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  1. A STRUCTURAL MODEL DESCRIBE CHINESE TRADESMEN ATTITUDES TOWARDS GREEK STUDENTS CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia D. ANASTASIADOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tests evaluates 43 Chinese tradesmen opinios describe the main factors that influnce Greek consumers’ behavior. A structural model was constructed to represent the relationship between consumer components. The model was tested for its Convergent and Discriminant Validity. Moreover it was tested for its reliability and construct reliability. The findings from this study may be used by Chinese tradesmen to develop their marketing campains and customers.

  2. Tradesmen, Traitors, Pirates, and Prostitutes: Depictions of the Flemish in Later Medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Sara M. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the depictions of the Flemish in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales", Langland's "Piers Plowman", several historical chronicles including The Brut continuations, poetic works such as "The Libelle of Englysh Polycye", additional short poems dealing directly with events of the Hundred Years' War, and…

  3. a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...

  4. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  5. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  6. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  7. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  9. Female medical leadership: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerner, K J; Aasland, O G; Botten, G S

    1999-01-09

    To assess the relation between male and female medical leadership. Cross sectional study on predictive factors for female medical leadership with data on sex, age, specialty, and occupational status of Norwegian physicians. Oslo, Norway. 13 844 non-retired Norwegian physicians. Medical leaders, defined as physicians holding a leading position in hospital medicine, public health, academic medicine, or private health care. 14.6% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 15.4%) of the men were leaders compared with 5.1% (4.4% to 5.9%) of the women. Adjusted for age men had a higher estimated probability of leadership in all categories of age and job, the highest being in academic medicine with 0.57 (0.42 to 0.72) for men aged over 54 years compared with 0.39 (0.21 to 0.63) for women in the same category. Among female hospital physicians there was a positive relation between the proportion of women in their specialty and the probability of leadership. Women do not reach senior positions as easily as men. Medical specialties with high proportions of women have more female leaders.

  10. CROPPER: a metagene creator resource for cross-platform and cross-species compendium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Jussi; Storvik, Markus; Wong, Garry

    2006-09-22

    Current genomic research methods provide researchers with enormous amounts of data. Combining data from different high-throughput research technologies commonly available in biological databases can lead to novel findings and increase research efficiency. However, combining data from different heterogeneous sources is often a very arduous task. These sources can be different microarray technology platforms, genomic databases, or experiments performed on various species. Our aim was to develop a software program that could facilitate the combining of data from heterogeneous sources, and thus allow researchers to perform genomic cross-platform/cross-species studies and to use existing experimental data for compendium studies. We have developed a web-based software resource, called CROPPER that uses the latest genomic information concerning different data identifiers and orthologous genes from the Ensembl database. CROPPER can be used to combine genomic data from different heterogeneous sources, allowing researchers to perform cross-platform/cross-species compendium studies without the need for complex computational tools or the requirement of setting up one's own in-house database. We also present an example of a simple cross-platform/cross-species compendium study based on publicly available Parkinson's disease data derived from different sources. CROPPER is a user-friendly and freely available web-based software resource that can be successfully used for cross-species/cross-platform compendium studies.

  11. Crossed beam studies related to gas kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.J.; Lee, Y.T.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in methods of quantum mechanical calculations, electronic computer capabilities, and microscopic experimental methods have put us in a position to understand, evaluate, and extend our current knowledge of elementary chemical reactions. It is certain that, in the future, information derived from first principles will become more important in understanding chemical processes, although chemistry will remain largely an experimental science. Microscopic experiments, such as molecular beam methods, are not the general means for obtaining precise data on rate constants. They are designed not only to reveal detailed information on reaction dynamics with which to gain a clear understanding of macroscopic phenomena, but also to provide a benchmark for the future development of quantum chemical methods for solving the problems of chemical kinetics. Actually, collection of rate constants alone is not sufficient to understand many chemical phenomena. For example, in the modeling of chemical lasers, it is necessary to have detailed information on reaction dynamics. We will discuss contributions which crossed molecular beams have made to our understanding of elementary chemical reactions. It is likely that the advancement of crossed beam methods will make it an important tool for obtaining new chemical information in the future

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  13. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  14. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  15. The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of triploid progenies crossed between different ploidy grapes. L Sun, G Zhang, A Yan, H Xu. Abstract. The cross between different ploidy grape was one of the effective ways to obtain new seedless cultivars, in this study, through testing the changes of the ovule weight and observing its anatomical structure, the ...

  16. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  17. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  18. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  19. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17-40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; pCrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding.

  20. A cross-sectional study in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its ...

  1. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Sun Weiguo; Cheng Yansong

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  3. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  4. Cross-Pollinated Crop Variety Adoption Studies and Seed Recycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 126 maize farmers was conducted in northern Tanzania with the objective of examining adoption of cross-pollinated seeds among farmers who recycle improved seeds. In this study, an improved variety is defined as any variety that has been bred using formal plant breeding methods. Formally bred cultivars that ...

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria. ... Its economic impact on victims and family is tremendous. ... Road traffic collision was the leading cause of injury (121 patients; 80%), and 67.8% of these injuries were ...

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Task Specificity in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd; Myszkowski, Nils; Cheung, Ping Chung; Tong, Toby; Lau, Sing

    2017-01-01

    This study provides new evidence concerning task specificity in creativity--examining through a cross-cultural perspective the extent to which performance in graphic versus verbal creativity tasks (domain specificity) and in divergent versus convergent creativity tasks (process specificity) are correlated. The relations between different…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of Role Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; And Others

    Survey responses from 1,620 subjects in the United States, Greece, India, Peru, and Taiwan provide information on cross-cultural role perceptions. Study data reveal (1) the principal factors accounting for the variance in role perception in each culture, (2) those factors that are the same in all cultures, (3) the equivalent factor scores that…

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  9. Studies on the crossed flow type MHD turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Toshihiro; Katsurai, Makoto

    1981-01-01

    The studies on crossed flow type MHD turbines were performed to improve its characteristics. Two-dimensional models were considered for the analytical studies. To compensate the edge effect of magnetic field, the magnetic field gradient by tapering was considered. An iron-core structure and an air-core structure were investigated. It was found that the ideal characteristics can be obtained when there is the tapered length more than one wave length. Various methods for the improvement of magnetic field were studied in the case of practical crossed flow type MHD turbines. The methods were the adjustment with an iron-core, and the adoption of a curved channel. It can be expected to obtain the internal efficiency of more than 70 percent, when the number of pole-pairs is more than 10 and the radius of curvature of a few times of rotor radius is given to a curved channel. (Kato, T.)

  10. Experimental study of resonance crossing with a Paul trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takeuchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of resonance crossing on beam stability is studied systematically by employing a novel tabletop experimental tool and a multiparticle simulation code. A large number of ions are confined in a compact linear Paul trap to reproduce the collective beam behavior. We can prove that the ion plasma in the trap is physically equivalent to a charged-particle beam propagating through a strong focusing channel. The plasma confinement force is quickly ramped such that the trap operating point traverses linear and nonlinear resonance stop bands. Assuming a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator composed of many identical FODO cells, we measure how much ion losses occur under diverse conditions. It is experimentally and numerically demonstrated that too slow resonance crossing leads to significant ion losses as expected. Particular attention must be paid to the linear coherent resonance excited at a quarter-integer tune. When the beam intensity is high, this type of linear stop band can seriously affect the beam quality even for rather fast resonance crossing. A scaling law is given of the emittance growth caused by the quarter-integer resonance crossing.

  11. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of "chance," "coincidence," or "randomness" that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of "chance" is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group.

  12. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028

  13. Crossed-beam studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this program is to characterize the detailed dynamics of elementary radical reactions and to provide a better understanding of radical reactivity in general. The radical beam is typically generated by a laser photolysis method. After colliding with the reacting molecule in a crossed-beam apparatus, the reaction product state distribution is interrogated by laser spectroscopic techniques. Several radicals of combustion significance, such as O, CH, OH, CN and NCO have been successfully generated and their collisional behavior at the state-to-state integral cross section level of detail has been studied in this manner. During the past year, the detection system has been converted from LIF to REMPI schemes, and the emphasis of this program shifted to investigate the product angular distributions. Both inelastic and reactive processes have been studied.

  14. Flow visualization studies of bodies with square cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. T.; Clarkson, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    A water-tunnel study was conducted of four bodies. A solution of sodium fluorescein coating the body provided visualization of vortices and feeding sheets and isolated dots of methyl blue dye provided visualization of stream lines. These data, along with published oil-flow photos, were analyzed to develop the topological representation of the flows in cross-flow planes. Presented are the development of the flow along the body at fixed angles of attack and at a fixed body station with changes in angle of attack. Effects of roll angle, body corner radius, and nose bluntness are illustrated.

  15. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  16. Cross-section uncertainty study of the NET shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.F.

    1990-11-01

    The Next European Torus (NET) is foreseen as the next step in the European development towards the controlled use of thermonuclear fusion. Detail design of the shielding blanket protecting the peripherals, more especially the super-conducting coils, is well advanced. A cross-section uncertainty, i.e. a study of the expected inaccuracy due to the nuclear cross-section data, has been done for the neutron-gamma reactions in the insulation of the coils for such a design. As an extension of previous work on the NET shielding blanket (e.g. MCNP calculations), it was deemed necessary to estimate the accuracy attainable with transport codes in view of the uncertainties in microscopic cross-sections. The code used, SENSIBL, is based on perturbation theory and uses covariance files, COVFILS-2, for the cross-section data. This necessitates forward and adjoint flux calculations with a transport code (e.g. ONEDANT, TRISM) and folding the information contained in these coupled fluxes with the accuracy estimates of the evaluators of the ENDF/B-V files. Transport, P 5 S 12 , calculations were done with the ONEDANT code, for a shielding blanket design with 714 MW plasma fusion power. Several runs were done to obtain well converged forward and adjoint fluxes (ca. 1%). The forward and adjoint integral responses agree to 2%, which is consistent with the above accuracy. The n-γ response was chosen as it is typical of the general accuracy and is available for all materials considered. The present version of SENSIBL allows direct use of the geometric files of ONEDANT (or TRISM) which simplifies the input. Covariance data is not available at present in COVFILS-2 for all of the materials considered. Only H, C, N, O, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, and Pb could be considered, the big absentee being copper. The resulting uncertainty for the neutron-gamma reactions in the insulation of the coil was found to be 17%. Simulating copper by aluminium produces a negligible increase in the uncertainty, mainly

  17. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF 3 I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol -1 . In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum

  18. How minorities fare under referendums: A cross-national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Hug, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Referendums are often viewed as a threat to the rights of minorities. Empirical studies, so far, have tried to deal with the impact of referendums on minorities and civil rights at the subnational level by comparing either referendum or policy outcomes across subnational units. These units are......' preferences, either by protecting minority rights or reducing them. We test this proposition with national-level information on preferences and institutions as well as minority policies from countries spanning the whole globe......., however, often constrained by the national level of government. Hence, to understand the full effect of referendums on minority policies, cross-national comparisons are required. Based on existing game-theoretical models, we argue that referendums and initiatives push policies towards the voters...

  19. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  20. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pengagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  2. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pemployees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  4. Misinterpretation of facial expression: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, T; Someya, T; Helmeste, D; Tang, S W

    1999-02-01

    Accurately recognizing facial emotional expressions is important in psychiatrist-versus-patient interactions. This might be difficult when the physician and patients are from different cultures. More than two decades of research on facial expressions have documented the universality of the emotions of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. In contrast, some research data supported the concept that there are significant cultural differences in the judgment of emotion. In this pilot study, the recognition of emotional facial expressions in 123 Japanese subjects was evaluated using the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion (JACFEE) photos. The results indicated that Japanese subjects experienced difficulties in recognizing some emotional facial expressions and misunderstood others as depicted by the posers, when compared to previous studies using American subjects. Interestingly, the sex and cultural background of the poser did not appear to influence the accuracy of recognition. The data suggest that in this young Japanese sample, judgment of certain emotional facial expressions was significantly different from the Americans. Further exploration in this area is warranted due to its importance in cross-cultural clinician-patient interactions.

  5. New neutron cross sections for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Smither, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron cross sections are being developed for a variety of fusion-related applications including neutron dosimetry, fusion plasma diagnostics, the activation of very long-lived isotopes, and high-energy accelerator neutron sources

  6. Organizational home care models across Europe: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Liza; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Jonsson, Palmi V; Draisma, Stasja; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Decision makers are searching for models to redesign home care and to organize health care in a more sustainable way. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize home care models within and across European countries by means of structural characteristics and care processes at the policy and the organization level. At the policy level, variables that reflected variation in health care policy were included based on a literature review on the home care policy for older persons in six European countries: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, and the Netherlands. At the organizational level, data on the structural characteristics and the care processes were collected from 36 home care organizations by means of a survey. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the IBenC project. An observational, cross sectional, quantitative design was used. The analyses consisted of a principal component analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Fifteen variables at the organizational level, spread across three components, explained 75.4% of the total variance. The three components made it possible to distribute home care organizations into six care models that differ on the level of patient-centered care delivery, the availability of specialized care professionals, and the level of monitoring care performance. Policy level variables did not contribute to distinguishing between home care models. Six home care models were identified and characterized. These models can be used to describe best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross Functional Working and Concurrent Engineering – a UK Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preliminary results of an investigative study into the implementation of concurrent engineering applied to new product development. Concurrent (or Simultaneous engineering is the term commonly given to creating new products using multi-disciplined teams of marketing, design, manufacturing and support functions together with supplier and customers. Such techniques have produced robust, low cost quality products in short concept to market times compared to traditional ones. The research investigated design management practice and performance in a number of organisations across a range of industrial sectors in the UK by means of a questionnaire survey. The results identify the current use of a variety of design practices and methodologies such as different organisational structures, the extent of cross-functional working, the use of design and phase reviews and the use of different technologies. They indicate that companies implementing CE are more successful in time to market performance than those who don’t implement CE. Factors most influencing the successful adoption of CE are design and phase reviews, and, to a lesser extent, the use of multifunctional teams and supplier partnerships.

  8. Collagenous sprue cross-sectional imaging: a comparative blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bawardy, Badr; Sheedy, Shannon P; Herberts, Michelle B; Murray, Joseph A; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Rajan, Elizabeth; Bruining, David H; Hansel, Stephanie L; Barlow, John M; Fletcher, Joel G; Fidler, Jeff L

    2017-02-01

    Collagenous sprue (CS) is a rare enteropathy characterized by villous atrophy and a thickened subepithelial collagen band. The aim of this study is to describe the cross-sectional imaging findings of CS. A case-control, retrospective study with cases of all CS patients from January 2000 to 2015 was performed. Inclusion criteria were (1) Histopathologic diagnosis and (2) Imaging with computed tomography abdomen/pelvis (CT A/P), CT enterography (CTE), or magnetic resonance enterography within 6 months of small bowel (SB) biopsy. Control subjects were irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who underwent CTE. Imaging studies were examined by two GI radiologists, blinded to patient data. 108 patients (54 CS; 54 IBS) were included. Mean age was 56.7 ± 16.5 years, and 68% were female (72% in CS group vs. 63% in IBS group; p = 0.3). CS patients were significantly older (67 ± 12 vs. 47 ± 15 year; p reversal (46% vs. 6%; p < 0.001), SB dilation (28% vs. 0%; p < 0.001), SB conformational change (28% vs. 6%; p = 0.002), SB wall thickening (13% vs. 2%; p = 0.03), and ulcerative jejunoileitis (4% vs. 0%; p = 0.01). Radiologists suspected malabsorption in 72% in the CS group and 2% in the IBS group (p < 0.001). Imaging findings suggestive of mucosal malabsorption are commonly demonstrated in CS.

  9. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  10. Sleep disorders and oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Schmitt, Audrey; Thomas, Frederique; Danchin, Nicolas; Pannier, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs), particularly sleep deprivation, may alter the immune system and induce systemic inflammation. Recent evidence supports an association between SDs and periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aims to compare oral health variables, such as the amount of plaque/calculus, gingival inflammation, and masticatory function, in individuals with and without SDs. The study population consisted in a French cohort of individuals who underwent medical and oral examinations between 2012 and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression and general linear models were used for group comparisons. Over a total of 29,870 individuals, 11,185 (37.4 %) reported to suffer from SDs on a regular basis. Compared to individuals without SDs, SD individuals were older (mean age 44.2 vs. 45.3 years; p < 0.0001), prevalently female (38.6 vs. 52.1 %; p < 0.0001), and with higher BMI (25.3 vs. 25.7; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SD individuals displayed a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities, higher level of gingival inflammation (adjusted odds ratio 1.22 [95 % confidence interval 1.13-1.32]), and lower masticatory function (1.45 [1.33-1.58]). Short sleepers (<6 h of sleep/night) were found to be at an increased risk of gingival inflammation (1.25 [1.1-1.4]). SD individuals with moderate-to-high gingival inflammation showed a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.39 [1.04-1.84]) compared to SD individuals with low or no gingival inflammation. Individuals with self-report SDs are at increased risk of gingival inflammation. The coexistence of SDs and gingival inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These findings provide evidence for an association between SDs and gingival inflammation and support further clinical and experimental studies.

  11. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  12. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P school grade (P health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

  13. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  14. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  15. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity. PMID:24996220

  16. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  17. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  18. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p < 0.001). Dementia was more frequent in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Total MNA scores were significantly lower in cases with acromegaly than in the CG (p = 0.006). More subjects in the acromegaly group (33%) were at greater risk of malnutrition than in the CG (3%) (p = 0.003). There was greater moderate functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  20. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  1. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  2. Epilogue: The study of care in cross cultural, interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available for this article... Keywords: care in cross culture, interdisciplinary perspective. Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 95-101). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  3. Cross-country learning in public procurement : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Kimberly; Senden, Shirin; Telgen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All countries use public procurement to some degree to further policy objectives such as sustainability, innovation, fighting fraud and corruption, value for taxpayers’ money etc. Countries may learn from past successes and failures in other countries while implementing these policies: cross-country

  4. Intermediate structure studies of 234U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.; Schindler, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron induced fission and total cross sections of 234 U have been measured over the neutron energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Neutron and fission widths for 118 cross section resonances below 1500 eV have been determined and give a class I level spacing of 10.64 + -0.46 eV and a neutron strength function of (0.857 +- 0.108)x10 -4 . These fine structure resonances comprise a narrow intermediate structure resonance in the sub-threshold fission cross section of 234 U. Parameters for the Lorentzian energy dependence of the mean fission width are deduced on the assumption that, relative to this mean, the observed fission widths have a Porter-Thomas distribution. Two large fission widths measured for resonances at 1092.5 eV and 1134 eV may indicate the presence of a second narrow intermediate structure resonance at about this energy. The class II level spacing derived from the observation of 7 resonances below 13 keV is 2.1 +-0.3 keV. Pronounced breaks in the fission cross section at 310 keV, 550 keV and 720 keV are assumed to be due to β-vibrational levels in the second minimum of the Strutinsky potential. Fluctuations due to the presence of class II resonances are strongly evident for each of these vibrational levels. It is shown that the fluctuations near 310 keV are consistent with parameters deduced from the low energy data and this enables parameters for the double humped fission barrier potential to be obtained

  5. Nanojoining of crossed Ag nanowires: a molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jianlei, E-mail: cjlxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Xuewen; Barayavuga, Theogene; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering (China); He, Xiaoqiao, E-mail: bcxqhe@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Hong Kong)

    2016-07-15

    Ag nanowires are considered to be the promising candidates for future electronic circuit owing to the excellent electrical and thermal properties, with the miniaturization of electronics devices into nanometer scale. Though interconnect technology between Ag nanowires (Ag NWs) is essential for nanofunctional devices, it lacks sufficient experimental data. Besides, the determination of Ag NW interconnection configuration is experimentally difficult to do for lacking the sufficient investigation of atomic configuration evolution during nanojoining process. So the nanojoining between the crossed Ag NWs with the same diameter of 2 nm and different lengths was performed by molecular dynamics simulation to explain the unclear nanojoining mechanism based on thermal effect. As the simulation results present, when the nanojoining temperature is relatively high, though the Ag NWs are connected with the interpenetration effect of Ag atoms at the crossed nanojunction area, the nanostructures of Ag NWs have been seriously deformed with shorter length and larger diameter, showing relatively more obvious melting characteristics based on the chaotic atomic structures. If the temperature is reduced to 300 K as cold welding, the crossed Ag NWs can be partially contacted with the partial mixture of Ag atoms, and the interstices always exist between the Si surface and the upper Ag nanowire. In addition, the obvious dislocation phenomenon will appear and evolve as time goes on. Consequently, the dominant mechanism was revealed for providing a fundamental understanding of how ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ welding technology affects the atomic contact configuration, respectively.

