in the field of Turkish education at Mustafa Kemal University Instıtute of Social Sciences in 2015. In this study, semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher was used to collect data. In order to ensure the reliability of the scope and structure, table of specification was constituted and expert views were consulted. For analyzing data descriptive analysis method was used. According to results of the research, it was obtained that participants experience various diffuculties in writing the basic sections of the thesis. In addition, it was seen that participants can not benefit enough from the studies written in foreign language. Participants reported that they find themselves more enough about academic writing and process of forming thesis after postgraduate education, but also they stated that academic writing courses should take part in program.

  6. [Study on moisture sorption process model and application traditional Chinese medicine extract powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; He, Yan; Xiao, Xiong; Yuan, Liang; Rao, Xiaoyong; Luo, Xiaojian

    2010-04-01

    Study on the moisture sorption process characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder, to establish a mathematical model, provide a new method for in-depth study for moisture sorption behavior of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder and a reference for determine the production cycle, and predict product stability. Analyzed moisture absorption process of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder by utilized the law of conservation of mass and Fick's first law to establish the double exponential absorption model, fitted the moisture absorption data and compared with other commonly used five kinds of model to estimate the double-exponential absorption model. The statistical analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of double exponential model, Weibull distribution model and first order kinetics model were large, but the residues sum of squares (RSS) and AIC values were small. Synthesized the practical application meaning, we consided that the double exponential model was more suitable for simulating the process of Chinese medicine extract powder moisture absorption. The double exponential is suitable for characterization the process of traditional Chinese medicine extract moisture absorption.

  7. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Influence of processing in the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Portuguese traditional meat product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Gomes, A; Santos, C

    2011-06-01

    The concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in traditional dry/fermented sausage along distinct stages of processing under two different technological procedures (traditional and modified processes). The influence of product's position in the smoking room, on the variation of contaminants and in their migration dynamics from the outer into the inner part, was also followed up. Raw material mixtures presented expressive total PAH values, 106.17 μg kg(-1) in wet samples and 244.34 μg kg(-1) in dry mater (DM), expressing the frequent fire woods occurred in the regions pigs were extensively reared. Traditional processing produced a higher (plevels comparatively to modified/industrial procedures, with mean values reaching 3237.10 and 1702.85 μg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Both, raw materials and final products, showed PAH profiles with light compounds representing about 99.0% of the total PAHs, mostly accounted by those having two rings (naphthalene-27.5%) or three rings (acenaphtene-16.9%; fluorene-27.1%; phenanthrene-19.5% and anthracene-3.9%). The benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) accumulated in traditional and modified processed products never surpassed the limit of 5 μg kg(-1) established by the EU legislation. PAHs in products hanged in bars closer to heating/smoking source speed up their transfer from the surface/outer portion to the inner part of the product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  10. Critical Thinking through Writing: Expressing Scientific Thought and Process in a Deaf Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez, Leslie

    Within Deaf classrooms there is often a disconnect between academic areas and writing curriculums that develop in both common and academic language, where often classrooms focus solely on writing as a skill rather than as a method for producing language through an academic area. This work focuses on the development of academic language in ASL and English print of science. The curriculum is written to be implemented as a bilingual academic curriculum to support Deaf and Hard of Hearing students in various self contained classroom settings. Lessons are conducted in three Units, A B and C. Unit A focuses on research, thought and writing of preparatory materials in small groups. Unit B is comprised of procedural lessons on conducting x experiments and the evaluation of those experiments through mathematics. Unit C is a group of lessons that ties together Units A and B through writing and peer teaching as a method of concluding the work and presenting information in an effective manner. The success of the project was evaluated on the basis of student work, rubrics, and final works from the students. The results showed promise in aspects of Critical Thinking, writing development, and expression of new concepts in both ASL and English.

  11. Opinions of Students Completing Master Thesis in Turkish Education Field about Academic Writing and Thesis Formation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Onur KAN; Fatma Nur GEDİK

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this research is to evaluate opinions of students completing master thesis in the field of Turkish education about academic writing and process of forming thesis. The study has been devised using phenomenological design within the qualitative research methods. The study group of research is consisted of 9 participants completed master thesis in the field of Turkish education at Mustafa Kemal University Instıtute of Social Sciences in 2015. In this study, semi-structured int...

  12. Barriers, Challenges, and Decision-Making in the Letter Writing Process for Gender Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L; Dickey, Lore M

    2017-03-01

    This article addresses the challenges that clinicians face in writing letters of support for transgender and gender-diverse clients. It addresses common but challenging clinical representations to help the reader understand the nuances associated with writing letters. Three cases are presented. The first addresses systemic challenges, the second addresses management of care, and the third addresses co-occurring mental health concerns. Recommendations for practice are provided based on the experiences included within the 3 case examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...

  14. Generation X, intergenerational justice and the renewal of the traditioning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L. Seibel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The church has the task of transmitting its faith tradition from one generation to the next. In the transition to postmodernity, many established congregations have proven to be ineffective at this traditioning process in relation to Generation X (Gen X, the first postmodern generation. The reasons for the ineffectiveness are complex. This article focuses on two key factors that contribute to the problem: the reduction of the church’s tradition to its particular expression within the culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. The latter has prevented them from becoming effective bearers of the church’s tradition. If this trend is to be reversed, churches should succeed in renewing their traditions in a way that is meaningful in a postmodern context. The challenge will be to overcome the dynamics of reductionism and marginalisation. In developing the argument, the jubilee themes of ‘return’ and ‘release’ are applied to the intergenerational dynamics of established congregations. The article concludes that local congregations should embrace a renewed commitment to intergenerational justice, which will encourage equity between the generations.

  15. What Basic Writers Think about Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves-Bowden, Anmarie

    2001-01-01

    Explores basic writing students' current writing processes, their thoughts on their writing, and their introduction to a structured writing process model. Suggests that educators can assist basic writers in becoming successful college writers by introducing them to a structured writing process model while also helping them to become reflective…

  16. [Near infrared spectroscopy based process trajectory technology and its application in monitoring and controlling of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the principle of NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy)-based process trajectory technology was introduced.The main steps of the technique include:① in-line collection of the processes spectra of different technics; ② unfolding of the 3-D process spectra;③ determination of the process trajectories and their normal limits;④ monitoring of the new batches with the established MSPC (multivariate statistical process control) models.Applications of the technology in the chemical and biological medicines were reviewed briefly. By a comprehensive introduction of our feasibility research on the monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine technical process using NIRS-based multivariate process trajectories, several important problems of the practical applications which need urgent solutions are proposed, and also the application prospect of the NIRS-based process trajectory technology is fully discussed and put forward in the end. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. A Process for Assessing and Improving Business Writing at the MBA Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Gary L.; Thompson, Margaret A.; Hebblethwaite, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Assurance of learning continues to be a hot topic in higher education. Both accreditation agencies and employers are asking a key question: Are we graduating students who actually have the knowledge and skills that we promise? This case study focuses on business writing in an MBA program and presents a prescriptive, five-step program to improve…

  18. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  19. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed.

  20. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. [Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Zhao-Zhou

    2013-03-01

    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process. Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process, the design space will be determined, and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space. Therefore, the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD, and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space. This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space, analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, as well as future study orientations.

  2. The Effects of Wiki-based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL Students in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kuen Chin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore’s Chinese as a Second Language (CSL scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade students (“Students” received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45 writing skills was developed and uploaded to the Wiki platform through five recursive cycles. In each cycle, the students were encouraged to apply skills they learned via Wiki platform in their writing and afterwards work as a team in the platform to peer-review each other’s first draft. With feedback received from peer revision, students proceeded to edit their first draft, focusing on the content of narratives and the appropriateness on their use of micro writing skills. The scaffolding decreased as the project progressed. Students’ pre-, mid- and post-writing tests were marked and compared. The authors analyzed the impact that the feedback in the process had towards the students’ overall writing performance. It was discovered that students' quality of written products was improved in general. It was also discovered that students benefited the most from giving remarks to their peers’ writing. The revision patterns of high, medium and low language ability students were also compared. It was found that the higher the language ability of the students, the more concerned they were with macro level for their revisions. ICT-mediated process writing has not garnered much attention in the field of CSL. The study hopes to contribute to the literature of ICTmediated writing instruction in the field of CSL.

  3. High-throughput fabrication of micrometer-sized compound parabolic mirror arrays by using parallel laser direct-write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wensheng; Gu, Min; Cumming, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Micrometer-sized parabolic mirror arrays have significant applications in both light emitting diodes and solar cells. However, low fabrication throughput has been identified as major obstacle for the mirror arrays towards large-scale applications due to the serial nature of the conventional method. Here, the mirror arrays are fabricated by using a parallel laser direct-write processing, which addresses this barrier. In addition, it is demonstrated that the parallel writing is able to fabricate complex arrays besides simple arrays and thus offers wider applications. Optical measurements show that each single mirror confines the full-width at half-maximum value to as small as 17.8 μm at the height of 150 μm whilst providing a transmittance of up to 68.3% at a wavelength of 633 nm in good agreement with the calculation values. (paper)

  4. Definition of a focus of reading and writing teaching in the process from preparatory to primary level at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Doria Correa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a research exercise in order to define an approach of reading and writing’s teaching and learning in the process from preparatory to primary education in Asodesi’s school in the city of Monteria - Córdoba. This experience is a part of the investigation “classroom projects: an experience of action research in language teaching at school”, theoretically oriented from the study of various approaches about teaching reading and writing early, with a qualitative methodology (IA, by forming a study group work (SGW, within which teachers reflect on their teaching practices, in order to improve and transform them. The main results are: the definition of a comprehensive approach of teaching reading and writing, linked to the goals of training offered in classroom projects in primary and secondary levels and the development of skills incomprehension and textual production. 

  5. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  6. EUROPEAN TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCERS AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES: AN APPLICATION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Alessia; Stranieri, Stefanella; Carraresi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products, in order to analyse the market orientation of SMEs in the food industry. Following the theoretical approach of Market Orientation, our analysis is based on an assessment of the marketing management process. The methodology refers to a survey developed through a questionnaire published on the web, and a sample of 371 firms based in Belgium, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republi...

  7. Thinking and writing at Masters level: a reflective passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John

    This article identifies key characteristics of Masters level writing and the underpinning relationship of these characteristics to reflective thought. Classical models of reflective writing are reviewed and their focus on reflection as a progressive process is debated. A linear model of reflection is proposed and its application to reflective writing for Masters level assessments is examined. The classical authors tend to present reflection as a process in which the outcomes of reflection becomes deeper at advanced levels. While this is an appropriate application of the concept of reflection for the traditional academic essay, it might not always be so appropriate for other more applied aspects of thinking and writing particularly in the development of advanced nursing practice. A linear model of reflective writing which offers a more pragmatic perspective on reflection is developed.

  8. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R

    2008-01-01

    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  9. Analysis of the Aging Processes of Writing Ink: Raman Spectroscopy versus Gas Chromatography Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Grechukha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the extremely popular but poorly developed scientific and forensic problem of the estimation of the actual dates of inscriptions placed on paper and made by ballpoint pens. It is shown that the degradation of writing inks with time may be controlled via Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The time intervals for the implementation of each of these methods were determined using the ratios of the Raman peak intensities as degradation characteristics rather than their absolute values. In turn, this eliminates the effect of the concentration of a dye. The mutual influence of the volatile components and dyes of writing inks was also investigated and the time interval within which such influence is critical was found. According to the obtained results, a new methodological scheme for determining the age of documents, which were created at least 40 months ago, was proposed.

  10. The impact of national traditions and cultures on national foresight processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of national traditions, styles or culture on the use of foresight in decision-making processes. Inspired by sociologists’ contributions on national culture, the paper demonstrates that two dimensions of national culture, power distance and uncertainty avoidance......, are useful in the characterisation of the context in which national foresight exercises are carried out. The paper is based on two Danish cases: The Danish Government’s Globalisation Strategy, from 2005, and the Danish Research 2015 process, from 2008, which focus on priority settings for strategic research...

  11. Agricultural and food processing byproducts from the Balearic Islands: key and traditional production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-01-01

    The amounts of residues and byproducts, obtained from agricultural processes, in the Balearic Islands has undergone a marked increase during the last years. for economics as well as environmental reasons, there is a continuous pressure to exploit such residues and to identify products with attractive properties and with potential markets. (Author)

  12. Application of PROMETHEE-GAIA method for non-traditional machining processes selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Karande

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever increasing demand for manufactured products of hard alloys and metals with high surface finish and complex shape geometry, more interest is now being paid to non-traditional machining (NTM processes, where energy in its direct form is used to remove material from workpiece surface. Compared to conventional machining processes, NTM processes possess almost unlimited capabilities and there is a strong believe that use of NTM processes would go on increasing in diverse range of applications. Presence of a large number of NTM processes along with complex characteristics and capabilities, and lack of experts in NTM process selection domain compel for development of a structured approach for NTM process selection for a given machining application. Past researchers have already attempted to solve NTM process selection problems using various complex mathematical approaches which often require a profound knowledge in mathematics/artificial intelligence from the part of process engineers. In this paper, four NTM process selection problems are solved using an integrated PROMETHEE (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation and GAIA (geometrical analysis for interactive aid method which would act as a visual decision aid to the process engineers. The observed results are quite satisfactory and exactly match with the expected solutions.

  13. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  14. Working by projects: A way to enrich critical thinking and the writing process in a third grade eflclassroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Dolores Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the result of a qualitative action research developed with thirty-three third grade students at a public school in Bogota. This action research aimed at describing and analyzing the role of project work in the development of critical thinking in third grade efl students and to describe and document the way in which those students developed their writing skills through this methodology. The participants developed different inquiries related to topics they were interested in exploring and related to the recycling project of the school. The data were collected during eleven sessions carried out along eight months through field notes, artifacts, and audio recordings. The results show that through project work the students enhanced their emerging critical thinking skills and their writing process; improved their interactions with their classmates, discovered that learning English was something useful for their lives, and therefore they acquired more confidence in writing and speaking in English. Additionally, they became more reflective, organized and critical about what they think, what they say, and about what happens around them.

  15. Improving the smoking process of kitoza, a traditional Malagasy meat product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratsimba

    2015-06-01

    Kinetics of total phenol accumulation on meat strips (expressed on a dry basis are shown in Figure 4. The traditional process reached about 5 mg/100 g total phenols at end point. The charcoal-saw­dust treatment induced a slight and linear increase in phenols as soon as sawdust was added (i.e. after 4 hours of charcoal cooking/ drying. Phenol content reached about 4 mg/100 g after 2 hours of smoking, a value close to that of the traditionally-processed prod­uct. Phenol contents obtained with sawdust-charcoal and wood treatments reached higher levels (about 10 mg/100 g than that of the traditional one (5 mg/100 g. The sawdust-charcoal treatment provoked very fast and efficient phenol deposit in the beginning, comparable to that of wood alone. It could be explained by the high moisture content of the surface layers of the meat strips in the first period of the process. The phenol content peaked after about one hour of exposure to sawdust smoke. The phenol con­tent remained then unchanged until the end of the process. Since this parameter was expressed on a dry basis, it would mean that the deposited phenols remained in the meat strips and were not destroyed neither did they evaporate. Figure 5 shows the kinet­ics of BaP accumulation on strips on a wet basis. Regardless of the duration of charcoal-sawdust or sawdust-charcoal treatments, BaP contents were lower than 2 μg/kg. For these two treatments, a slight increase was recorded after 3 hours in relation with the concentration effect due to water evaporation. In the wood treat­ment, accumulation was linear and BaP reached very high levels: 20 ppb after 2.5 hours and 40 ppb after 6 hours. In the traditional process, 8 ppb were reached after 2.5 hours. In the latter two cases, this could be related to wood pyrolysis at high temperature in a system allowing direct exposure to fire. Processes without wood are very promising to reduce PAH accu­mulation during drying and smoking. Compared with the tradi

  16. [Investigation on production process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine--Banlangen granule as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Manrong; Yan, Dan; Qiu, Lingling; Chen, Longhu; Yan, Yan; Jin, Cheng; Li, Hanbing; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2012-04-01

    For the quality management system of herbal medicines, intermediate and finished products it exists the " short board" effect of methodologies. Based on the concept of process control, new strategies and new methods of the production process quality control had been established with the consideration of the actual production of traditional Chinese medicine an the characteristics of Chinese medicine. Taking Banlangen granule as a practice example, which was effective and widespread application, character identification, determination of index components, chemical fingerprint and biometrics technology were sequentially used respectively to assess the quality of Banlangen herbal medicines, intermediate (water extraction and alcohol precipitation) and finished product. With the transfer rate of chemical information and biological potency as indicators, the effectiveness and transmission of the above different assessments and control methods had been researched. And ultimately, the process quality control methods of Banlangen granule, which were based on chemical composition analysis-biometric analysis, had been set up. It can not only validly solute the current status that there were many manufacturers varying quality of Banlangen granule, but also ensure and enhance its clinical efficacy. Furthermore it provided a foundation for the construction of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine production process.

  17. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  18. The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

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    Nasrin Derakhshandeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing.

  19. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  20. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  1. Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Compared with Power Ultrasound Processed Corn (Zea Mays) Tortilla Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janve, Bhaskar; Yang, Wade; Sims, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Power ultrasound reduces the traditional corn steeping time from 18 to 1.5 h during tortilla chips dough (masa) processing. This study sought to examine consumer (n = 99) acceptability and quality of tortilla chips made from the masa by traditional compared with ultrasonic methods. Overall appearance, flavor, and texture acceptability scores were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The baked chips (process intermediate) before and after frying (finished product) were analyzed using a texture analyzer and machine vision. The texture values were determined using the 3-point bend test using breaking force gradient (BFG), peak breaking force (PBF), and breaking distance (BD). The fracturing properties determined by the crisp fracture support rig using fracture force gradient (FFG), peak fracture force (PFF), and fracture distance (FD). The machine vision evaluated the total surface area, lightness (L), color difference (ΔE), Hue (°h), and Chroma (C*). The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey's test. Machine vision values of L, °h, were higher (P power ultrasound as potential tortilla chips processing aid. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  3. Hybrid fabrication process of additive manufacturing and direct writing for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible tactile sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Gu; Lee, In Hwan; Lee, Kyong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Various machines require data from their external environments for safety and/or accuracy. In this respect, many sensors that mimic the human sensory system have been investigated. Among these, tactile sensors may be useful for obtaining data on the roughness of, and external forces acting upon, an object. Several tactile sensors have been developed; however, these are typically fabricated via a series of complex processes, and hence are unsuitable for volume manufacturing. In this paper, we report a fabrication process for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible sensor element using layered manufacturing and direct-write technology. A composite composed of photocurable resin and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used as the sensing material. The MWCNTs were mixed with the photocurable resin using ultrasonic dispersion, and the liquid mixture exhibited excellent piezoresistive properties following curing using ultraviolet light. The used photocurable resin is flexible and elastic after curing. Therefore, the composite material can be bent and deformed. To use this composite material with the flexible sensor, dispensing characteristics were examined using direct-write technology. For the acquisition of sensor data, a commercial pin-header was inserted and photocurable resin was filled up to the height of pin-header and cured . Then, the composite material was dispensed onto the pin-header as a sensing material. Using this process, a flexible sensor with piezoresistive properties was formed.

  4. Hybrid fabrication process of additive manufacturing and direct writing for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible tactile sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Gu; Lee, In Hwan [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyong Chang [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Various machines require data from their external environments for safety and/or accuracy. In this respect, many sensors that mimic the human sensory system have been investigated. Among these, tactile sensors may be useful for obtaining data on the roughness of, and external forces acting upon, an object. Several tactile sensors have been developed; however, these are typically fabricated via a series of complex processes, and hence are unsuitable for volume manufacturing. In this paper, we report a fabrication process for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible sensor element using layered manufacturing and direct-write technology. A composite composed of photocurable resin and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used as the sensing material. The MWCNTs were mixed with the photocurable resin using ultrasonic dispersion, and the liquid mixture exhibited excellent piezoresistive properties following curing using ultraviolet light. The used photocurable resin is flexible and elastic after curing. Therefore, the composite material can be bent and deformed. To use this composite material with the flexible sensor, dispensing characteristics were examined using direct-write technology. For the acquisition of sensor data, a commercial pin-header was inserted and photocurable resin was filled up to the height of pin-header and cured . Then, the composite material was dispensed onto the pin-header as a sensing material. Using this process, a flexible sensor with piezoresistive properties was formed.

