WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional end-of-pipe waste

  1. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  2. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  3. End-of-pipe denitrification using RAS effluent waste streams: Effect of C/N-ratio and hydraulic retention time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Arvin, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable aquaculture development requires increased nitrogen removal from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In this study, removed solids from a large commercial outdoor recirculated trout farm (1000 MT year−1) were explored as an endogenous carbon source...... the sludge cones generated 0.21 ± 0.01 g volatile fatty acids (VFA) g−1 total volatile solids (TVS), and the VFAs constituted 75% of CODS. Analogously, 1 g TVS from the drum filter generated 0.15 ± 0.01 g VFA, constituting 68% of the CODS. Comparison of the laboratory hydrolysis experiments and results from...... the on-farm study revealed as a rough estimate that potentially 17–24% of the generated VFA was lost due to the current sludge management. Inlet water to the denitrification reactors ranged in NO3-N concentration from 8.3 to 11.7 g m−3 and CODS from 52.9 to 113.4 g m−3 (10.0 ± 1.2 ◦C). The highest NO3-N...

  4. Evaluation of stormwater micropollutant source control and end-of-pipe control strategies using an uncertainty-calibrated integrated dynamic simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Ledin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene). MP fluxes were estimated by using an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data, runoff quality was simulated by using a conceptual accumulation/washoff model......The estimation of micropollutant (MP) fluxes in stormwater systems is a fundamental prerequisite when preparing strategies to reduce stormwater MP discharges to natural waters. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools in this step, as they can be used to integrate the limited data provided...... by monitoring campaigns and to evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where six different control strategies, including both source-control and end-of-pipe treatment, were compared. The comparison focused on fluxes of heavy metals...

  5. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Waste Management: A Case Study of Ongoing Traditional Practices at East Calcutta Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Raychaudhuri; Madhusmita Mishra; Poulomi Nandy; Ashoke R. Thakur

    2008-01-01

    Calcutta has a unique waste management system which uses the traditional non conventional practice for treating both the solid as well as soluble waste for its 12 million inhabitants . It not only detoxifies the waste but also generates resources for the existing society in form of employment as well as edibles like sufficient vegetable, fish as well as paddy for consumption. The elemental analysis of these products showed no metal toxicity due to their cultivation using waste resource. Thus ...

  7. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  8. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used

  9. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of substituting food wastes for traditional anaerobic digestion feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Camacho, María Natividad; Curry, Robin; Cromie, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In this study, life cycle assessment has been used to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts of substituting traditional anaerobic digestion (AD) feedstocks with food wastes. The results have demonstrated the avoided GHG emissions from substituting traditional AD feedstocks with food waste (avoided GHG-eq emissions of 163.33 CO 2 -eq). Additionally, the analysis has included environmental benefits of avoided landfilling of food wastes and digestate use as a substitute for synthetic fertilisers. The analysis of the GHG mitigation benefits of resource management/circular economy policies, namely, the mandating of a ban on the landfilling of food wastes, has demonstrated the very substantial GHG emission reduction that can be achieved by these policy options - 2151.04 kg CO 2 eq per MWh relative to UK Grid. In addition to the reduction in GHG emission, the utilization of food waste for AD instead of landfilling can manage the leakage of nutrients to water resources and eliminate eutrophication impacts which occur, typically as the result of field application. The results emphasise the benefits of using life-cycle thinking to underpin policy development and the implications for this are discussed with a particular focus on the analysis of policy development across the climate, renewable energy, resource management and bioeconomy nexus and recommendations made for future research priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT OF TRADITIONAL CRAFT INDUSTRY IN LOPATI TOURISM VILLAGE, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITASURYA Vincentia Reni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has been growing in Yogyakarta that can be seen through the development of rural tourism. The development of rural tourism has positive impact to improve local community’s welfare nevertheless, it has also negative impact onto environmental carrying capacity. Lopati tourism village is located in Bantul, Yogyakarta, relying on traditional craft industry as tourism attraction. Traditional crafts are livelihood of local residents, so that environmental management efforts become part of their daily lives. This research aims to review the roles of community to reduce environmental impacts through analyzing the waste management of traditional craft industry. It used case study method to examine the uniqueness of Lopati village. Data collecting used participatory action research techniques in order to gather information from residents. Community participation acted to anticipate negative impact on development of rural tourism.  Waste management in Lopati committed by local residents not to cause adverse environmental impacts. The result show that waste management based on community participation supports the development of rural tourism.

  12. Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China is now facing great challenges resulting from climate change and air pollution, driven by the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions produced by the coal-fired power industry represent approximately 70% of the total emissions in China’s industrial sector. In this study, 39 coal-fired power plants built in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in regards to the co-effects oncarbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions generated directly and indirectly by end-of-pipe measures of pollution control. After completing the quantitative analysis with input data from 83units of power plants, we found that co-effects were positive only for air pollutant reductions through the implementation of desulfurization, denitrification, and dedusting measures, but co-effects were negative for carbon dioxide production because of the corresponding electricity use and chemical reactions that led to the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. We also performed an assessment of the synergistic coefficients to better understand the degree of co-effects. It will be important for researchers to take a comprehensive view of China’s coal-fired power plants and look for solutions that can maximize positive co-effects and achieve overall co-benefits of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.

  13. Understanding the role of waste prevention in local waste management: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacho, Kristina O; Mosgaard, Mette A

    2016-10-01

    Local waste management has so far been characterised by end-of-pipe solutions, landfilling, incineration, and recycling. End-of-pipe solutions build on a different mind-set than life cycle-based approaches, and for this reason, local waste managers are reluctant to consider strategies for waste prevention. To accelerate the transition of waste and resource management towards a more integrated management, waste prevention needs to play a larger role in the local waste management. In this review article, we collect knowledge from the scientific community on waste prevention of relevance to local waste management. We analyse the trends in the waste prevention literature by organising the literature into four categories. The results indicate an increasing interest in waste prevention, but not much literature specifically concerns the integration of prevention into the local waste management. However, evidence from the literature can inform local waste management on the prevention potential; the environmental and social effects of prevention; how individuals in households can be motivated to reduce waste; and how the effects of prevention measures can be monitored. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking on local waste prevention, especially regarding the methods for monitoring and how local waste management systems can be designed to encourage waste reduction in the households. We end the article with recommendations for future research. The literature review can be useful for both practitioners in the waste sector and for academics seeking an overview of previous research on waste prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  15. Application Waste Sawdust as Mixed Polyurethane Insulation in Traditional Cold Storage of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Purwono Fitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of fishing it takes some supplies such as fishing equipment, instrumentation and storage of fish. The traditional fishermen of their fishing days fishing usually only bring ice cubes. Solid plastic polyurethane foam is a mixture solution of polyols and isocyanates, commonly used as an insulating material storage. From the observation waste generated being sawmill sawdust per spindle with diameter of 30 cm and a length of 1 m with 5 times sawmill, Saws 0.8 cm thick produced 0.0088 m³ / burnable logs only discarded. Therefore takes thermal conductivity test to review mixture of sawdust and polyurethane comparison with variations different dosing. Maximum disposals sawdust can be done is 40% of the total volume of material mixture, polyurethane and sawdust because composite material (sawdust-polyurethane can not be bond with good so easy slab separately from origin form. Thermal Conductivity insulating good and economical on disposals 40% wood flour (0.05252 W / m°C and is able to maintain a 2 kg of ice crystals melt up perfect on 34 hours. Operating profits economical from 4,8 m³insulation composite application with obtained Rp 4.486.000 compared with 100% Polyurethane Insulation Manufacture.

  16. The traditional healer in obstetric care: A persistent wasted opportunity in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond Akawire; Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2015-05-01

    Traditional medical systems in low income countries remain the first line service of choice, particularly for rural communities. Although the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is recognised in many primary health care systems in low income countries, other types of traditional practitioners have had less traction. We explored the role played by traditional healers in northern Ghana in managing pregnancy-related complications and examined their relevance to current initiatives to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. A grounded theory qualitative approach was employed. Twenty focus group discussions were conducted with TBAs and 19 in-depth interviews with traditional healers with expertise in managing obstetric complications. Traditional healers are extensively consulted to manage obstetric complications within their communities. Their clientele includes families who for either reasons of access or traditional beliefs, will not use modern health care providers, or those who shop across multiple health systems. The traditional practitioners claim expertise in a range of complications that are related to witchcraft and other culturally defined syndromes; conditions for which modern health care providers are believed to lack expertise. Most healers expressed a willingness to work with the formal health services because they had unique knowledge, skills and the trust of the community. However this would require a stronger acknowledgement and integration within safe motherhood programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Application Of Liquid Fertilizer Made Of Traditional Market Organic Wastes On Growth Of Setaria Grass (Setaria splendida Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarto Eko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are hugh amount of traditional market organic wastes that may polute the environment. In general, the wastes are utilized for compost making and liquid fertilizer as well for plant. The use of liquid fertilizer from organic wastes of traditional markets opens up opportunities for misplaced cultivation of Setaria grass (Setaria splendida Stapf, which is required by ruminant farms. This research was conducted to evaluate the best mixture of water to the fertilizer in term of its effectiveness on the variables and experimental method using Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were: 6 doses of mixtures namely 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 liters of water, each of which was mixed with 10 liters of liquid fertilizer. The variables measured were the height, the numbers of tillers, the numbers of leaves, and canopy. The results of the study showed that the doses of water in the fertilizer did not indicate any significant differences (P > 0.05 on all variables being studied, however, the linear equation showed that greater concentrations of water in the fertilizer tended to decrease the growth of Setaria grass. Suggested use of water on the liquid fertilizer mixture should be not greater than 30 l – 10 l fertilizer.