  6. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  7. Cross-dressing as a meaningful occupation: a single case study

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Morag; Morris, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of cross-dressing, to raise awareness of cross-dressing and investigate any possible implications for occupational therapy.\\ud \\ud Method: A single design case study utilizing an unstructured interview was used with a male cross-dresser known to the first author. Following transcription, flexible and ongoing analysis was undertaken following an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach and emergent...

  8. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  9. Neutron halo in 14B studied via reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Tanaka, M.; Iwamoto, K.; Wakabayashi, S.; Yaguchi, M.; Ohno, J.; Morita, Y.; Kamisho, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Nishimura, D.; Suzuki, S.; Nagashima, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ogura, T.; Abe, K.; Kikukawa, N.; Sakai, T.; Sera, D.; Takechi, M.; Izumikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sato, K.; Furuki, H.; Miyazawa, S.; Ichihashi, N.; Kohno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Fukuda, S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction cross sections (σ R ) for the neutron-rich nucleus 14 B on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at several energies in the intermediate energy range of 45-120 MeV/nucleon. The present experimental σ R show a significant enhancement relative to the systematics of stable nuclei. The nucleon density distribution was deduced through the fitting procedure with the modified Glauber calculation. The necessity of a long tail in the density distribution was found, which is consistent with the valence neutron in 2s 1/2 orbital with the small empirical one-neutron separation energy in 14 B. (authors)

  10. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicj [INTEL

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee

  11. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study of Preschool Quality in South Korea and Sweden: ECERS Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Giota, Joanna; Han, You-Me; Kwon, Jeong-Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural similarities and differences in preschool quality in South Korean and Swedish preschools as measured by two national adaptations of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). The approach adopted is that cross-cultural comparisons of preschool quality are both achievable and of great…

  13. A Cross-National Study of Secondary Science Classroom Environments in Australia and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) cross validate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of…

  14. Models for stiffening in cross-linked biopolymer networks : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.

    In a recent publication, we studied the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear [Onck, P.R., Koeman, T., Van Dillen, T., Van der Giessen, E., 2005. Alternative explanation of stiffening in cross-linked

  15. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  16. The E. coli immunosorbent as used in serodiagnosis of Legionella infections studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Friis-Møller, A; Rechnitzer, C

    1988-01-01

    In this study we investigated an immunosorbent, E. coli blocking fluid (BF), proposed for use in the Legionella Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFA). With crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) of clinically relevant Legionella species, only one heat-stable antigen (no. 1) cross...

  17. Korean Social Studies Preservice Teachers' Cross-Cultural Learning and Global Perspective Development: Crossing Borders between Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung; Choi, Minsik

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cross-cultural learning experiences on Korean preservice social studies teachers' global perspectives development. Social studies preservice teachers in a large woman's university in Korea participated in a cross-cultural learning course, which focused on critical understanding of globalization and global…

  18. Cross-study and cross-omics comparisons of three nephrotoxic compounds reveal mechanistic insights and new candidate biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.

  19. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  20. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  2. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-a-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  3. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-à-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  4. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-\\'{a}-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  5. Variations in Textualization: A Cross-generic and Cross-disciplinary Study, Implications for Readability of the Academic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Abbasi Bonabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to discoursal views on language, variations in textualization strategies are always socio-contextually motivated and never happen at random. The textual forms employed in a text, along with many other discoursal and contextual factors, could certainly affect the readability of the text, making it more or less processable for the same reader. On the basis of these assumptions, the present study set out to examine how our data varied across genres and disciplines in terms of our target textual forms. These forms are as follows: the magnitude of T-unit (MOTU, the degree of embeddedness of the main verb in T-unit (DE, the physical distance between the verb and its satellite elements (PD, the magnitude of the noun phrase appearing before the verb (MOX, and the magnitude of noun phrase appearing after the verb (MOY. Our data consisted of 20 research articles randomly selected from two different disciplines of Biology and Applied Linguistics, to be analyzed in terms of the above-named textual strategies. One way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used for data analyses. The results revealed cross-generic as well as cross-disciplinary differences in the employment of the above textual forms. These findings were discussed in terms of the academic concepts and discourse on the one hand and the possible effect of the required textual forms on the readability of the text on the other hand.

  6. Study on relations between heavy ions single event upset cross sections and γ accumulated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; Wang Yanping; Peng Honglun; Yang Hailiang; Chen Xiaohua; Li Guozheng

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were done under 252 Cf and 60 Co γ source to study the relation between heavy ion Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections and γ accumulated doses. There was no obvious rule and little influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections when Static Random Access Memories were in power off mode and static power on mode. In active measuring mode, the SEU cross section increased as the accumulated doses increasing when same data were written in memory cells. If reverse data, such as '55' and 'AA', were written in memory cells during the experiment, the SEU cross sections decreased to the level when memories were not irradiated under 60 Co γ source, even more small. It implied that the influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections can be set off by this method

  7. Studying the ωN elastic and inelastic cross section with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, Ye.S.; Kondratyuk, L.A.; Buescher, M.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the possibility to measure the elastic and inelastic ωN cross section in p+d→d+ω+p sp and p+A reactions. Our studies indicate that the elastic scattering cross sections can be determined for ω momenta above 1 GeV/c in p+d reactions by gating on high proton spectator momenta whereas the ωN absorption cross section down to low relative ω momenta is most effectively studied in p+A reactions at beam energies 2.0-2.7 GeV. (orig.)

  8. Augmented cross-sectional studies with abbreviated follow-up for estimating HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, B; Lagakos, S W; Wang, R

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010, Biometrics 66, 864-874) propose an augmented cross-sectional design that provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this article, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. © 2011, The

  9. A comparative study of cross sections at few energy groups for thermal reactors fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Prati, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study of nuclear constant calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author)

  10. Intelligent transportation systems for planned special events : a cross-cutting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This cross-cutting study examines how six agencies in five states used and continue to use ITS to reduce congestion generated by planned special events, thereby reducing crashes, increasing travel time reliability, and reducing driver frustration.

  11. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  12. Servant leadership in organizations : a cross-national study.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, David Teckleong

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to gain a clearer understanding of the phenomenon of servant leadership through the analysis of historical and contemporary empirical data. The study was prompted by recent reports of leadership practices in progressive organizations from leading economies where the traditional way of leading by command and control i.e. the authoritarian type of leadership, is giving way to a more humane and inclusive form of leadership. "Servant leadership" describes leade...

  13. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  14. The Study on In-City Capacity Affected by Pedestrian Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the urban road traffic congestion is serious and the traffic accident is happening at a high frequency; thus it has not satisfied the travel needs of security and affects the quality of urban trips. In order to effectively relieve the confliction of people and motor vehicle, to make sure of the safety of pedestrians crossing the road, and to improve the capacity of urban roads, this passage focuses on studying the influence of pedestrians crossing the roads on the capacity of urban roads in three pedestrian crossing approaches including freely crossing the street, uncontrolled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk, and controlled crossing of the pedestrian crosswalk. Firstly, it confirms the general formula of the road capacity when pedestrians are crossing the road based on three preassumptions, combined with the survey data, and then constructs the empirical mathematical model of pedestrian crossing on the capacity impact. Lastly, it takes the step of case calculation and simulation evaluation and calculates errors between them, finding that the error between the model calculation and software simulation is small. The efficiency of the model is validated and improved.

  15. Impact of social and technological distraction on pedestrian crossing behaviour: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Rivara, Frederick P; Ayyagari, Rajiv C; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the impact of technological and social distraction on cautionary behaviours and crossing times in pedestrians. Pedestrians were observed at 20 high-risk intersections during 1 of 3 randomly assigned time windows in 2012. Observers recorded demographic and behavioural information, including use of a mobile device (talking on the phone, text messaging, or listening to music). We examined the association between distraction and crossing behaviours, adjusting for age and gender. All multivariate analyses were conducted with random effect logistic regression (binary outcomes) and random effect linear regression (continuous outcomes), accounting for clustering by site. Observers recorded crossing behaviours for 1102 pedestrians. Nearly one-third (29.8%) of all pedestrians performed a distracting activity while crossing. Distractions included listening to music (11.2%), text messaging (7.3%) and using a handheld phone (6.2%). Text messaging, mobile phone use and talking with a companion increased crossing time. Texting pedestrians took 1.87 additional seconds (18.0%) to cross the average intersection (3.4 lanes), compared to undistracted pedestrians. Texting pedestrians were 3.9 times more likely than undistracted pedestrians to display at least 1 unsafe crossing behaviour (disobeying the lights, crossing mid-intersection, or failing to look both ways). Pedestrians listening to music walked more than half a second (0.54) faster across the average intersection than undistracted pedestrians. Distracting activity is common among pedestrians, even while crossing intersections. Technological and social distractions increase crossing times, with text messaging associated with the highest risk. Our findings suggest the need for intervention studies to reduce risk of pedestrian injury.

  16. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  17. Gender Differences in Poverty : A Cross-National Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  18. Gender differences in poverty: a cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  19. Institution Based Prospective Cross-Sectional Study on Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Every year, millions of babies are born and a large proportion of them are being admitted to hospital for various indications. This study was conducted to identify the general characteristics, disease spectrum and common causes of Neonatal morbidity and mortality at Gondar University Hospital, Neonatal ...

  20. Burnout in College Student Volunteers: A Cross-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yueh-tzu

    2009-01-01

    Burnout in college students is an issue of concern. It adversely affects the learning of students as well as their overall health and well-being. However, little attention has been paid to burnout in college students who donate their time as volunteers in services to their community. This study examined both individual and group factors…

  1. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  2. Cross-national Retrospective Studies of Mathematics Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James Reed, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue use quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the nature and nurture of young participants in the mathematics Olympiad from five countries. Parallel studies are presented of winners from China, Taiwan, and the United States, along with descriptions of programs in Japan and Russia. (SLD)

  3. Crying and Mood Change : a Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of crying-related variables and country characteristics on mood change after crying. It was hypothesized that mood improvement would be positively associated to crying frequency, Individualism-Collectivism, and the extent of gender empowerment in a

  4. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  5. DENTAL MATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SAVIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of the students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi on the biocompatibility of the dental materials used in current practice. To this end, we elaborated our own questionnaire, including 10 questions to which 92 students from the last 2 years of study answered. The questionnaire cotains assertions on the potential toxic reactions of the most frequently used dental materials. The students answered correctly to the questions related to the biocompatibility of certain dental materials, such as glass-ionomer cement and calcium hydroxide, and they recognized that allergic reactions determined by acrylic resins may occur. We also noticed the lack of knowledge referring to the irreversible modifications produced by the tooth whitening substances on the enamel and dentin, as well as to the side effects produced by dental amalgam.

  6. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study on Transformational Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines transformational leadership theory and the relationship between transformational leadership and group performance as well. Transformational leadership asks leaders to understand the needs of followers and motivate follow-ers for their overall development, which brings benefits to a group. It is hoped that this paper can contribute to comparative stud-ies on Transformational leadership in the U.S. and China.

  8. Computational study of axisymmetric modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Chance, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Grimm, R.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kerner, W.; Manickam, J.; Weimer, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    A major computational program to investigate the MHD equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear evolution properties of realistic tokamak configurations is proceeding. Preliminary application is made to the Princeton PDX device. Both axisymmetric (n = 0) modes and kink (n = 1) modes are found; the growth rates depend sensitively on the configuration. A study of the nonlinear evolution of axisymmetric modes in such a device shows that flux conservation in the vacuum region can limit their growth

  9. Adolescents Family Models : A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and compares the family models of adolescents across ten cultures using a typological and multilevel approach. Thereby, it aims to empirically contribute to Kagitcibasi s (2007) theory of family change. This theory postulates the existence of three ideal-typical family models across cultures: a family model of independence prevailing in Western societies, a family model of (total) interdependence prevailing in non-industrialized agrarian cultures, and as a synthesis of the...

  10. Physical Model Study of Cross Vanes and Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    spacing since, in the pre-scour state, experiments and the HEC - RAS hydraulic model (USACE 2002b) found that water surface ele- vation merged with the...docs/eng-manuals/em1110- 2-1612/toc.htm. USACE (2002b) HEC - RAS , Hydraulic Reference Manual. US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center...Currently little design guidance is available for constructing these structures on ice-affected rivers . This study used physical and numerical

  11. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many ENT-clinicians, it is very difficult to diagnose the stage of infection and options available for treating retropharyngeal space abscesses (RPSAs with very limited literature available to focus on the treatment options in limited resource setup. The main cutting edge of the study aims to correlate post-surgical complications of RPSAs and also to know the age related incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective and retrospective study was undertaken in the Department of ENT, Narayana Medical College & General Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh during the period of 2011-15. The incumbent laboratory parameters like throat swab culture was done for all the suspected patients along with Complete blood counts (CBC & X-ray neck. RESULTS A total sixty suspected paediatric patients were prospectively and retrospectively studied for the period of four years, out of which males 35 and females were 25 respectively. The mean age of the patient was 8.96±1.25 years (IQR 4-14 years median age was 10 years. Radiological examination and Computed tomography (CT scan was done for greater accuracy. Blocked airway is most common postsurgical intervention and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.00 with respect to lower age group of the population. CONCLUSION The present study concludes that proper positioning and avoidance of unnecessary manipulation is essential for preventing the postoperative complications of RPSAs. The spread of infection to the spine can lead to replicate the osteomyelitis and vertebral erosion, which in turn results in subluxation and subsequent spinal cord injury, rupture of the abscess with inhalation of contents can lead to aspiration pneumonia (or rarely asphyxiation and spread of infection to mediastinum can lead to mediastinitis. More research could be intervened to prevent the infections at poor resource setup.

  12. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Be; Hollund, Be; Riise, T

    2008-05-18

    Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants may be related to their previous work

  14. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  15. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their pre...

  16. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.

  17. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  18. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  19. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  20. Study of the molecular structure and dynamics of bakelite with neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1990-06-01

    The molecular structure and dynamics of calcined bakelite were studied with neutron transmission and scattering cross section measurements. The total cross sections determined were correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. The total cross section determined showed a deviation smaller than 5% from the literature values. The frequency distribution as well as overall experimental results allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons for bakelite calcined at 800 0 C. (F.E.). 65 refs, 31 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  2. Do consumers care about ethics? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Malheiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion towards an understanding about ethical and social responsible corporate behaviours has increased over last two decades. Both marketers and academicians emphasize the interest of the topic. Developed research has been focusing the understanding of a few organizational practices, but consumer’s dyad of the problem calls for further investigation. This work presents some of the main theoretical contributions about consumer ethics, emphasizing the way how purchase attitude may be influenced by consumers’ perceptions about firms’ behaviour. The study aims to fill two important gaps in the burgeoning literature on marketing ethics: by looking at the consumer side of the marketing exchange dyad, and comparing consumer perspectives on ethics across cultures. As such, levels of consumer ethical awareness and expectations, and their impact on purchasing behaviours are measured in the contexts of Portugal and Cape Verde, one of its former colonies in Africa. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were developed.

  3. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S] and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]. Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of

  4. [Media Studies: a diachronic and cross-curricular approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, G; Di Giorgio, V; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on Media have generated analysis and remarks involving many different disciplines. We have just entered the age of Mass Communication. Each media (papers, radio, movie, TV and web too) wants to interpret reality and offer it to its audience. Each message coming from media is sifted and proposed according to the structural and technical characteristics of the media itself (as M.McLuhan said "the medium is the message"). In time there have been interpretations in favour or against as well, as experts detractors or defenders of media; U Eco called them "apocalyptic" and "integrated". In Medicine there are many different pathologies referable to excessive or incorrect utilization of mass-media: obesity due to high-calorie intake caused by sedentary use of TV, anorexia caused by forced imitation of models created by media, anxiety and sleeping disorders in teen-agers caused by watching TV news. Research are being carried out on mental effort due to incorrect use of screen, similar to the research on VDU operators. Categories gathered from Cognitive Ergonomics are suggested to hypothesize models of correct use of media and maybe the capacity of getting free from the influence of media so that aware audience can have a conscious perspective and not the perception of reality based entirely on the use of any media.

  5. Risky Behaviors of University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle.   Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt

  6. Family needs after brain injury: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Anne; Perrin, Paul B; Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Anke, Audny; Andelic, Nada; Doyle, Sarah T; Cristina Quijano, Maria; Caracuel, Alfonso; Mar, Dulce; Guadalupe Espinosa Jove, Irma; Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore differences by country in the importance of family needs after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as differences in met/unmet needs. Two hundred and seventy-one family members of an individual with TBI in Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Denmark, and Norway completed the Family Needs Questionnaire. Eight of the ten needs rated as most important globally were from the Health Information subscale. Importance ratings on the Health Information, Professional Support, and Involvement With Care subscales were similar across countries, but Mexican family members rated Instrumental Support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members, and also rated their Community Support needs as less important than Danish and Spanish family members. Mexican family member's rated emotional support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members. Globally, the needs rated as most often met were from the Health Information subscale, and the most unmet needs were from the Emotional Support subscale. Despite some similarities across countries several differences were identified, and these can help professionals to provide more culturally appropriate rehabilitation services for family members in order to improve informal care for TBI.

  7. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  8. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  9. The First MS-Cleavable, Photo-Thiol-Reactive Cross-Linker for Protein Structural Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Claudio; Piotrowski, Christine; Rehkamp, Anne; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Cleavable cross-linkers are gaining increasing importance for chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) as they permit a reliable and automated data analysis in structural studies of proteins and protein assemblies. Here, we introduce 1,3-diallylurea (DAU) as the first CID-MS/MS-cleavable, photo-thiol-reactive cross-linker. DAU is a commercially available, inexpensive reagent that efficiently undergoes an anti-Markovnikov hydrothiolation with cysteine residues in the presence of a radical initiator upon UV-A irradiation. Radical cysteine cross-linking proceeds via an orthogonal "click reaction" and yields stable alkyl sulfide products. DAU reacts at physiological pH and cross-linking reactions with peptides, and proteins can be performed at temperatures as low as 4 °C. The central urea bond is efficiently cleaved upon collisional activation during tandem MS experiments generating characteristic product ions. This improves the reliability of automated cross-link identification. Different radical initiators have been screened for the cross-linking reaction of DAU using the thiol-containing compounds cysteine and glutathione. Our concept has also been exemplified for the biologically relevant proteins bMunc13-2 and retinal guanylyl cyclase-activating protein-2. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFit:A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDː CrossFit is a strength and conditioning programme that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was t...