  5. How to write effective business letters: scribing information for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C W

    1993-11-01

    Pharmacists frequently write letters but lack specific training on how to do it well. This review summarizes strategies for improving business correspondence, emphasizes basic writing guidelines, and offers practical advice for pharmacists. The first steps for effective communication are careful planning and identifying the main message to be conveyed. The purpose for writing should be stated in the opening paragraph of the letter. To ensure a successful outcome, actions needed should be clearly summarized and visually highlighted. The tone of the letter should reflect a reasonable speech pattern, not the cryptic writing found in many scientific papers. The layout of the letter should be inviting, which is readily achievable through judicious use of word processing. Many delivery options are available, such as traditional postal services, express mail, and facsimile transmission. Readers are encouraged to test these basic writing principles and decide for themselves whether these recommendations affect the success of business correspondence.

  6. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  7. Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent: Production process and history of baking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “flat” breads include a multitude of bread types different from each other but are always relatively thin, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in thickness. These breads, whose origin is very ancient, fit well into the context of a subsistence economy: i they can be obtained from cereals other than wheat, such as pseudocereals or legumes, allowing the use of sustainable local productions from marginal lands; ii they do not necessarily require an oven to be baked; iii they can serve as a dish and as a spoon/fork; iv they can be dehydrated by a second baking process, preventing the growth of molds and extending the shelf life; v they are transported with little encumbrance. These strong points make flat breads very popular, traditionally in Near East and Central Asia and also in some Mediterranean areas, in the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Indian subcontinent. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens (tannur and tabun and griddles (saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail. This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. In fact, flat breads can be produced both in the same way as they were made thousands of years ago and in modern fully automatic industrial lines, allowing tradition to meet innovation. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven

  8. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated Smoked Fish Pinekuhe from Traditionally Processed from Sangihe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John Karimela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinekuhe  is the local name for smoked scad fish (Decapterus sp., a traditionally processed fish product from Sangihe Islands whose taste, aroma and form are typical and unique. In this research aims of physiological and biochemical characteristics with pathogenicity isolated S. aureus which the isolated from the product smoked scad fish (Decapterus rusellii Pinekuhe it was produce and prepared by the local fisherman in Sangihe Island Regency. The isolated that have gathered from this researched was 111 product isolate from the smoke fish Pinekuhe which grown from media MSA. Its had isolated already through thetest of physiological comprise, Gram staining and from the test of biochemical e.g., from the test Catalase, Voges-Proskauer, and Fermentation carbohydrate tests (Glucose and Manitol. The characteristics of pathogenicity S. aureus had been done and used by making of Coagulase, Nuklease Thermostabil productionand deoksiribonuklease (DNase. The result of this research showing that had still 111 isolating strains that still ingroup which consists of 108 isolated Staphylococcus and from 108 strains to 68 strains that had been test in identifying, as of Staphylococcus aureus with characteristics of Gram positif coccus, catalase positif,Voges-Proskauer positif, and to Fermentation Glucose and Manitol. The 68 isolate S. aureus that characterize from Phatogen principles product Coagulase test, Nuklease Thermostabil and deoksiribonuklease (DNase. S. aureus is dominant (62% contaminate smoked fish Pinekuhe processed traditional of Sangihe island.

  9. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Laser direct writing of thin-film copper structures as a modification of lithographic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F; Ostendorf, A; Stute, U

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, mask-free and efficient technique for UV-laser micropatterning of photosensitive resist by laser direct writing (LDW). Photo resist spun on gold sputtered silicon wafers has been laser structured by a scanner guided 266nm DPSSL and electroplated. Ablation behaviour and optimum seed layer preparation in relation to parameters like pulse energy, scanning speed and number of scanned cycles and the electroplating results are discussed. The resulting adhesive strength was measured by a μ-sear device and the gold seed layer-plated copper interface investigated by SEM and EDX to explain correlation to identified bonding behaviour. Improved adhesive strength was observed with higher laser pulse energy and reduced number of cycle

  11. Research on the effect of coverage rate on the surface quality in laser direct writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuetao; Tu, Dawei

    2017-07-01

    Direct writing technique is usually used in femtosecond laser two-photon micromachining. The size of the scanning step is an important factor affecting the surface quality and machining efficiency of micro devices. According to the mechanism of two-photon polymerization, combining the distribution function of light intensity and the free radical concentration theory, we establish the mathematical model of coverage of solidification unit, then analyze the effect of coverage on the machining quality and efficiency. Using the principle of exposure equivalence, we also obtained the analytic expressions of the relationship among the surface quality characteristic parameters of microdevices and the scanning step, and carried out the numerical simulation and experiment. The results show that the scanning step has little influence on the surface quality of the line when it is much smaller than the size of the solidification unit. However, with increasing scanning step, the smoothness of line surface is reduced rapidly, and the surface quality becomes much worse.

  12. [Discussion on research thinking of traditional Chinese medicine standardization system based on whole process quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Sun, Yu; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Zi-Yu; Pan, Meng; Chen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Yun

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "Quality by design" indicates that good design for the whole life cycle of pharmaceutical production enables the drug to meet the expected quality requirements. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry, the TCM standardization system was put forward in this paper from the national strategic level, under the guidance by the idea of quality control in international manufacturing industry and with considerations of TCM industry's own characteristics and development status. The connotation of this strategy was to establish five interrelated systems: multi-indicators system based on tri-indicators system, quality standard and specification system of TCM herbal materials and decoction pieces, quality traceability system, data monitoring system based on whole-process quality control, and whole-process quality management system of TCM, and achieve the whole process systematic and scientific study in TCM industry through "top-level design-implement in steps-system integration" workflow. This article analyzed the correlation between the quality standards of all links, established standard operating procedures of each link and whole process, and constructed a high standard overall quality management system for TCM industry chains, in order to provide a demonstration for the establishment of TCM whole-process quality control system and provide systematic reference and basis for standardization strategy in TCM industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. The Effect of Multi-step Oral-revision Processes on Iranian EFL Learners’ Argumentative Writing Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the role of two multi-step oral-revision processes as feedback providing tools on Iranian EFL learners’ argumentative writing achievement. The participants taking part in this study were 45 Iranian EFL students who were randomly assigned into three groups. The participants of the groups were given three argumentative writing assignments, each assignment demanding three separate drafts. In the control group, the participants revised their essays in response to teacher's written feedback, while the participants of the two experimental groups experienced oral-revision talks with their teacher or a peer. Two sets of quantitative and qualitative data were collected: Argumentative essays written at the beginning and the end of the semester and interviews. The results of the quantitative aspect of the study revealed the significant outperformance of the two experimental groups. Moreover, the data provided through interviews revealed some differences in terms of the effectiveness of feedback between the two experimental groups. The participants of the peer-led group reported more awareness of the rhetorical structures and an ability to revise surface errors. While, the teacher-led group reported more global writing concerns like content, organization of ideas,   and discourse. The obtained results point out that the mutual co-construction of participation roles and certain combinations of negotiation and scaffolding let the teacher provide a supportive conversational environment and assistance in accordance with the proficiency of learners of the teacher-led group to promote greater learner participation.

  14. Reading, writing, and phonological processing skills of adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Hayes, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This study had three goals: (1) to document the literacy skills of deaf adolescents who received cochlear implants (CIs) as preschoolers; (2) to examine reading growth from elementary grades to high school; (3) to assess the contribution of early literacy levels and phonological processing skills, among other factors, to literacy levels in high school. A battery of reading, spelling, expository writing, and phonological processing assessments were administered to 112 high school (CI-HS) students, ages 15.5 to 18.5 yrs, who had participated in a reading assessment battery in early elementary grades (CI-E), ages 8.0 to 9.9 yrs. The CI-HS students' performance was compared with either a control group of hearing peers (N = 46) or hearing norms provided by the assessment developer. Many of the CI-HS students (47 to 66%) performed within or above the average range for hearing peers on reading tests. When compared with their CI-E performance, good early readers were also good readers in high school. Importantly, the majority of CI-HS students maintained their reading levels over time compared with hearing peers, indicating that the gap in performance was, at the very least, not widening for most students. Written expression and phonological processing tasks posed a great deal of difficulty for the CI-HS students. They were poorer spellers, poorer expository writers, and displayed poorer phonological knowledge than hearing age-mates. Phonological processing skills were a critical predictor of high school literacy skills (reading, spelling, and expository writing), accounting for 39% of variance remaining after controlling for child, family, and implant characteristics. Many children who receive CIs as preschoolers achieve age-appropriate literacy levels as adolescents. However, significant delays in spelling and written expression are evident compared with hearing peers. For children with CIs, the development of phonological processing skills is not just important for

  15. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Brigati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading. T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading. While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  16. Facilitating improvements in laboratory report writing skills with less grading: a laboratory report peer-review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigati, Jennifer R; Swann, Jerilyn M

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  17. Writing with Phineas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative writing strategy when you are alone. It is the story of how I came to bring Phineas, the protagonist in A. S. Byatt’s The Biographer’s Tale, into my writing process as a third voice in my dialogue with my data. It is a self-reflective text that shows how co...

  18. Analysis of the laser oxidation kinetics process of In-In(2)O(3) MTMO photomasks by laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-11-02

    One kind of novel grayscale photomask based on Metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMOs) system fabricated by laser direct writing was demonstrated recently. Here, a multilayer oxidation model of In-In(2)O(3) film with a glass substrate was proposed to study the pulsed laser-induced oxidation mechanism. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the film is calculated by the transfer matrix method. Temperature fields of the model are simulated based on the heat transfer equations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The oxidation kinetics process is studied based on the laser-induced Cabrera-Mott theory. The simulated oxidation processes are consistent with the experimental results, which mean that our laser-induced oxidation model can successfully interpret the fabrication mechanism of MTMO grayscale photomasks.

  19. Optimization of Processing Conditions of Traditional Cured Tuna Loins–Muxama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Muxama is a traditional highly-valued food product prepared from dry-cured tuna loins in southern Portugal and Spain. The production procedure has seen little change over the last centuries. The muxama’s stability is due to reduced water activity. In addition, the drying method has secondary effects on characteristics of flavor, color, and the nutritional value of the product. Our objectives were to describe the dynamics of important physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, water activity (aW, NaCl concentration (as water–phase salt, ZNaCl, pH and color, during the salting and drying stages of muxama production, and to test the effect(s of changes in the traditional processing conditions followed in southern Portugal, aiming at optimizing the production procedure. The lowest values of moisture and aW and highest ZNaCl obtained after drying tuna loins for seven days at 20 °C exceeded the values reported for commercial products and have impact on the appearance (color of the product. Therefore, drying tuna loins at lower temperatures (ca. 14 °C is probably more appropriate. The results obtained in this study could be used in the design of future experiments at other conditions and to assess other quality parameters, e.g., total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS, microorganism abundance and sensory attributes, and subsequent validation trials.

  20. Multi-parameters monitoring during traditional Chinese medicine concentration process with near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Sun, Qiaofeng; Hu, Tian; Li, Lian; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jiayue; Zhou, Wanhui; Zang, Hengchang

    2018-03-01

    As a powerful process analytical technology (PAT) tool, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used in real-time monitoring. In this study, NIR spectroscopy was applied to monitor multi-parameters of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shenzhiling oral liquid during the concentration process to guarantee the quality of products. Five lab scale batches were employed to construct quantitative models to determine five chemical ingredients and physical change (samples density) during concentration process. The paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and samples density were modeled by partial least square regression (PLSR), while the content of the glycyrrhizic acid and cinnamic acid were modeled by support vector machine regression (SVMR). Standard normal variate (SNV) and/or Savitzkye-Golay (SG) smoothing with derivative methods were adopted for spectra pretreatment. Variable selection methods including correlation coefficient (CC), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and interval partial least squares regression (iPLS) were performed for optimizing the models. The results indicated that NIR spectroscopy was an effective tool to successfully monitoring the concentration process of Shenzhiling oral liquid.

  1. ITPI: Initial Transcription Process-Based Identification Method of Bioactive Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs. In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs. The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified.

  2. Improving Students� Ability in Writing Hortatory Exposition Texts by Using Process-Genre Based Approach with YouTube Videos as the Media

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    fifin naili rizkiyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is aimed at finding out how Process-Genre Based Approach strategy with YouTube Videos as the media are employed to improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. This study uses collaborative classroom action research design following the procedures namely planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The procedures of carrying out the strategy are: (1 relating several issues/ cases to the students� background knowledge and introducing the generic structures and linguistic features of hortatory exposition text as the BKoF stage, (2 analyzing the generic structure and the language features used in the text and getting model on how to write a hortatory exposition text by using the YouTube Video as the MoT stage, (3 writing a hortatory exposition text collaboratively in a small group and in pairs through process writing as the JCoT stage, and (4 writing a hortatory exposition text individually as the ICoT stage. The result shows that the use of Process-Genre Based Approach and YouTube Videos can improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. The percentage of the students achieving the score above the minimum passing grade (70 had improved from only 15.8% (3 out of 19 students in the preliminary study to 100% (22 students in the Cycle 1. Besides, the score of each aspect; content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics also improved. � Key Words: writing ability, hortatory exposition text, process-genre based approach, youtube video

  3. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Productivity of a Wet Separation Process of Traditional and Bio-Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation process within a mechanical recycling plant plays a major role in the context of the production of high-quality secondary raw materials and the reduction of extensive waste disposal in landfills. Traditional plants for plastic separation employ dry or wet processes that rely on the different physical properties among the polymers. The hydraulic separator is a device employing a wet technology for particle separation. It allows the separation of two-polymer mixtures into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Apparatus performance were analyzed as a function of fluid and solid flow rates, flow patterns developing within the apparatus, in addition to the density, shape, and size of the polymers. For the hydraulic configurations tested, a two-way coupling takes place where the fluid exerts an influence on the plastic particles and the opposite occurs too. The interaction between the solid and liquid phases determines whether a certain polymer settles within the device or is expelled from the apparatus. Tests carried out with samples of increasing volumes of solid particles demonstrate that there are no significant differences in the apparatus effectiveness as far as a two-way interaction takes place. Almost pure concentrates of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, and Polycarbonate (PC can be obtained from a mixture of traditional polymers. Tests conducted on Polylactic Acid (PLA and Mater-Bi® samples showed that the hydraulic separator can be effectively employed to separate bio-plastics from conventional plastics with remarkable grade and recovery.

  5. Post-stroke writing and reading disorders

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    Sinanović Osman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness or visual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the sole disability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia ("aphasic alexia". Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements - language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from "peripheral" involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or

  6. POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinanović Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number

  7. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1991-01-01

    The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…

  8. The Process of Writing a Text by Using Cooperative Learning El proceso de escribir un texto por medio del uso del aprendizaje cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aldana

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out in order to get ninth graders of the departamental school “El Tequendama” involved in their writing tasks and to improve their writing skills, following the process that a professional writer enables students to write cooperatively and reduces their writing anxiety. Cooperative writing enables the participation of students with a mixture of proficiency level, thus providing greater opportunities to make achievements and therefore greater opportunities to be more deeply involved in their writing tasks.Este proyecto de investigación se llevó a cabo con el propósito de lograr que los estudiantes de noveno grado del colegio departamental “El Tequendama” se comprometieran con sus actividades de escritura y mejoraran sus habilidades escriturales. El reproducir el proceso que un escritor realiza permite a los estudiantes escribir cooperativamente y reduce la ansiedad provocada por el acto de escribir. La escritura cooperativa potencia la participación de estudiantes con niveles bajos de dominio, brindándoles mayores oportunidades de lograr mejores resultados y por tanto mayores oportunidades de comprometerse con sus actividades de escritura.

  9. Microfabricated ommatidia using a laser induced self-writing process for high resolution artificial compound eye optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyukjin; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2009-08-17

    A microfabricated compound eye, comparable to a natural compound eye shows a spherical arrangement of integrated optical units called artificial ommatidia. Each consists of a self-aligned microlens and waveguide. The increase of waveguide length is imperative to obtain high resolution images through an artificial compound eye for wide field-of - view imaging as well as fast motion detection. This work presents an effective method for increasing the waveguide length of artificial ommatidium using a laser induced self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The numerical and experimental results show the uniform formation of waveguides and the increment of waveguide length over 850 microm. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  10. Transfer of Perceptual Expertise: The Case of Simplified and Traditional Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyin; Chuk, Tin Yim; Yeh, Su-Ling; Hsiao, Janet H.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise in Chinese character recognition is marked by reduced holistic processing (HP), which depends mainly on writing rather than reading experience. Here we show that, while simplified and traditional Chinese readers demonstrated a similar level of HP when processing characters shared between the simplified and traditional scripts, simplified…

  11. BIOPROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING: TRANSFERRING TRADITIONAL PROCESS ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES TO INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

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    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  12. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control & optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  13. Nutritional value and influence of the thermal processing on a traditional Portuguese fermented sausage (alheira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sílvia D; Alves, Rita C; Mendes, Eulália; Costa, Anabela S G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2013-04-01

    Alheiras are a traditional, smoked, fermented meat sausage, produced in Portugal, with an undeniable cultural and gastronomic legacy. In this study, we assessed the nutritional value of this product, as well as the influence of different types of thermal processing. Alheiras from Mirandela were submitted to six different procedures: microwave, skillet, oven, charcoal grill, electric fryer and electric grill. Protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, NaCl, and cholesterol contents, as well as fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results show that alheiras are not hypercaloric but an unbalanced foodstuff (high levels of proteins and lipids) and the type of processing has a major impact on their nutritional value. Charcoal grill is the healthiest option: less fat (12.5 g/100 g) and cholesterol (29.3 mg/100 g), corresponding to a lower caloric intake (231.8 kcal, less 13% than the raw ones). Inversely, fried alheiras presented the worst nutritional profile, with the highest levels of fat (18.1 g/100 g) and cholesterol (76.0 g/100 g). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimising the wagashie (A traditional cottage cheese) process and sensory quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Akua B.

    2016-07-01

    Wagashie is a traditional West African cottage cheese produced by the Fulani who are semi-nomadic. It is a good protein source and can replace fish or meat in the diet of low income families in Africa. However, it is a product with high moisture content (60%) which is favourable for the growth of microorganisms and thus has a short shelf life of 3 days; it also has a bland taste with limited patronage. This research was therefore carried out to re-engineer wagashie for a larger market with a focus on improving its sensory quality, safety and shelf life. A brief survey was carried out to confirm the wagashie production procedure and identify retailers and producers for collection of samples. The safety of market samples of fresh and fried wagashie samples were determined by assaying for various indicator and pathogenic microorganisms including aerobic mesophiles, Yeast and moulds, coliform bacterin, F coli, Staphylococcus aurcus Bacillus cercus, Salmonella spp, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae. Studies were also carried out to replace the traditional coagulant of milk which involves the use of plant extract of Sodom apple (Calotropis procera) with commercial rennet used in industrial cheese production and ferment fresh milk used in the preparation. The traditional method of preparation was also standardised to improve its sensory quality. The process variables of wagashie, which are salt concentration, coagulant and fermentation time, were thus optimised using the Box Behnken design which is a response surface methodology and an affective testing was carried out to evaluate the consumer preference of the product with a nine-point hedonic scale. The sensory profile of the 'wagashie' samples were described by a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis by a trained 13 member panel. They evaluated the wagashie samples for desirable and undesirable attributes of wagashie. The rheology of 'wagashie which involves Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) with a texture

  15. Writing for Physics Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen W.

    A study examined the effectiveness of incorporating writing as a tool to master the concepts of physics. Subjects were students in the three traditional physics classes and one non-math or conceptual physics class at East High School in Rockford, Illinois. The instructor tried a variety of methods--students wrote criticisms of Carl Sagan videos,…

  16. Writing-to-Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Shreedevi; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Clara, Jothi; Shukri, Raghda K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the attitude of Omani nursing students towards writing-to-learn (WTL) and its relationship to demographic variables, self-efficacy and the writing process Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate attitudes towards WTL by Sultan Qaboos University nursing students. A convenience sample of 106 students was used and data collected between October 2009 and March 2010. A modified version of the WTL attitude scale developed by Dobie and Poirrier was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: Senior and junior students had more positive attitudes to WTL than mid-level students who tended to have negative attitudes towards writing. Although 52.8% students had negative attitudes towards the writing process, the median was higher for attitudes to the writing process compared to the median for self-efficacy. There was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and writing process scores. Conclusion: Overall, students had negative attitudes towards WTL. Attitudes are learnt or formed through previous experiences. The incorporation of WTL strategies into teaching can transform students’ negative attitudes towards writing into positive ones. PMID:24516740

  17. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as "studies as usual": a thematic analysis of medical students' reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students' writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as "Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development" as well as "studies as usual". Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper.