  18. The Application Of Liquid Fertilizer Made Of Traditional Market Organic Wastes On Growth Of Setaria Grass (Setaria splendida Stapf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendarto, Eko; Suwarno

    2018-02-01

    There are hugh amount of traditional market organic wastes that may polute the environment. In general, the wastes are utilized for compost making and liquid fertilizer as well for plant. The use of liquid fertilizer from organic wastes of traditional markets opens up opportunities for misplaced cultivation of Setaria grass (Setaria splendida Stapf), which is required by ruminant farms. This research was conducted to evaluate the best mixture of water to the fertilizer in term of its effectiveness on the variables and experimental method using Completely Randomized Design. The treatments were: 6 doses of mixtures namely 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 liters of water, each of which was mixed with 10 liters of liquid fertilizer. The variables measured were the height, the numbers of tillers, the numbers of leaves, and canopy. The results of the study showed that the doses of water in the fertilizer did not indicate any significant differences (P > 0.05) on all variables being studied, however, the linear equation showed that greater concentrations of water in the fertilizer tended to decrease the growth of Setaria grass. Suggested use of water on the liquid fertilizer mixture should be not greater than 30 l - 10 l fertilizer.

  19. SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT OF TRADITIONAL CRAFT INDUSTRY IN LOPATI TOURISM VILLAGE, YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    VITASURYA Vincentia Reni; PUDIANTI Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ecotourism has been growing in Yogyakarta that can be seen through the development of rural tourism. The development of rural tourism has positive impact to improve local community’s welfare nevertheless, it has also negative impact onto environmental carrying capacity. Lopati tourism village is located in Bantul, Yogyakarta, relying on traditional craft industry as tourism attraction. Traditional crafts are livelihood of local residents, so that environmental management efforts become part o...

  20. Waste water reuse as an alternative to the traditional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pinto, A.P.; Ramadori, R.; Santilli, N. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Acque; Lopez, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Acque

    1999-10-01

    After e brief presentation of the most significant international projects carried out in order to quantify the risk of infection in waste water reuse for irrigation, this paper examines, in a critical way, the disinfection technologies which are available today. [Italian] Il presente lavoro, dopo una breve rassegna sulle piu' significative esperienze internazionali condotte al fine di stabilire i rischi ambientali del riutilizzo delle acque in agricoltura, esamina in modo critico le principali tecniche di disinfestazione oggi disponibili.

  1. TRADITIONAL CANISTER-BASED OPEN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM VERSUS CLOSED SYSTEM: HAZARDOUS EXPOSURE PREVENTION AND OPERATING THEATRE STAFF SATISFACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M; Patel, N; MacLellan, D M; Millard, N

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to blood and body fluids is a major concern to health care professionals working in operating rooms (ORs). Thus, it is essential that hospitals use fluid waste management systems that minimise risk to staff, while maximising efficiency. The current study compared the utility of a 'closed' system with a traditional canister-based 'open' system in the OR in a private hospital setting. A total of 30 arthroscopy, urology, and orthopaedic cases were observed. The closed system was used in five, four, and six cases, respectively and the open system was used in nine, two, and four cases, respectively. The average number of opportunities for staff to be exposed to hazardous fluids were fewer for the closed system when compared to the open during arthroscopy and urology procedures. The open system required nearly 3.5 times as much staff time for set-up, maintenance during procedures, and post-procedure disposal of waste. Theatre staff expressed greater satisfaction with the closed system than with the open. In conclusion, compared with the open system, the closed system offers a less hazardous and more efficient method of disposing of fluid waste generated in the OR.

  2. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  3. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  4. Petroleum industry is cleaning up its act -- Self-cleaning filters to maximize profits, minimize waste and reduce liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent steps taken by the petroleum industry to control end-of-pipe pollution and to minimize waste at the source by changing over to self-cleaning, backwashable filters instead of the traditional disposable filters such as bags or cartridges, are discussed. Various self-cleaning filter systems and their advantages are described, using REACTOGARD which provides total protection for catalysts in fixed-bed reactors and EROSIONGARD, used in fluidized catalytic crackers, as examples. Both filter systems have been developed by RPA Process Technologies, Inc., a global leader in industrial filtration systems. Major advantages attributed to self-cleaning filters include significantly reduced costs through reducing the number of catalyst change-out cycles, maximized platform productivity through virtually eliminating the risk of plugged wells, reduced waste through ability to recycle cleaning liquids, increased profits through shorter return-on-investment cycles, reduced emissions and reduced future liability through higher safety in the workplace; also reduced pollution of landfill sites. 1 photo

  5. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  6. Risk management for noncombustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, K.K.; Rice, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Noncombustion Waste Risk Management Project is designed to incorporate the insights and information developed in these projects into tools that will help utilities make better noncombustion waste management decisions. Specific project goals are to synthesize information useful to utilities on noncombustion wastes, emphasize waste reduction as a priority over end-of-pipe management, develop methods to manage the costs and risks associated with noncombustion wastes (e.g., direct costs, permitting costs, liability costs, public relations costs), develop software and documentation to deliver the information and analysis methods to the industry. This project was initiated EPRI's Environment Division in late 1988. The early phases of the project involved gathering information on current noncombustion waste management practices, specific utility problems and concerns with respect to these wastes, current and potential future regulations, and current and emerging management options. Recent efforts have focused on characterizing the direct and indirect (e.g., lawsuits, remedial action) costs of managing these wastes and on developing and implementing risk management methods for a subset of wastes. The remainder of this paper describes the specific issues addressed by and the results and insights from the three completed waste-specific studies

  7. An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

  8. Design, empirical modelling and analysis of a waste-heat recovery system coupled to a traditional cooking stove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakdanuphab, Rachsak; Sakulkalavek, Aparporn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WHR system was implemented to utilise the waste heat from a stove. • The empirical modelling by RSM can be used to predict the generated TEG power. • The total conversion efficiency of the WHR system was more than 80%. • The stove efficiency decreased less than 5% when the WHR system was attached. - Abstract: In this work, a waste-heat recovery (WHR) system was designed and implemented to utilise the waste heat from a cooking stove. The WHR system was designed to preserve maximum thermal energy efficiency, use passive cooling, and produce a system that did not alter the body of the cooking stove. The thermal energy from the cooking stove was converted into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) and used in a waste-heat hot water boiler. The cold side of the TEG was cooled by heat pipes immersed in a water box that offers a high heat transfer rate. The heated water can be used for domestic purposes. Dependent variables were the heater temperature and the volume of water. The heater temperature was varied between 130 and 271 °C, and 4.2–9.5 L of water was investigated. At equilibrium, response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to empirically model the influence of the heater temperature and the volume of water on the electrical power generation and the hot water temperature. Experimental results of the system efficiency showed that the heater temperature was more influential than was the volume of water. The total efficiency of the WHR system was more than 80%. Thermal contact resistance was analysed to improve the WHR system performance. Finally, the thermal efficiency of a cooking stove, both with and without the WHR system, was measured. Results showed that the thermal efficiency of the cooking stove decreased by less than 5% when the WHR system was attached.

  9. Adoption of waste minimization technology to benefit electroplaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, E.M.K.; Li, C.P.H.; Yu, C.M.K. [Hong Kong Productivity Council, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation and enhanced environmental awareness, electroplaters in Hong Kong are paying more heed to protect the environment. To comply with the array of environmental controls, electroplaters can no longer rely solely on the end-of-pipe approach as a means for abating their pollution problems under the particular local industrial environment. The preferred approach is to adopt waste minimization measures that yield both economic and environmental benefits. This paper gives an overview of electroplating activities in Hong Kong, highlights their characteristics, and describes the pollution problems associated with conventional electroplating operations. The constraints of using pollution control measures to achieve regulatory compliance are also discussed. Examples and case studies are given on some low-cost waste minimization techniques readily available to electroplaters, including dragout minimization and water conservation techniques. Recommendations are given as to how electroplaters can adopt and exercise waste minimization techniques in their operations. 1 tab.

  10. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  11. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Riley, R.G.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe)

  12. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  13. The elimination of waste emissions from oil and gas production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the principal waste streams that have been identified from the production operations of all Shell Exploration and Production (E and P) companies. A phased approach has been identified to meet their target of eliminating over time all emissions, effluents and discharges that have a negative impact on the environment. In the short/medium term changes in operational procedures, together with end of pipe technology will be used to reduce emissions. In the longer term, fundamental changes to the production process will be required to eliminate the problem as far as possible at source, to re-use waste streams within the process and return any remaining unwanted material to the producing reservoir, without additional contamination. Carbon dioxide is currently regarded as a special case and will be reduced by minimizing the amount of energy consumed and/or wasted in the production process

  14. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  15. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  16. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuburovic, M.; Jovovic, A.

    2002-01-01

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  17. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  18. From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Wilts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating waste as a resource and the design of a circular economy have been identified as key approaches for resource efficiency. Despite ambitious targets, policies and instruments that would enable a transition from a conventional waste management to an integrated and comprehensive resource management are still missing. Moreover, this will require innovative policy mixes which do not only address different end-of-pipe approaches but integrate various resource efficiency aspects from product design to patterns of production and consumption. Based on the results of a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development named “POLFREE—Policy Options for a resource efficient economy”, this paper addresses several aspects of the conceptualization of policy mixes with regard to waste as a specific resource efficiency challenge. The guiding research interest of this paper is the combination of policies necessary to create a full circular economy. In a first step, the present waste policy frameworks, institutions and existing incentives at national level are examined in order to disclose regulatory and policy gaps. Based on this, the second part of the paper describes and analyses specific waste-related resource efficiency instruments with regard to their potential impacts under the constraints of various barriers. Based on the assessment of the country analyses and the innovative instruments, the paper draws conclusions on waste policy mixes and political needs.