  11. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  12. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time, but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for higher temperature applications. Fundamental studies were carried out on amongst other materials, plasticised PVC compounds for use in cable applications. The results of this work, encouraged the author to investigate cross-linkable PVC in areas such as footwear soling

  13. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population ...

  14. Multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis of neuro-degenerative diseases-An in depth study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Chatterjee, Sucharita

    2018-02-01

    This work revisits our previous study on human gait diseases, (Dutta et al., 2013) where we have studied the autocorrelation of human gait pattern in normal and diseased set. Significant difference in results was observed for normal and diseased set. However we were not able to distinguish between sets of Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. In this paper we attempt to study whether cross correlations between two feet of human gait pattern can help to distinguish between different diseased set. The results reveal that study of cross correlations can help to distinguish between Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.

  15. Correction of sampling bias in a cross-sectional study of post-surgical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluss, Ronen; Mandel, Micha; Freedman, Laurence S; Weiss, Inbal Salz; Zohar, Anat Ekka; Haklai, Ziona; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry; Simchen, Elisheva

    2013-06-30

    Cross-sectional designs are often used to monitor the proportion of infections and other post-surgical complications acquired in hospitals. However, conventional methods for estimating incidence proportions when applied to cross-sectional data may provide estimators that are highly biased, as cross-sectional designs tend to include a high proportion of patients with prolonged hospitalization. One common solution is to use sampling weights in the analysis, which adjust for the sampling bias inherent in a cross-sectional design. The current paper describes in detail a method to build weights for a national survey of post-surgical complications conducted in Israel. We use the weights to estimate the probability of surgical site infections following colon resection, and validate the results of the weighted analysis by comparing them with those obtained from a parallel study with a historically prospective design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Migrant Border Crossing Study: A methodological overview of research along the Sonora-Arizona border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Slack, Jeremy; Beyerlein, Kraig; Vandervoet, Prescott; Klingman, Kristin; Molina, Paola; Manning, Shiras; Burham, Melissa; Walzak, Kylie; Valencia, Kristen; Gamboa, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Increased border enforcement efforts have redistributed unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States (US) away from traditional points of crossing, such as San Diego and El Paso, and into more remote areas along the US-Mexico border, including southern Arizona. Yet relatively little quantitative scholarly work exists examining Mexican migrants' crossing, apprehension, and repatriation experiences in southern Arizona. We contend that if scholars truly want to understand the experiences of unauthorized migrants in transit, such migrants should be interviewed either at the border after being removed from the US, or during their trajectories across the border, or both. This paper provides a methodological overview of the Migrant Border Crossing Study (MBCS), a unique data source on Mexican migrants who attempted an unauthorized crossing along the Sonora-Arizona border, were apprehended, and repatriated to Nogales, Sonora in 2007-09. We also discuss substantive and theoretical contributions of the MBCS.

  17. Molecular dynamical and structural studies for the bakelite by neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Neutron reaction cross sections were determined by transmission and scattering measurements, to study the dynamics and molecular structure of calcined bakelites. Total cross sections were determined, with a deviation smaller than 5%, from the literature values, by neutron transmission method and a specially devised approximation. These cross sections were then correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. Double differential scattering cross sections, scattering law values and frequency distributions were determined with 15% error using the neutron inelastic scattering method. The frequency distributions as well as the overall results from all experimental techniques used in this work allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons, for calcined bakelite at 800 0 C. (author)

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  19. Rethinking the Hermit Kingdom: US Social Studies Teachers' Cross-Cultural Professional Development in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how…

  20. Ready for University? A Cross-National Study of Students' Perceived Preparedness for University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured "before" students commenced their study at a university in New Zealand or in the Netherlands. This…

  1. Ready for university? A cross national study on students' perceived preparedness for university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.P.W.A.; van der Meer, J.

    Students' preparedness for higher education is seen as one of the main factors affecting first-year attrition or study success. In this paper we report on a cross-national study in which students' preparedness for university was measured before students commenced their study at a university in New

  2. A study on relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment in tour management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karroubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cultural intelligence (CQ and emotional intelligence (EI on a tour leader’s adjustment in a different cultural environment. Data were collected from 330 outgoing tour leaders in Tehran, Iran. The construct validity was confirmed by using confirmatory factor analysis. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and path analysis to test the effect of CQ on cross-cultural adjustment, and the moderating effect of EI on the relationship between CQ and cross-cultural adjustment. The results showed that CQ had a positive effect on cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, we found that CQ had a positive effect on EI. The findings of the research showed that emotional intelligence in not significantly the mediator variable. Emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on cross-cultural adjustment. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of CQ and cross-cultural research, and it provides practical implications for individuals seeking to improve their cross-cultural effectiveness, enhancing their cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence, specifically in tourism industry.

  3. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in Morocco (EPIDIAM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; El Achhab, Youness; Benslimane, Abdelilah; El Rhazi, Karima; Chikri, Mohamed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-01-01

    In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine the level of control of hypertension among type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 525 type 2 diabetics in three Moroccan regions. The structured questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables, history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications and duration of diabetes. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by trained staff. Blood pressure was measured using standardized sphygmomanometers. The prevalence of hypertension was 70.4%. The logistic regression indicated that hypertension was positively associated with age (peducation, counseling and behavioral interventions designed to modify lifestyle such as increasing physical activity and adopting recommended dietary changes, as well as compliance with medications.

  4. A structural and kinetic study on myofibrils prevented from shortening by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, C; Sleep, J; Chaussepied, P; Travers, F; Barman, T

    1993-07-20

    In previous work, we studied the early steps of the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils [Houadjeto, M., Travers, F., & Barman, T. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1564-1569]. The myofibrils were free to contract, and the results obtained refer to the ATPase cycle of myofibrils contracting with no external load. Here we studied the ATPase of myofibrils contracting isometrically. To prevent shortening, we cross-linked them with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the myosin rods were extensively cross-linked and that 8% of the myosin heads were cross-linked to the thin filament. The transient kinetics of the cross-linked myofibrils were studied in 0.1 M potassium acetate, pH 7.4 and 4 degrees C, by the rapid-flow quench method. The ATP binding steps were studied by the cold ATP chase and the cleavage and release of products steps by the Pi burst method. In Pi burst experiments, the sizes of the bursts were equal within experimental error to the ATPase site concentrations (as determined by the cold ATP chase methods) for both cross-linked (isometric) and un-cross-linked (isotonic) myofibrils. This shows that in both cases the rate-limiting step is after the cleavage of ATP. When cross-linked, the kcat of Ca(2+)-activated myofibrils was reduced from 1.7 to 0.8 s-1. This is consistent with the observation that fibers shortening at moderate velocity have a higher ATPase activity than isometric fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The relationship between obesity and elderly suicide rates: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.

  6. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Statistical analysis of data was done using the χ2 test and Pearson correlation with the help ... Cross-cultural studies in different climatic conditions with a longitudinal study ... in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 1976 ...

  7. A cross-sectional study of peripartum blood transfusion in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study of peripartum blood transfusion in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... To assess the incidence of peripartum transfusion in a sample of Eastern Cape, SA hospitals to evaluate generalisability of preceding study findings. Methods. Hospital chart reviews were conducted of all deliveries at three large ...

  8. Loneliness among women with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-cultural study in the Netherlands and Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mansoury, Tarek M.; Taal, Erik; Abdel-nasser, Ahmed M.; Riemsma, R.P.; Mahfouz, Refaat; Mahmoud, Jehan A.; El-badawy, Samir A.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explain loneliness as experienced by women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cross-cultural context. We studied 36 Egyptian female RA patients and 140 female Dutch RA patients.. Self-report data were collected about loneliness, physical and psychological health

  9. A Cross-Grade Study Validating the Evolutionary Pathway of Student Mental Models in Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Cross-grade studies are valuable for the development of sequential curriculum. However such studies are time and resource intensive and fail to provide a clear representation to integrate different levels of representational complexity. Lin (Lin, 2006; Lin & Chiu, 2006; Lin, Chiu, & Hsu, 2006) proposed a cladistics approach in conceptual…

  10. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  11. Gender Ratio and Cognitive Profiles in Dyslexia: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; de la Cadena, Claudia Garcia; Siegel, Linda S.; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze possible gender-related differences in the prevalence of dyslexia. A cross-national comparison of Spain and Guatemala was conducted. Both countries speak the same language but have a different standard of living and educational level. A second purpose of this study was to analyze the cognitive profile of…

  12. Intergenerational Transmission Effects on Relationship Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keitaro; Busby, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Although intergenerational transmission processes have been studied on various aspects of family life, cross-cultural comparisons have rarely been made. In the present study, the authors examine how intergenerational transmission processes on relationship satisfaction differ between individuals with different gender and cultural identities. A…

  13. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  14. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous

  15. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  16. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehrifar, Mohammad; Derakhshandeh, Niloufar; Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Farnaghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents' educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male). Children in the 0-4 year(s) age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9%) cases. 29 (7%) cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group). Methadone with 123 (29.7%) cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001), and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001), had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045). Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children's intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child's family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  17. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of a cross-flow induced-draft cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Elazm Mahmoud Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to find a proper solution for the cross-flow water cooling tower problem, also to find an empirical correlation's controlling heat and mass transfer coefficients as functions of inlet parameters to the tower. This is achieved by constructing an experimental rig and a computer program. The computer simulation solves the problem numerically. The apparatus used in this study comprises a cross-flow cooling tower. From the results obtained, the 'characteristic curve' of cross-flow cooling towers was constructed. This curve is very helpful for designers in order to find the actual value of the number of transfer units, if the values of inlet water temperature or inlet air wet bulb temperature are changed. Also an empirical correlation was conducted to obtain the required number of transfer units of the tower in hot water operation. Another correlation was found to obtain the effectiveness in the wet bulb operation.

  19. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  20. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Bolle, M.; De Fruyt, F.; McCrae, R. R.; Löckenhoff, C. E.; Costa, P.T., Jr.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Ahn, C.; Ahn, H.; Alcalay, L.; Allik, J.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Bratko, D.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Cain, T.R.; Chan, W.; Chittcharat, N.; Crawford, J.T.; Fehr, R.; Ficková, E.; Gelfand, M.J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gulgoz, S.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, L.; Klinkosz, W.; Knezevic, G.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Lima, M.P.; Martin, T. A.; Marušić, I.; Mastor, K. A.; Nakazato, K.; Nansubuga, F.; Porrata, J.; Purić, D.; Realo, A.; Reátegui, N.; Rolland, J. P.; Schmidt, V.; Sekowski, A.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Shimonaka, Y.; Simonetti, F.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Vanno, V.; Wang, L.; Yik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2015), s. 171-185 ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * sex differences * adolescence * cross-cultural Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.736, year: 2015

  1. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridine-moieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymeri-zation. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and cova-lently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  2. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridinemoieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and covalently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  3. Level dynamics: An approach to the study of avoided level crossings and transition to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Chu, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Dyson-Pechukas level dynamics has been reformulated and made suitable for studying avoided level crossings and transition to chaos. The N-level dynamics is converted into a many-body problem of one-dimensional Coulomb gas with N-constituent particles having intrinsic excitations. It is shown that local fluctuation of the level distribution is generated by a large number of avoided level crossings. The role played by avoided level crossings in generating chaoticity in level dynamics is similar to the role played by short-range collisions in causing thermalization in many-body dynamics. Furthermore, the effect of level changing rates in producing avoided level crossings is the same as particle velocities in causing particle-particle collisions. A one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian has been constructed as an illustration of the level dynamics, showing how the avoided level crossings cause the transition from a regular distribution to the chaotic Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) distribution of the levels. The existence of the one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian which can show both GOE and Poisson level statistics is remarkable and deserves further investigation

  4. Studies on Cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarizes the cross-linking property of succinic acid with chitosan /collagen. In detail, the chemistry behind the cross-linking and the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked material were discussed with suitable instruments and bioinformatics tools. The concentration of succinic acid with reference to the chosen polymers was optimized. A 3D scaffold prepared using an optimized concentration of succinic acid (0.2% (w/v with chitosan (1.0% (w/v and similarly with collagen (0.5% (w/v, was subjected to surface morphology, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength assessment, thermal stability and biocompatibility. Results revealed, cross-linking with succinic acid impart appreciable mechanical strength to the scaffold material. In silico analysis suggested the prevalence of non-covalent interactions, which played a crucial role in improving the mechanical and thermal properties of the cross-linked scaffold. The resultant 3D scaffold may find application as wound dressing material, as an implant in clinical applications and as a tissue engineering material.

  5. Cross section sensitivity study for fusion blankets incorporating lead neutron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    In the recent European INTOR design, lead has been considered for incorporation in the blanket as either an explicit or implicit neutron multiplier. The blanket employs either Li 2 SiO 3 or Li 17 Pb 83 as tritium breeding material. Nucleonic analysis was performed for this blanket using the DLC37 and DLC41 cross section libraries. The reaction rates were estimated using the reaction cross sections provided with both libraries. In addition to that, they were estimated using the MACKLIB-IV response library. The calculated tritium breeding ratio was found to be 5% less and 15% more in the calculations with DLC41 and DLC41 plus MACKLIB-IV libraries, respectively, than in the calculation with the DLC37 library. The Fe, Pb, and Li cross sections given by the ENDF/B-IV and V were reviewed. A sensitivity study of these cross section uncertainties shows that the tritium breeding ratio is relatively insensitive to the above mentioned partial cross sections. The calculated tritium breeding ratio can be known within +-2%. (Auth.)

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of How Usability Professionals Experience the Usability of Everyday Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    in the study, their understanding of fun systems differs across cultural backgrounds. Also, easy-to-use and useful systems are perceived as being similar or different depending on the usability professional’s cultural background. Most other cross-cultural differences relate to categories of construct......Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  7. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  8. Geology of the ECRB Cross Drift-Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain Project, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE

    1999-01-01

    The Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift (Cross Drift) excavated at Yucca Mountain is being studied to determine its suitability as a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository. This report presents a summary of data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) personnel on behalf of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Department of Energy in the Cross Drift from Sta. 00+00 to 26+64. This report includes descriptions of lithostratigraphic units, an analysis of data from full-periphery geologic maps (FPGM) and detailed line survey (DLS) data, a detailed description of the Solitario Canyon Fault zone (SCFZ), and an analysis of geotechnical and engineering characteristics. The Cross Drift is excavated entirely within the Topopah Spring Tuff formation of the Paintbrush Group. Units exposed in the crystal-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, include the Topopah Spring crystal-poor upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul) (Sta. 0+00 to 10+15), the Topopah Spring crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn) (Sta. 10+15 to 14+44), the Topopah Spring crystal-poor lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll) (Sta. 14+44 to 23+26), and the Topopah Spring crystal-poor lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln) (Sta. 23+26 to 25+85). The lower portion of the Topopah Spring crystal-rich lithophysal transition subzone (Tptrl1) is exposed on the west side of the Solitario Canyon fault from Sta. 26+57.5 to 26+64. Lithologically, the units exposed in the Cross Drift are similar in comparable stratigraphic intervals of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), particularly in terms of welding, secondary crystallization, fracturing, and type, size, color, and abundance of pumice and lithic clasts. The most notable difference is the lack of the intensely fractured zone (IFZ) in the Cross Drift. The as-built cross section and the pre-construction cross section compare favorably. Lithostratigraphic contacts and structures on the pre-construction cross section were

  9. A Descriptive Study of Individual and Cross-Cultural Differences in Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Deniz, M. Engin; Kesici, Sahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety among 223 Turkish and 237 American college students. A 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the six dependent variables which are the six subscales of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale.…

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  11. Acceptance of Driverless Vehicles : Results from a Large Cross-National Questionnaire Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhoff, S.; de Winter, J.C.F.; Kyriakidis, M.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.

    2018-01-01

    Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000

  12. A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy pain in Hospital Tegku Ampaun Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Tariq Abdul Razak, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah ...

  13. Delay in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Uzbekistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belkina, T.V.; Khojiev, D.S.; Tillyashaykhov, M.N.; Tigay, Z.N.; Kudenov, M.U.; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vlček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, November (2014), article 624 ISSN 1471-2334 Grant - others:SVV UK(CZ) 260 066 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cross-sectional study * pulmonary tuberculosis * self-medication * Uzbekistan Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.613, year: 2014

  14. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. RESULTS...... made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer....

  15. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  18. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  19. Skill Development and Temperament in Kindergarten Children: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    This study examines the relationship between temperament characteristics and skill manifestations or deficits in two groups of kindergarten children, one in Ohio and one in Taipei, Taiwan. Its purposes were to determine if such a relationship did exist and, if so, to see if it obtained cross-culturally. Teachers and parents assessed children on…

  20. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis in Jawi district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2008 to March 2009 in Jawi district of Amhara Regional State northwest Ethiopia to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. Blood sample was collected randomly from a total of 300 cattle through piercing of the marginal ear vein to determine the prevalence ...

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Duan, Xiaoju; Handel, Marion; Hopp, Manuel; Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw…

  2. The Fluctuating Development of Cross-Linguistic Semantic Awareness: A Longitudinal Multiple-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners' awareness of first language-second language (L1-L2) semantic differences plays a critical role in L2 vocabulary learning. This study investigates the long-term development of eight university-level Chinese English as a foreign language learners' cross-linguistic semantic awareness over the course of 10 months. A…

  3. A Cross-Validation Study of Police Recruit Performance as Predicted by the IPI and MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    Validation and cross-validation studies were conducted using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) to predict job performance for 698 urban male police officers who completed a six-month training academy. Job performance criteria evaluated included absence, lateness, derelictions, negative…

  4. Cross-Cultural Pedagogy: Practical Strategies for a Successful Interprofessional Study Abroad Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru; Larimer, Susan; Riner, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses some practical strategies for designing and implementing a cross-cultural interprofessional study abroad course, including pre-departure preparation, facilitating small groups with local students, establishing a weekly theme, utilizing role-play and reflective assignments, and implementing meaningful evaluation strategies.…

  5. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  6. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  7. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  8. Overdiagnosis of heart failure in primary care : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Mark J.; Mosterd, Arend; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Landman, Marcel A J; Hoes, Arno W.; Rutten, Frans H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to echocardiography in primary care is limited, but is necessary to accurately diagnose heart failure (HF). Aim To determine the proportion of patients with a GP's diagnosis of HF who really have HF. Design and setting A cross-sectional study of patients in 30 general practices

  9. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews : cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H.; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C.; Bero, Lisa A.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Design Cross sectional study. Data sources

  10. Prosodic Abilities in Spanish and English Children with Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castilla, Pastora; Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; Sotillo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prosodic profiles of English- and Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS), examining cross-linguistic differences. Two groups of children with WS, English and Spanish, of similar chronological and nonverbal mental age, were compared on performance in expressive and receptive prosodic tasks…

  11. A Cross-Cultural Study of CKCM Efficacy in an Undergraduate Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Cobern, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cross-culturally investigate the instructional efficacy of the Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM) with college students learning about "factors affecting solubility" focusing on students' conceptual understanding, attitudes and scientific habits of mind. Even though the CKCM is a decade old, there has…

  12. Endovascular crossing of Chronic Total Occlusions using an impulse : An explorative design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel (student), Marleen; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether exerting an impulse on a Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) improves the success rate of CTO crossing as compared to the currently used method of statically pushing the guidewire against the CTO. A prototype (Ø2 mm) was developed that generates translational

  13. A cross-sectional study of home-based management of malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was designed to assess knowledge on signs, symptoms and treatment options for malaria in Bakaano, a suburb of Cape Coast, to determine the extent to which malaria is managed at homes. Our observations showed that the community had good knowledge of signs and ...