  18. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. PMID:25540601

  19. [Development of whole process quality control and management system of traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces based on traditional Chinese medicine quality tree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Kang; Dong, Ling; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Yun

    2017-12-01

    The whole process quality control and management of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction pieces is a system engineering, involving the base environment, seeds and seedlings, harvesting, processing and other multiple steps, so the accurate identification of factors in TCM production process that may induce the quality risk, as well as reasonable quality control measures are very important. At present, the concept of quality risk is mainly concentrated in the aspects of management and regulations, etc. There is no comprehensive analysis on possible risks in the quality control process of TCM decoction pieces, or analysis summary of effective quality control schemes. A whole process quality control and management system for TCM decoction pieces based on TCM quality tree was proposed in this study. This system effectively combined the process analysis method of TCM quality tree with the quality risk management, and can help managers to make real-time decisions while realizing the whole process quality control of TCM. By providing personalized web interface, this system can realize user-oriented information feedback, and was convenient for users to predict, evaluate and control the quality of TCM. In the application process, the whole process quality control and management system of the TCM decoction pieces can identify the related quality factors such as base environment, cultivation and pieces processing, extend and modify the existing scientific workflow according to their own production conditions, and provide different enterprises with their own quality systems, to achieve the personalized service. As a new quality management model, this paper can provide reference for improving the quality of Chinese medicine production and quality standardization. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Clinical Comparisons: Phonological Processes and Their Relationship to Traditional Phoneme Acquisition Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William R.; Tanner, Dennis C.

    2001-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the two major psycholinguistic philosophies of speech development, the traditional and the phonological approaches. The traditional approach is seen as most useful for children whose speech is only mildly impaired or who need oral sensorimotor stimulation. For severely unintelligible speech, the phonological…

  1. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott V. Franklin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, “S notation,” is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews into student reasoning during the writing process.

  2. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Scott V.; Hermsen, Lisa M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, "S notation," is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews) into student reasoning during the writing process.

  3. Limitations of the Dual-Process-Theory regarding the Writing of Words and Non-Words to Dictation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Trumpp, Christian; Lange, Klaus W.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lexical and phonological systems are involved in writing to dictation. In an experiment concerned with the writing of words and non-words to dictation, the handwriting of female students was registered using a digitising tablet. The data contradict the assumption that the phonological system represents an alexical…

  4. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vunnam, S; Ankireddy, K; Kellar, J; Cross, W

    2014-01-01

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10 −2 Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate. (papers)

  5. TRAVEL WRITING: AN APPLICATION OF WRITING WORKSHOP TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’S CREATIVE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayudias Margawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Writing is often assumed as uneasy skill to either learn or teach. For students, they find it difficult to develop ideas in writing. On the other hand, teachers, many of them, only ready with the materials but confuse with the appropriate ways to teach. This paper intends to describe and discuss a method of teaching writing namely writing workshop to improve students’ writing skill through travel writing. Writing workshop proposed by Calkins that consists of mini lesson, work time, peer conferring and/or response groups, share sessions, and publication celebration is applied in writing class for methodological purposes. In mini lesson, teacher offers something to the class that is meant to introduce a writing strategy done at the beginning of the workshop. During work time point, students start their new piece of writing. Teacher moves among students conferring with them while checking their works. Peer conferences or response groups provide a forum for students to talk about works in progress. When students work in group, one of them could arrange his/ her group needs during the work time. A share session may be varied, one possible way is each group shares their process of writing to other students. At the end of writing class, student writers come together to publish and/ or celebrate their final work. The publication could be in the form of portfolio, students’ diary, blog, or others. Travel writing genre is chosen as it could develop students’ creativity in describing/ narrating their own stories during, let say holiday or things they used to see on the way home weekly or monthly. Furthermore, travel writing as the product of creative writing teaches the readers of values, characteristics, and way of life. Last but not least, a professional writing teacher should set the writing workshop components in variety ways to achieve effective running-class.

  6. Development of a Computer Writing System Based on EOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alberto; Ferrero, Francisco; Yangüela, David; Álvarez, Constantina; Postolache, Octavian

    2017-06-26

    The development of a novel computer writing system based on eye movements is introduced herein. A system of these characteristics requires the consideration of three subsystems: (1) A hardware device for the acquisition and transmission of the signals generated by eye movement to the computer; (2) A software application that allows, among other functions, data processing in order to minimize noise and classify signals; and (3) A graphical interface that allows the user to write text easily on the computer screen using eye movements only. This work analyzes these three subsystems and proposes innovative and low cost solutions for each one of them. This computer writing system was tested with 20 users and its efficiency was compared to a traditional virtual keyboard. The results have shown an important reduction in the time spent on writing, which can be very useful, especially for people with severe motor disorders.

  7. Development of a Computer Writing System Based on EOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel computer writing system based on eye movements is introduced herein. A system of these characteristics requires the consideration of three subsystems: (1 A hardware device for the acquisition and transmission of the signals generated by eye movement to the computer; (2 A software application that allows, among other functions, data processing in order to minimize noise and classify signals; and (3 A graphical interface that allows the user to write text easily on the computer screen using eye movements only. This work analyzes these three subsystems and proposes innovative and low cost solutions for each one of them. This computer writing system was tested with 20 users and its efficiency was compared to a traditional virtual keyboard. The results have shown an important reduction in the time spent on writing, which can be very useful, especially for people with severe motor disorders.

  8. Process execution of writing and reading: considering text quality, learner and task characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Janssen, T.; Braaksma, M.; van Weijen, D.; Tillema, M.; Shelley, M.C.; Yore, L.D.; Hand, B.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted systematic reflections, data reanalyses, and incorporated results from several studies to promote discussion, enhance understanding, and build theory. Two models guide our research and analyses: The Descriptive Interactive Process (DIP) model (Fig. 20.1, left), and the Experimental

  9. Reading, Writing, and Math Self-Concept in Elementary School Children: Influence of Dimensional Comparison Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Lindberg, Sven; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model (Marsh, "Am Educ Res J" 23:129-149, 1986) conceptualizes students' self-concepts as being formed by dimensional as well as social comparison processes. In the present study, the I/E model was tested and extended in a sample of elementary school children. Core academic skills of…

  10. Is processing of symbols and words influenced by writing system? Evidence from Chinese, Korean, English, and Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K; Deng, Ciping; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Katopodi, Katerina; Wei, Wei; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2017-12-01

    We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems. The path coefficient from discrete digits to discrete words was greater for the more transparent orthographies, consistent with more efficient sight-word processing. The effect of discrete word reading on serial word reading was stronger in alphabetic languages, where there was also a suppressive effect of discrete digit naming. However, the effect of serial digit naming on serial word reading did not differ among the four language groups. This pattern of relationships challenges a universal account of reading fluency acquisition while upholding a universal role of rapid serial naming, further distinguishing between multi-element interword and intraword processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. LEARNING TO TEACH WRITING THROUGH WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Suchkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some major issues concerning teaching writing to future teachers. There are a lot of EFL/ESL textbooks focused on teaching writing. However, those that are intended for trainee teachers are rare on the market. The goal of this paper is to share the result of several years of work on the writing syllabus and materials that is effective in the process of teaching future teachers. It contains sample of tasks based on certain principles that may promote teachers to become effective writers for themselves and, at the same time, to acquire initial professional skills necessary in their future career. A course book can not address any audience in general. It must focus on a particular learner, the objectives, and content of the process of learning. In the situation when no textbook meets these requirements, the problem of providing students with an appropriate textbook must be solved by creating new textbooks.

  12. Moving beyond Journaling to Dialogues in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Cindy; George, Sue; Hail, John

    2013-01-01

    The last two decades have produced theoretical-based methodology models emphasizing student-centered and learner-controlled writing experiences. During the 1990s, writing evolved into a function of learning. As more was learned about the writing process, it became evident that writing led to clarifying thinking and served as a forum for revealing…

  13. The Writing Staff as Faculty Compost Pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenkamp, Angela G.

    Misconceptions about the teaching of writing prevail on many college campuses, partially because writing teachers fail to communicate with their colleagues. It is especially important for writing teachers to let their colleagues know that learning to write is a long term developmental process that needs support and reinforcement from the entire…

  14. Business Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  15. Write Soon!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of using natural writing opportunities that occur in family life to nurture children's literacy development. From notes to lists to journals to parodies, families can use writing to nurture personal relationships and simultaneously improve literacy. Specific tips for teachers to share with parents in making…

  16. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  17. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  18. Lexical morphology and its role in the writing process: evidence from a case of acquired dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badecker, W; Hillis, A; Caramazza, A

    1990-06-01

    A case of acquired dysgraphia is presented in which the deficit is attributed to an impairment at the level of the Graphemic Output Buffer. It is argued that this patient's performance can be used to identify the representational character of the processing units that are stored in the Orthographic Output Lexicon. In particular, it is argued that the distribution of spelling errors and the types of lexical items which affect error rates indicate that the lexical representations passed from the lexical output system to the Graphemic Output Buffer correspond to the productive morphemes of the language.

  19. [Discussion on research and development of new traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on idea of QbD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Hong, Yan-Long; Xian, Jie-Chen; Du, Ruo-Fei; Zhao, Li-Jie; Shen, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Traditional processes are mostly adopted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation production and the quality of products is mostly controlled by terminal. Potential problems of the production in the process are unpredictable and is relied on experience in most cases. Therefore, it is hard to find the key points affecting the preparation process and quality control. A pattern of research and development of traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on the idea of Quality by Design (QbD) was proposed after introducing the latest research achievement. Basic theories of micromeritics and rheology were used to characterize the physical property of TCM raw material. TCM preparation process was designed in a more scientific and rational way by studying the correlation among enhancing physical property of raw material, preparation process and product quality of preparation. So factors affecting the quality of TCM production would be found out and problems that might occur in the pilot process could be predicted. It would be a foundation for the R&D and production of TCM preparation as well as support for the "process control" of TCMIs gradually realized in the future.

  20. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  1. Maskless X-Ray Writing of Electrical Devices on a Superconducting Oxide with Nanometer Resolution and Online Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Lorenzo; Bonino, Valentina; Agostino, Angelo; Prestipino, Carmelo; Borfecchia, Elisa; Lamberti, Carlo; Operti, Lorenza; Fretto, Matteo; De Leo, Natascia; Truccato, Marco

    2017-08-22

    X-ray nanofabrication has so far been usually limited to mask methods involving photoresist impression and subsequent etching. Herein we show that an innovative maskless X-ray nanopatterning approach allows writing electrical devices with nanometer feature size. In particular we fabricated a Josephson device on a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) superconducting oxide micro-crystal by drawing two single lines of only 50 nm in width using a 17.4 keV synchrotron nano-beam. A precise control of the fabrication process was achieved by monitoring in situ the variations of the device electrical resistance during X-ray irradiation, thus finely tuning the irradiation time to drive the material into a non-superconducting state only in the irradiated regions, without significantly perturbing the crystal structure. Time-dependent finite element model simulations show that a possible microscopic origin of this effect can be related to the instantaneous temperature increase induced by the intense synchrotron picosecond X-ray pulses. These results prove that a conceptually new patterning method for oxide electrical devices, based on the local change of electrical properties, is actually possible with potential advantages in terms of heat dissipation, chemical contamination, miniaturization and high aspect ratio of the devices.

  2. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semb O

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olof Semb,1 Niclas Kaiser,2 Sven-Olof Andersson,1 Elisabet Sundbom3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Professional Development, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1 the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2 understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3 the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4 the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. Keywords: reflective writing, self-knowledge, individual personal talks, thematic analysis, medical education

  3. Current State of the Teaching of Process Writing in EFL Classes: An Observational Study in the Last Two Years of Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Mendoza López

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the process writing activities carried out in EFL classes in the last two years of secondary school. Grades 10 and 11 in six Colombian high schools - three public and three private - were observed in order to determine the way process writing is taught, focusing especially on the planning, composing, and revising activities, and based on the understanding of writing as an activity with a process-oriented approach. The findings indicate that writing and also reading are product-oriented, and that class activities tend to place or emphasize listening and speaking over writing and reading. Most of the time was spent on oral exercises, drills, role-plays and pronunciation, being group work and role-play activities what students enjoyed most.Este estudio presenta las actividades de escritura realizadas en las clases de inglés como lengua extranjera en los dos últimos grados de secundaria (10 y 11 de 6 colegios - tres públicos y tres privados. La observación se enfocó en la forma en que se enseña la escritura, especialmente en lo relacionado con las actividades de planeación, formulación y revisión con base en la concepción de la escritura como un proceso. Los resultados indican que la lectura y la escritura están orientadas hacia el producto, y que las clases privilegian la escucha y el habla sobre la lectura y la escritura. La mayor parte del tiempo se dedicó a ejercicios orales y escritos, juegos de roles y pronunciación, y los estudiantes disfrutaron más los trabajos en grupo y los juegos de roles.

  4. Students' Satisfaction on Their Learning Process in Active Learning and Traditional Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jung; Ediger, Ruth; Lee, Donghun

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown Active Learning Classrooms [ALCs] help increase student engagement and improve student performance. However, remodeling all traditional classrooms to ALCs entails substantial financial burdens. Thus, an imperative question for institutions of higher education is whether active learning pedagogies can improve learning outcomes…

  5. Writing for Professional Publication: Three Road Signs for Writing Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In the first edition of Writing for Publication: An Organizational Paradigm (Buttery, 2010), I recommend a model for organizing theoretical articles. The process includes seven components: title, introduction, outline/advanced organizer, headings, transitions, summary and references. This article will focus on the writing process. The strands of…

  6. Improving patient outcomes through registered dietitian order writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan R

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, registered dietitians (RD) have not had order writing privileges in most patient-care facilities and rely on physicians to implement their recommendations. Research has demonstrated that this model results in a high percentage of RD recommendations not being ordered. Timely nutrition interventions are important due to the prevalence of malnutrition in the hospital setting and when RD recommendations are implemented, important outcomes are improved. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that when RDs have order writing privileges, which allows more assurance that an intervention will occur and timely interventions, improved outcomes, such as improved nutrition status, better management of electrolytes and glycemic control, reaching goal calories sooner, reduction in inappropriate parenteral nutrition use, cost savings, and less error with electronic order entry. The process for implementation and outcomes of an RD order writing program at 1 large, urban, tertiary medical center is described. The program has been successful, but the implementation process required multiple years and ongoing monitoring through data collection to ensure success. RDs interested in order writing privileges must consider federal and state regulations, their individual scope of practice (relevant training and competency assessment), and how to obtain approval from the appropriate hospital governing committees. RDs who obtain order writing privileges must understand "with privilege comes responsibility" and should plan to conduct outcomes research to promote the value and acceptance of RD order writing by regulatory agencies at all levels and hospital leaders, for instance physicians and administrators.

  7. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  8. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  9. Writing by Academics: A Transactional and Systems Approach to Academic Writing Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaar, Larissa Elisabeth; Murray, Rowena

    2016-01-01

    The literature on academic writing in higher education contains a wealth of research and theory on students' writing, but much less on academics' writing. In performative higher education cultures, discussions of academics' writing mainly concern outputs, rather than the process of producing them. This key component of academic work remains…

  10. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  11. An empirical study on the application of memetics to the teaching of college English writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zeyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Memes, the replicator of culture and information, and basic unit of culture, are copied, spread, transmitted and finally survives through imitation among vectors. The replication and transmission of memes have some resemblance to the process of second language acquisition. This paper examines the influence of language memes on the development of Chinese college students’ English writing proficiency through an empirical study. The study reveals that students instructed by the framework of teaching writing with memetics obtain an obvious improvement in their overall writing proficiency, compared with those who are instructed by the traditional method, that students’ awareness of using memes is greatly enhanced, and that language memes are significantly correlated to the students’ performance in the post-test writing. Singular language memes can be easily transmitted; memetic genotype prevails in EFL learners’ essay writing.

  12. Studies On Sterilization Process For Some Traditional Products Of Herbal Medicine By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Phuong Thao; Nguyen Van Binh; Tran Bang Diep; Hoang Dang Sang; Nguyen Thuy Huong Trang; Pham Duy Duong; Tran Minh Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Herbal eyebright products and their raw materials have been irradiated with 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma radiation source at Hanoi Irradiation Center (VINATOM) for sterilization. Initial bioburdens were under the limitation levels established for the traditional medicines according to the decree of 16/2011/TT-BYT issued by Vietnam Health Ministry. These values for both bacteria and fungus slightly increased during storage to three months, reach to about 10 3 and 10 2 CFU/g for bacteria and mold, respectively. However, there are no microbial colony could be observed in the samples irradiated with dose higher than 3 kGy, suggested that the radiation dose of 3 kGy was enough for sterilization of eyebright raw powders and products. At higher radiation dose of 5 kGy, the moisture and vitamin A content of the samples were insignificantly changed. These mean the radiation treatment with lower dose did not influenced on the quality of eyebright products, and radiation treatment can be applied to prolong the storage of not only eyebright, but also other traditional medicines. (author)

  13. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  14. A Computer-Based Network for Writing Process Instruction of At-Risk Community College Students: A Second Year Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    In its second year of operation (1988-1989 academic year), the Electronic Writing Center (EWC) of the Union County College in Cranford, New Jersey has expanded its capabilities and the amount of service it provides to at-risk students through the Computers in the Curricula Project. Major changes include: (1) increased numbers of classes and…

  15. The Infernal Business of Contract Cheating: Understanding the Business Processes and Models of Academic Custom Writing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cath; Zucker, Ian Michael; Randall, David

    2018-01-01

    While there is growing awareness of the existence and activities of Academic Custom Writing websites, which form a small part of the contract cheating industry, how they work remains poorly understood. Very little research has been done on these sites, probably because it has been assumed that it is impossible to see behind their firewalls and…

  16. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  17. Trends in Research on Writing as a Learning Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry D. Klein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses five trends in research on writing as a learning activity. Firstly, earlier decades were marked by conflicting views about the effects of writing on learning; in the past decade, the use of meta-analysis has shown that the effects of writing on learning are reliable, and that several variables mediate and moderate these effects. Secondly, in earlier decades, it was thought that text as a medium inherently elicited thinking and learning. Research during the past decade has indicated that writing to learn is a self-regulated activity, dependent on the goals and strategies of the writer. Thirdly, the Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC movement emphasized domain-general approaches to WTL. Much recent research is consistent with the Writing in the Disciplines (WID movement, incorporating genres that embody forms of reasoning specific to a given discipline. Fourthly, WTL as a classroom practice was always partially social, but the theoretical conceptualization of it was largely individual. During the past two decades, WTL has broadened to include theories and research that integrate social and psychological processes. Fifthly, WTL research has traditionally focused on epistemic learning in schools; more recently, it has been extended to include reflective learning in the professions and additional kinds of outcomes.

  18. Writing-to-Learn, Writing-to-Communicate, & Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena; Wallace, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Writing-to-learn (WTL) is an effective instructional and learning strategy that centers on the process of organizing and articulating ideas, as opposed to writing-to-communicate, which centers on the finished written product. We describe a WTL model that we have developed and tested with various student groups over several years. With effective…

  19. Report Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behnke, Eric

    In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations......In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations...

  20. Robots Learn Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a general method for robots to learn motions and corresponding semantic knowledge simultaneously. A modified ISOMAP algorithm is used to convert the sampled 6D vectors of joint angles into 2D trajectories, and the required movements for writing numbers are learned from this modified ISOMAP-based model. Using this algorithm, the knowledge models are established. Learned motion and knowledge models are stored in a 2D latent space. Gaussian Process (GP method is used to model and represent these models. Practical experiments are carried out on a humanoid robot, named ISAC, to learn the semantic representations of numbers and the movements of writing numbers through imitation and to verify the effectiveness of this framework. This framework is applied into training a humanoid robot, named ISAC. At the learning stage, ISAC not only learns the dynamics of the movement required to write the numbers, but also learns the semantic meaning of the numbers which are related to the writing movements from the same data set. Given speech commands, ISAC recognizes the words and generated corresponding motion trajectories to write the numbers. This imitation learning method is implemented on a cognitive architecture to provide robust cognitive information processing.