  19. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  20. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  1. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  2. Evaluation of several end-of-pipe measures proposed to control cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, M.; Waajen, G.; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette

    2016-01-01

    While reduction in nutrient loading is a prerequisite for mitigation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in nutrient-enriched waters, in certain surface waters eutrophication control is not always feasible due to practical and economic constraints or might be effective only in the long run. Yet, the

  3. Evaluation of several end-of-pipe measures proposed to control cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, Miguel; Waajen, Guido; Senerpont Domis, de Lisette N.

    2016-01-01

    While reduction in nutrient loading is a prerequisite for mitigation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in nutrient-enriched waters, in certain surface waters eutrophication control is not always feasible due to practical and economic constraints or might be effective only in the long run. Yet, the

  4. Experimental study on pressure wave propagation through the open end of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Kumagai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The steam generators of a double pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are used in a large sodium pool which is formed between the primary vessel and the secondary vessel and accommodates the entire secondary heat transport system. Therefore, if there is a sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator, it becomes important to evaluate the pressure rises at the walls of the primary and secondary vessels as well as those at the other secondary components. An experimental study was performed, focusing on the propagation of the initial pressure spike of the-sodium-water reaction from the bottom end of the steam generator to the sodium pool. Pressure wave propagation from inside of a pipe to an open space through the pipe end was measured. Two kinds of pressure propagation media, water and air, ensured a wide range of experimental conditions. The experimental results revealed that the pressure attenuation at the open end of a pipe can be put in order using the concept of inertial length, and that the dimensionless inertial length, i.e., the inertial length divided by the half wave length of the pressure pulse, is proportional to the square of the dimensionless diameter. These results provide a prediction method for a pressure rise by the initial pressure spike in the secondary sodium pool of the Double Pool LMFBR

  5. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  6. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper

  7. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  8. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  9. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels

  10. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  11. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  12. Y-12 Plant waste minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mandate that waste minimization be a major element of hazardous waste management. In response to this mandate and the increasing costs for waste treatment, storage, and disposal, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant developed a waste minimization program to encompass all types of wastes. Thus, waste minimization has become an integral part of the overall waste management program. Unlike traditional approaches, waste minimization focuses on controlling waste at the beginning of production instead of the end. This approach includes: (1) substituting nonhazardous process materials for hazardous ones, (2) recycling or reusing waste effluents, (3) segregating nonhazardous waste from hazardous and radioactive waste, and (4) modifying processes to generate less waste or less toxic waste. An effective waste minimization program must provide the appropriate incentives for generators to reduce their waste and provide the necessary support mechanisms to identify opportunities for waste minimization. This presentation focuses on the Y-12 Plant's strategy to implement a comprehensive waste minimization program. This approach consists of four major program elements: (1) promotional campaign, (2) process evaluation for waste minimization opportunities, (3) waste generation tracking system, and (4) information exchange network. The presentation also examines some of the accomplishments of the program and issues which need to be resolved

  13. Nitrogen waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with particular focus on urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    a laboratory, mass-balance approach, the current study examined the effects of commercially applied feeding levels on the loading of different N waste forms, including daily fluctuations in dissolved total nitrogen (TN), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), urea-N, and non-characterized, dissolved N deriving from...... juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition, the study examined whether there was a removal of urea-N across a moving bed biofilter operated as end-of-pipe under commercial conditions. The laboratory, mass-balance study showed that there were no effects of feeding levels (1.3, 1.5 or 1....../nitrogen. Results from the commercially operated, nitrifying biofilter showed that urea-N was removed at a rate of 0.014 g N m2 day−1. Compared to the removal of TAN (0.208 g N m2 day−1), the moving bed biofilter was 1.07 times more active in removing dissolved N than immediately expected when only considering TAN...

  14. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  15. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  16. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  17. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  18. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  19. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  20. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  1. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  2. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  3. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  4. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  5. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  6. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  8. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  9. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  10. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  11. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  12. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  13. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  14. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  15. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  16. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  17. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  18. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  20. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  1. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  2. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  4. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  5. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  6. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  7. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES SYNTHESIS ON INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature and our own studies on the synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides on various industrial waste (food industry, agricultural sector, biodiesel production, etc. are reviewed here. Utilization of industrial waste to obtain exopolysaccharides will solve not only the problem of secondary raw materials accumulation, but also will reduce the costs of the biosynthesis of practically valuable metabolites. In addition, some kinds of waste have a number of advantages compared to traditional carbohydrate substrates: aside from environmental health benefits, there are technological ones, like the presence of growth factors. There is also no need to use anti-foam substances and substrate sterilization in the latter case.

  8. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  9. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  10. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  11. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines I: Identification of Phela Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHELA is a herbal mixture of four African traditional medicinal plants that has been used for decades in wasting conditions and is now being developed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) as an immune booster for patients with compromised immune system. A chromatographic fingerprint of PHELA was needed for ...

  12. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  13. Management of Port Solid Waste Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sergio Luiz; Fontana, , Carla Marísia Maccagnan; Fontana, Caio Fernando; Sakurai, Claedson Akio

    2014-01-01

    One of contemporary environmental issues refers to progressive and diverse generation of solid waste in urban areas or specific, and requires solutions because the traditional methods of treatment and disposal are becoming unviable over the years and, consequently, a significant contingent of these wastes presents final destination inappropriate. The diversity of solid waste generated as a result of human activities must have the appropriate allocation to specific ...

  14. Trigeneration in waste to energy plants for expanding the efficiency; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen zur erweiterten Energieeffizienzsteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reil, Eberhard [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    An impressive metamorphosis changed Waste to Energy plants from originally environmental risky plants to high sophisticated end of pipe technology sites to finally high efficient Energy production plants. Such described plants are situated in urban places to aware the connections into efficient power grids and district heating networks to provide the base load the whole year round. Nowadays the request for cooling is steady rising and again Waste to energy plants, connected to a district cooling network, takes over an important role for the supply. Such concepts are only marketable, if the required criteria's for efficiency are fulfilled. Such criteria's within Europe are the greenhouse gas emission factor and the primary energy factor. Both proof the efficiency of a system according to sustainability and environmental acceptance. Such criteria's are the result of the EU target to enhance the renewable within the energy supply while a more efficient use of site energy should take place. The Vienna Model was chosen as best practice sample. The district heating network is connected to all Waste to energy plants as well to the gas fired CHP plants in Vienna. The peak demand for the supply is realized by gas fired hot water boilers. In 2006 Fernwaerme Wien started to set up a district cooling network. The base load for the cooling derives from absorption chillers driven by heat from the waste to energy plants. According the EN standard 15316 part 4 and 5, method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies, the primary energy factor and CO2 factor has been defined for the Vienna model and as a consequence of that also for the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau. The average primary energy factor of the Vienna model calculated for the years 2006 to 2008 is 0,21 for the renewable part. According to the result the savings on primary energy have been 42 % and equates to 6,9 TWh/a. The reduc tion of the greenhouse gas emissions has been

  15. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  16. Waste -92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  17. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  19. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  20. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  1. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  2. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  3. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  4. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.

    1997-01-01

    The hospital radioactive wastes are of three types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Prior to final evacuation all these wastes are checked by a detector the threshold of which is lower than the standard. This system allows detecting activities very low under the daily recommended threshold of 37 kBq (1μ Ci), for the group II. In metabolic radiotherapy the unsealed sources of iodine 131 will form mainly the wastes arising from the rooms contaminated by the patient himself. In this service anything touching the patient's room most by systematically checked. All the rooms are provided with toilette with two compartments, one connected traditionally to the sewerage system for faeces and the other coupled to tanks for urine storing. The filled reservoirs waits around 10 month span prior to being emptied, after checking, into the sewerage system. The volume activity most be lower than 7 Bq per liter (standard). For the hot labs, injection room and in-vitro lab, the liquid waste retrieved from dedicated stainless sinks are stored in storage tanks and will waits for 2 years before evacuation. The undies coming from the metabolic radiotherapy service are possible contaminated by the patient sheets, pillow cases, etc. These undies freshly contaminated may be contaminating if the contamination is non fixated. All the undies coming from this service are checked like all the wastes by means of the fixed detector. For the solid wastes two evacuation channels are possible: the urban garbage repository for household wastes and the Brest waste repository for hospital wastes. For the liquid waste arising for urines, used washing water, etc, the evacuation will be done towards city sewerage system after storing or dilution. Concerning the liquid wastes presenting chemical risks, they will be evacuated in cans by NETRA. Concerning the gaseous wastes, trapped on active carbon filters, they will be handled like solid wastes and will be directed to the waste repository of Brest. The other

  5. A NEW WASTE CLASSIFYING MODEL: HOW WASTE CLASSIFICATION CAN BECOME MORE OBJECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcea Stefan Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management specialist must be able to identify and analyze waste generation sources and to propose proper solutions to prevent the waste generation and encurage the waste minimisation. In certain situations like implementing an integrated waste management sustem and configure the waste collection methods and capacities, practitioners can face the challenge to classify the generated waste. This will tend to be the more demanding as the literature does not provide a coherent system of criteria required for an objective waste classification process. The waste incineration will determine no doubt a different waste classification than waste composting or mechanical and biological treatment. In this case the main question is what are the proper classification criteria witch can be used to realise an objective waste classification? The article provide a short critical literature review of the existing waste classification criteria and suggests the conclusion that the literature can not provide unitary waste classification system which is unanimously accepted and assumed by ideologists and practitioners. There are various classification criteria and more interesting perspectives in the literature regarding the waste classification, but the most common criteria based on which specialists classify waste into several classes, categories and types are the generation source, physical and chemical features, aggregation state, origin or derivation, hazardous degree etc. The traditional classification criteria divided waste into various categories, subcategories and types; such an approach is a conjectural one because is inevitable that according to the context in which the waste classification is required the used criteria to differ significantly; hence the need to uniformizating the waste classification systems. For the first part of the article it has been used indirect observation research method by analyzing the literature and the various