  14. Progresses in the studies of adiabatic splitting of charged particle beams by crossing nonlinear resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Franchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by nonlinear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  15. Progresses in the Studies of Adiabatic Splitting of Charged Particles Beams by Crossing Nonlinear Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Franchi, A; Giovannozzi, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    The multi-turn extraction from a circular particle accelerator is performed by trapping the beam inside stable islands of the horizontal phase space. In general, by crossing a resonance of order n, n+1 beamlets are created whenever the resonance is stable, whereas if the resonance is unstable the beam is split in n parts. Islands are generated by non-linear magnetic fields, whereas the trapping is realized by means of a given tune variation so to cross adiabatically a resonance. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron carried out in 2007 gave the evidence of protons trapped in stable islands while crossing the one-third and one-fifth resonances. Dedicated experiments were also carried out to study the trapping process and its reversibility properties. The results of these measurement campaigns are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Theoretical study of cross sections of proton-induced reactions on cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yiğit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion may be among the strongest sustainable ways to replace fossil fuels because it does not contribute to acid rain or global warming. In this context, activated cobalt materials in corrosion products for fusion energy are significant in determination of dose levels during maintenance after a coolant leak in a nuclear fusion reactor. Therefore, cross-section studies on cobalt material are very important for fusion reactor design. In this article, the excitation functions of some nuclear reaction channels induced by proton particles on 59Co structural material were predicted using different models. The nuclear level densities were calculated using different choices of available level density models in ALICE/ASH code. Finally, the newly calculated cross sections for the investigated nuclear reactions are compared with the experimental values and TENDL data based on TALYS nuclear code. Keywords: Cobalt, Nuclear Structural Materials, Reaction Cross Section, TENDL Database

  17. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18?65?years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using ...

  18. How Do the Elderly Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...

  19. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling in...

  20. Cross-linked compared with historical polyethylene in THA: an 8-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Carel H; Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C; Tonino, Alphons J

    2009-04-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7-9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 +/- 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 +/- 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  1. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmstrom, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  2. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmström, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  3. Length bias correction in one-day cross-sectional assessments - The nutritionDay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantal, Sophie; Pernicka, Elisabeth; Hiesmayr, Michael; Schindler, Karin; Bauer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A major problem occurring in cross-sectional studies is sampling bias. Length of hospital stay (LOS) differs strongly between patients and causes a length bias as patients with longer LOS are more likely to be included and are therefore overrepresented in this type of study. To adjust for the length bias higher weights are allocated to patients with shorter LOS. We determined the effect of length-bias adjustment in two independent populations. Length-bias correction is applied to the data of the nutritionDay project, a one-day multinational cross-sectional audit capturing data on disease and nutrition of patients admitted to hospital wards with right-censoring after 30 days follow-up. We applied the weighting method for estimating the distribution function of patient baseline variables based on the method of non-parametric maximum likelihood. Results are validated using data from all patients admitted to the General Hospital of Vienna between 2005 and 2009, where the distribution of LOS can be assumed to be known. Additionally, a simplified calculation scheme for estimating the adjusted distribution function of LOS is demonstrated on a small patient example. The crude median (lower quartile; upper quartile) LOS in the cross-sectional sample was 14 (8; 24) and decreased to 7 (4; 12) when adjusted. Hence, adjustment for length bias in cross-sectional studies is essential to get appropriate estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Ketan S.; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations

  5. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and

  6. Dissociation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications of Studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldi, Everton de Oliveira; Krippner, Stanley; Barros, Maria Cristina Monteiro; Cunha, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    A major issue in the study of dissociation concerns the cross-cultural validity of definitions and measurements used to identify and classify dissociative disorders. There is also extensive debate on the etiological factors underlying dissociative experiences. Cross-cultural research is essential to elucidate these issues, particularly regarding evidence obtained from countries in which the study of dissociation is still in its infancy. The aim of this article was to discuss Brazilian research on the topic of dissociation, highlighting its contributions for the understanding of dissociative experiences in nonclinical populations and for the validity and relevance of dissociative disorders in the contexts of psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. We also consider the ways in which dissociative experiences are assimilated by Brazilian culture and religious expressions, and the implications of Brazilian studies for the sociocultural investigation of dissociation. We conclude by addressing the limitations of these studies and potential areas for future research.

  7. Study of evaporation residue cross-section for 48Ti + 140,142Ce systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Devinder Pal; Behera, B.R.; Kaur, M.

    2017-01-01

    For understanding the reaction mechanism of heavy compound nucleus (CN), the study of evaporation residue (ER) cross-section plays a vital role. For heavier systems, the probability of formation of CN is strongly influenced by the properties of the di-nuclear system at contact configuration, where entrance channel plays a major role in reaction dynamics. Nuclear structure of the colliding nuclei also plays a key role, which influence the fusion probability. In some of the recent studies the dependence of the fusion reaction on the nuclear shell structure of projectile and target nuclei was also investigated and the importance of N = 82 in the heavy ion fusion reaction was proposed. It was reported that shell closure of one of the interacting nuclei can lead to the enhanced ER cross-section and helps in the synthesis of heavy nuclei. Keeping these points in mind, a systematic measurement of ER cross sections for 48 Ti + 140,142 Ce, 124 Sn systems was performed. Here, 140 Ce target is neutron shell closed (N T =82) but 142 Ce have 84 neutrons. By comparing the ER cross-sections of these systems, the effect of neutron shell closure on fusion probability can be examined. The ER excitation function for third system ( 48 Ti + 124 Sn) was also measured at few energy points to estimate the transmission efficiency of the spectrometer

  8. Characteristics of angular cross correlations studied by light scattering from two-dimensional microsphere films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, M. A.; Gutt, C.; Grübel, G.

    2014-07-01

    Recently the analysis of scattering patterns by angular cross-correlation analysis (CCA) was introduced to reveal the orientational order in disordered samples with special focus to future applications on x-ray free-electron laser facilities. We apply this CCA approach to ultra-small-angle light-scattering data obtained from two-dimensional monolayers of microspheres. The films were studied in addition by optical microscopy. This combined approach allows to calculate the cross-correlations of the scattering patterns, characterized by the orientational correlation function Ψl(q), as well as to obtain the real-space structure of the monolayers. We show that CCA is sensitive to the orientational order of monolayers formed by the microspheres which are not directly visible from the scattering patterns. By mixing microspheres of different radii the sizes of ordered monolayer domains is reduced. For these samples it is shown that Ψl(q) quantitatively describes the degree of hexagonal order of the two-dimensional films. The experimental CCA results are compared with calculations based on the microscopy images. Both techniques show qualitatively similar features. Differences can be attributed to the wave-front distortion of the laser beam in the experiment. This effect is discussed by investigating the effect of different wave fronts on the cross-correlation analysis results. The so-determined characteristics of the cross-correlation analysis will be also relevant for future x-ray-based studies.

  9. Multilatinas and Value Creation from Cross-Border Acquisitions: An Event Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central proposition of this paper is to assess the performance of cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas. Applying the event study method to a sample of 607 announcements of acquisitions during the period 1989-2011 by 182 Multilatinas from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, we conclude that: (a on average, these announcements have a neutral impact on the short-term returns to acquiring companies’ shareholders; (b cross-sectional analysis reveals that relative size of the deals have anegative and significant effect on investors’ reactions and; (c unlike the institutional distance between home and host countries, cultural distance matters, since it has a negative and significant effect on the perceptions that investors have regarding the expected economic impact of acquirers’ cross-border merger and acquisition(M&A decisions. Inasmuch as the market rationality assumption that underlies the event study method has been questioned, future research lines are proposed in order to search for alternative long-term performance constructs concerning M&A processes in general that can: (a shed light on the reality of value creation (and destruction from cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas; and (b contribute to strategy, international business and M&A theories and practice.

  10. Experimental and numerical study on heat transfer and pressure drop performance of Cross-Wavy primary surface channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ting; Du, Lin-xiu; Sun, Ning; Zeng, Min; Sundén, Bengt; Wang, Qiu-wang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Naphthalene sublimation experiments were performed for Cross-Wavy channels. • Entrance region has a small effect on unit-averaged heat transfer coefficient of Cross-Wavy channels. • Correlations of Nusselt number and friction factor in Cross-Wavy channel were obtained. • Similar Cross-Wavy channels have similar thermal hydraulic performance. - Abstract: The Cross-Wavy primary surface heat exchanger is one of the most promising candidates for microturbine recuperators. In this paper, naphthalene sublimation experiments are performed for Cross-Wavy channels in a wind tunnel. The experimental results indicate that the entrance region has a small effect on the unit-averaged heat transfer coefficient of whole Cross-Wavy channels. Correlations of Nusselt number and friction factor in the Cross-Wavy channel are obtained. However, only the Cross-Wavy channel with a large equivalent diameter is tested because the actual Cross-Wavy channels are very complicated and small. Therefore, based on the similarity rules, five Cross-Wavy channels with similar structures but different equivalent diameters are further investigated by numerical simulations. The numerical results indicate that the Cross-Wavy channels with similar structures but different equivalent diameters have similar thermal-hydraulic performance in the studied Reynolds number range.

  11. Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress among Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kamiyama, Kimika; Hara, Yujiro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-01-01

    Background Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees? well-being. However, most studies on the relationship between job crafting and employees? well-being have been conducted in western countries; thus, it is unclear whether job crafting can be effectively applied to Asian cultures, such as Japan, which emphasizes group harmony. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations of self-reported job crafting with work engage...

  12. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  13. Obese Chinese Primary-School Students and Low Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Yan, Zhang; Dong-Mei, Li; Dan-Dan, Xu; Le-Shan, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) g...

  14. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  15. Sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Steihaug, Ole Martin; Gjesdal, Clara Gram; Bogen, Bård Erik; Kristoffersen, Målfrid Holen; Lien, Gunhild; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia is prevalent in older persons and is a risk factor for falls, fractures, and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine a) the feasibility of determining sarcopenia in patients with acute hip fracture, b) the prevalence of sarcopenia and c) associations of sarcopenia with nutritional status and comorbidities. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study on sarcopenia in male and female patients with acute hip fracture. Participants were previously ambulatory a...

  16. Treatment adherence and perception in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a cross ? sectional study from Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Naalweh, Karam Sh.; Barakat, Mohammad A.; Sweileh, Moutaz W.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Zyoud, Sa?ed H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adherence to diet recommendations, fluid restriction, prescribed medications, and attendance at hemodialysis (HD) sessions are essential for optimal and effective treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. No data regarding this issue are available from Palestine. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess adherence to diet, fluid restriction, medications, and HD sessions. Methods A cross-sectional study of HD patients at An-Najah National University Hospital was carr...

  17. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish populatio...

  18. Caregiver burden from caring for impaired elderly: a cross-sectional study in rural Lower Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    Background: increased life expectancy and an aging population have made home care for the elderly a major responsibility for families. Caring for a chronically ill or physically disabled person has been referred to as physically or emotionally stressful, placing the caregiver at a heightened risk of burden. This study aimed to identify factors related to caregiving burden among caregivers who care for their disabled older family members. Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study was conduc...

  19. Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ARL-TR-8045 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round by...when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8045 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Study of the...signature. This means that as far as polarization goes, the bistatic radar is an example where the reciprocity principle cannot be applied . Finally, we

  20. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  2. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  3. Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Regine; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Henneberger, Paul K; Gundersen, G?lin Finckenhagen; Tor?n, Kjell; Kongerud, Johny; Fell, Anne Kristin M?ller

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway. Design The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013. Setting In 2013, a random sample of 50?000 inhabitants aged 16?50?years, living in Telemark c...

  4. Incomplete Antibodies May Reduce ABO Cross-Match Incompatibility: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Any erythrocyte transfusion among humans having type A or B blood groups is impossible due to antibodies causing fatal transfusion complications. A cross-match test is performed to prevent immune transfusion complications before transfusion. Our hypothesis is that the fragment antibody (Fab part of the antibody (incomplete antibody may be used to prevent an immune stimulus related to the complete antibody. Therefore, we designed a pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of these incomplete antibodies using cross-match tests. Materials and Methods: Pepsin enzyme and staphylococcal protein A columns were used to cut anti-A and anti-B monoclonal antibodies and purify their Fab (2 fragments, respectively. An Rh-positive erythrocyte suspension with purified anti-A Fab (2 solution and B Rh-positive erythrocyte suspension with purified anti-B Fab (2 solution were combined correspondingly. Cross-match tests were performed by tube and gel centrifugation methods. The agglutination levels due to the anti-A and anti-B Fab (2 antibodies and their effects on the agglutination normally observed with complete antibodies were then measured. Results: No agglutination for the purified incomplete anti-A Fab (2 with A Rh+ erythrocyte and anti-B Fab (2 with B Rh+ erythrocyte combinations was observed in the tube cross-match tests. These agglutination levels were 1+ in two wells in the gel centrifugation cross-match tests. Fab (2-treated erythrocytes were also resistant to the agglutination that normally occurs with complete antibodies. Conclusion: We determined that the Fab (2 fragments of antibodies may not only be used to obtain a mild or negative reaction when compared to complete antibodies, but they might also be used for decreasing ABO incompatibility. Incomplete antibodies might be a therapeutic option in autoimmune hemolytic anemia and they may also be used in solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, we have planned an

  5. Study of different cross-shaped microchannels affecting thermal-bubble-actuated microparticle manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichen; Tsou, Chingfu

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a thermal-bubble-actuated microfluidic chip with cross-shaped microchannels for evaluating the effect of different microchannel designs on microparticle manipulation. Four cross-shaped microchannel designs, with orthogonal, misaligned, skewed, and antiskewed types, were proposed in this study. The thermal bubble micropump, which is based on a resistive bulk microheater, was used to drive fluid transportation, and it can be realized using a simple microfabrication process with a silicon-on-isolator wafer. Using commercial COMSOL software, the flow profiles of microfluidics in various cross-shaped microchannels were simulated qualitatively under different pumping pressures. Microbeads, with a diameter of 20 μm, manipulated in four cross-shaped microchannels, were also implemented in this experiment. The results showed that a skewed microchannel design has a higher sorting rate compared with orthogonal, misaligned, and antiskewed microchannels because its flow velocity in the main microchannel is significantly reduced by pumping pressure. Typically, the successful sorting rate for this type of skewed microchannel can reach 30% at a pumping frequency of 100 Hz.

  6. Criticality studies of fast assemblies with the new 27-group cross-section set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.; Shukla, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A test of 27-group cross-section set (Garg-set) recently derived from ENDF/B library has been carried out in the criticality studies of the Pu 239 , U 235 and U 233 based metal, oxide and carbide fuelled fast critical assemblies. A total of twenty fast critical assemblies of different sizes and varying neutron spectra have been selected for analysis. Based on these analyses it has been observed that the Garg-set predicts well the criticality of uranium and plutonium based hard-spectra assemblies. In the soft-spectra systems it underpredicts criticality because of the following reasons: (a) It makes use of the higher capture cross-sections of structural and coolant elements given in ENDF/B - Version IV library. (b) It does not account for the resonance self-shielding effects of cross-sections. It has also been observed that the Garg-set gives better results than the MABBN-set for dense and dilute plutonium-based and the hard uranium-based assemblies. This superior trend of the Garg-set is slightly lost in the uranium-based dilute systems because of large differences in the capture cross-sections of structural elements of these two sets. (author)

  7. Study of the elastic scattering differential cross sections of a proton beam by a cesium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Maddarsi, Mohamed.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic differential cross section of H + on Cs is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental device is described, after which the differential cross-section values obtained as a function of the laboratory angle are given for four incident energies: 13.4 eV, 15.1 eV, 17.7 eV and 24.2 eV. By means of an interaction potential of the quasi-molecule H + Cs the differential cross sections are calculated for the same incident energies; this calculation uses the semi-classical method of stationary phases which shows clearly the limits of conventional description and the changes introduced by quantum effects. Very good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results, which shows that elastic scattering is very little perturbed by inelastic channels in this energy range. The estimated inelastic cross section at 24 eV is about 1.9 10 -15 cm 2 , corresponding to 1.6% of the scattering process [fr

  8. Study on an Undershot Cross-Flow Water Turbine with Straight Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale hydroelectric power generation has recently attracted considerable attention. The authors previously proposed an undershot cross-flow water turbine with a very low head suitable for application to open channels. The water turbine was of a cross-flow type and could be used in open channels with the undershot method, remarkably simplifying its design by eliminating guide vanes and the casing. The water turbine was fitted with curved blades (such as the runners of a typical cross-flow water turbine installed in tube channels. However, there was ambiguity as to how the blades’ shape influenced the turbine’s performance and flow field. To resolve this issue, the present study applies straight blades to an undershot cross-flow water turbine and examines the performance and flow field via experiments and numerical analyses. Results reveal that the output power and the turbine efficiency of the Straight Blades runner were greater than those of the Curved Blades runner regardless of the rotational speed. Compared with the Curved Blades runner, the output power and the turbine efficiency of the Straight Blades runner were improved by about 31.7% and about 67.1%, respectively.

  9. A Study on Foodborne Bacterial Cross-contamination During Fresh Chicken Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma Ebrahim AlZaabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens from undercooked poultry meat to ready-to-eat food has been shown to be responsible for a number of foodborne disease outbreaks. Various studies have indicated that bacterial cross-contamination occurs during food preparation where bacteria present on food contact other surfaces and cause illness. Objectives: This study evaluated the ability of bacteria to survive and cross-contaminate other foods during the preparation of fresh chicken. Salmonella spp. cross-contamination from chicken to cucumber and utensils under various food handling scenarios was determined. Methods: Two scenarios were tested: in scenario 1, cutting board and knife used for cutting chicken without washing step were sampled. In scenario 2, cutting board and knife was washed with tap water separately after cutting chicken, and subsequently used for cutting cucumber. In scenario 1, chicken, cutting board, knife, and hands were sampled, and in scenario 2, cucumber was tested. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH method, using published Salmonella specific gene probes was used for Salmonella detection in samples taken from cross-contamination scenarios. A culture-based detection by Hektoen enteric agar was used for the confirmation of Salmonella species. Results: All the samples analyzed were found to be positive for Salmonella spp. with different contamination levels. These results were further confirmed by culture based method. In scenario 1, Salmonella spp. was detected by Sal-1 and Salm-63 oligonucleotide probes in all four samples (chicken, cutting board, knife and hands. A high contamination level was observed in chicken samples in comparison to samples collected from cutting board, knife and hands. In scenario 2, Salmonella spp. was detected by Sal-1 and Salm-63 oligonucleotide probes in the cucumber with very low contamination level. Salmonella Enterica was also detected by Sal-3 and Sapath-3 in both scenarios but

  10. Experimental study on mass transfer performances of cross flow dehumidifier using liquid desiccant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.H.; Zhang, Y.; Qu, K.Y.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The liquid desiccant air conditioning system is drawing more and more attention due to its advantages in energy saving and environmental friendliness. The dehumidifier is one of the essential parts of the system, which affects the whole system performance severely. This paper experimentally studies the performance of the cross flow dehumidifier, which has been less studied than the counter flow dehumidifier, although it is more applicable in practice. Celdek structured packings were used in the dehumidifier, and a LiBr aqueous solution was used as the liquid desiccant. The moisture removal rate and dehumidifier effectiveness were adopted as the dehumidifier performance indices. The effects of the dehumidifier inlet parameters, including air and desiccant flow rates, air inlet temperature and humidity ratio and desiccant inlet temperature and concentration, on the two indices were investigated. Correlations are proposed to predict the cross flow dehumidifier performance, which give results in good agreement with the present experimental findings

  11. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  12. Rates and risk factors of injury in CrossFitTM: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sebastian; Booker, Harry; Staines, Jacob; Williams, Sean

    2017-09-01

    CrossFitTM is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread popularity since its inception approximately 15 years ago. However, at present little is known about the level of injury risk associated with this form of training. Movement competency, assessed using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS), has been identified as a risk factor for injury in numerous athletic populations, but its role in CrossFit participants is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of injury risk associated with CrossFit training, and examine the influence of a number of potential risk factors (including movement competency). A cohort of 117 CrossFit participants were followed prospectively for 12 weeks. Participants' characteristics, previous injury history and training experience were recorded at baseline, and an FMS assessment was conducted. The overall injury incidence rate was 2.10 per 1000 training hours (90% confidence limits: 1.32-3.33). A multivariate Poisson regression model identified males (rate ratio [RR]: 4.44 ×/÷ 3.30, very likely harmful) and those with previous injuries (RR: 2.35 ×/÷ 2.37, likely harmful) as having a higher injury risk. Inferences relating to FMS variables were unclear in the multivariate model, although number of asymmetries was a clear risk factor in a univariate model (RR per two additional asymmetries: 2.62 ×/÷ 1.53, likely harmful). The injury incidence rate associated with CrossFit training was low, and comparable to other forms of recreational fitness activities. Previous injury and gender were identified as risk factors for injury, whilst the role of movement competency in this setting warrants further investigation.