  1. Writing Stories in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunbae; Maerz, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Writing stories is advocated as an excellent means of learning the process of science; however, little is understood about students' experiences of engaging in story writing in postsecondary science courses. The study described in this article was designed to improve the practice of using stories in science by examining students' lived experience…

  2. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive

  3. Local Culinary Traditions in the Integration Process of Serbian Food Market with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Czekalski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Its huge area of cultivated lands (about 5 million hectares makes Serbia stand out against other states of the Balkan region. Food products are still one of the most important components of Serbian export. From 1 March 2012, when Serbia was granted the candidate status to the European Union, making ready to effectively competite with the Member States of the EU, which offer very similar products, became a chance of survival for Serbia’s agricultural and –food industry sector . A chance to increase the absorbency of the internal market creates an increasing culinary awareness in the Serbian society; despite the economic crisis, the Serbians are looking for new, previously unknown tastes or new taglines for tastes already known in Serbian cuisine. The real challenge for Serbian agriculture is the promotion of culinary tourism, which involves exhibiting the ability to compete with other Balkan countries by depicting a more diverse range of attractions. Promotion of the regional products is done by events typical for culinary tourism – festivals, culinary competitions, culinary tourist routes, as well as reconstructions of medieval cuisine. In the realities of Serbia, culinary tourism opens the opportunities for sustainable development of the periphery areas and, at the same time, makes it possible to retain old customs and traditions.

  4. Integration of membrane distillation into traditional salt farming method: Process development and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizam, S.; Bilad, M. R.; Putra, Z. A.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers still practice the traditional salt farming in many regions, particularly in Indonesia. This archaic method not only produces low yield and poor salt quality, it is also laborious. Furthermore, the farming locations typically have poor access to fresh water and are far away from electricity grid, which restrict upgrade to a more advanced technology for salt production. This paper proposes a new concept of salt harvesting method that improves the salt yield and at the same time facilitates recovery of fresh water from seawater. The new concept integrates solar powered membrane distillation (MD) and photovoltaic cells to drive the pumping. We performed basic solar still experiments to quantify the heat flux received by a pond. The data were used as insight for designing the proposed concept, particularly on operational strategy and the most effective way to integrate MD. After the conceptual design had been developed, we formulated mass and energy balance to estimate the performance of the proposed concept. Based on our data and design, it is expected that the system would improve the yield and quality of the salt production, maximizing fresh water harvesting, and eventually provides economical gain for salt farmers hence improving their quality of life. The key performance can only be measured via experiment using gain output ratio as performance indicator, which will be done in a future study.

  5. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  6. Investigating the Reading-to-Write Processes and Source Use of L2 Postgraduate Students in Real-Life Academic Tasks: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies of source use in academic student writing tend to i), focus more on the writing than the reading end of the reading-to-write continuum and ii), involve the use of insufficiently "naturalistic" writing tasks. Thus, in order to explore the potential of an alternative approach, this paper describes an exploratory case study…

  7. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  8. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  9. Chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing for exploring chemical mechanisms in traditional processing of herbal medicines, a continuous study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-12-29

    Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The

  10. Influence of Vinegar and Wine Processing on the Alkaloid Content and Composition of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis Rhizoma is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Before being used in the clinics, C. yanhusuo is traditionally processed through dry-frying or frying with vinegar, wine or salt. In this study, eleven alkaloids from Corydalis Rhizoma, namely protopine (1, α-allocryptopine (2, tetrahydrocolumbamine (3, coptisine (4, palmatine (5, berberine (6, dehydrocorydaline (7, d,l-tetrahydropalmatine (8, tetrahydroberberine (9, corydaline (10 and tetrahydrocoptisine (11 were simultaneously quantified using a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method. The influence of vinegar and wine processing on the content of the main alkaloids of Corydalis Rhizoma was investigated. For this purpose, two common formulations with clinical application, namely the water decoction of Corydalis Rhizoma and its formula Jin Ling Zi San (combination of Corydalis Rhizoma and Toosendan Fructus were studied. In the two water decoctions, wine and vinegar processing increased the amount of tertiary alkaloids. The differences were more pronounced for Jin Ling Zi San, in which case the content of all tertiary alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 was increased by wine processing.

  11. Non-traditional Process of Hydrogen Containing Fuel Mixtures Production for Internal-combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Kuvshinov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the perspectives of development of the environmentally sound technology of hydrogen containing fuel mixtures for internal-combustion engines based on the catalytic process of low-temperature decomposition of hydrocarbons into hydrogen and nanofibrous carbon.

  12. An innovative process for treatment of municipal wastewater with superior charcteristics compared to traditional techologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    An innovative treatment process for municipal sewage, which results in low sludge production, low energy consumption, high COD removal and high energy and nutrients recovery, is described. The organic matter will primarly be removed through anaerobic degradation using high-flow reactors. For nitr...

  13. Student Perceptions of Scholarly Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Peganoff O'Brien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning the process of scholarly writing, including the significance of peer review, is an essential element in the preparation of students for professional practice. This descriptive research study, using Scholarship of Teaching and Learning methodology, explores one approach to teaching scholarly writing in an occupational science/occupational therapy curriculum. The writing assignment was designed to offer multiple points for feedback and revision and instructional features to reinforce learning. A survey of students [n = 169] participating in this scholarly writing project was conducted yearly to gather their perceptions of learning. The results revealed four key elements: instructional strategies are needed to support scholarly writing, students value explicit instructor feedback, a successful writing experience opens the possibility for students to write in their professional future, and students will develop the habits of a writer given structure and pedagogical considerations in the assignment construction. This experience shows students will work to achieve the expected standard for scholarship once writing is made an essential part of the course and their efforts are supported by scaffolding the assignment. Through this experience, it was also learned students need opportunities for repetition and practice to refine scholarly writing. Suggestions for future research are proposed.

  14. Writing for the IELTS

    CERN Document Server

    Lougheed, Dr Lin

    2016-01-01

    This book guides test takers step-by-step through the process of writing an essay in response to a task. Learn how to apply what you’ve learned, familiarize yourself with the types of questions you’ll have to respond to on the test, complete your responses within the time limits, and more.

  15. The writing approaches of secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Smith, Jennifer; O'Ryan, Leslie

    2002-09-01

    Research with college students has supported a model of writing approaches that defines the relationship between a writer and writing task along a deep and surface process continuum (Biggs, 1988). Based on that model, Lavelle (1993) developed the Inventory of Processes in College Composition which reflects students' motives and strategies as related to writing outcomes. It is also important to define the approaches of secondary students to better understand writing processes at that level, and development in written composition. This study was designed to define the writing approaches of secondary students by factor analysing students' responses to items regarding writing beliefs and writing strategies, and to compare the secondary approaches to those of college students. A related goal was to explore the relationships of the secondary writing approaches to perceived self-regulatory efficacy for writing (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), writing preferences, and writing outcomes. The initial, factor analytic phase involved 398 junior level high school students (11th grade) enrolled in a mandatory language arts class at each of three large Midwestern high schools (USA). Then, 49 junior level students enrolled in two language arts classes participated as subjects in the second phase. Classroom teachers administered the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (Lavelle, 1993), which contained 72 true-or-false items regarding writing beliefs and strategies, during regular class periods. Data were factor analysed and the structure compared to that of college students. In the second phase, the new inventory, Inventory of Processes in Secondary Composition, was administered in conjunction with the Perceived Self-Regulatory Efficacy for Writing Inventory (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), and a writing preferences survey. A writing sample and grade in Language Arts classes were obtained and served as outcome variables. The factor structure of secondary writing reflected three

  16. Soft-tissues Image Processing: Comparison of Traditional Segmentation Methods with 2D active Contour Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2012), s. 153-161 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Medical image processing * image segmentation * liver tumor * temporomandibular joint disc * watershed method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2012

  17. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  18. Informed consent recall and comprehension in orthodontics: traditional vs improved readability and processability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edith Y; Fields, Henry W; Kiyak, Asuman; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2009-10-01

    Low general and health literacy in the United States means informed consent documents are not well understood by most adults. Methods to improve recall and comprehension of informed consent have not been tested in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to evaluate (1) recall and comprehension among patients and parents by using the American Association of Orthodontists' (AAO) informed consent form and new forms incorporating improved readability and processability; (2) the association between reading ability, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables and recall and comprehension; and (3) how various domains (treatment, risk, and responsibility) of information are affected by the forms. Three treatment groups (30 patient-parent pairs in each) received an orthodontic case presentation and either the AAO form, an improved readability form (MIC), or an improved readability and processability (pairing audio and visual cues) form (MIC + SS). Structured interviews were transcribed and coded to evaluate recall and comprehension. Significant relationships among patient-related variables and recall and comprehension explained little of the variance. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient recall and parent recall and comprehension. Recall was better than comprehension, and parents performed better than patients. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient treatment comprehension and risk recall and parent treatment recall and comprehension. Patients and parents both overestimated their understanding of the materials. Improving the readability of consent materials made little difference, but combining improved readability and processability benefited both patients' recall and parents' recall and comprehension compared with the AAO form.

  19. Reducing resistance and emotional blocks in writing

    OpenAIRE

    Majda Cencič

    1996-01-01

    Writing is as much a communicative as it is a cognitive process an active individual is involved in. In this paper some characteristics of writing as a communicative process and some characteristics of writing as a cognitive process are stated. Further a model engaging both communicative and cognitive elements of writing is added, these elements being connected with linguistic resources. The author considers some prejudices, myths or emotional blocks to be destroyed as not to hinder the write...

  20. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation of Pichia kluyveri strains isolated from traditional fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre González, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Avendaño, Daniel Oswaldo; Gschaedler Mathis, Anne Christine; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart

    2018-06-06

    Non- Saccharomyces yeasts are widespread microorganisms and some time ago were considered contaminants in the beverage industry. However, nowadays they have gained importance for their ability to produce aromatic compounds, which in alcoholic beverages improves aromatic complexity and therefore the overall quality. Thus, identification and differentiation of the species involved in fermentation processes is vital and can be classified in traditional methods and techniques based on molecular biology. Traditional methods, however, can be expensive, laborious and/or unable to accurately discriminate on strain level. In the present study, a total of 19 strains of Pichia kluyveri isolated from mezcal, tejuino and cacao fermentations were analyzed with rep-PCR fingerprinting and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The comparative analysis between MS spectra and rep-PCR patterns obtained from these strains showed a high similarity between both methods. However, minimal differences between the obtained rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS clusters could be observed. The data shown suggests that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative technique for rapid, reliable and cost-effective differentiation of natives yeast strains isolated from different traditional fermented foods and beverages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of a participatory intervention to remove the soda bread, From traditional bread processing in a city at 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fazadkia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsBread is considered one of the most important nutritional sources in all societies. To prepare the ground for enrichment of floor and bread, the Iranian Ministry ofHealth and Medical Education was required in 2001 to enforce elimination of baking soda from the process of preparing traditional breads. Various legal and statutory means have been used in the past years to enforce the elimination, including inspections, taking legal proceedings against infringing bakers, etc. The results, however, have been far from satisfactory in large cities.MethodsThe aim of the present Quasi -experimental study was to design and develop a participative model for elimination of baking soda from processing of traditional breads and to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice in study and control groups, performed in Andisheh New City in 2008.Results All interviewed persons were female by mean age 38 ±11 years.89( 72% had education hStatistical analysis showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of bakers in  intervention group differed significantly after the intervention was made (p-value< 0.001.ConclusionFocusing solely on legal and statutory measures seems insufficient in fully eliminating baking soda from processing breads and inter-sectoral cooperation merits further  attention. Besides, the currently applied educational programs should be revised to meet real learning needs with further emphasis on participative aspects of public health programs.

  2. Rubrics: Heuristics for Developing Writing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Rubrics are an integral part of many writing programs, and they represent elements of good writing in essays, stories, poems, as well as other genres and forms of text. Although it is possible to use rubrics to teach students about the processes underlying effective writing, a more common practice is to use rubrics as a means of assessment, after…

  3. Computer Support for the Rhythms of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that writing is a rhythmic activity. Claims that the combined effect of rapidly switching between composing and revising is to set up complex cycles of engagement and reflection that may disrupt the flow of composition. Describes "Writer's Assistant," a writing environment designed to study computer support for writing processes. Proposes…

  4. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  5. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-12-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  6. Teaching the Essential Understanding of Creative Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Kallionpää, Outi

    2010-01-01

    In my Master´s thesis I have researched teaching of creative writing for high school students. I have also created the concept called the Essential Understanding of Creative Writing, which I think is the base and the starting point of teaching creative writing. The term is hypothesis and it roughly means the subjectively understood essence of creative work and writing process, as well as the strengthening the inner motivation and author identity by writer. Collaboration seems to support the E...

  7. Engaging Young Adolescents in School-Based Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Deborah S.; Liang, Ling L.; Vogel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    How might middle school teachers and schools more appropriately engage early adolescent students in the writing process so that they are motivated and engaged to "want" to write and write well? This article introduces "Writers Matter," an approach designed to engage and motivate young adolescents in the writing process,…

  8. Retorno de un cruzado, by José Jiménez Lozano. Creation, Intertextuality and Originality of a Writing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Arbona Abascal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the writing process of José Jiménez Lozano’s Retorno de un cruzado (2013, his 24th novel. First, taking into account the author’s comments about the creation of the text, it presents the different versions and the literary reasons for his final choice. Second, literary intertextualities found in the novel are examined. Finally, the condition of the main character as storyteller is identified as the novel’s major source of originality.

  9. Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Björk, Pasi; Säljö, Roger

    2011-03-30

    Virtual microscopy is being introduced in medical education as an approach for learning how to interpret information in microscopic specimens. It is, however, far from evident how to incorporate its use into existing teaching practice. The aim of the study was to explore the consequences of introducing virtual microscopy tasks into an undergraduate pathology course in an attempt to render the instruction more process-oriented. The research questions were: 1) How is virtual microscopy perceived by students? 2) Does work on virtual microscopy tasks contribute to improvement in performance in microscopic pathology in comparison with attending assistant-led demonstrations only? During a one-week period, an experimental group completed three sets of virtual microscopy homework assignments in addition to attending demonstrations. A control group attended the demonstrations only. Performance in microscopic pathology was measured by a pre-test and a post-test. Student perceptions of regular instruction and virtual microscopy were collected one month later by administering the Inventory of Intrinsic Motivation and open-ended questions. The students voiced an appreciation for virtual microscopy for the purposes of the course and for self-study. As for learning gains, the results indicated that learning was speeded up in a subgroup of students consisting of conscientious high achievers. The enriched instruction model may be suited as such for elective courses following the basic course. However, the instructional model needs further development to be suited for basic courses.

  10. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  11. Effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fista, G A; Bloukas, J G; Siomos, A S

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of sausages and select the most appropriate, to determine the optimum level of selected vegetable and to improve its effectiveness on quality characteristics of sausages, in comparison to the addition of nitrites (100 ppm), by using a starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus and ascorbate. The nitrate content of leek ranged from 213 to 255 ppm and that of onion was 79 ppm. Sausages produced with leek had higher (pnitrite content (1.3-2.1 ppm) and a (∗)(+) values and higher scores for sensory attributes than sausages with onion. Sausages made with the total leek plant had the highest score for overall acceptability. The higher the leek level the higher the nitrate and nitrite content of sausages and the lower the redness, a (∗)(+). Sausages with 240 g of leek/kg had the highest (pnitrite content, higher weight losses and lower pH values after the 3rd day of storage, compared to sausages produced with the addition of sodium nitrite. The addition of starter culture and ascorbic acid improved the redness (a (∗)) of sausages and reduced the 2-thiobarbituric acid value. Sausages with leek, starter culture and ascorbic acid had the highest score for odour and taste and overall acceptability.

  12. Dynamic Hippocampal and Prefrontal Contributions to Memory Processes and Representations Blur the Boundaries of Traditional Cognitive Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rachael D; Schwarb, Hillary; Lucas, Heather D; Dulas, Michael R; Cohen, Neal J

    2017-07-12

    The hippocampus has long been known to be a critical component of the memory system involved in the formation and use of long-term declarative memory. However, recent findings have revealed that the reach of hippocampal contributions extends to a variety of domains and tasks that require the flexible use of cognitive and social behavior, including domains traditionally linked to prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as decision-making. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has gained traction as a necessary part of the memory system. These findings challenge the conventional characterizations of hippocampus and PFC as being circumscribed to traditional cognitive domains. Here, we emphasize that the ability to parsimoniously account for the breadth of hippocampal and PFC contributions to behavior, in terms of memory function and beyond, requires theoretical advances in our understanding of their characteristic processing features and mental representations. Notably, several literatures exist that touch upon this issue, but have remained disjointed because of methodological differences that necessarily limit the scope of inquiry, as well as the somewhat artificial boundaries that have been historically imposed between domains of cognition. In particular, this article focuses on the contribution of relational memory theory as an example of a framework that describes both the representations and processes supported by the hippocampus, and further elucidates the role of the hippocampal-PFC network to a variety of behaviors.

  13. Dynamic Hippocampal and Prefrontal Contributions to Memory Processes and Representations Blur the Boundaries of Traditional Cognitive Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Rubin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has long been known to be a critical component of the memory system involved in the formation and use of long-term declarative memory. However, recent findings have revealed that the reach of hippocampal contributions extends to a variety of domains and tasks that require the flexible use of cognitive and social behavior, including domains traditionally linked to prefrontal cortex (PFC, such as decision-making. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC has gained traction as a necessary part of the memory system. These findings challenge the conventional characterizations of hippocampus and PFC as being circumscribed to traditional cognitive domains. Here, we emphasize that the ability to parsimoniously account for the breadth of hippocampal and PFC contributions to behavior, in terms of memory function and beyond, requires theoretical advances in our understanding of their characteristic processing features and mental representations. Notably, several literatures exist that touch upon this issue, but have remained disjointed because of methodological differences that necessarily limit the scope of inquiry, as well as the somewhat artificial boundaries that have been historically imposed between domains of cognition. In particular, this article focuses on the contribution of relational memory theory as an example of a framework that describes both the representations and processes supported by the hippocampus, and further elucidates the role of the hippocampal–PFC network to a variety of behaviors.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of 3D-Printed Highly-Porous 3D LiFePO4 Electrodes by Low Temperature Direct Writing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 (LFP is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, low temperature direct writing (LTDW-based 3D printing was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D LFP electrodes for the first time. LFP inks were deposited into a low temperature chamber and solidified to maintain the shape and mechanical integrity of the printed features. The printed LFP electrodes were then freeze-dried to remove the solvents so that highly-porous architectures in the electrodes were obtained. LFP inks capable of freezing at low temperature was developed by adding 1,4 dioxane as a freezing agent. The rheological behavior of the prepared LFP inks was measured and appropriate compositions and ratios were selected. A LTDW machine was developed to print the electrodes. The printing parameters were optimized and the printing accuracy was characterized. Results showed that LTDW can effectively maintain the shape and mechanical integrity during the printing process. The microstructure, pore size and distribution of the printed LFP electrodes was characterized. In comparison with conventional room temperature direct ink writing process, improved pore volume and porosity can be obtained using the LTDW process. The electrochemical performance of LTDW-fabricated LFP electrodes and conventional roller-coated electrodes were conducted and compared. Results showed that the porous structure that existed in the printed electrodes can greatly improve the rate performance of LFP electrodes.

  15. LA ESCRITURA EN LOS PROCESOS DE SISTEMATIZACIÓN DE EXPERIENCIAS EDUCATIVAS WRITING IN THE PROCESSES OF SYSTEMATIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ochoa Sierra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis del proceso de sistematización y escritura de experiencias significativas en el aula, llevado a cabo por docentes de educación básica y media en el marco de la convocatoria del Ministerio de Educación Nacional en el año 2009, sobre el tema de la pertinencia educativa. Los resultados muestran que solo los profesores que han sido protagonistas principales de las experiencias pueden cifrarlas y socializarlas, y que un buen acompañamiento supone, así mismo, adentrarse en las experiencias de los profesores para poder orientarlos adecuadamente en su proceso de escritura.The article analyzes the process of systematization and writing of significant classroom experiences, carried out by elementary and high school teachers in the context of the National Ministry of Education's forum on educational pertinence in 2009. Results show that only the teachers who have been the protagonists of the experiences are able to assess and socialize them, and that a good advisory process implies delving into the teachers' experiences into order to be able to guide them adequately in their writing process.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of 3D-Printed Highly-Porous 3D LiFePO₄ Electrodes by Low Temperature Direct Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyong; Cheng, Xingxing; Li, Bohan; Chen, Zhangwei; Mi, Shengli; Lao, Changshi

    2017-08-10

    LiFePO₄ (LFP) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, low temperature direct writing (LTDW)-based 3D printing was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) LFP electrodes for the first time. LFP inks were deposited into a low temperature chamber and solidified to maintain the shape and mechanical integrity of the printed features. The printed LFP electrodes were then freeze-dried to remove the solvents so that highly-porous architectures in the electrodes were obtained. LFP inks capable of freezing at low temperature was developed by adding 1,4 dioxane as a freezing agent. The rheological behavior of the prepared LFP inks was measured and appropriate compositions and ratios were selected. A LTDW machine was developed to print the electrodes. The printing parameters were optimized and the printing accuracy was characterized. Results showed that LTDW can effectively maintain the shape and mechanical integrity during the printing process. The microstructure, pore size and distribution of the printed LFP electrodes was characterized. In comparison with conventional room temperature direct ink writing process, improved pore volume and porosity can be obtained using the LTDW process. The electrochemical performance of LTDW-fabricated LFP electrodes and conventional roller-coated electrodes were conducted and compared. Results showed that the porous structure that existed in the printed electrodes can greatly improve the rate performance of LFP electrodes.