  6. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  7. Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement

  8. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  9. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  10. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  11. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  12. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  14. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  15. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  16. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  17. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  18. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Waste segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  20. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  1. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  2. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  4. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  5. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  6. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  7. Massage Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Jaladat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  9. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  10. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  11. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  12. Comparative study of solid waste management system based on building types in Palembang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmyanto, Hendrik; Dahlan, Hatta; Zahri, Imron

    2017-11-01

    Most of the solid waste generation sources come from housing activities. The types of house buildings located in the Palembang is a traditional building which made from wood construction and a permanent house which made from concrete construction. The aim of this study is to calculate the amount of waste generation and to study the community behavior in waste management. The research used an observation and questionnaires that took place in 3 location of the traditional housing and 3 location of the permanent housing with 20 respondents for each location. The results showed that the waste generation in the traditional housing was 1.51 liters/person/day and the permanent housing was 1.63 liters/person/day. The collecting system in traditional housing was taken by the garbage cart every 1 days, while in permanent housing was taken by motorcycle, pick-up car, or dump truck every 1 or 2 days. The questionnaire results showed that 96,67% of the traditional housing and 91,67% of the permanent housing disposed of the waste in a mix condition. Amount of 6,67 % from the traditional housing and 0% of permanent housing managed their waste into compost. Amount of 15 % from traditional housing and 3,33% of permanent housing sold their waste. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the permanent housing has the largest number of waste generation and the people in traditional housing had a tendency to manage the waste better than the permanent housing.

  13. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  14. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  15. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...

  17. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  18. External costs of the urban solid wastes collect; Custos externos da coleta de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Cruz, Luiz Eduardo Reis da

    2002-07-01

    This work performs a comparison of the urban solid wastes collect through the use of two alternatives: traditional and selective collect, by using the social, operational and external costs (environmental and social). The work demonstrates that, nevertheless the initial costs of the selective collects are higher than the traditional collects, the traditional aggregated social costs are inversely proportional to the traditional collect.

  19. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  20. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  1. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  2. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  3. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  4. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  5. How Wastes Influence Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies are often surprised to learn that only a fraction of their activities actually add value for their customers. A primary cause of waste is information deficits – employees simply lack the knowledge they need to do their jobs efficiently and effectively. This leads employees to waste valuable time and motion searching, waiting, retrieving, reworking or just plain future action. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times.

  6. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Naþ, Kþ, Mg2þ, and Ca2þ and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  8. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  9. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  10. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  12. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  13. Indonesian Traditional Toys and the Development of Batik Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Indrayana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide array of traditional toys in Indonesia. In the past, traditional toys played an important role for skill and creativity development of children. Today, the position of traditional toys in the society is displaced by toys from large-scale manufacturers. Given the critical role of traditional toys for children’s motoric and social development, there is a need to develop media that can be used to promote these traditional products and strengthen their position in the public. We propose to use Batik as a way to effectively disseminate and promote traditional toys to the general public. Apart from this, using traditional toys to create new Batik motifs can have an economic value for the producers of Batik, promote Indonesian products and enrich the Indonesian Batik. This study aims to explore the variety of traditional toys, mainly from Klaten and Magelang, in the Central Java province of Indonesia, and use them as the basis for the development of Batik motif creation. This study used Trilogi Keseimbangan (or Harmony Trilogy aesthetic theory analytical approach that explains the creation of craft consists of the following phases: exploration, design, and materialization. The creation method in this study adopts Tiga Tahap Enam Langkah (Three Phases, Six Steps method offered in the theory. The finding in the field found that the traditional toys material used in Klaten and Magelang, mostly made from waste wood, plywood, and zinc. The manufacturing process is done manually by two or three craftsmen using a simple technology. The traditional toys are designed by the artisans mostly, although there may be designs from the clients. In addition, we also found that the traditional toys have never been used as a Batik motif. The traditional toys Batik motif presented in this work is researcher’s design. For the purposes of this study, we first research the variety of traditional toys available in the market today in Indonesia. We look

  14. GIS-based multi-criteria site selection for zebra mussel cultivation: Addressing end-of-pipe remediation of a eutrophic coastal lagoon ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdanavičiūtė, Ingrida; Umgiesser, Georg; Vaičiūtė, Diana; Bresciani, Mariano; Kozlov, Igor; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2018-04-11

    Farming of shellfish and seaweeds is a tested tool for mitigating eutrophication consequences in coastal environments, however as many other marine economic activities it should be a subject of marine spatial planning for designating suitable sites. The present study proposes site selection framework for provisional zebra mussel farming in a eutrophic lagoon ecosystem, aimed primarily at remediation purposes. GIS-based multi-criteria approach was applied, combining data from empirical maps, numerical models and remote sensing to estimate suitability parameters. Site selection and prioritisation of suitable areas considered 15 environmental and socio-economic criteria, which contributed to 4 optimisation models (settlement, growth and survival of mussels, environmental and socio-economic) and 3 predefined scenarios representing provisional goals of mussel cultivation: spat production, biomass production and bioremediation. The relative importance of each criterion was assessed utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Site suitability index was calculated and the final result of the site selection analysis was summarized for 3 scenarios and overall suitability map. Four suitability classes (unsuitable, least, moderately and most suitable) were applied, and 3 most suitable zones for provisional zebra mussel cultivation with 12 candidate sites were selected accordingly. The integrated approach presented in this study can be adjusted for designating zebra mussel farming sites in other estuarine lagoon ecosystems, or cultivation of other mussel species for bioremediation purposes. The analytical framework and the workflow designed in this study are also adoptable for addressing other aquaculture-related spatial planning issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Start-up performance of a woodchip bioreactor operated end-of-pipe at a commercial fish farm—A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for simple, maintenance-free technologies for removing nitrogen (N) from aquaculture effluents. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactors have been used successfully to remove nitrate-N (NO3-N) from ground and surface waters and may potentially be applied to dilute aquaculture effluents...... the bioreactor would start to remove NO3-N; ii) how fast steady state was achieved; iii) which NO3-N removal rates could be attained at the relatively low effluent temperature (∼8 °C) and iv) to which extent any concomitant leaching of phosphorous (P), ammonia or organic matter would occur. In- and outlet grab....... Leaching of non-structural, dissolved organic compounds were observed just after startup, causing a short-term (1 week) increase in effluent concentrations of COD, BOD5, P and ammonium. Additional measurements carried out until 147 days after start-up showed that the woodchip bioreactor continued to remove...

  16. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  17. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  18. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  20. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  1. Determining how much mixed waste will require disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    Estimating needed mixed-waste disposal capacity to 1995 and beyond is an essential element in the safe management of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. Information on the types and quantities of mixed waste generated is needed by industry to allow development of treatment facilities and by states and others responsible for disposal and storage of this type of low-level radioactive waste. The design of a mixed waste disposal facility hinges on a detailed assessment of the types and quantities of mixed waste that will ultimately require land disposal. Although traditional liquid scintillation counting fluids using toluene and xylene are clearly recognized as mixed waste, characterization of other types of mixed waste has, however, been difficult. Liquid scintillation counting fluids comprise most of the mixed waste generated and this type of mixed waste is generally incinerated under the supplemental fuel provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Because there are no Currently operating mixed waste land disposal facilities, it is impossible to make projections of waste requiring land disposal based on a continuation of current waste disposal practices. Evidence indicates the volume of mixed waste requiring land disposal is not large, since generators are apparently storing these wastes. Surveys conducted to date confirm that relatively small volumes of commercially generated mixed waste volume have relied heavily oil generators' knowledge of their wastes. Evidence exists that many generators are confused by the differences between the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the issue of when a material becomes a waste. In spite of uncertainties, estimates of waste volumes requiring disposal can be made. This paper proposes an eight-step process for such estimates

  2. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  3. Nairobi solid waste management practices: Need for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In the globalized world, the current focus in municipal waste management is on the development of sustainable and integrated waste management system, where the central role would be played by the public through effective participation. The reason for this is that the traditional system of collection, transportation ...

  4. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  5. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  6. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  7. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  8. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  9. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.

  10. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  11. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...

  12. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  13. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  14. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  15. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  16. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  17. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  20. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  2. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  4. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  5. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  6. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  7. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  8. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  9. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). Countries are moving waste up the waste management hierarchy away from landfilling towards waste prevention, reuse, recycling and recovery. According to the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA, 2012:5), around “70% of the municipal waste produced...

  10. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  13. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  14. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  15. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  16. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  17. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  18. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aila Pullinen

    2015-01-01

    Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...