  13. Increasing adolescents' depth of understanding of cross-curriculum words: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Lowe, Hilary; Stackhouse, Joy

    2017-09-01

    There is some evidence that vocabulary intervention is effective for children, although further research is needed to confirm the impact of intervention within contexts of social disadvantage. Very little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to increase adolescent knowledge of cross-curriculum words. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention programme designed to develop adolescents' knowledge of cross-curriculum words. Participants were 35 adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years who were at risk of educational underachievement with low scores on a range of assessments. Participants received a 10-week intervention programme in small groups, targeting 10 cross-curriculum words (e.g., 'summarize'). This was evaluated using a bespoke outcome measure (the Word Knowledge Profile). The study involved an AABA design, with a repeated baseline, delayed intervention cohort and blind assessment. Intervention included both semantic and phonological information about the target words and involved the adolescents using the words in multiple contexts. Results were promising and participants' knowledge of the targeted words significantly increased following intervention. Progress was demonstrated on the Word Knowledge Profile on the item requiring participants to define the word (for the summer intervention group only). This increase in depth of knowledge was seen on taught words but not on matched non-taught words. Cross-curriculum words are not consistently understood by adolescents at risk of low educational attainment within a low socio-economic context. A 10-week intervention programme resulted in some increases to the depth of knowledge of targeted cross-curriculum words. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. A Comprehensive Study on Cross-View Gait Based Human Identification with Deep CNNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zifeng; Huang, Yongzhen; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies an approach to gait based human identification via similarity learning by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). With a pretty small group of labeled multi-view human walking videos, we can train deep networks to recognize the most discriminative changes of gait patterns which suggest the change of human identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work based on deep CNNs for gait recognition in the literature. Here, we provide an extensive empirical evaluation in terms of various scenarios, namely, cross-view and cross-walking-condition, with different preprocessing approaches and network architectures. The method is first evaluated on the challenging CASIA-B dataset in terms of cross-view gait recognition. Experimental results show that it outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin. In particular, our method shows advantages when the cross-view angle is large, i.e., no less than 36 degree. And the average recognition rate can reach 94 percent, much better than the previous best result (less than 65 percent). The method is further evaluated on the OU-ISIR gait dataset to test its generalization ability to larger data. OU-ISIR is currently the largest dataset available in the literature for gait recognition, with 4,007 subjects. On this dataset, the average accuracy of our method under identical view conditions is above 98 percent, and the one for cross-view scenarios is above 91 percent. Finally, the method also performs the best on the USF gait dataset, whose gait sequences are imaged in a real outdoor scene. These results show great potential of this method for practical applications.

  15. Acceptance of Driverless Vehicles: Results from a Large Cross-National Questionnaire Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhoff, Sina; de Winter, Joost; Kyriakidis, Miltos; van Arem, Bart; Happee, Riender

    2018-01-01

    Shuttles that operate without an onboard driver are currently being developed and tested in various projects worldwide. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the determinants of acceptance of driverless shuttles in large cross-national samples. In the present study, we surveyed 10,000 respondents on the acceptance of driverless vehicles and sociodemographic characteristics, using a 94-item online questionnaire. After data filtering, data of 7,755 respondents from 116 countries were reta...

  16. Reasons for elderly patients GP visits: results of a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Thomas; Mahlmeister, Jarmila; Deutsch, Tobias; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Frese, Jarmila Mahlmeister, Tobias Deutsch, Hagen Sandholzer Department of General Practice, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the frequency of reasons for elderly patients visits to a general practice (GP) setting. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional data from 8,877 randomly selected patients were assessed during a 1-year period by 209 GPs in the German federal state of Saxony. The reasons for visits, performed...

  17. Dietary habits after myocardial infarction - results from a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, Peter; Mattisson, Iréne; Tydén, Patrik; Berglund, Göran; Janzon, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Comparing habitual nutrient intakes in persons with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and age-matched controls. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. Men and women (525 cases and 1890 matched controls), aged 47-73 years, of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Methods. Nutrient intakes were assessed by a validated modified diet history method. Body fatness was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Case ascertainment was provided by n...

  18. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jason Perry; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken Paul; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl Lynn; Gillman, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design: Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting: 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants: 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1...

  19. A cross-sectional study of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Panchami; Teenu Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The final phase of medical school is characterized by many demands, requirements, and responsibilities, in addition to insecurities that typify the end of the program. Weight and shape concerns are also considered part of the core pathology of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate eating attitudes and to correlate disturbed eating habits with anxiety, self-esteem, body weight satisfaction and BMI in medical students. Methods: This is a cross-sectional o...

  20. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harjunen, Ville J.; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spap?, Michiel M.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver’s body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands...

  1. Attitudes toward plagiarism among pharmacy and medical biochemistry students – cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...

  2. Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajeet Sharma; Tulika Jha; Purshottam K. Kaundal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is the world's most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The stu...

  3. Association between falls in elderly women and chronic diseases and drug use: cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Patel, Rita; Ebrahim, Shah

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between having had a fall and chronic diseases and drug use in elderly women. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using data from the British women's heart and health study. SETTING: General practices in 23 towns in Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS: 4050 women aged 60-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Whether women had had falls in the previous 12 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of falling increased with increasing numbers of simultaneously occurring chronic disease...

  4. Future doctors : Mental distress during medical education: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Medical education is long and stressful and medical students may suffer from mental distress. The aims of this dissertation are threefold; to investigate levels of distress in medical students at one Swedish medical school, to examine gender differences in such distress and to study individual and environmental determinants of distress. Major outcome measures were self-rated depression, burnout and interviewer-rated psychiatric morbidity. The thesis consists of two cross-sec...

  5. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas-Marrufo, MaríaFidelia; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. Objective: To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous a...

  6. Study on Mode of Laos-China Cross-Border Collaboration Strategy Facing Symbiosis Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Thiravong , Sisavath; Xu , Jingrong; Jing , Qin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Laos is a country with abundant natural resources, low labor costs and land rents, which has natural geo-economic relationship with China, and gradually became one of the important destinations of Chinese enterprises’ foreign direct investment. Meanwhile, China has become the largest overseas investment country in Laos. Based on the symbiotic relationship between Laos and China, this paper studies the dynamics of Laos-China cross-border cooperation from three aspects, ...

  7. Study of the cross-reactivity of fish allergens based on a questionnaire and blood testing

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Huge, Jiletu; Imamura, Shintaro; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parvalbumin and collagen have been identified as cross-reactive allergens for fish allergies. Although doctors realize that various fish elicit allergies, the targets of food allergen labeling laws were only mackerels and salmons in Japan and mackerels in South Korea. This study aimed to reveal the causative species for fish allergy via questionnaires and blood tests. Methods: Questionnaire research was conducted in Japan via the internet concerning allergies for fish-allergic ...

  8. Predictors of over-the-counter medication: A cross-sectional Indian study

    OpenAIRE

    Abinash Panda; Supriya Pradhan; Gurukrushna Mohapatro; Jaya Singh Kshatri

    2017-01-01

    Context: The determinants of over-the-counter (OTC) medication need to be understood to design adequate drug information policies. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of OTC medication among the adult population of Berhampur town in Odisha, India. Settings and Design: It was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study carried out in the private retail pharmacy on a convenience sample of 880 adults over a period of 6 months at Berhampur, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods...

  9. Gas-phase studies of copper catalyzed aerobic cross coupling of thiol esters and arylboronic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsybizová, A.; Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, J.; Henke, A.; Šrogl, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2014), s. 198-203 ISSN 0894-3230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0846 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0338 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : boronic acids * catalysis * copper * cross coupling * electrospray ionization * mass spectrometry * kinetic studies Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  10. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Alicia Fontana; Waldina Raimondi; María Laura Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adven...

  11. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performa...

  12. Advertising in a cross-cultural environment: a study of French and Chinese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The globalisation of media, incomes and technology was expected as the convergence of homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyle. However, there is a debate on the fact that culture is universal or not. This paper aim is to research the possibility of initiating a new strategy for advertisement in a cross-cultural environment. By studying the concept of culture and using it to compare the way Chinese and French people consider advertising, this paper wants to outline a new pattern fo...

  13. Acute tendon changes in intense CrossFit workout: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, F Y; Kildegaard, S; Thygesen, M; Grosen, K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, M

    2017-11-01

    CrossFit is a fitness program that has become increasingly popular in the Western world, but as in other sports, the risk of injury is present. Only a few studies have addressed health benefits and injuries in CrossFit. It is known that chronically overloaded tendons will thicken and increase the risk of tendinopathy. However, it remains unknown whether acute overload caused by strenuous, high-intensity exercise will exert changes in tendons and if these changes can be detected and described by ultrasonography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acute overload on tendon thickness using ultrasonography. Standardized ultrasound measurements of the patella, Achilles, and plantaris tendons were performed before and after a specific workout in 34 healthy subjects. Significant increases were observed in patella tendon thickness before (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6) and after (M = 5.0, SD = 0.7) highly intense strenuous exercise, with an estimated mean differences of 0.47 mm (95% CI: 0.35-0.59 mm; P CrossFit exercises. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the findings and possibly utilize this to gain a better understanding, further studies must be conducted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cement dust exposure and acute lung function: A cross shift study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen Bente E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out on acute effects of cement dust exposure. This study is conducted to investigate the associations between current "total" dust exposure and acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory function among cement factory workers. Methods A combined cross-sectional and cross-shift study was conducted in Dire Dawa cement factory in Ethiopia. 40 exposed production workers from the crusher and packing sections and 20 controls from the guards were included. Personal "total" dust was measured in the workers' breathing zone and peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured for all selected workers before and after the shift. When the day shift ended, the acute respiratory symptoms experienced were scored and recorded on a five-point Likert scale using a modified respiratory symptom score questionnaire. Results The highest geometric mean dust exposure was found in the crusher section (38.6 mg/m3 followed by the packing section (18.5 mg/m3 and the guards (0.4 mg/m3. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms for the high exposed workers was stuffy nose (85% followed by shortness of breath (47% and "sneezing" (45%. PEF decreased significantly across the shift in the high exposed group. Multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between the percentage cross-shift change in PEF and total dust exposure. The number of years of work in high-exposure sections and current smoking were also associated with cross-shift decrease in PEF. Conclusions Total cement dust exposure was related to acute respiratory symptoms and acute ventilatory effects. Implementing measures to control dust and providing adequate personal respiratory protective equipment for the production workers are highly recommended.

  15. Cultural border crossing in three urban classrooms: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Rupnarain

    This study examined the effects of the instruction of four youth cultural border crossing behaviors: flexibility, being at ease, playfulness, and citizenship as an intervention aimed at helping students to transition across three borders, student to student, student to science, and student to teacher. The research involved 12 ninth- and 10th-grade students in a large urban school district in three diverse classrooms, A, B, and C. Four students in each classroom volunteered for the study. The students in Groups A and B were in 9th grade Living Environment and students in Group B were in 10th grade chemistry. These students participated in this instructional intervention for three months. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods based on participant observations, interviews, and questionnaire. The result indicated that there was no significant effect of the cultural border crossing instructions on the students' interactions across the three borders examined. However, the instructions helped Group A and Group B to be more flexible but not group C. Also, the instructions helped Group A to be more playful and at ease but not Group B and C. The instructions also helped Group A to show more citizenship but not Group B and C. In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest cultural bother crossing behavior. Moreover, qualitative data analysis showed that the participants were more flexible, at ease, and playful among peers than across student to teacher and student to science borders. Also, the use of citizenship in the three groups showed no effect on the participants' interaction with peers. Although, the findings showed no effect of cultural border crossing instructions on students' interactions, it is suggested that we continue to find ways to help students feel more comfortable in science.

  16. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  17. Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.

    The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;

  18. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  19. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II; Estudio de barras combustibles de seccion eliptica II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, H; Marajofsky, A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Combustibles Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study of p-4He Total Reaction cross section using Glauber and Modified Glauber Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tag El Din, I.M.A.; Taha, M.M.; Hassan, S.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The total nuclear reaction cross-section for p - 4 He in the energy range from 25 to 1000 MeV is calculated within Glauber and modified Glauber models. The modified Glauber model is introduced via both Coulomb trajectory of the projectile and calculation of the effective radius of interaction. The effects of density dependent total cross-section and phase variation of nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude are studied. It is pointed out that the phase variation of the nucleon-nucleon amplitude plays a significant role in describing σR at E p 2 at e = e0 = 0 and γ=2fm 2 at e = e0 = 0.17fm -3 .

  1. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes’ placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  2. Study of the ratios of neutrino inclusive cross sections on neutron and proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, T.

    1980-01-01

    Here is a study of two bubble chamber experiments done at the CERN neutrino beams. The first, using 1 to 10 GeV neutrinos interacting in Gargamelle filled with propane, yields, after an original separation of neutron and proton interactions, to a cross section ratio of 2.07+-0.15 for charged current and 0.74+-0.15 for inelastic neutral current. The secondly using 15 to 200 GeV neutrinos reacting in BEBC filled with neon and implemented with a liquid hydrogen target, yields, by a comparison of both medium, to a cross section ratio of 1.98+-0.19 and to an indication of it increase as a function of the Bjorken x [fr

  3. Flow study in the cross sectional planes of a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical study of the nonviscous flow characteristics in the cross-sectional planes of a radial inflow turbine scroll is presented. The velocity potential is used in the formulation to determine the flow velocity in these planes resulting from the continuous mass discharge. The effect of the through flow velocity is simulated by a continuous distribution of source/sink in the cross-section. A special iterative procedure is devised to handle the solution of the resulting Poisson's differential equation with Neumann boundary conditions in a domain with generally curved boundaries. The analysis is used to determine the effects of the radius of curvature, the location of the scroll section and its geometry on the flow characteristics in the turbine scroll.

  4. Studying students' attitudes towards science from a cultural perspective but with a quantitative methodology: border crossing into the physics classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, L.; Thomsen, Poul V.

    2005-01-01

    This study applies the concept of cultural border (or boundary) crossing first introduced by Phelan et al. (1991) to the investigation of students' attitudes towards physics and to their choice of physics for A-level. A typology of border crossings is introduced and a number of possible crossings...... for attitudes towards physics as well as for choice of A-level physics in the Danish upper secondary school ('gymnasium')....

  5. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  7. Determinants of the Strength of Auditing and Reporting Standards: a Cross-Country Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Krishansing Boolaky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study addresses the research gap regarding the absence of an empirical cross-country study on the determinants of the strength of auditing and reporting standards (SARS. Using data on 133 countries at various stages of development, we examine the role of environmental factors that influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. Our empirical results confirm that institutional infrastructure, financial market development and higher education and training jointly influence a country’s strength of auditing and reporting standards. We obtain qualitatively similar subsample results when we partition countries on the basis of economic development.

  8. Association between salivary pH and metabolic syndrome in women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Monique; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The salivary flow rate is an important determinant of salivary pH. It is influenced by several metabolic syndrome (MetS) components as well as the menopausal status. The cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors that characterizes the MetS could be exacerbated following menopause. The objective of this study was therefore to document the association between salivary pH and MetS expression in women according to the menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, uns...

  9. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.

  10. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Salem George; Mikati Mohamed; Kouzi Sarah; Muwakkit Samar; Nabulsi Mona; Nuwayhid Iman; Ariss Majd

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–...

  11. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER CANCER BY CROSS-POLARIZATION OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY: A BLIND STATISTICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Streltsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether cross-polarization (CP optical coherence tomography (OCT could be used to detect early bladder cancer was ascertained; it was compared with traditional OCT within the framework of blind (closed clinical statistical studies. One hundred and sixteen patients with local nonexophytic (flat pathological processes of the bladder were examined; 360 CP OCT images were obtained and analyzed. The study used an OCT 1300-U CP optical coherence tomographer. CP OCT showed a high (94% sensitivity and a high (84% specificity in the identification of suspected nonexophytic areas in the urinary bladder.

  12. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  13. Comparative Study of One-Step Cross-Linked Electrospun Chitosan-Based Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet E. Aguirre-Chagala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan membranes are widely applied for tissue engineering; however, a major drawback is their low resistance in aqueous phases and therefore the structure collapses impeding their long-term use. Although there is extensive research, because of chitosan’s importance as a biomaterial, studies involving chitosan-based membranes are still needed. Herein, a detailed investigation of diverse chemical routes to cross-link fibers in situ by electrospinning process is described. In case of using genipin as cross-linker, a close relationship with the content and the mean diameter values is reported, suggesting a crucial effect over the design of nanostructures. Also, the physical resistance is enhanced for the combination of two types of methods, such as chemical and physical methods. Cross-linked fibers upon exposure to long wave ultraviolet A (UVA light change their morphology, but not their chemical composition. When they are incubated in aqueous phase for 70 days, they show an extensive improvement of their macrostructural integrity which makes them attractive candidates for tissue engineering application. As a result, the thermal properties of these materials reveal less crystallinity and higher temperature of degradation.

  14. Large-eddy simulation study of oil/gas plumes in stratified fluid with cross current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Xiao, Shuolin; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the oil/gas plume from a subsea blowout are strongly affected by the seawater stratification and cross current. The buoyant plume entrains ambient seawater and lifts it up to higher elevations. During the rising process, the continuously increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient seawater caused by the stable stratification eventually results in a detrainment of the entrained seawater and small oil droplets at a height of maximum rise (peel height), forming a downward plume outside the rising inner plume. The presence of a cross current breaks the plume's axisymmetry and causes the outer plume to fall along the downstream side of the inner plume. The detrained seawater and oil eventually fall to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), and disperse horizontally to form an intrusion layer. In this study, the complex plume dynamics is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Various laboratory and field scale cases are simulated to explore the effect of cross current and stratification on the plume dynamics. Based on the LES data, various turbulence statistics of the plume are systematically quantified, leading to some useful insights for modeling the mean plume dynamics using integral plume models. This research is made possible by a RFP-V Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  15. Comparative study of turbulent mixing in jet in cross-flow configurations using LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, B.; Huai, Y.; Sadiki, A.