  17. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  18. Technical Writing Redesign and Assessment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gaye Bush

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on writing assignments from traditional, fully online courses in technical writing to pilot, hybrid courses at a southern university. A total of 232 students' assignments were compared in this study. All writing assignments were scored by six trained instructors of English using the same five point…

  19. My Place or Yours: Theorizing Eclectic Writing Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Carol

    None of the theories that inform writing center work--Freudian theory, cognitivism, feminism, postmodernism, current-traditionalism, expressivism, social constructionism, and family systems theory--offer an adequate basis for writing center work. Even when Stephen North proposed "The Idea of a Writing Center" in 1984 (still considered to…

  20. Effects of disfluency in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimorec, Srdan; Risko, Evan F

    2016-11-01

    While much previous research has suggested that decreased transcription fluency has a detrimental effect on writing, there is recent evidence that decreased fluency can actually benefit cognitive processing. Across a series of experiments, we manipulated transcription fluency of ostensibly skilled typewriters by asking them to type essays in two conditions: both-handed and one-handed typewriting. We used the Coh-Metrix text analyser to investigate the effects of decreased transcription fluency on various aspects of essay writing, such as lexical sophistication, sentence complexity, and cohesion of essays (important indicators of successful writing). We demonstrate that decreased fluency can benefit certain aspects of writing and discuss potential mechanisms underlying disfluency effects in essay writing. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Source-Based Tasks in Writing Independent and Integrated Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Gholami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated writing tasks have gained considerable attention in ESL and EFL writing assessment and are frequently needed and used in academic settings and daily life. However, they are very rarely practiced and promoted in writing classes. This paper explored the effects of source-based writing practice on EFL learners’ composing abilities and investigated the probable differences between those tasks and independent writing ones in improving Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing abilities. To this end, a quasi-experimental design was implemented to gauge EFL learners’ writing improvements using a pretest-posttest layout. Twenty female learners taking a TOEFL iBT preparation course were randomly divided into an only-writing group with just independent writing instruction and essay practice, and a hybrid-writing-approach group receiving instruction and practice on independent writing plus source-based essay writing for ten sessions. Based on the findings, the participants with hybrid writing practice outperformed their counterparts in integrated essay tests. Their superior performance was not observed in the case of traditional independent writing tasks. The present study calls for incorporating more source-based writing tasks in writing courses.

  2. THE USE OF TEACHING MEDIA TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ SKILL IN WRITING FUNCTIONAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hidayat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching writing functional texts usually tends to be conventionally applied. Most teachers tend to emphasize their teaching process traditionally without paying attention to the teaching media which can be used to help students’ success achieving the goal of learning. This paper is aimed at investigating the role of teaching media in enhancing students’ skill in writing functional texts. In this regard, classroom action research (CAR was employed as the method in this study. This study is intended to answer the following research questions: (1 Is teaching media effective for enhancing students’ skill in writing functional texts? (2 To what extent does teaching media enhance students’ skill in writing functional texts? Through the process of teaching and learning activities, in cycle 1, the writers taught writing functional texts through conventional teaching, they then gave a test on functional text to the students. Additionally, to confirm the writers’ belief to the students’ real writing proficiency, they then gave them TOEFL written test model. Next, in cycle 2, the writers taught the students by using teaching media. Finally, the writers gave them a test of writing functional text. After undertaking several tests in cycle 1, students got average score 56.60, and in cycle 2, they got 65.08. Thus, there was an improvement of the average score. In addition, the students’ enthusiasm also improved.

  3. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  5. The design and validation of a hybrid digital-signal-processing plug-in for traditional cochlear implant speech processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghababa, Fatemeh; Marateb, Hamid R; Kermani, Saeed

    2018-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art. An online database of Dutch diphone perception was used in our study. The weights of the WNNs were tuned using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on a training set (speech-shaped noise (SSN) of 2 dB SNR), while its performance was assessed on a test set in terms of objective and composite measures in the hold-out validation framework. The cost function was defined based on the combination of mean square error (MSE), short‑time objective intelligibility (STOI) criteria on the training set. Variety of performance indices were used including segmental signal- to -noise ratio (SNRseg), MSE, STOI, log-likelihood ratio (LLR), weighted spectral slope (WSS), and composite measures C sig , C bak and C ovl . Meanwhile, the following CI speech processing techniques were used for comparison: traditional FBs, dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) and simple dual path nonlinear (SPDN) models. The average SNRseg, MSE, and LLR values for the WNN in the entire data set were 2.496 ± 2.794, 0.086 ± 0.025 and 2.323 ± 0.281, respectively. The proposed method significantly improved MSE, SNR, SNRseg, LLR, C sig C bak and C ovl compared with the other three methods (repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); P < 0.05). The average running time of the proposed algorithm (written in Matlab R2013a) on the training and test sets for each consonant or vowel on an Intel dual-core 2.10 GHz CPU with 2GB of RAM was 9.91 ± 0.87 (s) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (s), respectively. The proposed algorithm is accurate and

  6. Direct Write Processing of Multi-micron Thickness Copper Nano-particle Paste on Flexible Substrates with 532 nm Laser Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Espiricueta, Dunia; Fearon, Eamonn; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, Geoffrey

    The Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) method has been implemented in the development of different markets and material processing, recently also used for creating Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) or electrical circuitry. The process consists in the deposition of metallic nano-particle (NP) inks, which are afterwards cured or sintered by laser irradiation, thus creating conductive pathways; advantages are speed, accuracy and the protection of the heat affected zone (HAZ). This research will study the behaviour of the heat dissipation relatively within the Nano-particle Copper paste after being irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths, research will be developed on different widths and depths deposited onto flat surfaces such as flexible PET. Comparisons to be made between resistivity results obtained from different wavelengths.

  7. DOMAIN SPECIFIC BELIEFS ABOUT WRITING AND WRITING PERFORMANCE OF PRESERVICE ENGLISH TEACHERS: IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Tanyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning as a retrospective phenomenon can make learners transmit their past as an ingredient while they are (restructuring their present and future. Previous and present experiences can form a basis for cognitive, behavioral and motivational factors which can create a cognitive load for learners and affect their learning process. In this regard, current study aims to investigate first-year undergraduates’ beliefs about writing and relation of these beliefs to writing performance in essay writing. A total of 147 students studying in ELT department of a Turkish university participated in the research. Their domain-specific beliefs about writing were determined through the Beliefs about Writing Survey (BAWS. Writing performance was measured on an essay writing task by calculating both overall grade and six component grades. As a result, multiple regression analysis affirmed that beliefs about writing accounted for writing performance independently. Pearson correlation values showed that some beliefs about writing were adaptive and associated with higher writing scores (e.g. “Adapt to the Audience”. Also, some belief subcategories were associated with each other. The results of the present study have been discussed along with the related literature on beliefs about writing and writing performance. Implications/suggestions related to the coursework, writing practices and future research have been presented.

  8. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  9. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  10. Dynamic exposure model analysis of continuous laser direct writing in Polar-coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Lv, Yingjun; Mao, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to exactly predict the continuous laser direct writing quality in Polar-coordinate, we take into consideration the effect of the photoresist absorbing beam energy, the Gaussian attribute of the writing beam and the dynamic exposure process, and establish a dynamic exposure model to describe the influence of the tangential velocity of the normal incident facular center and laser power on the line width and sidewall angle. Numerical simulation results indicate that while writing velocity remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all increased as the laser power increases; while laser power remains unchanged, the line width and sidewall angle are all decreased as the writing velocity increases; at the same time the line profile in the exposure section is asymmetry and the center of the line has tiny excursion toward the Polar-coordinate origin compared with the facular center. Then it is necessary to choose the right writing velocity and laser power to obtain the ideal line profile. The model makes up the shortcomings of traditional models that can only predict line width or estimate the profile of the writing line in the absence of photoresist absorption, and can be considered as an effect analysis method for optimizing the parameters of fabrication technique of laser direct writing.

  11. Autobiographical Writing in the Technical Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Professionals in the workplace are rarely asked to write autobiographical essays. Such essays, however, are an excellent tool for helping students explore their growth as professionals. This article explores the use of such essays in a technical writing class.

  12. The role of herbometallic preparations in traditional medicine--a review on mica drug processing and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Apsara; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Bandara, Ratnayake; Abayasekara, Charmalie

    2014-09-11

    Biotite mica enriched with Fe(2+) ions are widely used as a major mineral ingredient in traditional pharmaceutical science of alchemy (Rasashastra). Abhrak bhasma (mica ash), a pharmaceutical product containing treated mica, is utilized, for example, in Ayurvedic treatments for ailments such as gastritis, renal disease, skin disease and mainly in rejuvenation formulations. However, the untreated mica minerals may be harmful when used directly, as they carry considerably high amounts of trace-elements that can cause undesirable effects in the human body. In order to remove toxic factors and produce readily absorbable materials having high nutrient capacity, specific thermal and chemical treatments (purification, detoxification, particle size reduction and incineration) are performed during the preparation of Rasashastra. This review evaluates the chemical and pharmacological aspects of mica ash as well as the technological aspects of mica ash production. The detailed literature review on the chemistry and scientific basis of mica ash, its preparation techniques, mica alterations and pharmaceutical applications was carried out by using published Ayurvedic text books and research articles, available from Science Direct, on mica minerals, mica ash and their physico-chemical alteration processes and pharmacological applications. During the purification and detoxification procedures, heating followed by quenching (in ionic medium) influences the structural distortion and the development of stress-induced cracks and spallations of the micaceous plates. Thus, the efficient diffusion of the external medium takes place at successive heating and quenching steps. Acidic organic liquids and animal byproducts can enhance the cation exchange capacity and solubility of mica. Further, these natural compounds facilitate the removal of toxic-elements in the structure. When treated-mica and paddy husks are tied up in a cloth and squeezed, particle size reduction and further

  13. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cleveland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit-cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  14. Additive direct-write microfabrication for MEMS: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwok Siong

    2017-12-01

    Direct-write additive manufacturing refers to a rich and growing repertoire of well-established fabrication techniques that builds solid objects directly from computer- generated solid models without elaborate intermediate fabrication steps. At the macroscale, direct-write techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling ink-jet printing, and laminated object manufacturing have significantly reduced concept-to-product lead time, enabled complex geometries, and importantly, has led to the renaissance in fabrication known as the maker movement. The technological premises of all direct-write additive manufacturing are identical—converting computer generated three-dimensional models into layers of two-dimensional planes or slices, which are then reconstructed sequentially into threedimensional solid objects in a layer-by-layer format. The key differences between the various additive manufacturing techniques are the means of creating the finished layers and the ancillary processes that accompany them. While still at its infancy, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques at the microscale have the potential to significantly lower the barrier-of-entry—in terms of cost, time and training—for the prototyping and fabrication of MEMS parts that have larger dimensions, high aspect ratios, and complex shapes. In recent years, significant advancements in materials chemistry, laser technology, heat and fluid modeling, and control systems have enabled additive manufacturing to achieve higher resolutions at the micrometer and nanometer length scales to be a viable technology for MEMS fabrication. Compared to traditional MEMS processes that rely heavily on expensive equipment and time-consuming steps, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques allow for rapid design-to-prototype realization by limiting or circumventing the need for cleanrooms, photolithography and extensive training. With current direct-write additive

  15. Automatic data-processing equipment of moon mark of nail for verifying some experiential theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Renjie; Fu, Chenyu; Xu, Zhiyong; Huang, Jianyuan

    2016-04-29

    Doctors who practice Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) diagnose using four methods - inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and pulse feeling/palpation. The shape and shape changes of the moon marks on the nails are an important indication when judging the patient's health. There are a series of classical and experimental theories about moon marks in TCM, which does not have support from statistical data. To verify some experiential theories on moon mark in TCM by automatic data-processing equipment. This paper proposes the equipment that utilizes image processing technology to collect moon mark data of different target groups conveniently and quickly, building a database that combines this information with that gathered from the health and mental status questionnaire in each test. This equipment has a simple design, a low cost, and an optimized algorithm. The practice has been proven to quickly complete automatic acquisition and preservation of key data about moon marks. In the future, some conclusions will likely be obtained from these data; some changes of moon marks related to a special pathological change will be established with statistical methods.

  16. On gender and writing On gender and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gordenstein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's. In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's.

  17. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  18. Middle Byzantine Historiography: Tradition, Innovation, and Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Wahlgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.

  19. A Rubric to Enrich Student Writing and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L Larkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of effective communication, both written and oral, has been widely documented within the STEM community. In fact, the ability to communicate effectively is a skillset that is often required by employers. Oftentimes it is challenging to make the transition from academia to the work place. The ability to communicate well is a critical element of this transition. This paper will describe a more authentic experience using a professional conference format that provides students an opportunity to sharpen both their written and oral communication skills. The professional conference paper activity has been utilized in a second-level physics course at American University for 15 years. The conference paper activity allows students to experience all aspects of a professional conference, which is something that they do not get in other courses. This paper will describe the conference paper activity and focus on the use of a rubric that has recently been implemented in order to assist students during multiple phases of the writing process. Through the conference paper, students must communicate about a technical topic in physics while simultaneously connecting that topic to their major field of study. Numerous steps are involved in the paper writing process and each one is designed to emulate an actual conference. The conference paper activity and the associated rubric discussed in this paper offer a unique opportunity for multiple points of feedback, both from the instructor and from their classmates, while the writing process is taking place. Too often in academia a writing activity is designed in such a way that students merely submit their final written papers for a grade. Once a final paper is submitted, there is no opportunity for feedback that will aid in the actual development and writing of the paper. A more traditional paper writing experience does not provide opportunities for formative feedback prior to submission of the final

  20. Near-infrared Spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology Tool for Monitoring the Parching Process of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Two Kinds of Chemical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyue; Wang, Weiying; Liu, Yanping; Jiang, Su; Huang, Guo; Ye, Liming

    2017-01-01

    The active ingredients and thus pharmacological efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) at different degrees of parching process vary greatly. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used to develop a new method for rapid online analysis of TCM parching process, using two kinds of chemical indicators (5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural [5-HMF] content and 420 nm absorbance) as reference values which were obviously observed and changed in most TCM parching process. Three representative TCMs, Areca ( Areca catechu L.), Malt ( Hordeum Vulgare L.), and Hawthorn ( Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), were used in this study. With partial least squares regression, calibration models of NIR were generated based on two kinds of reference values, i.e. 5-HMF contents measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 420 nm absorbance measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), respectively. In the optimized models for 5-HMF, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0192, 0.0301, and 0.2600 and correlation coefficients ( R cal ) were 99.86%, 99.88%, and 99.88%, respectively. Moreover, in the optimized models using 420 nm absorbance as reference values, the RMSEP for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0229, 0.0096, and 0.0409 and R cal were 99.69%, 99.81%, and 99.62%, respectively. NIR models with 5-HMF content and 420 nm absorbance as reference values can rapidly and effectively identify three kinds of TCM in different parching processes. This method has great promise to replace current subjective color judgment and time-consuming HPLC or UV/Vis methods and is suitable for rapid online analysis and quality control in TCM industrial manufacturing process. Near-infrared spectroscopy.(NIR) was used to develop a new method for online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.(TCM) parching processCalibration and validation models of Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn were generated by partial least squares regression using 5

  1. Writing as collaborative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement......In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... in the not-yet-known. Over the years, we have shared and analyzed personal stories about our collaborative experiences in an on-going reflective learning process. We draw on writing methodologies, including memory-work (Haug, Davies) and collaborative writing such as by Wyatt, Gale, Gannon & Davies. Our...

  2. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  3. An Investigation into the Methods of Teaching Creative English Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Riabokrys

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of teaching creative writing at the English lessons. The value of writing in the process of teaching English language is revealed. The principles and peculiarities of evaluation of creative writing are analyzed. The strategy of choosing methods in teaching creative writing is identified. The benefits of creative writing for learner and teachers are considered.

  4. To Write or to Type? The Effects of Handwriting and Word-Processing on the Written Style of Examination Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Hartley, James

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate about whether or not these days students should be able to word-process essay-type examinations as opposed to handwriting them, particularly when they are asked to word-process everything else. This study used word-processing software to examine the stylistic features of 13 examination essays written by hand and 24 by…

  5. Traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Sibundoy Valley, High Putumayo, and their relationship with local processes of environmental construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Echeverry, John James

    2010-01-01

    This study generated ethno-botanical knowledge and community experience that contribute to local processes of environmental construction processes from the recognition, evaluation and strengthening of traditional forms of use and handling of medicinal and magical plants among Inga, kamentza and quillacinga ethnics that live in the Valle de Sibundoy, high Putumayo, Colombia. It was referenced the Environmental Building Model used by the three ethnic groups, from traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Chagra agro-ecosystem, model based on the traditional medical system and everyday practices involving environmental assessment, practices that facilitate the preservation and dynamics of flora and indigenous traditional knowledge. Finally, this important environmental information contributes to the quality of the actions of regional planning.

  6. Writing a Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…

  7. How to write a good scientific paper

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Chris A

    2018-01-01

    Many scientists and engineers consider themselves poor writers or find the writing process difficult. The good news is that you do not have to be a talented writer to produce a good scientific paper, but you do have to be a careful writer. In particular, writing for a peer-reviewed scientific or engineering journal requires learning and executing a specific formula for presenting scientific work. This book is all about teaching the style and conventions of writing for a peer-reviewed scientific journal. From structure to style, titles to tables, abstracts to author lists, this book gives practical advice about the process of writing a paper and getting it published.

  8. Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....

  9. Using Tracking Software for Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Sane M.; Al-Salman, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product;…

  10. Writing in turbulent air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bominaar, Jeroen; Pashtrapanska, Mira; Elenbaas, Thijs; Dam, Nico; ter Meulen, Hans; van de Water, Willem

    2008-04-01

    We describe a scheme of molecular tagging velocimetry in air in which nitric oxide (NO) molecules are created out of O2 and N2 molecules in the focus of a strong laser beam. The NO molecules are visualized a while later by laser-induced fluorescence. The precision of the molecular tagging velocimetry of gas flows is affected by the gradual blurring of the written patterns through molecular diffusion. In the case of turbulent flows, molecular diffusion poses a fundamental limit on the resolution of the smallest scales in the flow. We study the diffusion of written patterns in detail for our tagging scheme which, at short (micros) delay times is slightly anomalous due to local heating by absorption of laser radiation. We show that our experiments agree with a simple convection-diffusion model that allows us to estimate the temperature rise upon writing. Molecular tagging can be a highly nonlinear process, which affects the art of writing. We find that our tagging scheme is (only) quadratic in the intensity of the writing laser.

  11. Linguistic aspects of writing for professional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Përgjegji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing for Professional Purposes is considered as a means of communication between professionals who belong to two communities that have different languages, but share the same knowledge or expertise. The article gives a hint on how writing for specific purposes evolved to give rise to the creation of Writing for Professional Purposes. The social, cultural and cognitive aspects are an essential part of Writing for Professional Purposes since the physical act of writing cannot be considered only a result or product of the knowledge the individual possesses but also a social and cultural act. Therefore, the social and cultural aspects of writing explains the specificities and the intricacies of the effects these aspects have on writing for it is considered as an inseparable part of social and cultural groups. On the other hand, the cognitive aspect of writing explains and emphasizes the mental activities of the individual during the decision-making process while he/she is writing planning and editing their material having in mind the audience. On the same line of reasoning, writing for professional purposes in a second language means that the writer has to consider the audience twice; first, there is an audience who shares the same knowledge or expertise and second, the audience does not have the same language. Consequently, writing in another language that is not the first language with a specific jargon as well as a specific grammatical structure brings about a lot of difficulties. Hence, writing in professional contexts in the mother tongue implies only writing in a specialized version of a language already known to the writer, but writing in a target language means that the writer has to learn the target language and the specialized version of that language.