  19. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786

  20. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  1. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  2. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward-Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into ''strings'' and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  3. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    In September 1989, a New York commission charged with choosing a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility announced its intent to conduct limited investigations at five potential sites. In this paper the authors review the commission's site selection process. After discussions with your office, the authors agreed to determine if the commission's consideration and selection of the Taylor North site was consistent with its prescribed procedures for considering offered sites. The authors also agreed to identify technical and other issues that need to be addressed before the final site evaluation and the selection steps can be completed

  5. Waste remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  6. Biomedical waste management in Ayurveda hospitals - current practices & future prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Renju; Robin, Delvin T; M, Vandanarani

    2018-03-16

    Biomedical waste management is an integral part of traditional and contemporary system of health care. The paper focuses on the identification and classification of biomedical wastes in Ayurvedic hospitals, current practices of its management in Ayurveda hospitals and its future prospective. Databases like PubMed (1975-2017 Feb), Scopus (1960-2017), AYUSH Portal, DOAJ, DHARA and Google scholar were searched. We used the medical subject headings 'biomedical waste' and 'health care waste' for identification and classification. The terms 'biomedical waste management', 'health care waste management' alone and combined with 'Ayurveda' or 'Ayurvedic' for current practices and recent advances in the treatment of these wastes were used. We made a humble attempt to categorize the biomedical wastes from Ayurvedic hospitals as the available data about its grouping is very scarce. Proper biomedical waste management is the mainstay of hospital cleanliness, hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. Current disposal techniques adopted for Ayurveda biomedical wastes are - sewage/drains, incineration and land fill. But these methods are having some merits as well as demerits. Our review has identified a number of interesting areas for future research such as the logical application of bioremediation techniques in biomedical waste management and the usage of effective micro-organisms and solar energy in waste disposal. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  8. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  9. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problems of recycling and solid waste. It is investigated traditional methods of waste management (storage, disposal, incineration. Authors insist on ineffectiveness of these methods, because of the pollution increases anthropogenic pressure on the environment. It is proved harmful health effects using the traditional methods of disposal. The question of introducing innovative recycling, particularly separating solid waste, the development and use of clean technology waste processing, using microorganisms, pyrolysis. It is determined implementation barriers such as lack of effective government support, and high cost. It is noted that there is a problem of underestimating the complexity, scope and specifics of the issue. The experience of developed countries is outlined. The comparative performance of existing tariffs for disposal of solid waste is used. The ways of solving problems are done.

  11. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  12. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  13. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  14. Waste Characterization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream's generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  16. Recommendations on national radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a nation, we have learned that sound technical solutions to the problems of waste disposal cannot be carried out without public acceptance. The key to gaining the public's confidence is a process of decision making which is open and accessible to elected officials from all levels of government. The Council believes that such a process can be put in place through a renewal of the traditional principles of our federal system of government. State, local, and tribal officials must become working partners with the federal government in making the crucial decisions about how radioactive wastes will be handled, transported, and ultimately disposed. A workable and effective partnership must include, first the full sharing of information and plans regarding waste disposal activities among all levels of government and, second, the opportunity for state, local, and tribal governments to participate effectively in waste management decisions which affect their jurisdictions. Finally, althougcome this difficulty

  17. Introduction to radioactive waste management issues in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This brief focused on wastes from commercial production of electricity and various industrial, medical and research applications of radioactive materials. Only traditionally solid wastes are dealt with. It was organized into five parts. Part I presented an introduction to radioactivity - what it is and the biological hazards associated with it. Federal regulation of the management of radioactive wastes was discussed in Part II. Existing state laws and bills currently before the Wisconsin Legislature were described in Part III. Part IV gave background information on specific areas of potential inquiry related to radioactive wastes in Wisconsin. Part V summarized the issues identified in the brief. 2 figures, 7 tables

  18. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  19. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  20. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  1. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  2. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  3. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  4. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  5. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  6. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  7. Traditional games in primary school curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Popeska, Biljana; Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Traditional games are cultural and national heritage. They, cultural and traditional activities transmitted from one generation to another, sharing different movement and cognitive games used in order to educate, to socialize, to share the experience and to influence toward development of young generation. The people create traditional games, and they represent the habits, culture and tradition of countries, region or even a town or village. There are lot of different traditional games. They ...

  8. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  9. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  10. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  11. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  12. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  13. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  14. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  2. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  4. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  5. [Co-composting high moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a sequential fed operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-11-01

    Co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes (celery and cabbage) and flower wastes (carnation) were studied in a sequential fed bed. The preliminary materials of composting were celery and carnation wastes. The sequential fed materials of composting were cabbage wastes and were fed every 4 days. Moisture content of mixture materials was between 60% and 70%. Composting was done in an aerobic static bed of composting based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. Aeration was ended when temperature of the pile was about 40 degrees C. Changes of composting of temperature, aeration rate, water content, organic matter, ash, pH, volume, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were studied. Results show that co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes and flower wastes, in a sequential fed aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation, can stabilize organic matter and removal water rapidly. The sequential fed operation are effective to overcome the difficult which traditional composting cannot applied successfully where high moisture vegetable wastes in more excess of flower wastes, such as Dianchi coastal.

  6. Nuclear wastes, a questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr

  7. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  8. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  9. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  10. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  11. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  12. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  15. Treatment of mixed radioactive liquid wastes at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1994-01-01

    Aqueous mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is traditionally generated in small volumes with a wide variety of compositions. A cooperative effort at ANL between Waste Management (WM) and the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) was established, to develop, install, and implement a robust treatment operation to handle the majority of such wastes. For this treatment, toxic metals in mixed-waste solutions are precipitated in a semiautomated system using Ca(OH) 2 and, for some metals, Na 2 S additions. This step is followed by filtration to remove the precipitated solids. A filtration skid was built that contains several filter types which can be used, as appropriate, for a variety of suspended solids. When supernatant liquid is separated from the toxic-metal solids by decantation and filtration, it will be a low-level waste (LLW) rather than a mixed waste. After passing a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, the solids may also be treated as LLW

  16. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  1. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  2. Nuclear waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition

  3. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  4. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  5. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513

  6. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    End-of-pipe options are needed whenever recycling and source reduction can not cope with waste streams at acceptable costs. One of the disposal options is waste incineration. The incineration of waste was considered 'clean' for a long time. In the 1970's and 1980's it proved that the incineration of municipal waste was a significant source of air pollution. Notorious pollutants were hydrogen chloride, hydrogen florid, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulate matter, 'heavy metals' and dioxines and furans. Most notorious and issue of public anxiety in some countries were emissions of dioxines and that might cause cancer and birth defects. Municipal waste is domestic waste from households and comparable waste from markets and companies. Consent is present that in the long history of waste incinerators, incineration in plants started in Europe around 1900, important steps to secure health and the environment have been taken and will be taken in the future. Debates are still going on the level of emissions that is negligible and acceptable. Also in the European arena waste management is about knowledge, perceptions, uncertainties and negotiations. Arguments are on the right level of ambition and the right level of fine-tuning where precautionary measures are discussed. The European Union decided to issue two European Directives on the atmospheric emissions from municipal waste incineration in 1989. This chapter focuses on the implementation and effects of the 1989 Directives. In section 2 of this chapter we summarize the bargaining on the 1989 European Directives. Section 2 indicates that characteristics of municipal waste incineration and the level of pre-existing national regulation sectors in individual member states played decisive roles. When the 1989 Directives came into force, the requirements had to be integrated in the national legislation in European Member States. In section 3 Germany and the Netherlands will prove

  7. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  8. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  9. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  10. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  12. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Sarkar; Lohith Kumar DH; Chanda Dhumal; Shubham Subrot Panigrahi; Ruplal Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines ac...

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  14. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  15. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  16. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  17. Public Information and African Traditional Communication Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of how African traditional communication and the literature produced about it portray African traditional communication. The analysis premises an interest to ascertain whether the portrayal is in a perspective showing traditional media as capable of playing expected public information role. Drawing ...

  18. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  19. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  20. Origen and the Platonic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria L.E. Ramelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study situates Origen of Alexandria within the Platonic tradition, presenting Origenas a Christian philosopher who taught and studied philosophy, of which theology was part and parcel. More specifically, Origen can be described as a Christian Platonist. He criticized “false philosophies” as well as “heresies,” but not the philosophy of Plato. Against the background of recent scholarly debates, the thorny issue of the possible identity between Origen the Christian Platonist and Origen the Neoplatonist is partially addressed (although it requires a much more extensive discussion; it is also discussed in the light of Origen’s formation at Ammonius’s school and the reception of his works and ideas in “pagan” Platonism. As a consequence, and against scholarly perspectives that tend to see Christianity as anti-Platonism, the final section of this paper asks the question of what is imperial and late antique Platonism and, on the basis of rich evidence ,suggests that this was not only “pagan” institutional Platonism.

  1. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  2. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  3. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  5. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  6. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  7. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  8. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  9. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  10. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  11. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  12. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE's waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ''best-in-class'' industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs

  13. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  14. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  15. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  16. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  17. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, Laurence; Moro-Goubely, Anne-Gaelle; Berthoin, Guillaume; Mathery, Christian; Galio, Pierre; Heyberger-Paroisse, Agnes

    2014-06-01

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  19. Improvement for waste water treatment process of a uranium deposite and its effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jimao

    2013-01-01

    Uranium was recovered from alkaline uranium ores by heap leaching and traditional agitation leaching methods at a uranium mine, and the waste water (including waste water produced in hydrometallurgy process and mine drainage) was treated by using chemical precipitation method and chemical precipitation loading method. It was found that the removal rate of uranium by the waste water treatment process was not satisfactory after one year's run. So, the waste water treatment process was improved. After the improvement, removal rate of CO 3 2- ,HCO 3 - , U and Ra was enhanced and the treated waste water reached the standard of discharge. (author)

  20. ITER waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Na, B.C.; Benchikhoune, M.; Uzan, J. Elbez; Gastaldi, O.; Taylor, N.; Rodriguez, L.