    2004-01-01

    Mixing processes in turbulent fluid motion are of fundamental interest in many situations in engineering practice. Due to its practical importance in a vast number of applications, the generic configuration of the jet in cross-flow has been studied extensively in the past. Recently, the question has received a lot of attention, whether the unsteady behavior of the jet in cross-flow can be influenced by either active or passive means in order to control and enhance the mixing process. In the present paper, we use the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology to investigate how turbulent mixing can be enhanced by varying the angle between the jet and the oncoming cross-flow. After validating the computations against measurements by Andreopoulos and Rodi, we analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the mixing process for three configurations with different angles. It is shown that the inclination influences the characteristics of vortical structures and secondary motion which in turn have an effect on the mixing process. Besides a PDF of the passive scalar and a scalar energy spectrum, a mixedness parameter is used to provide information with respect to the quality and rate of mixing

  16. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  17. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  18. Wear of a 5 megarad cross-linked polyethylene liner: a 6-year RSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Stuart A; Campbell, David G; Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G; Field, John R

    2013-07-01

    One cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner is manufactured using a lower dose of radiation, 5 Mrad, which may result in less cross-linking. The reported in vivo wear rate of this XLPE liner in patients undergoing THA has varied, and has included some patients in each reported cohort who had greater than 0.1 mm/year of wear, which is an historical threshold for osteolysis. Previous studies have measured wear on plain radiographs, an approach that has limited sensitivity. We therefore measured the amount and direction of wear at 6 years using Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients who had THAs that included a cross-linked polyethylene liner manufactured using 5 Mrad radiation. We prospectively reviewed wear in 30 patients who underwent primary THAs with the same design of cross-linked acetabular liner and a 28-mm articulation. Tantalum markers were inserted during surgery and all patients had RSA radiographic examinations at 1 week, 6 months, 1, 2, and 6 years postoperatively. The mean proximal, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) wear rates calculated between 1 year and 6 years were 0.014, 0.014, and 0.018 mm/per year, respectively. The direction of the head penetration recorded between 1 week and 6 years was in a proximal direction for all patients, proximolateral for 16 of 24 patients, and proximomedial for eight of 24 patients. The proximal, 2-D and 3-D wear of a XLPE liner produced using 5 Mrad of radiation was low but measurable by RSA after 6 years. No patients had proximal 2-D or 3-D wear rates exceeding 0.1 mm/year. Further followup is needed to evaluate the effect of XLPE wear particles on the development of long-term osteolysis.

  19. A Comparison Study of Classifier Algorithms for Cross-Person Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yago Saez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is widely known to be one of the key elements of a healthy life. The many benefits of physical activity described in the medical literature include weight loss and reductions in the risk factors for chronic diseases. With the recent advances in wearable devices, such as smartwatches or physical activity wristbands, motion tracking sensors are becoming pervasive, which has led to an impressive growth in the amount of physical activity data available and an increasing interest in recognizing which specific activity a user is performing. Moreover, big data and machine learning are now cross-fertilizing each other in an approach called “deep learning”, which consists of massive artificial neural networks able to detect complicated patterns from enormous amounts of input data to learn classification models. This work compares various state-of-the-art classification techniques for automatic cross-person activity recognition under different scenarios that vary widely in how much information is available for analysis. We have incorporated deep learning by using Google’s TensorFlow framework. The data used in this study were acquired from PAMAP2 (Physical Activity Monitoring in the Ageing Population, a publicly available dataset containing physical activity data. To perform cross-person prediction, we used the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO cross-validation technique. When working with large training sets, the best classifiers obtain very high average accuracies (e.g., 96% using extra randomized trees. However, when the data volume is drastically reduced (where available data are only 0.001% of the continuous data, deep neural networks performed the best, achieving 60% in overall prediction accuracy. We found that even when working with only approximately 22.67% of the full dataset, we can statistically obtain the same results as when working with the full dataset. This finding enables the design of more energy-efficient devices and

  20. Study of the cross-reactivity of fish allergens based on a questionnaire and blood testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Huge, Jiletu; Imamura, Shintaro; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-07-01

    Parvalbumin and collagen have been identified as cross-reactive allergens for fish allergies. Although doctors realize that various fish elicit allergies, the targets of food allergen labeling laws were only mackerels and salmons in Japan and mackerels in South Korea. This study aimed to reveal the causative species for fish allergy via questionnaires and blood tests. Questionnaire research was conducted in Japan via the internet concerning allergies for fish-allergic patients or their family members. Next, IgE reactivities and cross-reactivities of 26 fish species were analyzed using sera obtained from 16 Japanese patients who were allergic to fish parvalbumin or collagen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and inhibition ELISA. Questionnaire research revealed that 88% patients cannot eat mackerel and salmon in addition to other fish. In addition, 85% respondents were not satisfied with the current food allergen labeling law. In ELISA analyses, we clarified that pooled serum obtained from patients with fish parvalbumin-specific allergies exhibited IgE reactivity to the extracts of most fish species, and pooled serum obtained from patients with fish collagen-specific allergies displayed IgE reactivity to the extracts of all types of fish. Inhibition ELISA experiments revealed cross-reactivities of parvalbumin or collagen to extracts from all fish tested. Most patients with fish allergies displayed allergic symptoms following the intake of various fish species. In addition, fish parvalbumin and collagen were causative factors of fish allergy and were highly cross-reactive fish panallergens. Therefore, current laws should be revised in Japan and South Korea. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparison Study of Classifier Algorithms for Cross-Person Physical Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Yago; Baldominos, Alejandro; Isasi, Pedro

    2016-12-30

    Physical activity is widely known to be one of the key elements of a healthy life. The many benefits of physical activity described in the medical literature include weight loss and reductions in the risk factors for chronic diseases. With the recent advances in wearable devices, such as smartwatches or physical activity wristbands, motion tracking sensors are becoming pervasive, which has led to an impressive growth in the amount of physical activity data available and an increasing interest in recognizing which specific activity a user is performing. Moreover, big data and machine learning are now cross-fertilizing each other in an approach called "deep learning", which consists of massive artificial neural networks able to detect complicated patterns from enormous amounts of input data to learn classification models. This work compares various state-of-the-art classification techniques for automatic cross-person activity recognition under different scenarios that vary widely in how much information is available for analysis. We have incorporated deep learning by using Google's TensorFlow framework. The data used in this study were acquired from PAMAP2 (Physical Activity Monitoring in the Ageing Population), a publicly available dataset containing physical activity data. To perform cross-person prediction, we used the leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) cross-validation technique. When working with large training sets, the best classifiers obtain very high average accuracies (e.g., 96% using extra randomized trees). However, when the data volume is drastically reduced (where available data are only 0.001% of the continuous data), deep neural networks performed the best, achieving 60% in overall prediction accuracy. We found that even when working with only approximately 22.67% of the full dataset, we can statistically obtain the same results as when working with the full dataset. This finding enables the design of more energy-efficient devices and facilitates cold

  2. A study of nutritional status and high risk behavior of adolescents in Ahmedabad: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mital Prajapati; D.V.Bala; Hemant Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct age group (10-19 yrs) with complex needs because of physical and psychological development during puberty. Aim: To evaluate adolescents’ nutritional status and high risk behavior. Settings and design: A Cross Sectional study was conducted in West Zone of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Gujarat. Methods & Material: 401 students (10-19years) from 10 schools and colleges surveyed using pretested questionnaire ab...

  3. A cross-cultural study of request speech act: Iraqi and Malay students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.

  4. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations

  5. Pain in European long-term care facilities: Cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European

  6. A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscheman, H.; Giltay, E.J.; Megens, J.A.J.; de Ronde, W.; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adverse effects of long-term cross-sex hormone administration to transsexuals are not well documented. We assessed mortality rates in transsexual subjects receiving long-term cross-sex hormones. Design: A cohort study with a median follow-up of 18.5 years at a university gender clinic.

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The relationship between suicide and Islam: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Chandia, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, suicide rates were low in Islamic countries. However, the process of modernization can erode the ties of the individual to society and lead to questioning of religion and weakening of faith. Therefore, a cross-national study with the null hypothesis that there will be no relationship between general population suicide rates and the percentage of adherents of Islam was undertaken. The correlation between general population suicide rates and the percentage of people in the general population adherent to Islam, whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality, was examined using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. There were significant negative correlations between general population suicide rate and the percentage of people adherent to Islam in males and females whilst controlling for socioeconomic status and income inequality. Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship and the direction of causality from this ecological study due to ecological fallacy. However, there is case to study further the impact of Islam on suicide by in-depth study of adherents Islam with and without suicidal ideation and behaviors. ‎

  9. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An international cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Valente, Kette; Alessi, Ruda; Tinker, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26years vs. 34years; P=0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9years vs. 5.6years; P=0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P=0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A numerical study on an optimum design of a Cross-flow type Power Turbine (CPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jin Ho; Kim, Chul Ho

    2008-01-01

    A wind turbine is one of the most popular energy conversion systems to generate electricity from the natural renewable energy source and an axial-flow type wind turbine is commonly used system for the generation electricity in the wind farm nowadays. In this study, a cross-flow type turbine has been studied for the application of wind turbine for electricity generation. The target capacity of the electric power generation of the model wind turbine developing in this project is 12volts-150A/H(about 1.8Kw). The important design parameters of the model turbine impeller are the inlet and exit angle of the turbine blade, number of blade, hub/tip ratio and exit flow angle of the housing. In this study, the radial equilibrium theorem was used to decide the inlet and exit angle of the model impeller blade and CFD technique was incorporated to have performance analysis of the design model power turbine for the optimum design of the geometry of the Cross-flow Power Turbine impeller and Casing. In CFD, Navier-Stokes equation is solved with the SIMPLEC method in a general coordinates system. Realizable k-ε turbulent model with MARS scheme was used for evaluating torque of each blade in the Cross-flow Power Turbine (CPT). From the result, the designed CPT with 24 impeller blades at α=40 .deg. and β=85 .deg. of turbine blade angle was estimated to generate 1.2Nm of the indicated torque and 200watts of the indicated power. On the basis of the rules of similarity, the generating power capacity of the real size CPT that is eight times longer than the model impeller is predicted to have an 1.6kW of the output power (about 12V-130A/H or 24V-65A/H)

  11. Cross-flow turbines: physical and numerical model studies towards improved array simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-flow, or vertical-axis turbines, show potential in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices towards improving turbine array layouts for maximizing overall power output, i.e., minimizing wake interference for axial-flow turbines, or taking advantage of constructive wake interaction for cross-flow turbines. Numerical simulations are generally better suited to explore the turbine array design parameter space, as physical model studies of large arrays at large model scale would be expensive. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries, the turbines' interaction with the energy resource needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Most models in use today, e.g. actuator disk, are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. Experiments were carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed in a large cross-section tow tank, designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. To improve parameterization in array simulations, an actuator line model (ALM) was developed to provide a computationally feasible method for simulating full turbine arrays inside Navier--Stokes models. The ALM predicts turbine loading with the blade element method combined with sub-models for dynamic stall and flow curvature. The open-source software is written as an extension library for the OpenFOAM CFD package, which allows the ALM body force to be applied to their standard RANS and LES solvers. Turbine forcing is also applied to volume of fluid (VOF) models, e.g., for predicting free surface effects on submerged MHK devices. An

  12. Comparative study of few energy group of cross sections for fuel cells of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    A comparative study of nuclear constants calculated with LEOPARD and WIMSD-4 codes using a typical PWR cell was done. Few groups macroscopic cross section, spectral index, burnup and power distribution were analyzed. (author) and safety concern with the transport of radioactive materials, looking for the control of eventual exposure of radiation to men, properties and environment, that is: specification of radioactive materials to be transported; choice of loaded materials; specification of requisites of loaded materials; general specification for any way of transport (earth, water and air), and responsibilities and administrative requisites. (author)

  13. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  14. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  15. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    R Soumya; Vijayalakshmi Devarashetty; C R Jayanthi; M Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas ...

  16. High resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for crossed molecular beam study of elementary chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Ren Zefeng; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe an apparatus in our laboratory for investigating elementary chemical reactions using the high resolution time-of-flight Rydberg tagging method. In this apparatus, we have adopted a rotating source design so that collision energy can be changed for crossed beam studies of chemical reactions. Preliminary results on the HI photodissociation and the F atom reaction with H 2 are reported here. These results suggest that the experimental apparatus is potentially a powerful tool for investigating state-to-state dynamics of elementary chemical reactions

  17. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo eHareli; Konstantinos eKafetsios; Ursula eHess

    2015-01-01

    When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral) can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece, and the US), which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in al...

  18. Cross-sectional nanophotoluminescence studies of Stark effects in self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htoon, H.; Keto, J. W.; Baklenov, O.; Holmes, A. L. Jr.; Shih, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    By using a cross-sectional geometry, we show the capability to perform single-dot spectroscopy in self-assembled quantum dots using far-field optics. By using this method, we study the quantum-confined Stark effect in self-assembled quantum dots. For single-stack quantum dots (QDs), we find that the spectra are redshifted with an increase in electric field. For vertically coupled double-stack quantum dots, while most of the QDs are redshifted, some QDs show blueshifted spectra, which can be interpreted as an evidence of coupled QD molecules. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. TAT – Thematic Apperception Test (Murray test as Cross-cultural Studies Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ungureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three images of the TAT were used to elicit answers from a sample of around one hundred teenagers from different countries and cultural backgrounds. The goal of the research was to identify possible cultural differences in perception of social and family relationships, differences in associating emotions with a social context. Our study was inspired by the ones conducted by Bert Kaplan in Kansas and Ivano Rinaldi in rural Lucania, at the request of Edward Banfield (The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, 1958. It was the first one to use the Thematic Apperception Test for a cross-cultural comparison.

  20. Depression among the urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Leong; Yadav, Hematram

    2013-01-01

    This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.

  1. Study on Remote Monitoring System of Crossing and Spanning Tangent Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-bing; Zhang, Nai-long; Zhang, Meng-ge; Wang, Ze-hua; Zhang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    In order to grasp the vibration state of overhead transmission line and ensure the operational security of transmission line, the remote monitoring system of crossing and spanning tangent tower was studied. By use of this system, the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the tower, and the local weather data are collected automatically, displayed on computer of remote monitoring centre through wireless network, real-time collection and transmission of vibration signals are realized. The applying results show that the system is excellent in reliability and accuracy and so on. The system can be used to remote monitoring of transmission tower of UHV power transmission lines and in large spanning areas.

  2. Experimental study and theoretical simulation of the cross hardening effect in shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, A. A.; Sil'chenko, A. L.; Kazarina, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The shapes and the relative position of martensitic inelasticity and forward transformation diagrams are experimentally studied. The strain dependences of the stress in loading under martensitic inelasticity conditions after an experiment on the accumulation of the forward transformation-induced strain at a constant or variable stress are investigated on titanium nickelide samples. It is found that the hardening of the martensite part of the representative volume of a shape memory alloy (titanium nickelide) after forward transformation under a nonmonotonically changing stress can be nonuniform. The cross hardening phenomenon is theoretically described in terms of the model of nonlinear deformation of a shape memory alloy during phase and structural transformations.

  3. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  4. Cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations in studying motivation and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that brain functions are realized by simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. In addition to examining oscillations in pre-specified bands, interactions and relations between the different frequency bandwidths is another important aspect that needs to be considered in unraveling the workings of the human brain and its functions. In this review we provide evidence that studying interdependencies between brain oscillations may be a valuable approach to study the electrophysiological processes associated with motivation and emotional states. Studies will be presented showing that amplitude-amplitude coupling between delta-alpha and delta-beta oscillations varies as a function of state anxiety and approach-avoidance-related motivation, and that changes in the association between delta-beta oscillations can be observed following successful psychotherapy. Together these studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations may contribute to expanding our understanding of the neural processes underlying motivation and emotion.

  5. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the internet: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-05-01

    Suicide rates generally increase with age. Internet websites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and to have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. The role of the internet in elderly suicides has not been studied. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the prevalence of internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations website. The prevalence of internet users was significantly and positively correlated with suicide rates in both genders in the age bands 65-74 years and 75+ years. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of internet users was independently associated with suicide rates in both genders in both age bands. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research.

  6. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ventura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  7. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  8. Pipeline politics—A study of India′s proposed cross border gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle; Kulkarni, Sanket Sudhir; Ahuja, Dilip R.

    2013-01-01

    India′s energy situation is characterized by increasing energy demand, high fossil fuel dependency, large import shares, and significant portion of population deprived of modern energy services. At this juncture, natural gas, being the cleanest fossil fuel with high efficiency and cost effectiveness, is expected to play an important role. India, with only 0.6% of proven world reserves, is not endowed with adequate natural gas domestically. Nevertheless, there are gas reserves in neighbouring regions which gives rise to the prospects of three cross border gas pipeline projects, namely, Iran–Pakistan–India, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, and Myanmar–Bangladesh–India. This study is a political analysis of these pipeline projects. First, it provides justification on use of natural gas and promotion of cross border energy trade. Then it examines these three pipeline projects and analyses the security concerns, role of different actors, their positions, shifting goals, and strategies. The study develops scenarios on the basis of changing circumstances and discusses some of the pertinent issues like technology options for underground/underwater pipelines and role of private players. It also explores impact of India′s broader foreign relations and role of SAARC on the future of pipelines and proposes energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) as a concept for regional security. -- Highlights: •We justify the need for cross border energy trade through gas pipelines for India. •We examine prospective pipeline projects—IPI, TAPI, MBI and their security issues. •We develop scenarios and analyze role of actors, their positions, and strategies. •We discuss technology and policy options for realizing these gas pipelines. •We propose energy induced mutually assured protection (MAP) for regional security

  9. PyCCF: Python Cross Correlation Function for reverberation mapping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mouyuan; Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    PyCCF emulates a Fortran program written by B. Peterson for use with reverberation mapping. The code cross correlates two light curves that are unevenly sampled using linear interpolation and measures the peak and centroid of the cross-correlation function. In addition, it is possible to run Monto Carlo iterations using flux randomization and random subset selection (RSS) to produce cross-correlation centroid distributions to estimate the uncertainties in the cross correlation results.