  12. Comparative effect of high pressure processing and traditional thermal treatment on the physicochemical, microbiology, and sensory analysis of olive jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Adamez, J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of the processing by high hydrostatic pressures (HPP was assessed as an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization in olive jam. The effects of both treatments on the product after processing were compared and stability during storage under refrigeration was assessed through the characterization of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. To assess the effect of processing, two HPP treatments (450 and 600MPa and thermal pasteurization (80 °C for 20 min were applied, comparing them with the unprocessed product. HPP 600MPa versus the rest of treatments showed a reduction in microorganisms, greater clarity and less browning, and sensory acceptance. The shelf-life of the refrigerated product would indicate the feasibility of the application of the HPP technology for food with similar shelf-life to that obtained with the traditional treatment of pasteurization, but with a better sensory quality.En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto del procesado por altas presiones hidrostáticas (HPP como método alternativo al tratamiento térmico de pasteurización en la mermelada de aceitunas. Para ello se comparó el efecto de ambos tratamientos sobre el producto procesado y se evaluó su estabilidad durante el almacenamiento en refrigeración, mediante la caracterización de los aspectos físico-químicos, microbiológicos, y sensoriales. Para evaluar el efecto del procesado, se aplicaron dos tratamientos de HPP (450 y 600MPa y otro de pasteurización térmica (80 °C durante 20 min, comparándose con el producto no procesado. Las muestras tratadas con HPP 600MPa presentaron, frente al resto de tratamientos una reducción en la presencia de microorganismos, mayor claridad y menor pardeamiento, y una mayor aceptación sensorial. El estudio de la vida útil del producto en refrigeración, indicaría la viabilidad de la aplicación de la tecnología de HPP para obtener alimentos con vida útil similar

  13. Peer Evaluation in CMC Learning Environment and Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mellati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were participated in English language writing context. They were divided into two groups, one group assigned to CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication language learning context and the other assigned to a traditional learning environment. Both groups were encouraged to evaluate their classmates’ writing tasks. In addition, interviews were conducted with two learners. Comparing these two groups provides comprehensive guidelines for teachers as well as curriculum designers to set adjusted writing language environment for more effective and creative language teaching and learning. E-collaboration classroom tasks have high intrinsic motivation as well as significant effects on learners’ outcomes. Cooperative tasks specifically in technology-based environment lead learners to group working and consequently group learning. Computer-Mediated Communication is meaningful, especially in contexts in which teachers stimulate group work activities.

  14. Scientific writing and editing: a new role for the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, P A; Campbell, J M

    1995-10-01

    Traditional library instruction programs teach scientists how to find and manage information, but not how to report their research findings effectively. Since 1990, the William H. Welch Medical Library has sponsored classes on scientific writing and, since 1991, has offered a fee-based editing service for affiliates of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. These programs were designed to fill an educational gap: Although formal instruction was offered to support other phases of the scientific communication process, the medical institutions had no central resource designed to help scientists develop and improve their writing skills. The establishment of such a resource at Welch has been well received by the community. Attendance at classes has grown steadily, and in 1993 a credit course on biomedical writing was added to the curriculum. The editing service, introduced in late 1991, has generated more requests for assistance than can be handled by the library's editor. This service not only extends the library's educational outreach but also generates a revenue stream. The Welch program in scientific writing and editing, or elements of it, could provide a model for other academic medical libraries interested in moving in this new direction.

  15. Laser Direct Writing Process for Making Electrodes and High-k Sol-Gel ZrO2 for Boosting Performances of MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-04-13

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), can be attractive materials for photonic and electronic applications due to their exceptional properties. Among these unique properties, high mobility of 2D TMDCs enables realization of high-performance nanoelectronics based on a thin film transistor (TFT) platform. In this contribution, we report highly enhanced field effect mobility (μ(eff) = 50.1 cm(2)/(V s), ∼2.5 times) of MoS2 TFTs through the sol-gel processed high-k ZrO2 (∼22.0) insulator, compared to those of typical MoS2/SiO2/Si structures (μ(eff) = 19.4 cm(2)/(V s)) because a high-k dielectric layer can suppress Coulomb electron scattering and reduce interface trap concentration. Additionally, in order to avoid costly conventional mask based photolithography and define the patterns, we employ a simple laser direct writing (LDW) process. This process allows precise and flexible control with reasonable resolution (up to ∼10 nm), depending on the system, and enables fabrication of arbitrarily patterned devices. Taking advantage of continuing developments in laser technology offers a substantial cost decrease, and LDW may emerge as a promising technology.

  16. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  17. THE USE OF RESEARCH PAPER WRITING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALSTO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ACADEMIC WRITING: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of students in English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro frequently consider that academic writing, in term of writing scientific paper, is not easy task to do. The result of their academic writing performance at preliminary research indicated that they achieved low scores in writing a scientific article. Consequently, they are not motivated in academic writing. For this case, I used Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials as sources in teaching and learning. This research investigatedwhether the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials can improve students‘ academic writing andhow class situation is when Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials are used as a source of teaching and learning process. This is a Classroom Action Research (CAR which is conducted at the fourth semester students of English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro in the academic year of 2014/2015. This research was done in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four steps: Planning, Acting, Observing, and Reflecting. The qualitative data were collected through observation and interview. The quantitative data were collected through test. The research findings revealed that the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialscan improve students‘ academic writing and improve students‘ motivation in academic writing class.Derived from the findings, it can be concluded that the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialscan improve students‘ academic writing and class situation. Therefore, it is recommended for the lecturers to use Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialsas it can improve students‘ academic writing as well as class situation.

  18. The art of scientific writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan

    2018-01-01

    This three-part workshop introduces strategies, tools, and techniques for sound scientific output. It discusses success and failure factors relevant to the publication process (writing included). The first part aims to understand the entire publication process. It presents an overview of standard

  19. Motivating Young Writers through Write-Talks: Real Writers, Real Audiences, Real Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Modeled after the popular teaching technique of book talks, write talks are brief motivational talks designed to engage students in writing. Teachers can invite adults from their communities into their classrooms to give write talks, thereby conveying to students that real people go through different writing processes to write real texts for real…

  20. Effects of Feedback on Collaborative Writing in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Teresa; Espasa, Anna; Alvarez, Ibis M.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for supporting student writing has received much attention in writing research. One specific type of support is feedback--including peer feedback--on the writing process. Despite the wealth of literature on both feedback and academic writing, there is little empirical evidence on what type of feedback best promotes writing in online…

  1. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  2. The Los Altos Writing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Richard F.

    The intent of this guide is to encourage teachers to have students write, both formally and informally, on a systematic basis. Three types of writing are emphasized: (1) journal writing; (2) research paper writing; and (3) essay writing. The section on journal writing includes a handout for the class explaining the purpose for journal writing and…

  3. Using tracking software for writing instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sane M. Yagi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could find sources of writing problems. Despite all controversy evoked by post-process approaches with respect to process writing, information technology has lately offered tools that can shed new light on how writing takes place. Software that can record keyboard, mouse, and screen activities is capable of unraveling mysteries of the writing process. Technology has given teachers and learners the option of examining the writing process as it unfolds, enabling them to diagnose strategy as well as wording problems, thus empowering teachers to guide learners individually in how to think about each of their trouble spots in the context of a specific product of writing. With these advances in information technology, metacognitive awareness and strategy training begin to acquire new dimensions of meaning. Technology lays open aspects of the writing process, offering unprecedented insight into creative text production as well. This paper attempts to explain how tracking software can influence writing instruction. It briefly examines the process and post-process approaches to assess their viability, explains the concept of tracking software, proposes methodology needed for the adoption of this technology, and then discusses the pedagogical implications of these issues.

  4. Nothing in Evolution Makes Sense Except in the Light of Genomics: Read–Write Genome Evolution as an Active Biological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Shapiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century genomics-based analysis of evolutionary variation reveals a number of novel features impossible to predict when Dobzhansky and other evolutionary biologists formulated the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis in the middle of the last century. These include three distinct realms of cell evolution; symbiogenetic fusions forming eukaryotic cells with multiple genome compartments; horizontal organelle, virus and DNA transfers; functional organization of proteins as systems of interacting domains subject to rapid evolution by exon shuffling and exonization; distributed genome networks integrated by mobile repetitive regulatory signals; and regulation of multicellular development by non-coding lncRNAs containing repetitive sequence components. Rather than single gene traits, all phenotypes involve coordinated activity by multiple interacting cell molecules. Genomes contain abundant and functional repetitive components in addition to the unique coding sequences envisaged in the early days of molecular biology. Combinatorial coding, plus the biochemical abilities cells possess to rearrange DNA molecules, constitute a powerful toolbox for adaptive genome rewriting. That is, cells possess “Read–Write Genomes” they alter by numerous biochemical processes capable of rapidly restructuring cellular DNA molecules. Rather than viewing genome evolution as a series of accidental modifications, we can now study it as a complex biological process of active self-modification.

  5. Scaffolding Collaborative Technical Writing with Procedural Facilitation and Synchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Huang, Jeng-Jia

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of computer technology, researchers and instructors are attempting to devise computer support for effective collaborative technical writing. In this study, a computer-supported environment for collaborative technical writing was developed. This system (Process-Writing Wizard) provides process-oriented scaffolds and a synchronous…

  6. Writing Motivation of Students with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Kyle Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the writing motivation of students with specific language impairments with their non-disabled peers. Due to the cognitive and linguistic demands of the writing process, students with language impairments face unique difficulties during the writing process. It was hypothesized that students with specific language…

  7. Writing to Learn Statistics in an Advanced Placement Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Christian Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of writing in a statistics classroom to learn if writing provided a rich description of problem-solving processes of students as they solved problems. Through analysis of 329 written samples provided by students, it was determined that writing provided a rich description of problem-solving processes and enabled…

  8. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2018-01-01

    This article considers text comprehension through the integrated perspectives of language processing research and practical writing advice as expressed in writing guides and language policies. Such guides for instance include advice to use active constructions instead of passives and sentences...

  9. Use of Overhead Transparencies in Collaborative Business Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Randolph T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that small group collaborative writing exercises that produce overhead transparencies for large class critique can be an effective method for teaching letter and memorandum construction. Offers a five-step process for encouraging individual and collaborative writing skills. (PRA)

  10. [Construction of research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E; Xu, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wei, Ying-Jie; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing.

  11. Direct-write PVDF nonwoven fiber fabric energy harvesters via the hollow cylindrical near-field electrospinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z H; Pan, C T; Ou, Z Y; Lin, L W; Huang, J C

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have attracted great attention in recent years for their possible applications in mechanical energy scavenging devices. However, it is difficult to control the structural diameter, length, and density of these fibers fabricated by micro/nano-technologies. This work presents a hollow cylindrical near-field electrospinning (HCNFES) process to address production and performance issues encountered previously in either far-field electrospinning (FFES) or near-field electrospinning (NFES) processes. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibers in the form of nonwoven fabric have been directly written on a glass tube for aligned piezoelectricity. Under a high in situ electrical poling field and strong mechanical stretching (the tangential speed on the glass tube collector is about 1989.3 mm s −1 ), the HCNFES process is able to uniformly deposit large arrays of PVDF fibers with good concentrations of piezoelectric β-phase. The nonwoven fiber fabric (NFF) is transferred onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate and fixed at both ends using copper foil electrodes as a flexible textile-fiber-based PVDF energy harvester. Repeated stretching and releasing of PVDF NFF with a strain of 0.05% at 7 Hz produces a maximum peak voltage and current at 76 mV and 39 nA, respectively. (paper)

  12. Relating physicochemical and microbiological safety indicators during processing of linguiça, a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, U; Cadavez, V; Pereira, A P; Gomes, A; Araújo, J P; Saavedra, M J; Estevinho, L; Butler, F; Pires, P; Dias, T

    2015-12-01

    Linguiça is a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage whose microbiological quality and safety can be highly variable. In order to elucidate risk factors and the particularities of the manufacturing technology that explain the between-batch variability in total viable counts (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the product; microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of linguiça at five stages of production (i.e., raw pork meat, mixed with ingredients, macerated, smoked and ripened) was carried out. A total of six production batches were surveyed from two factories; one utilised curing salts and polyphosphate in their formulation (Factory II). The delayed fermentation in the nitrite-formulated sausages was partly responsible for the increase (pmeat (3.21logCFU/g, 1.30logCFU/g and 22.2CFU/g, respectively) to the end of maceration (4.14logCFU/g, 2.10logCFU/g and 140CFU/g, respectively) while the better acidification process in the nitrite-free sausages (Factory I) led to lower counts of S. aureus (2.64logCFU/g) and L. monocytogenes (10CFU/g) in the finished products. In Factory II, although L. monocytogenes entered the chain at the point of mixing, it became steadily inactivated during smoking and ripening (Nitrite had a strong effect on reducing Enterobacteriaceae throughout smoking (r=-0.73) and ripening (r=-0.59), while it failed to control the growth of S. aureus. The main hurdle preventing the development of S. aureus in linguiça is the pH, and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening days (p=0.019), low S. aureus in raw meat (p=0.098), properly-washed casings (p=0.094), and less contamination during mixing (p=0.199). In the case of L. monocytogenes, at least three hurdles hinder its development in linguiça: low a w (p=0.004), low pH (p=0.040) and nitrite (p=0.060), and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening (p=0.072) and maceration (p=0.106) periods, lower a w

  13. Reinventing Consumption Traditions through the Process of Unification of a Country: Understanding “Good Bye Lenin!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ceren Engür

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the change of consumption traditions in terms of re-unification of a country. The discussion bases on the movie, “Good Bye Lenin!”(2003 and chases the transformations on consumption trends in order to understand how the re-unification of East and West Germany influences the practices of everyday life after a four decade long segregation. The movie displays the 1990’s Germany during the times when the Berlin Wall falls and frames a family portrait which is dominated by an idealist and traditional mother character in the last days of her life.

  14. THE FLIPPED WRITING CLASSROOM IN TURKISH EFL CONTEXT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON A NEW MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah EKMEKCI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flipped learning, one of the most popular and conspicuous instructional models of recent time, can be considered as a pedagogical approach in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Flipped learning transforms classrooms into interactive and dynamic places where the teacher guides the students and facilitates their learning. The current study explores the impact of flipped instruction on students’ foreign language writing skill which is often perceived as boring, complex and difficult by English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. The study compares flipped and traditional face-to-face writing classes on the basis of writing performances. Employing a pre- and post-test true experimental design with a control group, the study is based on a mixed-method research. The experimental group consisting of 23 English Language Teaching (ELT students attending preparatory class were instructed for fifteen weeks through Flipped Writing Class Model while the control group comprising 20 ELT preparatory class students followed traditional face-to-face lecture-based writing class. Independent and paired samples t-tests were carried out for the analyses of the data gathered through the pre-and post-tests. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of their writing performances based on the employed rubric. It was found that the students in the experimental group outperformed the students in the control group after the treatment process. The results of the study also revealed that the great majority of the students in the experimental group held positive attitudes towards Flipped Writing Class Model.

  15. Bilingual Facebook Users’ Cognitive Writing Processes / Processus cognitifs d’écriture des utilisateurs bilingues de Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Riley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the cognitive processes involved as bilinguals wrote English and Spanish Facebook status updates. Three phases of data collection were employed: individual interviews, examination of participants’ Facebook status updates and a group interview. The findings suggested that regardless of the language in which participants wrote, they made a series of decisions as they selected the content, chose the language, formulated the text and typed the status updates. The findings also indicated that for the individuals in this study, higher language proficiencies resulted in increased automaticity when converting thoughts to nonstandard online communications. While participants engaged in many experiences found in Flower and Hayes’ Cognitive Process Model (1981, additional explanation was needed to illustrate how this process varied for online bilingual writers. Cette étude cherche à explorer les processus cognitifs utilisés lorsque des personnes bilingues écrivent des statuts Facebook en anglais et en espagnol. Trois phases de collecte de données ont été utilisées : entrevues individuelles, examen des mises à jour de statut Facebook des participants et entrevue de groupe. Les résultats suggèrent que peu importe la langue de rédaction utilisée par les participants, ceux-ci procédaient à une série de décisions en sélectionnant le contenu, choisissant la langue, formulant le texte et entrant les mises à jour. Les résultats indiquent également que pour les personnes de cette étude, de meilleures compétences linguistiques se traduisaient par une automaticité accrue au moment de convertir les pensées en communications en ligne non standards. Bien que les participants aient pris part à certaines expériences décrites par Flower et Hayes dans leur Cognitive Process Model (1981, de plus amples explications sont requises pour illustrer comment ce processus varie pour les rédacteurs bilingues en ligne.

  16. Drafting and acting on feedback supports student learning when writing essay assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    A diverse student population is a relatively recent feature of the higher education system in the United Kingdom. Consequently, it may be thought that more "traditional" types of assessment based around essay writing skills for science undergraduates may be of decreasing value and relevance to contemporary students. This article describes a study in which the process of feedback on, and associated redrafting of, an essay was closely supervised to improve essay writing skills and subsequent exam performance. The results of this study show that students can significantly improve their learning and academic performance, as assessed by final examination mark, by a process that more closely mimics a "real-world" situation of review and redrafting. Additionally, the data show that students benefit from feedback only when this is used appropriately by the student. The article also discusses the continuing importance and relevance of essay writing skills so that writing, and acting upon feedback to do with that writing, remains an integral part of the process of learning.

  17. SYSTEM CONTROL OF SMOKING PROCESS AND MEASURING BENZO[A]PYRENE IN TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION OF BOSNIAN DRY CURED HAM (BOSANSKI PRŠUT BY IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Toroman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, traditional production of smoked meat products requires technological processes, which carry some food safety hazards (e.g. content of Benzo[a]pyrene. (B[a]P. “OMEGA COMERC Ltd.”, a member of the meat industry in Visoko region, has implemented food safety management system according to the recommendations from Codex Alimentarius CAC-RCP (9, recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene. By implementing HACCP system, the Company established adequate control measures in producing Bosnian dry cured ham (bosanski pršut on traditional way including the smoking process in the chambers. By doing this, they have created conditions to measure B[a]P content in the Bosnian dry cured ham and implement HACCP system without impairing traditional production and food safety of the final product.The aim of this study is to present the effect of the specific production process onto the meat smoking in order to preserve hygienic, nutritional and sensory values, and also to control B[a]P content in the final product.Key words: Bosnian dry cured ham, traditional production, smoking process, Benzo[a]pyrene, HACCP

  18. Science + Writing = Super Learning. Writing Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Paula Rogovin

    1993-01-01

    Article presents suggestions for motivating elementary students to learn by combining science and writing. The strategies include planning the right environment; teaching the scientific method; establishing a link to literature; and making time for students to observe, experiment, and write. (SM)

  19. Taking a Closer Look at Writing Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    Current literature on writing instruction focuses on the writing conference, which accompanies a shift in emphasis from product to process and potentially transforms the teacher's role from task master and evaluator to respondent, opening the door to greater peer interaction in literacy learning. However desirable this ideal may be, extant…

  20. Healing Classrooms: Therapeutic Possibilities in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article asks us to consider what the process of healing and composition pedagogy have to learn from each other. More specifically, it identifies how the therapeutic potential of writing, which has been largely neglected in the academy in recent years, can influence the ways we teach transferable writing skills. The article considers how…

  1. Journal Writing: Enlivening Elementary Linear Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, David E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the various issues surrounding the implementation of journal writing in an undergraduate linear algebra course. Identifies the benefits of incorporating journal writing into an undergraduate mathematics course, which are supported with students' comments from their journals and their reflections on the process. Contains 14 references.…

  2. The Role of Translation in EFL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    congmin zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.

  3. The Role of Translation in EFL Writing

    OpenAIRE

    congmin zhao

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.

  4. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the

  5. Ventriloquising the Voice: Writing in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…

  6. Writing Plays Using Creative Problem-Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; Hinson, Shirley

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a project which involved inner city elementary grade children with disabilities in writing and performing their own plays. A four-step playwriting process focuses on theme and character development, problem finding, and writing dialogue. The project has led to improved reading skills, attention, memory skills,…

  7. Successful Writing: Five Roadblocks to Overcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…

  8. Blogging as a Means of Crafting Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan; Griffith, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore ways in which blogs can support literacy communities while developing a writing community. Examples of how a classroom teacher uses blogs to strengthen the writing process is described. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  9. Technical report writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  10. Writing Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Daniel I; Shafer, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Clear writing makes manuscripts easier to understand. Clear writing enhances research reports, increasing clinical adoption and scientific impact. We discuss styles and organization to help junior investigators present their findings and avoid common errors.

  11. Writing successfully in science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, M; Gretton, J

    1991-01-01

    ... - from planning the initial framework of an article, preparing references and illustrative material and writing a first draft, to choosing suitable journals, writing to the editor and dealing with proofs of the final draft...