    2010-01-01

    ITER will produce solid radioactive waste during its operation (arising from the replacement of components and from process and housekeeping waste) and during decommissioning (de-activation phase and dismantling). The waste will be activated by neutrons of energies up to 14 MeV and potentially contaminated by activated corrosion products, activated dust and tritium. This paper describes the waste origin, the waste classification as a function of the French national agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA), the optimization process put in place to reduce the waste radiotoxicity and volumes, the estimated waste amount based on the current design and maintenance procedure, and the overall strategy from component removal to final disposal anticipated at this stage of the project.

  1. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  2. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  5. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  7. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall. 4 claims, 4 figures

  8. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  9. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  10. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  11. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  12. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  13. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  14. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  15. Marketing - tool transformation of traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Shinkarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of marketing on the TRANS­formation of a traditional society with its traditional values in a society of consumption. The de­velopment of capitalism inevitably leads to changes in the socio­political order of the whole modern world. This leads to the fact that the disappearance of the traditional elements of culture, crafts, songs and dances, rites, destroyed traditional norms and values, beliefs, moral and ethical values. Instead of the traditional culture is formed by the mass culture, society develops consumption goods and becoming all that you can sell. Marketing is one tool for the formation of a society of consumption, but it also performs other less prominent function transforms the traditional society into a consumer society with its values, mythology, norms and moral principles.

  16. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  18. Vulgarization of popular music tradition in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Božilović, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    The vulgarization of tradition in this paper implies the alteration, false representation, and adaptation of tradition in line with the interests of certain individuals or groups in power. The author observes popular music in Serbia (jazz, pop, rock) under a sociological magnifying glass, attempting to explain and motivate the thesis which proposes a valid historical foundation of popular culture and music in the social life of Serbia. In his opinion, this kind of tradition is being 'swept un...

  19. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  20. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  1. SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL M'ZABITE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T BELLAL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the morphology of M'zabite traditional houses. The study uses the space syntax method. Space syntax proposes a fundamental relationship between the configuration of space in a house and the way that it functions. It is the aim of this research work to test this proposition in an M'zab cross settlement sample. The study particularly focuses on the measure known as " difference factor ". The concept of difference factor has been widely used as a technique to measure the strength of a spatial genotype. As a preliminary conclusion, four characteristic patterns of integration are found, the first one centred on the Ammas N'tadart  [Berber for Wast Eddar], the second on the Ikoumar or arched portico, the third on the stairs, and the last but not the least, is centred on the Tigharghart or upper courtyard.

  2. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  3. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  4. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  5. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  6. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  7. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  8. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  9. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  11. Swedish waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwall, L.

    2004-01-01

    Sweden has a well-functioning organization for managing various types of radioactive waste. There is an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, a final repository for low and intermediate level waste, and a specially-built vessel with transport casks and containers for shipping the radioactive waste between the nuclear installations. (author)

  12. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  13. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  14. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  15. Ironing out industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a hazardous waste treatment known as the catalytic extraction process, which also stabilizes and reduces low-level radioactive wastes to a fraction of their original volume, easing their disposal. It uses molten iron and other metals to convert hazardous wastes into useful materials

  16. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  17. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  18. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  19. Waste inventory, waste characteristics and waste repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are two types of repositories for the low level radioactive wastes in Japan. One is a trench type repository only for concrete debris generated from the dismantling of the research reactor. According to the safety assurance system, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has disposed of the concrete debris arose from the dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The other type is the concreted pit with engineered barriers. Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center has this type of repository mainly for the power plant wastes. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) established by electric power companies is the operator of the LLW disposal project. JNFL began the storage operation in 1992 and buried approximately 60,000 drums there. Two hundred thousand drums of uniformly solidified, waste may be buried ultimately. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  20. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  1. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couth, R; Trois, C

    2012-11-01

    Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste-to-energy technologies and project implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogoff, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99 per cent. With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE. The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of food waste - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yangyang; Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Li, Yebo

    2018-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of food waste has caused significant environmental pollution and financial costs globally. Compared with traditional disposal methods (i.e., landfilling, incineration, and composting), anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising technology for food waste management, but has not yet been fully applied due to a few technical and social challenges. This paper summarizes the quantity, composition, and methane potential of various types of food waste. Recent research on different strategies to enhance AD of food waste, including co-digestion, addition of micronutrients, control of foaming, and process design, is discussed. It is envisaged that AD of food waste could be combined with an existing AD facility or be integrated with the production of value-added products to reduce costs and increase revenue. Further understanding of the fundamental biological and physicochemical processes in AD is required to improve the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsche, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE's Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP's charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program

  5. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. The efficacy of stethoscope placement when not in use: traditional versus “cool”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, William B.; Hanley, Anthony J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the “cool” or circumcervical placement of the stethoscope when not in use is as efficacious as the traditional placement in terms of transfer time to the functional position. Methods Measurement of time taken by 100 health care professionals in each group to transfer stethoscope to functional position. Results and interpretation The cool group was much slower than the traditional group, despite their younger years. This wasted time could translate into a substantial financial burden on Canada's health care system. PMID:11138413

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  9. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  11. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  12. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  13. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  15. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  16. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Fairhall, G.A.; Robbins, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  17. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  18. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  19. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  20. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  1. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  2. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  3. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  4. Nuclear waste landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the time dimension in nuclear waste disposal, with the hope of untangling future land use issues for a full range of radioactive waste facilities. The longevity and hazards presented by nuclear reactor irradiated (spent) fuel and liquid reprocessing waste are well known. Final repositories for these highly radioactive wastes, to be opened early in the 21st Century, are to be located deep underground in rural locations throughout the developed world. Safety concerns are addressed by engineered and geological barriers containing the waste containers, as well as through geographic isolation from heavily populated areas. Yet nuclear power plants (as well as other applications of atomic energy) produce an abundance of other types of radioactive wastes. These materials are generally known as low level wastes (LLW) in the United States, though their level of longevity and radioactivity can vary dramatically

  5. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  6. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  7. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  8. Optimal Stand Management: Traditional and Neotraditional Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Lee Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    The traditional Faustmann (1849) model has served as the foundation of economic theory of the firm for the forestry production process. Since its introduction over 150 years ago, many variations of the Faustmann have been developed which relax certain assumptions of the traditional model, including constant prices, risk neutrality, zero production and management costs...

  9. Traditional Healers' Views On Fertility | Mashamba | Indilinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is one of the major problems facing families, both in the public and private health sectors. This article reports on findings of a study that investigated the traditional perspectives regarding infertility. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods with five traditional healers who were selected through ...

  10. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops ...

  11. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  12. Malawi's Traditional Leadership and Democracy Consolidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that the tendency to brand traditional leadership as undemocratic masks debate on its great potential for the promotion of democracy. The article contends that efforts towards democracy consolidation require foregoing harmonious power relations and linkages between traditional leaders and elected local governments; ...

  13. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  14. Backpacking with a Prayer: Tradition and Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of Israeli backpacking as a function of traditional, observant, and secular population segments. We explored whether and to what degree backpacking features are related to the affinity of backpackers with the Jewish tradition and faith. Our study was based on a sample of 120 Israeli backpackers who had returned…

  15. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  16. Traditional healers and pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J. A.; Boeree, M. J.; Kager, P.; Varkevisser, C. M.; Harries, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Blantyre district, Malawi. To investigate the use that tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malawi make of traditional healers and traditional medicine. A questionnaire study was carried out on 89 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to QECH. Seven

  17. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  18. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  19. Reduce conflicts in traditional merariq traditions through the long tradition of the tribal people of sasak lombok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Saeun Fahmi, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Marriage is a container for framing the inner-to-heart relationship, the bond of love and affection between a man and woman to nurture a joy of happiness. This study aims to find out how the process and stages in traditional merariq traditions in the Sasak people, conflicts arising from merariq traditions, and reduce conflict through the tradition of selabar. The method used in this research is qualitative analysis method. In the process, merariq tradition is done by kidnapping the bride without the knowledge of the parents or the family of the women. There are several stages that must be passed by the bride and groom in the tradition merariq, namely: besejati, nyelabar, bait wali, sorong serah dan nyongkolang. Conflict that often arises, for internal family, merariq often become a place of coercion against the female family. For society, merariq impact on disruption of harmony of social life. In order to reduce the conflicts done selabar tradition, the tragedy is regarded as an alternative problem solving in the form of negotiations between the bride and groom’s family and the bride-to-be relating to ajikrame and pisuke transactions.

  20. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  1. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  2. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  3. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  4. Waste management: products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A number of products and services related to radioactive waste management are described. These include: a portable cement solidification system for waste immobilization; spent fuel storage racks; storage and transport flasks; an on-site low-level waste storage facility; supercompactors; a mobile waste retrieval and encapsulation plant; underwater crushers; fuel assembly disposal; gaseous waste management; environmental restoration and waste management services; a waste treatment consultancy. (UK)

  5. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF

  6. Traditional and non-traditional educational outcomes : Trade-off or complementarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Marieke; Waslander, Sietske

    2007-01-01

    Recently, schools have increasingly been charged with enhancing non-traditional academic competencies, in addition to traditional academic competencies. This article raises the question whether schools can implement these new educational goals in their curricula and simultaneously realise the

  7. Reducing the Cost of RLS: Waste Heat from Crop Production Can Be Used for Waste Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Richard; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of plant-based life support systems has traditionally suffered from the limitations imposed by the high energy demand of controlled environment growth chambers. Theme types of systems are typically less than 2% efficient at converting electrical energy into biomass. The remaining 98% of supplied energy is converted to thermal energy. Traditionally this thermal energy is discharged to the ambient environment as waste heat. This paper describes an energy efficient plant-based life support system which has been designed for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. At the South Pole energy is not lost to the environment. What is lost is the ability to extract useful work from it. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Program (CAAP) has developed a system which is designed to extract useful work from the waste thermal energy generated from plant growth lighting systems. In the CAAP system this energy is used to purify Station Sewage.