  10. Seasonal variation of strongylosis in working donkeys of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaba, Motuma Debelo; Getachew, A M; Assefa, Zerihun; Fanta, Alemayehu; Etana, Manyahilishal; Firew, Seyoum; Goshu, Lemessa; Burden, F

    2017-07-01

    Helminths are one of the major health problems of working donkeys, often with heavy worm burden and contributing to their early demise and/or reduction in their work output. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted to investigate the current infection prevalence and level of strongyles infection donkeys would acquire through different seasons in the mid-lowland agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. For this purpose, faecal samples from 206 (cross-sectional study) and 102 (longitudinal study) randomly selected donkeys were directly collected from the rectum and analysed. For the longitudinal study, the 102 donkeys dewormed at the end of main rainy season, beginning of October, were monitored for the level of strongyle infection they would acquire during subsequent dry and short rainy seasons. The cross-sectional study of 206 donkey has revealed an overall infection prevalence of 89.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 84.4, 92.9). Donkeys in the lowland zone showed a significantly higher strongyle infection prevalence (P = 0.0126) and mean eggs per gramme of faces (EPG) (P = 0.001; 2775 EPG) compared to donkeys in the midland zone (980.8 EPG). Age, sex and body condition did not have any significant effect on either the infection prevalence or level of infection (P > 0.05). The longitudinal study has shown a significantly lower strongyle infection prevalence (P = 0.003) and level of infection donkeys acquired (P = 0.001) in the subsequent dry and short rainy seasons compared to the main rainy season following October deworming. However, these values were not significantly different between the two agro-ecological zones (P > 0.05). This study clearly showed that parasitic infections are primarily acquired during the main rainy season when pasture/herbage coverage is relatively better, and the environment is conducive for parasites survival and development. On the other hand, the finding of majority of donkeys shedding low or no eggs during the

  11. Total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu - statistical study of resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Blons, J.; Eggermann, C.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.; Ribon, P.

    1967-01-01

    The authors measured the total and fission cross-sections of 239 Pu with the linear accelerator at Saclay as a pulsed source of neutrons. The total cross-section was measured in the range from 4 to 700 eV and the best resolution used was 1.5 ns/m; the fission cross-section was measured between 4 eV and 6 keV, the best resolution having been 6 ns/m. The transmission measurements on five samples were made at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, and comparisons made with supplementary experiments at ambient temperature made it possible to determine the Doppler broadening factor (Δ = η√E). The resonances were identified from 4 to 500 eV in the total cross-section; the average level spacing was of the order of 2.4 eV. It would appear that, in this energy range, nearly all the levels were identified. The resonance parameters were determined by analysis of shape in conjunction with a least-squares programme on an IBM-7094 computer. The existence of a large number of broad resonances corresponding to very large fission widths has been shown to exist. Statistical study of the fission widths actually shows the existence of two families of resonances, one corresponding to a mean Γ f of the order of 45 meV and the other to a mean Γ/f of about 750 meV. The authors were therefore able to postulate a classification of resonances in terms of two spin states, the level population ratio in each family being: (2J 1 +1)/(2J 2 +1) = 1/3; J 1 = 0 corresponds to the broad resonances and J 2 = 1 to the narrow ones. The partial widths for radiative capture fluctuate slightly around a mean value of 40 meV. By using a multilevel programme, the authors were able to investigate the extent to which the existence of large fission widths might give rise to fictitious resonances (quasi-resonances) and perturbations and also to make a statistical study of the resonance parameters. (author) [fr

  12. LES of turbulent jet in cross-flow: Part 1 – A numerical validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a LES based numerical simulation of the turbulent jet-in-cross-flow (JICF) flowfield, with Reynolds number based on cross-flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of R=3.3. The JICF flow case has been investigated in great detail...

  13. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Tumwine, James K

    2008-12-22

    Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ). Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ growth among Ugandan infants.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  15. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  16. The “Shawshank Trail”: A Cross Disciplinary Study in Film Induced Tourism and Fan Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Roberson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a sustainable means of economic development, has attracted a considerable amount of attention from municipalities seeking to better understand their available development options. Film induced tourism has seen appreciable growth and represents a considerable opportunity for many communities to use filming locations seen in popular movies and/or television to draw additional visitors. These opportunities create an increasing need for communities and the organizers of events to better understand their attendees, the fans, in order to better serve their unique needs and desires. Fan culture studies, as an outgrowth of media studies, examine the nature and make up of fan communities. This article posits a cross disciplinary approach using fan studies to inform tourism research. This article reports on an analysis of attendees to an event celebrating of the 20th anniversary of the filming of the popular American film “The Shawshank Redemption.” Attendee characteristics, desired outcomes, and motivating factors were examined.

  17. Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Pertiwi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  19. The association between intrauterine inflammation and spontaneous vaginal delivery at term: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different factors contribute to the onset of labor at term. In animal models onset of labor is characterized by an inflammatory response. The role of intrauterine inflammation, although implicated in preterm birth, is not yet established in human term labor. We hypothesized that intrauterine inflammation at term is associated with spontaneous onset of labor. METHODS/RESULTS: In two large urban hospitals in the Netherlands, a cross-sectional study of spontaneous onset term vaginal deliveries and elective caesarean sections (CS, without signs of labor, was carried out. Placentas and amniotic fluid samples were collected during labor and/or at delivery. Histological signs of placenta inflammation were determined. Amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 375 women were included. In term vaginal deliveries, more signs of intrauterine inflammation were found than in elective CS: the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was higher (18 vs 4%, p = 0.02 and amniotic fluid concentration of IL-6 was higher (3.1 vs 0.37 ng/mL, p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (10.93 vs 0.96 ng/mL, p<0.001 and percentage of detectable TNF-alpha (50 vs 4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This large cross-sectional study shows that spontaneous term delivery is characterized by histopathological signs of placenta inflammation and increased amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Defining and Estimating Healthy Aging in Spain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; McLaughlin, Sara J; Urdaneta, Elena; Yanguas, Javier

    2018-03-19

    Using an operational continuum of healthy aging developed by U.S. researchers, we sought to estimate the prevalence of healthy aging among older Spaniards, inform the development of a definition of healthy aging in Spain, and foster cross-national research on healthy aging. The ELES pilot study is a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling Spaniards 50 years and older. The prevalence of healthy aging was calculated for the 65 and over population using varying definitions. To evaluate their validity, we examined the association of healthy aging with the 8 foot up & go test, quality of life scores and self-perceived health using multiple linear and logistic regression. The estimated prevalence of healthy aging varied across the operational continuum, from 4.5% to 49.2%. Prevalence figures were greater for men and those aged 65 to 79 years and were higher than in the United States. Predicted mean physical performance scores were similar for 3 of the 4 definitions, suggesting that stringent definitions of healthy aging offer little advantage over a more moderate one. Similar to U.S. researchers, we recommend a definition of healthy aging that incorporates measures of functional health and limiting disease as opposed to definitions requiring the absence of all disease in studies designed to assess the effect of policy initiatives on healthy aging.

  1. Cross-correlation studies between CMB temperature anisotropies and 21 cm fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2004-01-01

    During the transition from a neutral to a fully reionized universe, scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons via free electrons leads to a new anisotropy contribution to the temperature distribution. If the reionization process is inhomogeneous and patchy, the era of reionization is also visible via brightness temperature fluctuations in the redshifted 21 cm line emission from neutral hydrogen. Since regions containing electrons and neutral hydrogen are expected to trace the same underlying density field, the two are (anti)correlated and this is expected to be reflected in the anisotropy maps via a correlation between arcminute-scale CMB temperature and the 21 cm background. In terms of the angular cross-power spectrum, unfortunately, this correlation is insignificant due to a geometric cancellation associated with second-order CMB anisotropies. The same cross correlation between ionized and neutral regions, however, can be studied using a bispectrum involving large-scale velocity field of ionized regions from the Doppler effect, arcminute-scale CMB anisotropies during reionization, and the 21 cm background. While the geometric cancellation is partly avoided, the signal-to-noise ratio related to this bispectrum is reduced due to the large cosmic variance related to velocity fluctuations traced by the Doppler effect. Unless the velocity field during reionization can be independently established, it is unlikely that the correlation information related to the relative distribution of ionized electrons and regions containing neutral hydrogen can be obtained with a combined study involving CMB and 21 cm fluctuations

  2. Study of principle error sources in gamma spectrometry. Application to cross sections measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majah, M. Ibn.

    1985-01-01

    The principle error sources in gamma spectrometry have been studied in purpose to measure cross sections with great precision. Three error sources have been studied: dead time and pile up which depend on counting rate, and coincidence effect that depends on the disintegration scheme of the radionuclide in question. A constant frequency pulse generator has been used to correct the counting loss due to dead time and pile up in cases of long and short disintegration periods. The loss due to coincidence effect can reach 25% and over, depending on the disintegration scheme and on the distance source-detector. After establishing the correction formula and verifying its validity for four examples: iron 56, scandium 48, antimony 120 and gold 196 m, an application has been done by measuring cross sections of nuclear reactions that lead to long disintegration periods which need short distance source-detector counting and thus correcting the loss due to dead time effect, pile up and coincidence effect. 16 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (author)

  3. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunen, Ville J.; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spapé, Michiel M.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver’s body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands, and one VR-free control with hands in view. Participants were required to silently count one type of stimulus and ignore all other stimuli presented in irrelevant modality or location. The presence of hands was found to modulate early and late components of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials. For sensory-perceptual stages, the presence of virtual or real hands was found to amplify attention-related negativity on the somatosensory N140 and cross-modal interaction in somatosensory and visual P200. For postperceptual stages, an amplified N200 component was obtained in somatosensory and visual evoked potentials, indicating increased response inhibition in response to non-target stimuli. The effect of somatosensory, but not visual, N200 enhanced when the virtual hands were present. The findings suggest that bodily presence affects sustained cross-modal spatial attention between vision and touch and that this effect is specifically present in ERPs related to early- and late-sensory processing, as well as response inhibition, but do not affect later attention and memory-related P3 activity. Finally, the experiments provide commeasurable scenarios for the estimation of the signal and noise ratio to quantify effects related to the use of a head mounted display (HMD). However, despite valid a-priori reasons for fearing signal interference due to a HMD, we observed no significant drop in the robustness of our ERP measurements. PMID:28275346

  4. Manipulating Bodily Presence Affects Cross-Modal Spatial Attention: A Virtual-Reality-Based ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunen, Ville J; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas; Spapé, Michiel M

    2017-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed cross-modal visuo-tactile interactions in endogenous spatial attention. The current research used event-related potentials (ERPs) and virtual reality (VR) to identify how the visual cues of the perceiver's body affect visuo-tactile interaction in endogenous spatial attention and at what point in time the effect takes place. A bimodal oddball task with lateralized tactile and visual stimuli was presented in two VR conditions, one with and one without visible hands, and one VR-free control with hands in view. Participants were required to silently count one type of stimulus and ignore all other stimuli presented in irrelevant modality or location. The presence of hands was found to modulate early and late components of somatosensory and visual evoked potentials. For sensory-perceptual stages, the presence of virtual or real hands was found to amplify attention-related negativity on the somatosensory N140 and cross-modal interaction in somatosensory and visual P200. For postperceptual stages, an amplified N200 component was obtained in somatosensory and visual evoked potentials, indicating increased response inhibition in response to non-target stimuli. The effect of somatosensory, but not visual, N200 enhanced when the virtual hands were present. The findings suggest that bodily presence affects sustained cross-modal spatial attention between vision and touch and that this effect is specifically present in ERPs related to early- and late-sensory processing, as well as response inhibition, but do not affect later attention and memory-related P3 activity. Finally, the experiments provide commeasurable scenarios for the estimation of the signal and noise ratio to quantify effects related to the use of a head mounted display (HMD). However, despite valid a-priori reasons for fearing signal interference due to a HMD, we observed no significant drop in the robustness of our ERP measurements.

  5. A cross-linking study on the particle species of human plasma high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachida, Y; Minari, O

    1983-08-01

    The present investigation was on the particle species of human plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) characterized by the stoichiometry of their apoprotein components. HDL2-1, HDL2-2, HDL3-1, and HDL3-2 isolated from normal human plasma by sequential ultracentrifugal flotation were further subfractionated by Bio Gel A-5m gel chromatography or hydroxyapatite column chromatography, and three distinct subfractions were obtained. Subfraction 1 was obtained from all the HDL fractions and it contained mostly apolipoprotein A-I (A-I). Subfraction 2 was obtained from HDL2-2 and HDL3-1 and it contained A-I and apolipoprotein A-II (A-II) in the molar ratio of one to one, and subfraction 3 from HDL2-2 and HDL3-1 contained A-I and apolipoprotein C (C). Each subfraction was treated with bifunctional cross-linking reagents, and the intraparticle cross-linked products of apolipoproteins were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results of the cross-linking studies indicated that the HDL2 fraction consisted mainly of lipoprotein particles of the (A-I)4 type and a few of the (A-I)5, (A-I)2(A-II)2, and (A-I)4(C)2 types, and that the HDL3 fraction consisted mainly of (A-I)2(A-II)2 type particles and a few (A-I)4, (A-I)3, (A-I)2, (A-I), and (A-I)3(C)2 type particles. From the results of analyses of the lipid components in the HDL of each type, it was suggested that the function of the particle species of the (A-I)n type (n = 1--5), which contained more cholesteryl ester than the (A-I)2(A-II)2 type, was concerned mainly with cholesterol metabolism.

  6. The sounds of sarcasm in English and Cantonese: A cross-linguistic production and perception study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Henry S.

    Three studies were conducted to examine the acoustic markers of sarcasm in English and in Cantonese, and the manner in which such markers are perceived across these languages. The first study consisted of acoustic analyses of sarcastic utterances spoken in English to verify whether particular prosodic cues correspond to English sarcastic speech. Native English speakers produced utterances expressing sarcasm, sincerity, humour, or neutrality. Measures taken from each utterance included fundamental frequency (F0), amplitude, speech rate, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR, to probe voice quality), and one-third octave spectral values (to probe resonance). The second study was conducted to ascertain whether specific acoustic features marked sarcasm in Cantonese and how such features compare with English sarcastic prosody. The elicitation and acoustic analysis methods from the first study were applied to similarly-constructed Cantonese utterances spoken by native Cantonese speakers. Direct acoustic comparisons between Cantonese and English sarcasm exemplars were also made. To further test for cross-linguistic prosodic cues of sarcasm and to assess whether sarcasm could be conveyed across languages, a cross-linguistic perceptual study was then performed. A subset of utterances from the first two studies was presented to naive listeners fluent in either Cantonese or English. Listeners had to identify the attitude in each utterance regardless of language of presentation. Sarcastic utterances in English (regardless of text) were marked by lower mean F0 and reductions in HNR and F0 standard deviation (relative to comparison attitudes). Resonance changes, reductions in both speech rate and F0 range signalled sarcasm in conjunction with some vocabulary terms. By contrast, higher mean F0, amplitude range reductions, and F0 range restrictions corresponded with sarcastic utterances spoken in Cantonese regardless of text. For Cantonese, reduced speech rate and higher HNR interacted

  7. Graph Based Study of Allergen Cross-Reactivity of Plant Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) Using Microarray in a Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, Arantxa; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Rivas, Luis A.; Aguirre, Jacobo; Tordesillas, Leticia; Bartra, Joan; Blanco, Carlos; Carrillo, Teresa; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; de Frutos, Consolación; Álvarez-Eire, Genoveva García; Fernández, Francisco J.; Gamboa, Pedro; Muñoz, Rosa; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Sirvent, Sofía; Torres, María J.; Varela-Losada, Susana; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Parro, Victor; Blanca, Miguel; Salcedo, Gabriel; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The study of cross-reactivity in allergy is key to both understanding. the allergic response of many patients and providing them with a rational treatment In the present study, protein microarrays and a co-sensitization graph approach were used in conjunction with an allergen microarray immunoassay. This enabled us to include a wide number of proteins and a large number of patients, and to study sensitization profiles among members of the LTP family. Fourteen LTPs from the most frequent plant food-induced allergies in the geographical area studied were printed into a microarray specifically designed for this research. 212 patients with fruit allergy and 117 food-tolerant pollen allergic subjects were recruited from seven regions of Spain with different pollen profiles, and their sera were tested with allergen microarray. This approach has proven itself to be a good tool to study cross-reactivity between members of LTP family, and could become a useful strategy to analyze other families of allergens. PMID:23272072

  8. Graph based study of allergen cross-reactivity of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs using microarray in a multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Palacín

    Full Text Available The study of cross-reactivity in allergy is key to both understanding. the allergic response of many patients and providing them with a rational treatment In the present study, protein microarrays and a co-sensitization graph approach were used in conjunction with an allergen microarray immunoassay. This enabled us to include a wide number of proteins and a large number of patients, and to study sensitization profiles among members of the LTP family. Fourteen LTPs from the most frequent plant food-induced allergies in the geographical area studied were printed into a microarray specifically designed for this research. 212 patients with fruit allergy and 117 food-tolerant pollen allergic subjects were recruited from seven regions of Spain with different pollen profiles, and their sera were tested with allergen microarray. This approach has proven itself to be a good tool to study cross-reactivity between members of LTP family, and could become a useful strategy to analyze other families of allergens.

  9. Gamma-radiation induced cross-links in ethylene-propylene rubber studied by CP-MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohma, J.; Shiotani, M.; Murakami, S.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique of 13 C-NMR, the CP-MAS method, was applied to study a chemistry of cross-links induced by #betta#-irradiation of ethylene-propylene rubber. The chemical species of cross-linking points were specified with their relative concentrations by the analysis of the CP-MAS spectra obtained before and after the irradiation. It was found that the short branches were also formed by the irradiation. A comparison was made between the cross-links detected by the CP-MAS method and those obtained by the Charlesby-Pinner analysis of the gelation caused by the #betta#-irradiation. The conventional 13 C-NMR of the cross-linked and swollen EPR provided us an information on the sol parts of the sample but little information on the cross-links in the gel parts. (author)

  10. Association between obesity and chronic periodontitis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Ajay Reddy; Reddy, C M Sanjeeva Kumar; Shankar, B Shiva; Gelli, Vemsi; Sudhakar, Jaradoddi; Reddy, K Krishna Mohana

    2013-03-01

    Chronic periodontitis is multifactorial and numerous risk factors have been identified to contribute in the disease progression. Current study aimed to conduct a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to correlate the association between obesity [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)] and periodontal disease parameters. The study was of a cross-sectional design and a total of 201 patients were examined after obtaining their informed consent. Subjects who had a history of cardiovascular diseases and under treatment were included in the study. Two indicators of obesity were used: BMI and WC. The following periodontal parameters were assessed: Probing depth, clinical attachment level. The oral hygiene status of the subjects was assessed by the oral hygiene index (OHI, simplified) given by John C Greene and Jack R Vermillion. The influence of the BMI and other confounding variables on periodontitis severity was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Significant association was seen with low density lipoproteins (LDL) and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.005), triglyceride levels (TGL) and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.005), cholesterol and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.005), BMI and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001), OHI and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001). Significant association was seen with smoking and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.005), BMI and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001), WC and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001), cholesterol and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001), OHI and severity of periodontitis (p < 0.001). Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor for several conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc. In our study the relation between measures of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI and WC) and periodontal disease showed significant association in the multivariate logistic regression analysis

  11. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and different components of education: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two recent studies reported a curvilinear (U-shaped between elderly suicide rates and educational attainment measured by the United Nation’s Education Index. A study examining the curvilinear (U-shaped relationship between elderly suicide rates and the individual components of the Education Index (adult literacy rate, percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools and percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and one other measure of educational attainment (youth literacy rate was undertaken to partial out the effects of the individual components of Education Index on elderly suicides. METHODS: A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates (Y-axis and different measures of educational attainment (X-axis was undertaken using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks using Curve estimation regression models. RESULTS: The relationship between elderly suicide rates with the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate was curvilinear (U-shaped curve. This relationship was absent with the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cross-sectional study design, a causal relationship between elderly suicide rates and measures of educational attainment, including the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate, cannot be assumed. However, the findings suggest that future studies of elderly suicide rates and educational attainment should focus on the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate as measures of educational attainment.