  12. NOTE TAKING PAIRS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ SENTENCE BASED WRITING ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testiana Deni Wijayatiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students had skill to actualize their imagination and interpret their knowledge through writing which could be combined with good writing structure. Moreover, their writing skill still had low motivation and had not reached the standard writing structure. Based on the background above, this research has purpose to know the influence Note Taking Pairs in improving students‘sentence based writing achievement. The subject of this research was the second semester of English Department in Muhammadiyah University of Semarang. It also used statistic non parametric method to analyze the students‘ writing achievement. The result of this research showed that Note Taking Pairs strategy could improve students‘sentence based writing achievement. Hopefully this research is recommended into learning process to improve students‘writing skill especially in sentence-based writing subject.

  13. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of a traditional processing method on the chemical composition of local white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seed in North-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Wink, Michael; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a traditional Ethiopian lupin processing method on the chemical composition of lupin seed samples was studied. Two sampling districts, namely Mecha and Sekela, representing the mid- and high-altitude areas of north-western Ethiopia, respectively, were randomly selected. Different types of traditionally processed and marketed lupin seed samples (raw, roasted, and finished) were collected in six replications from each district. Raw samples are unprocessed, and roasted samples are roasted using firewood. Finished samples are those ready for human consumption as snack. Thousand seed weight for raw and roasted samples within a study district was similar (P > 0.05), but it was lower (P seed sample from Mecha was lower (P 0.05). The crude protein and crude fat contents of finished samples within a study district were higher (P seed samples. The crude ash content of raw and roasted lupin samples within a study district was higher (P processing method of lupin seeds in Ethiopia has a positive contribution improving the crude protein and crude fat content, and lowering the alkaloid content of the finished product. The study showed the possibility of adopting the traditional processing method to process bitter white lupin for the use as protein supplement in livestock feed in Ethiopia, but further work has to be done on the processing method and animal evaluation.

  15. Writing as Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagelski, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the National Commission on Writing released "The Neglected "R,"" its report on the state of writing instruction in the nation's schools. The report identified an apparent paradox: writing, which the Commission defines as an essential skill for the many that has helped transform the world, is nevertheless increasingly…

  16. Writing and Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Magasic, Coleen

    2012-01-01

    Writing activities are a sure way to assess and enhance students' science literacy. Sometimes the author's students use technical writing to communicate their lab experiences, just as practicing scientists do. Other times, they use creative writing to make connections to the topics they're learning. This article describes both types of writing…

  17. The Writing Mathematician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Popular culture casts mathematics and writing as opposites--a false dichotomy, which can be harmful for our discipline of mathematics education. Positioning writing outside the domain of the mathematician's abilities and cultivated skill set can create doubt in the mathematician wishing to write--not that one cannot be both writer and…

  18. Collaborative writing: Tools and tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of technical writing is done by groups of experts and various web based applications have made this collaboration easy. Email exchange of word processor documents with tracked changes used to be the standard technique for collaborative writing. However web based tools like Google docs and Spreadsheets have made the process fast and efficient. Various versioning tools and synchronous editors are available for those who need additional functionality. Having a group leader who decides the scheduling, communication and conflict resolving protocols is important for successful collaboration.

  19. Collaborative writing: Tools and tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Bell Raj

    2007-01-01

    Majority of technical writing is done by groups of experts and various web based applications have made this collaboration easy. Email exchange of word processor documents with tracked changes used to be the standard technique for collaborative writing. However web based tools like Google docs and Spreadsheets have made the process fast and efficient. Various versioning tools and synchronous editors are available for those who need additional functionality. Having a group leader who decides the scheduling, communication and conflict resolving protocols is important for successful collaboration.

  20. Dynamic Hippocampal and Prefrontal Contributions to Memory Processes and Representations Blur the Boundaries of Traditional Cognitive Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael D. Rubin; Hillary Schwarb; Heather D. Lucas; Michael R. Dulas; Neal J. Cohen

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus has long been known to be a critical component of the memory system involved in the formation and use of long-term declarative memory. However, recent findings have revealed that the reach of hippocampal contributions extends to a variety of domains and tasks that require the flexible use of cognitive and social behavior, including domains traditionally linked to prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as decision-making. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has gained traction as a...

  1. Reflective writing: the student nurse's perspective on reflective writing and poetry writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Dawn; Willis, Diane S

    2015-07-01

    Reflective writing is a mandatory part of nurse education but how students develop their skills and use reflection as part of their experiential learning remains relatively unknown. Understanding reflective writing in all forms from the perspective of a student nurse is therefore important. To explore the use of reflective writing and the use of poetry in pre-registered nursing students. A qualitative design was employed to explore reflective writing in pre-registered nursing students. A small university in Scotland. BSc (Hons) Adult and Mental Health Pre-registration Student Nurses. Two focus groups were conducted with 10 student nurses during March 2012. Data was analysed thematically using the framework of McCarthy (1999). Students found the process of reflective writing daunting but valued it over time. Current educational methods, such as assessing reflective accounts, often lead to the 'narrative' being watered down and the student feeling judged. Despite this, reflection made students feel responsible for their own learning and research on the topic. Some students felt the use of models of reflection constricting, whilst poetry freed up their expression allowing them to demonstrate the compassion for their patient under their care. Poetry writing gives students the opportunity for freedom of expression, personal satisfaction and a closer connection with their patients, which the more formal approach to reflective writing did not offer. There is a need for students to have a safe and supportive forum in which to express and have their experiences acknowledged without the fear of being judged. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On Paying Attention: Flagpoles, Mindfulness, and Teaching Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Keith

    2008-01-01

    To pay attention--to observe, to see the richness and detail that is right before everyone--is the essence of mindfulness. It is also, the author argues, the essence of good writing--the kind of writing for which there is a long American tradition of writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, E. B. White, Barry Lopez, Annie Dillard, Joan Didion, John…

  3. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  4. 3D direct writing fabrication of electrodes for electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Zhou, Chi; Wu, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Among different printing techniques, direct ink writing is commonly used to fabricate 3D battery and supercapacitor electrodes. The major advantages of using the direct ink writing include effectively building 3D structure for energy storage devices and providing higher power density and higher energy density than traditional techniques due to the increased surface area of electrode. Nevertheless, direct ink writing has high standards for the printing inks, which requires high viscosity, high yield stress under shear and compression, and well-controlled viscoelasticity. Recently, a number of 3D-printed energy storage devices have been reported, and it is very important to understand the printing process and the ink preparation process for further material design and technology development. We discussed current progress of direct ink writing technologies by using various electrode materials including carbon nanotube-based material, graphene-based material, LTO (Li4Ti5O12), LFP (LiFePO4), LiMn1-xFexPO4, and Zn-based metallic oxide. Based on achieve electrochemical performance, these 3D-printed devices deliver performance comparable to the energy storage device fabricated using traditional methods still leaving large room for further improvement. Finally, perspectives are provided on the potential future direction of 3D printing for all solid-state electrochemical energy storage devices.

  5. Bad Loans and Loan Write-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...

  6. ADHD and Writing Learning Disabilities: Overlapping Disorders and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; Cueli, Marisol; Loew, Stephen J.; González-Castro, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the historic evolution of ADHD research up until the present, and explain the actual theoretical models of writing in relation to ADHD and attention. Given the characterization of writing as a recursive process, and in order to show its relationship with attention disorders, examples of applicable writing models are also…

  7. Partners in Crime: Integrating Forensic Science and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forensic science lends itself to many academic areas. Aside from the science itself, writing plays a major role in the investigation process as well as in the courtroom. It is paramount that students learn how to write proficiently when recording results or writing evaluations and reports, just as forensic scientists do. This can also be done…

  8. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Costagli; Matteo Betti

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill.) is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or sol...

  9. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Young Children Write: The Beginnings. Program in Language and Literacy Occasional Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Vera E.

    Focusing on writing as a language process, this booklet describes a framework for writing instruction that has as a major consideration the totality of language. The first section discusses writing as a language process, emphasizing that as children learn to write, they can also learn to listen, speak, and read. The second section focuses on the…

  11. Impact of a Technology-Infused Middle School Writing Program on Sixth-Grade Students' Writing Ability and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Lauren; Meade, Terri; Midouhas, Emily; Cooperman, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Process-oriented approaches are increasingly used in schools to improve writing. One of these approaches, known as the writing workshop model, is challenging for teachers to implement without supports. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a middle school writing program that incorporates this model along with technological…

  12. Effects of the traditional method and an alternative parboiling process on the fatty acids, vitamin E, γ-oryzanol and phenolic acids of glutinous rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammapat, Pornpisanu; Meeso, Naret; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2016-03-01

    The impacts of traditional and alternative parboiling processes on the concentrations of fatty acids, tocopherol, tocotrienol, γ-oryzanol and phenolic acids in glutinous rice were investigated. Differences between the two methods were the soaking temperatures and the steaming methods. Results showed that parboiling processes significantly increased the concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), γ-oryzanol, γ-tocotrienol and total phenolic acids (TPA) in glutinous rice, while α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased (p-oryzanol by three or fourfold compared with the level of γ-oryzanol in raw rice. Parboiling caused both adverse and favorable effects on phenolic acids content (p-oryzanol, hydrobenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid and TPA compared to the traditional method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pteam process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Eyassu Seifu; Asaminew Tassew

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess processing, utilization and marketing of traditional dairy products produced in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha districts in Northwestern Ethiopia. A single-visit-multiple-subject formal survey was conducted to collect data. A total of 150 households (75 households from each district) were individually interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The major dairy products produced in the study area include butter, ghee, Ayib, Arera (defatted sour milk), Ergo ...

  15. Stories Are Like Water: An Academic Writing Workshop for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Madeline; Tschanz, Coby

    2018-04-01

    Traditionally, there is very little formal instruction in academic writing for nurses in graduate programs. We, the writing scholar and a nurse educator and PhD student at a major Canadian university, describe how we collaborated on developing and delivering a 1-day academic writing workshop for incoming master of nursing students. By sharing this description, we hope to motivate nursing faculty to offer similar workshops to address the dearth of writing instruction for graduate students in nursing and to improve scholarship outcomes.

  16. Traditional versus commercial food processing techniques - A comparative study based on chemical analysis of selected foods consumed in rural Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I. C. Mwadiwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of industrialisation, food processors are constantly looking for ways to cut costs, increase production and maximise profits at the expense of quality. Commercial food processors have since shifted their focus from endogenous ways of processing food to more profitable commercial food processing techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the holistic impact of commercial food processing techniques on nutrition by comparing commercially (industrially processed food products and endogenously processed food products through chemical analysis of selected foods. Eight food samples which included commercially processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice and endogenously processed peanut butter, mealie-meal, dried vegetables (mufushwa and rice were randomly sampled from rural communities in the south-eastern and central provinces of Zimbabwe. They were analysed for ash, zinc, iron, copper, magnesium, protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy, crude fibre, vitamin C and moisture contents. The results of chemical analysis indicate that endogenously processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice contained higher ash values of 2.00g/100g, 17.83g/100g, and 3.28g/100g respectively than commercially processed mealie-meal, dried vegetables and rice, which had ash values of 1.56g/100g, 15.25g/100g and 1.46g/100g respectively. The results also show that endogenously processed foods have correspondingly higher iron, zinc and magnesium contents and, on the whole, a higher protein content. The results also indicate that commercially processed foods have higher fat and energy contents. The result led to the conclusion that the foods are likely to pose a higher risk of causing adverse conditions to health, such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases to susceptible individuals. Based on these findings, it can, therefore, be concluded that endogenously processed foods have a better nutrient value and health implications

  17. Business plan writing for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Kenneth H; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-08-01

    Physicians are practicing in an era in which they are often expected to write business plans in order to acquire, develop, and implement new technology or programs. This task is yet another reminder of the importance of business principles in providing quality patient care amid allocation of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, few physicians receive training during medical school, residencies, or fellowships in performing such tasks. The process of writing business plans follows an established format similar to writing a consultation, in which the risks, benefits, and alternatives to a treatment option are presented. Although administrative assistance may be available in compiling business plans, it is important for physicians to understand the rationale, process, and pitfalls of business planning. Writing a business plan will serve to focus, clarify, and justify a request for scarce resources, and thus, increase its chance of success, both in terms of funding and implementation. A well-written business plan offers a plausible, coherent story of an uncertain future. Therefore, a business plan is not merely an exercise to obtain funding but also a rationale for investment that can help physicians reestablish leadership in health care.

  18. The Predictive Validity of CBM Writing Indices for Eighth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Janelle M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is an alternative to traditional assessment techniques. Technical work has begun to identify CBM writing indices that are psychometrically sound for monitoring older students' writing proficiency. This study examined the predictive validity of CBM writing indices in a sample of 447 eighth-grade students.…

  19. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Resources and Strategies for the Use of Writing Projects in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Latulippe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    As an often recommended but under-utilized pedagogical strategy, writing in mathematics has many benefits for students. However, creating and grading worthwhile writing projects can be more time-consuming than utilizing more traditional forms of assessment. This paper provides a concrete example of a writing project prompt, questions, directions,…

  20. Fourteen Autumns: A Reading Teacher Teaches Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo-Anne R.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary school reading teacher describes how she restructured her teaching methods by encouraging children to read and write as part of an integrated process, rather than teaching reading alone as a set of fragmented steps. (GC)

  1. Materials for Assessing the Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nimehchisalem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the issues of concern in writing scale development in English as Second Language (ESL settings with an intention to provide a useful guide for researchers or writing teachers who wish to develop or adapt valid, reliable and efficient writing scales considering their present assessment situations. With a brief discussion on the rationale behind writing scales, the author considers the process of scale development by breaking it into three phases of design, operationalization and administration. The issues discussed in the first phase include analyzing the samples, deciding on the type of scale and ensuring the validity of its design. Phase two encompasses setting the scale criteria, operationalization of definitions, setting a numerical value, assigning an appropriate weight for each trait, accounting for validity and reliability. The final phase comprises recommendations on how a writing scale should be used.

  2. Approaches to pre-formulation R and D for phytopharmaceuticals emanating from herb based traditional Ayurvedic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D B Anantha Narayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanicals constitute a large part of the drugs from the traditional medicine (TM and ethno medicine (EM known for their history of safe use (HOSU. Phytopharmaceuticals having a base of such origin offer high advantages as they come with safety profiles, and often allow extrapolation of the HOSU data, under certain circumstances. However, while current pharmaceutical technologies are being adopted by the industry to make phytopharmaceuticals with such origin, there is a need for preformulation research and development (R and D during formulation. Some suggestions for R and D studies in case of aqueous extracts known in Ayurveda, converted on an industrial scale to obtain a phytopharmaceutical, and formulated as a solid dosage form (granules, tablets, or capsules are discussed.

  3. Documenting the conversion from traditional to Studio Physics formats at the Colorado School of Mines: Process and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Ruskell, Todd G.

    2008-10-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Over the past year we have converted the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format, starting from a traditional lecture-based format. In this paper, we document the early stages of this conversion in order to better understand which features succeed and which do not, and in order to develop a model for switching to Studio that keeps the time and resource investment manageable. We describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), solicited student comments, failure rates, and exam scores.

  4. Towards universal access to skilled birth attendance: the process of transforming the role of traditional birth attendants in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian; Escobar, Erin; Story, Mary; Tang, Shenglan

    2016-03-21

    Institution-based childbirth, with the ultimate goal of universal access to skilled birth attendance (SBA), has been selected as a key strategy to reduce the maternal mortality rate in many developing countries. However, the question of how to engage traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the advocacy campaign for SBA poses a number of challenges. This paper aims to demonstrate how TBAs in rural regions of China have been integrated into the health system under a policy of institutional delivery. Research was conducted through literature and document reviews and individual in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the safe motherhood program in rural Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 33 individual interviews were conducted with regional and local politicians, policy makers, health managers, health providers, civil society members, village cadres for women affairs, former TBAs, village maternal health workers, mothers and their mother-in-laws. Since 1998, TBA's traditional role of providing in-home care during childbirth has been restructured and their social role has been strengthened in rural Guangxi. TBAs were redesigned to function as the linkage between women and the health system. A new policy in 1999 shifted the role of TBAs to village maternal health workers whose responsibilities were mainly to promote perinatal care and institution-based delivery of pregnant women. This successful transformation involved engaging with government and other actors, training TBAs for their new role, and providing incentives and sanctions for human resources management. The China experience of transforming the role of TBAs in Guangxi rural area is an example of successfully engaging TBAs in promoting institution-based childbirth.

  5. A comparison of corrosion resistance of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum metal ceramic alloy fabricated with selective laser melting and traditional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Xiang, Nan; Wei, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy fabricated by selective laser melting is a promising material; however, there are concerns about the change in its corrosion behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in corrosion behavior of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy fabricated by the selective laser melting technique before and after ceramic firing, with traditional processing of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy serving as a control. Two groups of specimens were designated as group selective laser melting and group traditional. For each group, 20 specimens with a cylindrical shape were prepared and divided into 4 cells: selective laser melting as-cast, selective laser melting fired in pH 5.0 and 2.5, traditional as-cast, and traditional fired in pH 5.0 and 2.5. Specimens were prepared with a selective laser melting system for a selective laser melting alloy and the conventional lost wax technique for traditional cast alloy. After all specimen surfaces had been wet ground with silicon carbide paper (1200 grit), each group of 10 specimens was put through a series of ceramic firing cycles. Microstructure, Vickers microhardness, surface composition, oxide film thickness, and corrosion behavior were examined for specimens before and after ceramic firing. Three-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of porcelain firing and pH values on the corrosion behavior of the 2 alloys (α=.05). Student t tests were used to compare the Vickers hardness. Although porcelain firing changed the microstructure, microhardness, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, it showed no significant influence on the corrosion behavior of the selective laser melting alloy and traditional cast alloy (P>.05). No statistically significant influence was found on the corrosion behavior of the 2 alloys in different pH value solutions (P>.05). The porcelain firing process had no significant influence on the corrosion resistance results of the 2 alloys. Compared with traditional

  6. Journal Writing as a Teaching Technique to Promote Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the process of journal writing to promote reflection and discuss the techniques and strategies to implement journal writing in an athletic training education curriculum. Background: Journal writing can facilitate reflection and allow students to express feelings regarding their educational experiences. The format of this writing can vary depending on the students' needs and the instructor's goals. Description: Aspects of journal writing assignments are discussed, including different points to take into account before assigning the journals. Lastly, various factors to contemplate are presented when providing feedback to the students regarding their written entries. Clinical Advantages: Journal writing assignments can benefit students by enhancing reflection, facilitating critical thought, expressing feelings, and writing focused arguments. Journal writing can be adapted into a student's clinical course to assist with bridging the gap between classroom and clinical knowledge. In addition, journals can assist athletic training students with exploring different options for handling daily experiences. PMID:16791310

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ FREE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Phonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Writing contains a compound process to be expressed that entails the writer to pay more attention on linking appropriate words together. Most linguists agree that a writer should attain high level of understanding to pursue the lifelong learning of academic writing pedagogy. This study aimed to analyze the students’ free writing by identifying the category of mistakes that often appear on their writing assignment. 28 free writings were collected, as the main data, from 28 students as the samples for this study. They were then analyzed by using the guidelines of correction symbols from Hogue (1996 and Oshima & Hogue (1999. The results revealed that 11 categories of grammar that often applied incorrectly on the students’ free writing. The misused of verb-agreement (V/A was the most frequent category occurred, followed by word form (Wf and Spelling (Sp. The least category of errors identified on the students’ free writing was conjunction (Conj and wrong word (Ww categories. Overall, 175 errors from different grammatical conventions were repeated in the students’ free writing.

  8. BACK and DRAW activities for improving writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This present paper addresses the issue of writing as an important aspect of EFL instruction. Writing as one of the four basic language skills plays a pivotal role in the context of English teaching as a foreign language in Indonesia. Considering these problems, it is important to modify the writing process in such a way to cope the writing. The process of writing the writer means is BACK and DRAW activities. What the writer termed as BACK and DRAW is a set of writing activities involving students’ active participation in the process, their intense learning experience in producing a required text, as well as their interactive work with peers and the teacher. BACK and DRAW stands for Brainstorming, Attaching, Correcting, Keeping, Developing, Revising, Arranging, and Wow! Or Wonderful! Or Well done!. These activities are good ways to improve the writing Ability.

  9. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  10. Teaching Writing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaououi,Merbouh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing learners’ writing skills has been of concern for a long time in education. Students studying English in our educational institutions have been found to face problems mainly in writing, making them unable to cope with the institution’s literacy expectations. However, these students may be able to develop writing skills significantly with positive instructional attitudes towards the errors they make and awareness on the teachers’ part of learner problems. That is why they should improve classroom writing instruction to address the serious problem of students writing difficult. Teaching strategies has shown a dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing. Strategy instruction involves explicitly and systematically teaching steps necessary to use strategies independently. The following table will explain the above ideas.