  8. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.

    1982-01-01

    This program is sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address basic concerns in assessing the performance of solidified radwaste. Experiments were initiated to address these concerns. In particular, leachability of solidified radwastes and the physical stability of the ensuing waste forms were evaluated. In addition, leaching experiments designed to address the effects of alternating wet/dry cycles and of varying the length of these cycles on the leach behavior of waste forms were initiated

  9. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  11. Waste management in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  12. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  13. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  14. Japanese Nuclear Waste Avatars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn Kirby, Peter; Stier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Japan's cataclysmic 2011 tsunami has become a vast, unwanted experiment in waste management. The seismic event and resulting Fukushima Daiichi radiation crisis created an awkwardly fortuitous rupture in Japanese nuclear practice that exposed the lax and problematic management of nuclear waste in this country to broader scrutiny, as well as distortions in its very conception. This article looks at the full spectrum of nuclear waste in post-tsunami Japan, from spent fuel rods to contorted reactor containment, and the ways that nuclear waste mirrors or diverges from more quotidian waste practices in Japanese culture. Significantly, the Fukushima Daiichi plant itself and its erstwhile banal surroundings have themselves transmuted into an unwieldy form of nuclear waste. The immense challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi site have stimulated a series of on-the-fly innovations that furnish perspective on more everyday nuclear waste practices in the industry. While some HLW can be reprocessed for limited use in today's reactors, it cannot be ignored that much of Japan's nuclear waste is simply converted into other forms of waste. In a society that has long been fixated on segregating filth, maintaining (imagined) purity, and managing proximity to pollution, the specter of nuclear waste looms over contemporary Japan and its ongoing debates over resources, risk, and Japanese nuclear identity itself

  15. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  16. Acetate conversion in anaerobic biogas reactors: Traditional and molecular tools for studying this important group of anaerobic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Lange, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Different methods were applied to study the role of aceticlastic methanogens in biogas reactors treating solid waste and wastewater. We used traditional microbiological methods, immunological and 16S rRNA ribosomal probes for detection of the methanogens. Using this approach we identified the met...

  17. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons

  18. Stabilization of compactible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  20. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Алексеевна Мамина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

  1. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  2. The Decline of Traditional Banking Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia Piciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.

  3. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  4. Environmental Optimization Using the WAste Reduction Algorithm (WAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally chemical process designs were optimized using purely economic measures such as rate of return. EPA scientists developed the WAste Reduction algorithm (WAR) so that environmental impacts of designs could easily be evaluated. The goal of WAR is to reduce environme...

  5. Waste Not, Want Not: Lactate Oxidation Fuels the TCA Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2017-12-05

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration is essential for tumorigenesis. Hui et al. (2017) and Faubert et al. (2017) demonstrate that lactate, traditionally viewed as a waste product of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis, is a major carbon source to fuel the mitochondrial TCA cycle in normal tissue and in tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanistic evaluation of the effect of calcium carbide waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium Carbide Waste (CCW) was used as an alternative to traditional Portland cement mineral filler in hot mix asphalt concrete to rid its disposal problem. Its effect on mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt was assessed using the Marshall method of mix design. Using the optimum bitumen content determined from ...

  7. Staff competence in dealing with traditional approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    backgrounds of patients there is a need for mental health professionals to recognize the existence of traditional approaches and be aware of the parallel systems of care. Competent treatment of such patients requires that mental health professionals are aware of this and exhibit a willingness and ability...... to bridge between the more traditional and the Western approaches to treatment. The delineations and various aspects of the concept cultural competence and its dimensions will be discussed from a clinical perspective. Comparative studies of the various Western and the traditional approaches respectively...

  8. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  9. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  10. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  11. Waste characterization practices: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent reviews of the records on disposal waste at several DOE sites have indicated that records still contain little information practical to waste management. Much of the disposed waste is identified by vague terms, i.e., general plant waste. Attached to this paper is a new waste characterization code devised by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to aid in waste volume reduction and stabilization. It is recommended that every facility involved in waste generation and disposal needs to be detailing its wastes to support upgrading of waste management practices. 1 table

  12. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  13. Processing of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennelly, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The processing of nuclear waste to transform the liquid waste from fuel reprocessing activities is well defined. Most solid waste forms, if they are cooled and contain diluted waste, are compatible with many permanent storage environments. The public acceptance of methods for disposal is being delayed in the US because of the alternatives studies of waste forms and repositories now under way that give the impression of indecision and difficulty for the disposal of HLW. Conservative programs that dilute and cool solid waste are under way in France and Sweden and demonstrate that a solution to the problem is available now. Research and development should be directed toward improving selected methods rather than seeking a best method, which at best, may always be illusory

  14. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  15. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  17. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  18. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  19. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  1. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  2. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  3. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  4. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  5. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  6. Operational waste volume projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

    1995-06-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the tri-party agreement. Assumptions are current as of June 1995

  7. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  9. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  10. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  12. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  13. Nuclear wastes: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are a major concern for all countries dealing with civil nuclear energy, whatever these countries have decided yet about reprocessing/storage options. In this chapter, a (exact) definition of a (radioactive) waste is given, together with definitions of waste classes and their characteristics (volumes, types etc.). The various options that are currently experienced in the world will be presented but focus will be put on the French case. Envision evolutions will be briefly presented. (author)

  14. Characteristics of healthcare wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Eggerth, L.L.; Enkhtsetseg, Sh.; Savage, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the quantities and characteristics of the material that needs to be managed is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for solid waste management. In this case, the material under consideration is the solid waste generated in healthcare facilities, also known as healthcare waste. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the quantities and characteristics of the various types of wastes that are generated in healthcare facilities. Thus, sound management of these wastes, particularly in developing countries, often is problematic. This article provides information on the quantities and properties of healthcare wastes in various types of facilities located in developing countries, as well as in some industrialized countries. Most of the information has been obtained from the open literature, although some information has been collected by the authors and from reports available to the authors. Only data collected within approximately the last 15 years and using prescribed methodologies are presented. The range of hospital waste generation (both infectious and mixed solid waste fractions) varies from 0.016 to 3.23 kg/bed-day. The relatively wide variation is due to the fact that some of the facilities surveyed in Ulaanbaatar include out-patient services and district health clinics; these facilities essentially provide very basic services and thus the quantities of waste generated are relatively small. On the other hand, the reported amount of infectious (clinical, yellow bag) waste varied from 0.01 to 0.65 kg/bed-day. The characteristics of the components of healthcare wastes, such as the bulk density and the calorific value, have substantial variability. This literature review and the associated attempt at a comparative analysis point to the need for worldwide consensus on the terms and characteristics that describe wastes from healthcare facilities. Such a consensus would greatly

  15. Annual report on the development and characterization of solidified forms for nuclear wastes, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; McVay, G.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Roberts, F.P.

    1980-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified nuclear waste forms is a major continuing effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Contributions from seven programs directed at understanding chemical composition, process conditions, and long-term behaviors of various nuclear waste forms are included in this report. The major findings of the report are included in extended figure captions that can be read as brief technical summaries of the research, with additional information included in a traditional narrative format. Waste form development proceeded on crystalline and glass materials for high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. Leaching studies emphasized new areas of research aimed at more basic understanding of waste form/aqueous solution interactions. Phase behavior and thermal effects research included studies on crystal phases in defense and TRU waste glasses and on liquid-liquid phase separation in borosilicate waste glasses. Radiation damage effects in crystals and glasses from alpha decay and from transmutation are reported

  16. Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, ...

  17. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  18. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATIUTI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hundred years and the youth totally ignore them. On the one hand, a large variety of names for different products have appeared on the market, but they are manufactured by big firms and do not have the quality of the traditional products. On the other hand, small producers often have hygiene problems. The reinforcement of traditional products can only occur if people know the quality and the value of the products obtained from the local animal breeds, many of them being endangered species.

  19. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  20. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  1. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  2. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  3. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  4. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... based on a descriptive survey from the western black sea region of Turkey · EMAIL ... on volatile oil constituents of Codonopsis radix (dangshen) by GC-MS method ...

  5. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  6. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... extracts of three Togolese medicinal plants against ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae strains ... Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of ...

  7. Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arugomedo, Alejandro [ANDES Association (Peru); Pant, Ruchi [Ecoserve (India); Vedavathy, S. [Herbal Folklore Reseach Centre (India); Munyi, Peter [International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Kenya); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya); Herrera, Heracilo [Dobbo Yala Foundation (Panama); Song, Yinching; Li, Jingsong [Centre of Chinese Agricultural Policy (China); Swiderska, Krystyna

    2009-06-15

    For indigenous peoples round the world, traditional knowledge based on natural resources such as medicinal herbs forms the core of culture and identity. But this wealth of knowledge is under pressure. Indigenous communities are increasingly vulnerable to eviction, environmental degradation and outside interests eager to monopolise control over their traditional resources. Intellectual property rights such as patents, however, sit uneasily with traditional knowledge. Their commercial focus wars with fundamental indigenous principles such as resource access and sharing. Local customary law offers a better fit, and findings in China, India, Kenya, Panama and Peru show how this pairing can work in practice. The research has identified common elements, and key differences, in customary law that should be informing policy on traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of traditional Ghanaian cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional vegetable oils derived from Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) and Werewere ... the FAO/WHO standards for permissible levels of impurity in edible oils. ... to produce Egusi and Werewere oils that are aligned with industry standards.

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These observations could be explained by some qualitative and /or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied. Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, Essential oil, Chemistry, Analgesic, Comparison, Benin, Congo. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  10. Sustainable architecture in the traditional Iranian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: mortezagharibeh@yahoo.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.

  11. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  12. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  13. MALAYSIAN TRADITIONAL AS A TREATMENT AND COMPLEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... e Management and Business, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ... traditional medicines are becoming increasingly popular for a .... on the respondents' experiences, views and opinions, open-ended questions were employed.

  14. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  15. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jirang; Zhang Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  16. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Jirang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: Jirang.Cui@material.ntnu.no; Zhang Lifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Alfred Getz vei 2, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: zhanglife@mst.edu

    2008-10-30

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  17. Integrated solid waste management: a palliative to existing waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a concept, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a sustainable ... on the perspective of consumers on waste generation, collection and disposal. ... to effective solid waste management in the case study area; non-sorting and ...

  18. Radiological waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter offers a description of the system of radioactive waste treatment as presented in the Belene NPP technical project and goes beyond the scope of the project evaluation in the account of the radioactive waste treatment, storage and disposal of other sources including the industry, science and the medicine of Bulgaria. The necessity for a developed legislative basis and an accepted policy regarding the radioactive waste management in the country is stressed upon. There is an elaboration on the problem of the construction of a new radioactive waste depository, the capacities of the existing disposal site being used up. 17 refs., 7 tabs. (R.Ts.)

  19. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  20. Waste as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, T. M.; Lorimer, A. D.

    1979-07-01

    The methods of using the energy available in wastes to reduce the energy costs in processes are discussed. Special reference is made to the need for careful evaluation of the potential of the waste to reduce energy costs, before significant investment is made. Problems generally arise due to the effective balancing of the cost of the waste pretreatment with the disposal fee and prime fuel saving. Special reference is made to use of waste as a fuel in the cement industry. Municipal refuse is discussed as a typical successful application.

  1. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  2. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  3. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  4. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  5. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  6. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has specific views on the following aspects of waste management: a) public information and public participation programs should be encouraged; b) positive political leadership is essential; c) a national plan and policy are necessary; d) all hazardous materials should receive the same care as radioactive wastes; e) power plant construction need not be restricted as long as there is a commitment to nuclear waste management; f) R and D should be funded consistently for nuclear waste management and ancillary topics like alternative fuel cycles and reprocessing. (E.C.B.)

  7. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  8. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellythorne, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  9. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  10. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  11. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  12. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  13. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  14. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  15. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  16. How to minimize wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambolet, M.

    1988-10-01

    Actions undertaken by the CEA to decrease the stock of natural and depleted uranium are presented in this paper. Various wastes and residues are produced in uranium fabrication. If for some wastes or residues processing methods were found previously, for other storage was the rule. Facing growing problems of safety, bulkiness, and cost new treatments allow to decrease a great amount of wastes. Uranium fabrication cycle, wastes and residues are described. Processing of the different residues of operations and optimization of manufacture are indicated [fr

  17. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  18. Waste management at WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.D.; Willax, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most of the waste is transported to KfK for conditioning. Only waste from the head end cell is cementated on the spot. HLLW is stored in stainless steel tanks. Some results from analyzing this stuff are given. The corrosion behavior is acceptable for medium term storage. (orig.)

  19. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  20. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  1. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU

  2. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. MATIUTI; A. T. BOGDAN

    2009-01-01

    Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hu...

  3. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Ozcan, Tulay; Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or ...

  4. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  5. Tao Masters: tradition, experience and ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bizerril Neto

    Full Text Available In this article I analyse the performative dimension that constitutes the transmission of tradition in taoist lineage located in Brazil, from the perspective of the anthropology of experience. The idea of knowing in taoism is based on a practical notion: one knows the legacy of tradition through personal embodied experience. The very possibility of knowing is based upon a personal relation between master and apprentice, inserted on a dialogical and genealogical.

  6. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  7. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sugumar, V. Raji

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. PMID:26438717

  8. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  9. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  10. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  11. Low-level radioactive waste vitrification: effect of Cs partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) immobilization options are cementation or bituminization. Either of these options could be followed by shallow-land burial (SLB) or above-ground disposal. These rather simple LLW procedures appeared to be readily available, to meet regulatory requirements, and to satisfy cost constraints. The authorization of State Compacts, the forced closure of half of the six SLB disposal facilities of the nation, and the escalation of transportation/disposal fees diminish the viability of these options. The synergetic combination of these factors led to a reassessment of traditional methods and to an investigation of other techniques. This paper analyzes the traditional LLW immobilization options, reviews the impact of the LLW stream composition on Low-Level Waste Vitrification (LLWV), then proposes and briefly discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV)

  12. Multiple system modelling of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the systems. → The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. → The simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models. - Abstract: Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  13. Waste to wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2010-01-01

    We currently live in a world where depletion of resources is beyond control. The call for sustainable development both environmentally and economically is spelt out loud and clear. Hence, the current and future generations must ensure that all resources shall be preserved, fully utilized and well managed. Waste generation has been part and parcel of man kinds pursuit for development, be it in social or economic activities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an example of socio-economic activities that entails with waste generation. Generation rates of MSW vary according to the economic and social standing of a country. This in return will also affect the management style of the MSW generated. Generally, the higher income countries generated more waste, recycle more and have the money to employ new technology to treat their waste. As for the lower income countries, the waste generated is more organic in nature, which calls for lesser recycling, whereas disposal is by open dumping. The effects of this naturally would mean that in the lower income countries pollution to the water and air is huge as compare to the more developed countries. However on the other hand, does waste alone generate harmful gasses that pollute the world or does manufacturing, transportation and power production, which is rampant in the more industrialized countries contributing more towards pollution? This subject is argumentative and could be discussed at length. However, the environment cannot wait for the population to debate on the above matter. Action needs to be taken in a world where economic power determines the treatment method. Hence, the idea of recovering all 'wealth' in the waste is essential to ensure that even the poorest countries could benefit from all waste management technologies. For this to work, recycling, reuse and recovery of energy is essential in an integrated approach towards waste management. This would also mean that many environmental disasters could be avoided

  14. Regulatory aspects of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.R.; Orlando, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) and contains hazardous waste that is either: (1) listed as a hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D; or (2) causes the waste to exhibit any of the characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C. Low-level radioactive waste is defined in the LLRWPAA as radioactive material that is not high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material, as defined in Section 11e(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and is classified as low-level waste by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses dual regulatory (NRC and Environmental Protection Agency) responsibility, overview of joint NRC/EPA guidance, workshops, national mixed waste survey, and principal mixed waste uncertainties

  15. Nuclear waste - a fresh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rather than looking at the nuclear waste problem in isolation, it should be viewed in the broader context of how society disposes of all of its wastes. A comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes shows, contrary to popular perception, that the properties of these two waste types are actually very similar. However, the methods of regulation and management of the two waste types are very different. It is time that these differences were reconciled - both the nuclear and the non-nuclear waste industries have a lot to gain. There are three main categories of (non-nuclear) waste: municipal wastes, hazardous wastes, and industrial wastes. Rather than treating each of these waste types in separate, isolated compartments, there should be an integration of the principles and regulations involved in their management. The non-nuclear waste industry has much to learn from the nuclear approach

  16. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  17. America's nuclear waste backlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses three topics: concern and controversy relating to nuclear waste; high-level waste storage and politics of waste disposal. The most pressing waste disposal problem concerns spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants. It was expected that commercial spent fuel would be sent to commercial reprocessing plants. The feasibility of commercial reprocessing in the United States is contingent on the expansion of the nuclear power industry. The current high-level liquid waste inventory is about 77 million gallons. These are stored at Richland, Washington; Aiken, South Carolina; and Idaho Falls, Idaho. The only commercial high-level wastes ever produced are stored at the defunct reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. A high-level waste repository must be capable of isolating wastes that will remain dangerous for thousands of years. Salt has long been considered the most suitable medium for high-level and transuranic waste disposal. The timetable for opening a deep geological repository is one of the issues that will have to be dealt with by Congress. The 97th Congress appears ready to act on high-level nuclear waste legislation. Even opponents of nuclear expansion admit the necessity of legislation. Even if Congress gets its act together, it does not mean that the nuclear waste issue is gone. There are still unknowns - future of reprocessing, the needs and demands of the military; the health of the nuclear power industry; the objections of residents in potential site areas; the possibility of a state veto, and the unsolved technological problems in geologic site selection

  18. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  19. Between tradition and renewal: Some considerations about the use of tradition in reformed theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van Vlastuin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the theology and practice of the Christian church a tension between tradition and renewal exists. This essay focuses on this tension to provide a first step of methodological reflection to deal with it. Firstly, this tension is illustrated from the reformed perspective of sola scripturathat led to criticism of the tradition on the one hand, whilst understanding the reformed movement as part of the tradition on the other hand. A danger of unqualified sola scriptura is subjectivity. Subsequently, the importance of tradition is elaborated from the perspective of the church as the body of Christ across all ages. This implies that Christians should study and love the traditional theology because of the fundamental unity of the church that transcends cultural diversity. Rejecting tradition will cut the church from its historical and spiritual roots. Thirdly, this raises the question whether the church is imprisoned by tradition, as well as the problem of the relation between tradition and renewal. In response, it is argued that the doctrine of incarnation guarantees openness to history. With the help of the philosophical and Christian view on structural contingency, the belief that tradition is principally open to renewal is defended. Some examples are given as illustrations of how classic theological concepts can be reframed in our postmodern context. The last part of this essay concludes with the insight of Cyprian that only the conveyed tradition can be renewed, implying that renewal is in essence not a new theology, but a new application of apostolic theology.

  20. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.