  11. Impact of a Braille-Note on Writing: Evaluating the Process, Quality, and Attitudes of Three Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Lawson, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Educators of students with visual impairments have long advocated that children who read and write in braille benefit from access to and use of a braille note-taker (BNT) with refreshable braille display. However, little research exists that evaluates whether using a BNT impacts literacy. In this single-subject study, authors investigated if using…

  12. The Difficulties Experienced by Teachers in the Process of Primary Reading and Writing Instruction and Their Solution Offers for Eliminating These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogmus, Hatice Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to identify the difficulties that primary school teachers experience in the primary reading and writing instruction, and to find out their solution offers for eliminating these difficulties. The study group of the research is composed of 51 primary school teachers selected by criterion sampling as a type of…

  13. How the Writing Context Shapes College Students' Strategies for Writing from Sources. Technical Report No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennie; Hayes, John R.

    Observing the composing processes of students working over real time in naturalistic settings, two exploratory studies asked: (1) What skills and assumptions do freshman and advanced writers invoke when they are searching for information to be used in writing? (2) What strategies and goals do students bring to a typical writing-from-sources task…

  14. The Write Brain: How to Educate and Entertain with Learner-Centered Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for the writing process to facilitate motivation, learning, retention, and knowledge transfer in readers of expository material. Drawing from four well-developed bodies of knowledge--cognitive science, learning theory, technical communication, and creative writing--the author creates a model that allows…

  15. Democratizing Academic Writing: A Revision of an Experience of Writing an Autoethnographic Dissertation in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I revise my experience of writing an autoethnographic (Ellis, 2004) dissertation in the field of family therapy as a Colombian mestiza. I discuss how I grappled with my writing, and, in the process, stumbled into matters of democratizing texts. I problematize male-dominant academic standards, telling of the tensions when maneuvering…

  16. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  17. The Writing Suitcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Susan J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses one teacher's method for encouraging young children's literacy developemnt. Offers practical suggestions for involving parents in stimulating their child's early reading and writing skills. (DT)

  18. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  19. The art of scientific writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    The humanities teach students how to learn and communicate. Science teaches why everything works. Engineering teaches how to make things work. But scientists and engineers need to communicate their ideas amongst themselves as well as to everyone else. A newly developed technical writing course is outlined. In the class, offered to senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students, we read numerous short novels, essays, and op-eds. Some of the reading materials are technical but many are not. The students also have weekly writing assignments. When the first assignment is returned to the students with a grade of 20-30%, their first reaction is, ``how come I did not receive my usual 80-90%?'' I retort, ``you reach that level only when your essay is ready to be published in The New York Times.'' What is emphasized in the class is the process of creating something to write about, researching that something, expressing ideas coherently and comprehensibly, then endlessly editing the essay. The elective class has been offered three times thus far, all of its available seats are always filled, the students' evaluations have been outstanding, and the improvements in the students' ability to write by the end of the semester is quite impressive.

  20. Writing for Change — An Interactive Guide to Effective Writing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Writing for Change, you will learn the core skills of effective writing, how to write ... It is full of practical exercises and examples from the field of international development. ... Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Health in Colombia and Bolivia.

  1. Uncommon toxic microbial metabolite patterns in traditionally home-processed maize dish (fufu) consumed in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sarkanj, Bojan; Turner, Paul C; Marko, Doris; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toxins of microbial origin frequently contaminate foodstuffs worldwide and pose a serious hazard to humans. This study reports on LCMS/MS quantification of multiple fungal and bacterial toxins, from household sampling of 50 traditionally prepared maize-fufu samples from Bamunka village, western highlands of Cameroon. Seventy-four metabolites including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (12/50: mean 0.9, range n.d-1.8 μg kg -1 ), cereulide (50/50: mean 37; range 1-236 μg kg -1 ), deoxynivalenol (DON) (50/50: mean 23, range 14-55 μg kg -1 ), fumonisin B1 (FB1) (50/50: mean: 151, range 48-709 μg kg -1 ), nivalenol (NIV) (50/50; mean 268, range 116-372 μg kg -1 ), patulin (PAT) (15/50:mean 105, range 12-890 μg kg -1 ) and zearalenone (ZEN) (50/50: mean 49, range 5-150) were detected; and of note every sample contained at least 27 toxic compounds. While individual toxin levels were mostly low there is always concern regarding mixtures, for which data are absent or limited. This study reports several novel observations of toxins not previously reported in maize, and the mixture of toxins, e.g. cereulide, PAT and ZEN derivatives (ZEN-cis and ZENsulfate-cis) are reported for the first time in Cameroonian food. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Peer scaffolding in an EFL writing classroom: An investigation of writing accuracy and scaffolding behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the tenets of Sociocultural Theory with its emphasis on co-construction of knowledge, L2 writing can be regarded as a co-writing practice whereby assistance is provided to struggling writers. To date, most studies have dealt with peer scaffolding in the revision phase of writing, as such planning and drafting are remained untouched. The present study examines the impact of peer scaffolding on writing accuracy of a group of intermediate EFL learners, and explores scaffolding behaviors employed by them in planning and drafting phases of writing. To these ends, 40 freshmen majoring in English Language and Literature in the University of Guilan were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group consisting of dyads in which a competent writer provided scaffolding to a less competent one using the process approach to writing. Results of independent samples t-tests revealed that learners in the experimental group produced more accurate essays. Microgenetic analysis of one dyad’s talks showed that scaffolding behaviors used in planning and drafting phases of writing were more or less the same as those identified in the revision phase. These findings can be used to inform peer intervention in L2 writing classes, and assist L2 learners in conducting successful peer scaffolding in the planning and drafting phases of writing.

  3. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Writing Strategy (CWS in Writing Lesson Regarded to The Students’ Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiky Soraya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out what appropriate methods to be usedin writing lesson seen from the students’ creativity especially for studentswho have high creativityand low creativity. This study used quasi experimental research. The population of the research was the eighth grade of a Junior High School in Wonosari in the academic year of 2013/2014. The sampling technique used was cluster random sampling. The sample in this study was 64 students covering 32 students of E as experimental class and 32 students of C as control class. The data or the students’ writing scores were analyzed in terms of their frequency distribution, normality, homogeneity, then ANOVA and Tuckey tests to test the research hypotheses. Based on the result, the research findings are: CWS is more effective than MWS in writing lesson; the high creativity students produced better writing rather than the low creativity student; and the interaction of teaching methods and the students’ creativity is existing in this writing lesson. In short, Collaborative Writing Strategy (CWS is effective to teach writing for the eighth grade of a Junior High School in Wonosari, Gunungkidul. Then, the research result implies that it is better for the teachers to apply CWS in teaching and learning process of writing, to improve the students’ writing achievement, CWS needs to be used in the classroom activities, then future research can conduct the similar research with different sample and different students’ condition.

  4. Google Docs as a Tool for Collaborative Writing in the Middle School Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Fan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In this study, the authors examine how an online word processing tool can be used to encourage participation among students of different language back-grounds, including English Language Learners. To be exact, the paper discusses whether student participation in anonymous collaborative writing via Google Docs can lead to more successful products in a linguistically diverse eighth-grade English Language Arts classroom. Background: English Language Learners (ELLs make up a considerable portion of elementary and secondary public school students, as language and ethnic diversity has become the norm in the United States. The research literature finds that ELLs are statistically behind their monolingual peers on such key language and academic development indicators as writing. Educators and researchers then turn to collaborative writing with the assistance of online technology. Although it is shown in literature to be a worthwhile endeavor for students of all ages and ability levels, no studies have investigated the differences it makes, namely, in comparison to traditional face-to-face collaboration in the classroom, and to anonymous online collaboration in the virtual space. Methodology: Through face-to-face, online, and anonymous writing activities, a rubric, and a survey, this quantitative study asks if anonymous collaborative writing, com-pared to other modalities, equalizes participation among students of varying language fluencies, and if anonymous collaborative writing, compared to other modalities, affect student comfort levels. Contribution: This builds on research of online collaborative writing tools and suggests that using such tools (Google Docs in particular is beneficial, especially for students who are building their language abilities. The study further reveals varied degree of success and student comfort level in participating writing tasks in three modalities. Findings: We ascertain that students of varying language

  5. A preliminary study of dyeing greige cotton nonwoven fabrics with and without traditional scouring and bleaching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous study conducted at the Southern Regional Research Center had shown that certain processing metrics and conditions of hydroentangling greige (non-bleached) cotton removed almost all of the fiber’s natural hydrophobic impurities, such as the waxes, and made the resulting hydroentangled fabr...

  6. How to develop and write a case for technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, B.; Goldstein, J.

    1981-01-01

    Case of different sizes and shapes for teaching technical writing to engineers at Wayne State University have been developed. The case approach was adopted for some assignments because sophomores and juniors lacked technical expertise and professional knowledge of the engineering world. Cases were found to be good exercises, providing realistic practice in specific writing tasks or isolating particular skills in the composing process. A special kind of case which narrates the experiences of one technical person engaged in the problem-solving process in a professional rhetorical situation was developed. This type of long, realistic fiction is called a an "holistic" case. Rather than asking students to role-play a character, an holistic case realistically encompasses the whole of the technical writing process. It allows students to experience the total communication act in which the technical task and data are fully integrated into the rhetorical situation and gives an opportunity to perform in a realistic context, using skills and knowledge required in communication on the job. It is believed that the holistic case most fully exploits the advantages of the case method for students of professional communication.

  7. Exploring Construction of College English Writing Course from the Perspective of Output-Driven Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    English writing is regarded as the most difficult task by Chinese EFL learners. Due to the existing problems in present college English writing instruction, teachers fail to provide effective guidance in students' writing process and students report a low level of motivation and confidence in writing tasks. Through purposeful reading discussions…

  8. I Have a Voice and Can Speak up for Myself through Writing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Mustian, April L.; Allen, Ruth D.; Gilbert, Jamillah

    2016-01-01

    Writing can be a method of expression for those who cannot or do not feel comfortable expressing themselves verbally. For students with disabilities, however, writing can be a challenging task because they often fail to see writing as a process. This article examines how to use the self-regulated strategy development model of writing, an…

  9. Writing and Speech Recognition : Observing Error Correction Strategies of Professional Writers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, M.A.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the organization of speech recognition based writing processes. Writing can be seen as a visual representation of spoken language: a combination that speech recognition takes full advantage of. In the field of writing research, speech recognition is a new writing

  10. Implementing Keyword and Question Generation Approaches in Teaching EFL Summary Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary writing has been considered an important aspect of academic writing. However, writing summaries can be a challenging task for the majority of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Research into teaching summary writing has focused on different processes to teach EFL learners. The present study adopted two methods--keyword and…

  11. Writing an academic essay: a practical guide for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Y

    Writing academic essays can be a major hurdle and source of anxiety for many students. Fears and misconceptions relating to this kind of writing can be dispelled if the task is approached in a logical and systematic manner. This article outlines the key steps involved in successfully completing an essay and provides some practical tips to facilitate critical and analytical writing. These steps are: analysing the task; exploring the subject; planning the essay; writing the account; and revising the drafts. Although this process is challenging, academic writing is a means of developing both personally and professionally.

  12. Humor in the teaching of writing: A microethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Hempelmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the content of a critical thinking and writing course, along with similar courses derived from it, designed around the topic of humor and culminating in a microethnographic investigation of humor in students’ lives. The aims of the paper are threefold: to offer a general rationale for using humor in the writing classroom; to illustrate different types of potentials and dangers of such an approach; and to suggest extensions of the findings to the second-language writing classroom. The paper offers texts, writing prompts, and activities for instructors teaching classes that focus on the writing process in a first or second language.

  13. Investigation of Writing Strategies, Writing Apprehension, and Writing Achievement among Saudi EFL-Major Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asmari, AbdulRahman

    2013-01-01

    The tenet of this study is to investigate the use of writing strategies in reducing writing apprehension and uncovering its effect on EFL students' writing achievement. It also attempts to explore associations between foreign language apprehension, writing achievement and writing strategies. The primary aims of the study were to explore the…

  14. Creating Tension in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Bernarr

    This paper discusses the rationale and teaching methods for a six-week unit, for a high school freshman English Class, on perception, semantics, and writing, which places special focus on developing tension in student writing. The first four objectives of the course focus on perception and the next two focus on semantics. The seventh…

  15. Teaching Writing in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author provides motivation and a template for integrating and teaching writing in a variety of economics courses: core theory or introductory courses, topic courses, and economic writing/research courses. For each assignment, pedagogical reasoning and syllabus integration are discussed. Additionally, the author shows that…

  16. Writing that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Kenneth; Raphaelson, Joel

    Intended for use by nonprofessional writers who must use the written word to communicate and get results, this book offers practical suggestions on how to write business letters, memos, sales and fund raising letters, plans, and reports. The book covers general principles of good writing and emphasizes the importance of editing. In addition, it…

  17. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  18. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  19. Dream and Creative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2015-01-01

    Freud asserts that the unconscious will express its suppressed wishes and desires. The unconscious will then redirect andreshape these concealed wishes into acceptable social activities, presenting them in the form of images or symbols in our dreams and/or our writings. Dream is the unconscious which promotes the creative writing.

  20. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  1. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  2. Technical Writing Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…

  3. "Righting" the Writing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Eastham, Nicholas

    The problem of college students' writing skills or lack thereof is generally agreed upon in academia. One cause is the inordinate amount of multiple choice/true false/fill in the blank type of tests that students take in high school and college. Not only is there is a dearth of actual classes in writing available, few students recognize the need…

  4. Let's Write a Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, T. E.

    Some problems of writing scripts for radio and/or television are discussed, with examples provided to illustrate the rules. Writing both fictional scripts and documentaries are considered. Notes are also included to help the freelance writer who wishes to sell his work. (RH)

  5. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar

  6. Writing in Preliterate Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)

  7. Treatment of an azo dye effluent by peroxi-coagulation and its comparison to traditional electrochemical advanced processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale-Júnior, Edilson; da Silva, Djalma R; Fajardo, Ana S; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2018-04-05

    Peroxi-coagulation (PC) is an interesting new process that has not been widely studied in the literature. This work presents the application of this technology to treat an azo dye synthetic effluent, studying the effect of different parameters including initial pH, current density (j), initial dye concentration and supporting electrolyte. The two former variables significantly affected the colour removal of the wastewater, followed by the initial dye concentration and the kind of electrolyte, in a lesser extent. The optimum operating conditions achieved were initial pH of 3.0, j = 33.3 mA cm -2 , 100 mg L -1 of methyl orange (MO) and Na 2 SO 4 as supporting electrolyte. The performance of PC was also compared to other electrochemical advanced processes, under similar experimental conditions. Results indicate that the kinetic decay of the MO increases in the following order: electrocoagulation (EC) oxidation (EO) with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 oxidant character of the homogenous OH radicals generated by EF and PC approaches. The EO process with production of H 2 O 2 (EO-H 2 O 2 ) is limited by mass transport and the EC, as a separation method, takes longer times to achieve similar removal results. Energy requirements about 0.06 kWh g COD -1 , 0.09 kWh g COD -1 , 0.7 kWh g COD -1 and 0.1 kWh g COD -1 were achieved for PC, EF, EO-H 2 O 2 and EC, respectively. Degradation intermediates were monitored and carboxylic acids were detected for PC and EF processes, being rapidly removed by the former technology. PC emerges as a promising and competitive alternative for wastewaters depollution, among other oxidative approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  9. Observation of peers in learning to write: Practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elke Van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar,Journal of Writing Research 1(1, 53-83In this paper we discuss the role of observation in learning to write. We argue that the acquisition of skill in such a complex domain as writing relies on observation, the classical imitatio. An important phase in learning to write, at all ages, is learning to write by observing and evaluating relevant processes: writing processes, reading processes or communication processes between writers and readers.First, we present two practical cases: writing lessons in which observation and inquiry are amongst other key elements and where students participate in a community of learners. Then, we review research that may inspire and substantiate proposals for implementing observation as a learning activity in writing education. Two types of studies are discussed: studies in which learners acquire strategies by observing and evaluating writing and reading processes of peers, as a prewriting instructional activity, and studies in which learners are stimulated to 'pre-test' and then revise their first draft, as a post writing instructional activity. The paper closes with some recommendations for further research.

  10. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  11. A Pink Writing Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Löytönen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a collaborative writing experiment that explores spaces of diverse encounters that began at a research conference held in the Flamingo hotel in Las Vegas; spaces where knowings emerge in the (shared moment, in-between (ourselves, prompted by different (research questions and entanglements of matter and meaning. Through these multiple and emergent writing encounters we explore ways towards collaborative scholarly writing and accessible ways of working and knowing beyond the immediately known or sensed. In addition, this collaborative writing experiment serves to inspire and engage participants (qualitative researchers and ethnographers alike to explore, share, and disseminate knowledge across contexts differently. We call for writing in qualitative research that senses, figures out, and “reveals” via moving and sensuous bodies, and emerging embodied encounters within particular spaces.

  12. Peer-tutoring in academic writing: the infectious nature of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Íde; Cleary, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Students often struggle with writing as they are unaware of the process of writing and of strategies and skills to help them write well. They often focus on the product of writing rather than engaging with the process of writing. However, it is in the process of writing, and in the discovery of that process, that learning happens (Murray 1973, Emig 1977, Berlin 1982). It is thought that the inductive, non-intrusive model of student peer-tutoring practiced at the Regional ...

  13. Building a scholar in writing (BSW): A model for developing students' critical writing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Annette; Zanchetta, Margareth; Velasco, Divine; Pon, Gordon; Hassan, Aafreen

    2015-11-01

    Several authors have highlighted the importance of writing in developing reflective thinking skills, transforming knowledge, communicating expressions, and filling knowledge gaps. However, difficulties with higher order processing and critical analysis affect students' ability to write critical and thoughtful essays. The Building a Scholar in Writing (BSW) model is a 6-step process of increasing intricacies in critical writing development. Development of critical writing is proposed to occur in a processed manner that transitions from presenting simple ideas (just bones) in writing, to connecting ideas (connecting bones), to formulating a thesis and connecting key components (constructing a skeleton), to supporting ideas with evidence (adding muscle), to building creativity and originality (adding essential organs), and finally, developing strong, integrated, critical arguments (adding brain). This process symbolically represents the building of a scholar. The idea of building a scholar equates to progressively giving life and meaning to a piece of writing with unique scholarly characteristics. This progression involves a transformation in awareness, thinking, and understanding, as well as advancement in students' level of critical appraisal skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  15. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. Subjectivity Matters: Using Gerda Lerner's Writing and Rhetoric to Claim an Alternative Epistemology for the Feminist Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the common assumption among teachers that the traditional academic essay is the most appropriate sustained writing activity for students. As a feminist, the author believes that the traditional academic essay considers a positivist, patriarchal epistemology that governs beliefs about knowledge and teaching…

  17. Writing(s and subjectivation: From the modern citizen to the contemporary young subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Bermudez Grajales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text is related to the preponderant status that writing occupied in the political configuration of the modern citizen. Writing practices conceived for development of autonomy, self-control and domestication of passions were some of the ideas that promoted the construction of a rational individual who was able to participate in the public arena and activities conceived by the Nation-State. Nowadays, the meaning of modern writing has varied. Other writing styles are being developed in parallel to the economic, social and technological transitions. In fact, we do not require such a kind of modern writing as the only condition for the political participation. At present, social movements and the communicative and digital interactions of many youngsters, and their hyper textual narratives, show us a vindication of the oral, resounding and iconic as process of a political subjectivity that does not become a rational one in the modern sense but in a nomadic, vernacular and sensitive one.

  18. Hydrodynamics of writing with ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungchul; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Mahadevan, L; Kim, Ho-Young

    2011-12-23

    Writing with ink involves the supply of liquid from a pen onto a porous hydrophilic solid surface, paper. The resulting linewidth depends on the pen speed and the physicochemical properties of the ink and paper. Here we quantify the dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. Our experiments are carried out using a minimal pen, a long narrow tube that serves as a reservoir of liquid, which can write on a model of paper, a hydrophilic micropillar array. A minimal theory for the rate of wicking or spreading of the liquid is given by balancing the capillary force that drives the liquid flow and the resistance associated with flow through the porous substrate. This allows us to predict the shape of the front and the width of the line laid out by the pen, with results that are corroborated by our experiments.

  19. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J., E-mail: bwatt@nwmo.ca, E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca, E-mail: jfacella@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  20. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...