  13. Functional outcome of hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy : a cross-sectional national descriptive study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yari, Parwin; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geartzen, Jan H. B.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics of hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy amputees, to assess their level of activities, participation and experienced limitations in mobility and to describe the amputation-related problems. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were mainly

  14. An electron microscopic study of the photochemical cross-linking of DNA in guinea pig epidermis by psoralen derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, T.; Pathak, M.A.; Biswas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Albino guinea pigs were treated with psoralen derivatives plus 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, and DNA was extracted from their epidermis. The DNA was assayed for the presence of interstrand cross-links by standard denaturation-renaturation assays and by a new technique, electron microscopy of the DNA under totally denaturing conditions. The latter method allows individual cross-links to be directly observed and counted. When either 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen was applied topically to the skin (8-20 μg/cm 2 ) or administered orally (10-12 mg/kg body weight), followed by exposure to 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, most of the epidermal DNA was found to contain a high frequency of cross-links. For example, oral or topical trimethylpsoralen treatment gave an average of one cross-link per 250 nucleotide pairs or about 3 . 10 5 cross-links per guinea pig chromosome. When the dose of either drug was decreased 20-fold to the level used in the clinical treatment of psoriasis, however, no cross-links could be detected in the epidermal DNA. The electron microscopic assay is sensitive enough that one can put an upper limit of 1 cross-link per 10 6 nucleotide pairs (80 cross-links per chromosome) for the low dose studies. The significance of these findings to the understanding of the effectiveness of psoralens in psoriasis therapy is discussed. (Auth.)

  15. The Role of Eportfolios in Finance Studies: A Cross-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Amparo S.; Morales, Lucía; Tarkovska, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of ePortfolios as an efficient assessment tool to support students pursuing a Business degree, where Finance is a major component. We conducted an analysis on the role of ePortfolios in Higher Education at Dublin Institute of Technology (Republic of Ireland) and at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) for undergraduate studies.…

  16. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  17. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the link between geographic information system (GIS)-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. GISs analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p = 0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p = 0.008), and delayed (p arsenic being related with cognition most prominently among mild cognitive impairment cases. Overall, estimated regional specific groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance.

  18. Organisational culture in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Venturato, Lorraine; Horner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture is increasingly recognised as important for provision of high-quality long-term care. We undertook this study to measure organisational culture in residential aged care facilities in two Australian states. Cross-sectional observational study in 21 residential aged care facilities in Western Australia (n = 14) and Queensland (n = 7), Australia. Staff and next-of-kin of residents participated. Measurement comprised surveys of facility staff and residents' next-of-kin, and structured observation of indicators of care quality. Staff tended to rate organisational culture positively. Some qualitative feedback from staff emphasised negative perceptions of communication, leadership and teamwork. Staffing levels were perceived as a dominant challenge, threatening care quality. Direct observation revealed variability within and between facilities but suggested that most facilities (n = 12) were in the typical range, or were quality facilities (n = 8). There was scope to strengthen organisational culture in participating aged care facilities.

  19. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male...... workers: demolition workers, insulators, carpenters and a control group of hospital porters aged 35-60 years answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Results were tested statistically for differences between occupational groups, and all analyses were adjusted for smoking status, age and body.......7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5) and for insulators compared to carpenters was 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-3.9). Demolition workers had significantly lower odds compared to all other groups for forced vital capacity construction workers...

  20. [The psychological effects of taking in "Shikohin": A cross-sectional exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomitsu, Kengo; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Matsuki, Shuhei; Hirai, Hiroto; Iizuka, Tomoki; Wakasa, Komihiro; Akatsuka, Tomoaki; Sato, Kenji; Sakano, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the psychological effects that Japanese people experience when consuming their "Shikohin", such as alcohol, tea, coffee, and tobacco. We'conducted a cross-sectional study among 542 people, from 20-to 69-year-old; who regularly consumed any one of "Shikohin" in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba. The participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning the consumption patterns of their "Shikohin" and the psychological effects that they experienced in taking in their "Shikohin". Results obtained using the K-J methods showed three common psychological effects in each "Shikohin". These effects included an increase in relaxation response, the promotion of social relationships, and an increase in positive mood. Our findings suggest that Japanese people may get some common effects through consumption of different "Shikohin".

  1. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  2. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  3. A cross-country comparative study on stress and quality of life in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Edet, Olaide B; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Christos, Kleisiaris F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Rosales, Rheajane A; Cruz, Jonas P; Leocadio, Michael; Lucas, Katherine Vera S

    2017-10-27

    This study was conducted to compare perceptions of stress and quality of life (QoL) among nursing students from three countries (the Philippines, Greece, and Nigeria) and to examine the impact of stress on their QoL. A comparative, cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Data were collected from 547 nursing students from three countries using the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the quality of life evaluation skill (QOLES). Students' perceptions of stress and QoL were different across the three countries. Furthermore, higher stress perceptions were identified from taking care of patients, the clinical environment, and faculty, peer, and staff encounters, which predicted a negative QoL. The findings emphasized the need for empirically tested and culturally tailored interventions to effectively reduce stress and enhance the QoL in nursing students. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48......%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education...

  5. Traffic congestion and blood pressure elevation: A comparative cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Samra, Patrick; El Tomb, Paul; Hosni, Mohammad; Kassem, Ahmad; Rizk, Robin; Shayya, Sami; Assaad, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives After Participation in the YES Program: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa E. Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Guided by empowerment and ecological theories, the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES program facilitates character development through activities based in cultural differences, team building, and social change. This pilot study consisted of two focus groups (n = 13 of middle school youth conducted after their participation in an abbreviated version of the YES program. Specifically, the present study examined youth’s cross-cultural perspectives after participation. The focus groups were transcribed and coded for emergent themes using Heaton’s (2005 supplementary data analysis framework. Qualitative analysis resulted in two emergent themes: 1 enhanced appreciation for similarities and differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and 2 the role of respect in understanding differences and confronting stereotypes. Specifically, youth reported that engagement in this program fostered positive awareness of cultural differences and respect for inter-ethnic relationships. The findings provide support for the benefits of the YES program on moral development and promotion of healthy peer relationships.

  7. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  8. Does androgyny have psychoprotective attributes? A cross-sectional community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our society, adherence to feminine traits by the female gender had been culturally promoted and socially desired. A few studies, however, entertained the possibility that healthy men and women have some common attributes in their gender orientation. Androgyny and masculinity were found related to positive mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of masculinity and femininity and its relationship with the perception of stress and various psychopathology including anxiety and depression. Results: Masculinity scores of the participants negatively correlated while femininity scores positively correlated with the scores on General Health Questionnaire, Beck′s Depressive Inventory, Beck′s Anxiety Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale. Conclusion: Androgyny is psychoprotective. Empowerment-oriented psychological approaches aimed to encourage psychological androgyny, and masculinity might be therapeutic.

  9. Correlation of occupational stress with depression, anxiety, and sleep in Korean dentists: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung-Won; Choi, Won-Seok; Jee, Hee-Jung; Yuh, Chi-Sung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Leen; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Cho, Chul-Hyun

    2017-12-12

    This study aimed to investigate the degree of occupational stress and the clinical mental state of dentists. In addition, we investigated the correlation of occupational stress with depression, anxiety, and sleep among dentists in Korea. A cross-sectional survey on 231 dentists was conducted using the Doctor Job Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Correlation of occupational stress with mental health was investigated by adjusted multiple regression analysis. The scores of CES-D, STAI, and PSQI revealed a significant correlation with the Doctor Job Stress Scale (t = 3.93, P stress management focusing on interpersonal relationship with patients and responsibility as an expert rather than the intensity of work should be considered.

  10. 14 April 1895, Ljubljana earthquake - A new, cross-border study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Cecić, Ina; Hammerl, Christa

    2014-05-01

    Though it has been the object of both contemporary and modern investigations, the 14 April 1895, Ljubljana event (Mw ~6, according to the European catalogue SHEEC) is still not fully described in its effects. One manifest reason for this is that being the 1895 earthquake a cross-border event, it affected an area that today pertains to three different countries, Slovenia, Austria, and Italy, as well as accounted for in sources today scattered in different archives and libraries. In addition, the 1895 Ljubljana earthquake was a turning point for many aspects. Imperial Vienna sent help to rebuild the damaged city and its surroundings, and the architects brought modern ideas about urban planning, public hygiene and contemporary design. It was also the beginning of organised seismological observations in Slovenia - macroseismic, right after the earthquake, and instrumental, in 1896. The macroseismic data about this earthquake are plentiful and very well preserved. In this new, cross-border study we intend to re-evaluate the already known as well as the newly collected data sources. Specific attention is devoted to the archival documentation on damage, and to the far-field data, which were not comprehensively taken into account beforehand. As the earthquake was felt in a large part of central and Eastern Europe, a considerable effort is put into collecting and interpreting the coeval sources, written in many different languages.

  11. Consumer perception of balsamic vinegar: A cross-cultural study between Korea and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Jeon, Seon-Young; Piochi, Maria; Morini, Gabriella; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined. Descriptive analysis was performed to verify the attitude of the consumers in product description. The results obtained from two groups of consumers in Korea and Italy revealed a higher description attitude of the Italians (higher number of total elicited attributes, of attributes in common with the trained panel, of attributes shared with the vocabulary reported in literature, of significant specific positive product-attribute associations). Italian subjects generated various descriptors associated with the European gastronomic culture (aromatic herbs, fortified wine, dried figs, Indian fig, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese), whereas Korean consumers used more terms related to the Asian food culture (red ginseng, Chinese medicine, Japanese apricot, teriyaki sauce, persimmon vinegar, balloon flower roots). Moreover, cultural differences of food matching were also observed: the Italians would pair the balsamic vinegars mainly with vegetables, fruits and cheese, while Koreans would combine the balsamic vinegars preferably with bread, vegetables and meat. In conclusion, familiarity resulted the main factors for cross-cultural differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Representational momentum (RM has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM.

  14. Searching for Logistics and Regulatory Determinants Affecting Overseas Direct Purchase: An Empirical Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo Cho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce has been very successful in the last decade. Merchants and consumers have been encouraged to participate in e-commerce, including B2C or B2B. B2C is not limited to a domestic market anymore. Consumers across countries are interested in overseas direct purchases. They are willing to purchase products from major online shopping sites such as Amazon and eBay. We aim at gaining a better understanding of overseas direct purchases. Determinants of overseas direct purchases based on cross-national data are identified. Accordingly, we investigate logistics and regulatory determinants. Furthermore, external environments such as regulatory institutions and globalization are discussed in terms of overseas direct purchases. This study incorporates theoretical foundations into empirical findings. Specifically, the institutional theory and the resource-based view are applied to explain the internal and external determinants to increase overseas direct purchases. We conduct an empirical test using panel data for each country to identify the various determinants associated with overseas direct purchases.

  15. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C2H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Wang, Xingan; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Gargano, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction was investigated in crossed beam experiments. • Electronic structure calculations of the potential energy surface were performed. • RRKM estimates qualitatively reproduce the experimental C 2 H 3 NC yield. - Abstract: The CN + C 2 H 4 reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH 2 CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C 2 H 3 NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments

  16. The transmission and stability of cultural life scripts: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Steve M J; Haque, Shamsul

    2018-01-01

    Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture. Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends. They also reported the use of comments of relatives and friends and the use of newspapers, books, movies and television programmes. Furthermore, we examined the stability of life scripts and similarities and differences across cultures. We found that life scripts are stable cognitive structures and that there are, besides cross-cultural differences in the content, small cross-cultural differences in the valence and distribution of life script events, with the Australian life script containing more positive events and more events expected to occur before the age of 16.

  17. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Fang, Zhuo; Di, Xin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Xu, Guiping; Lin, Huiyan; Cheng, Yongmin; Li, Yongjie; Xu, Yong; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-01-01

    Representational momentum (RM) has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players) with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM. PMID:28970810

  18. Immunoglobulin E sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: epidemiological study of clinical relevance and role of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Fenger, Runa Vavia; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte

    2010-01-01

    The determinants and biologic significance of IgE-mediated sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are not entirely known. An association between alcohol consumption and CCD sensitization has been reported in studies from Spain and Portugal.......The determinants and biologic significance of IgE-mediated sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are not entirely known. An association between alcohol consumption and CCD sensitization has been reported in studies from Spain and Portugal....

  19. Social Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widen, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults. The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18-25 yr) using the theory of social representations. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also χ² analysis. Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (∼40%) were noted in all countries. However, the χ² analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants' perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "negative emotions and actions" occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category "positive emotions and actions." The other most frequently occurring categories included "acoustics," "physical aliment," "location," and "ear and hearing problems." These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud

  20. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  1. Collaboration Expertise in Medicine - No Evidence for Cross-Domain Application from a Memory Retrieval Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kiesewetter

    Full Text Available Is there evidence for expertise on collaboration and, if so, is there evidence for cross-domain application? Recall of stimuli was used to measure so-called internal collaboration scripts of novices and experts in two studies. Internal collaboration scripts refer to an individual's knowledge about how to interact with others in a social situation. METHOD—Ten collaboration experts and ten novices of the content domain social science were presented with four pictures of people involved in collaborative activities. The recall texts were coded, distinguishing between superficial and collaboration script information. RESULTS—Experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information (M = 25.20; SD = 5.88 than did novices (M = 13.80; SD = 4.47. Differences in superficial information were not found.Study 2 tested whether the differences found in Study 1 could be replicated. Furthermore, the cross-domain application of internal collaboration scripts was explored. METHOD—Twenty collaboration experts and 20 novices of the content domain medicine were presented with four pictures and four videos of their content domain and a video and picture of another content domain. All stimuli showed collaborative activities typical for the respective content domains. RESULTS—As in Study 1, experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information of their content domain (M = 71.65; SD = 33.23 than did novices (M = 54.25; SD = 15.01. For the novices, no differences were found for the superficial information nor for the retrieval of collaboration script information recalled after the other content domain stimuli.There is evidence for expertise on collaboration in memory tasks. The results show that experts hold substantially more collaboration script information than did novices. Furthermore, the differences between collaboration novices and collaboration experts occurred only in their own content domain, indicating that internal

  2. Collaboration Expertise in Medicine - No Evidence for Cross-Domain Application from a Memory Retrieval Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Frank; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Is there evidence for expertise on collaboration and, if so, is there evidence for cross-domain application? Recall of stimuli was used to measure so-called internal collaboration scripts of novices and experts in two studies. Internal collaboration scripts refer to an individual's knowledge about how to interact with others in a social situation. METHOD— Ten collaboration experts and ten novices of the content domain social science were presented with four pictures of people involved in collaborative activities. The recall texts were coded, distinguishing between superficial and collaboration script information. RESULTS— Experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information (M = 25.20; SD = 5.88) than did novices (M = 13.80; SD = 4.47). Differences in superficial information were not found. Study 2 tested whether the differences found in Study 1 could be replicated. Furthermore, the cross-domain application of internal collaboration scripts was explored. METHOD— Twenty collaboration experts and 20 novices of the content domain medicine were presented with four pictures and four videos of their content domain and a video and picture of another content domain. All stimuli showed collaborative activities typical for the respective content domains. RESULTS— As in Study 1, experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information of their content domain (M = 71.65; SD = 33.23) than did novices (M = 54.25; SD = 15.01). For the novices, no differences were found for the superficial information nor for the retrieval of collaboration script information recalled after the other content domain stimuli. There is evidence for expertise on collaboration in memory tasks. The results show that experts hold substantially more collaboration script information than did novices. Furthermore, the differences between collaboration novices and collaboration experts occurred only in their own content domain, indicating that internal collaboration scripts

  3. Assessing the completeness of reporting of observational studies in Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. Cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Peña, M. (Mary); Barona-Fong, L. (Luis); Campo-López, J. (Julio); Arroyave, Y. (Yeni); J.A. Calvache (Jose Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The STROBE statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology), consisting of 22 points, was published in 2007 with the aim of improving the reporting of observational research. Objective To determine the completeness of reporting of

  4. Approaches to studying predict academic performance in undergraduate occupational therapy students: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Brown, Ted; Lim, Hua Beng; Fong, Kenneth

    2017-05-02

    Learning outcomes may be a result of several factors including the learning environment, students' predispositions, study efforts, cultural factors and approaches towards studying. This study examined the influence of demographic variables, education-related factors, and approaches to studying on occupational therapy students' Grade Point Average (GPA). Undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 712) from four countries completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Demographic background, education-related factors, and ASSIST scores were used in a hierarchical linear regression analysis to predict the students' GPA. Being older, female and more time engaged in self-study activities were associated with higher GPA among the students. In addition, five ASSIST subscales predicted higher GPA: higher scores on 'seeking meaning', 'achieving', and 'lack of purpose', and lower scores on 'time management' and 'fear of failure'. The full model accounted for 9.6% of the variance related to the occupational therapy students' GPA. To improve academic performance among occupational therapy students, it appears important to increase their personal search for meaning and motivation for achievement, and to reduce their fear of failure. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small effect sizes and a modest amount of variance explained by the regression model, and further research on predictors of academic performance is required.

  5. Study of cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature series in a nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Viñas, Carmen; Viana, Samuel; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The main characteristic of the Planetary Boundary Layer is the turbulent flow that can be understood as the motions of many superimposed eddies with different scales, which are very irregular and produce mixing among the atmospheric properties. Spectral analysis is a widely used statistical tool to know the size of eddies into the flow. The Turbulent Kinetic Energy is split in fractions for each scale of eddy by mean the power spectrum of the wind velocity components. Also, the fluctuation of the other variables as temperature, humidity, gases concentrations or material particles presents in the atmosphere can be divided according to the importance of different scales in a similar way than the wind. A Cross-spectrum between two time series is used in meteorology to know their correlation in frequency space. Specially, coespectrum, or real part of cross-spectrum, amplitud and coherence give us many information about the low or high correlation between two variables in a particular frecuency or scale (Stull, 1988). In this work we have investigated cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature measured along the summer 2009 at the CIBA, Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere, located in Valladolid province (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000; Viana et al., 2009). In these experimental dataset, among other instrumentation, two sonic anemometers (20 Hz, sampling rate) at 1.5 m and 10 m height are available. Cross-spectra between variables of the two levels, specially, wind vertical component and sonic temperature, under stable stratification are studied in order to improve the knowledge of the proprieties of the momentum and heat fluxes near the ground in the PBL. Nevertheless, power spectral of horizontal components of the wind, at both levels, have been also analysed. The spectra and cross-spectra were performed by mean the Blackman-Tukey method, widely utilised in the time series studies (Blackman & Tukey, 1958) and, where it is

  6. Use of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose for soft-tissue augmentation: preliminary clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Leonardis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis1, Andrea Palange2, Rodrigo FV Dornelles3, Felipe Hund41Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Núcleo de Plástica Avançada, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Consultorio de Cirurgia Plastica, Criciuma, SC, BrazilPurpose: The continual search for new products for soft-tissue augmentation has in recent years led to the introduction of long lasting alternatives to hyaluronic acids and collagen that are composed of other polymers able to improve clinical persistence over time. This is the first report in which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been chemically treated by the cross-linking process and thus used as a hydrogel for soft-tissue augmentation through injection with thin needles. The study evaluates, from a clinical point of view, the behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel used in the aesthetic field and its side effects so as to check the safety and performance of the polymer following intradermal injections.Patients and methods: This work shows the preliminary results of an ongoing clinical study conducted between 2006 and 2009, performed on 84 healthy volunteers (62 females, 22 males aged between 18 and 72 years, for the treatment of 168 nasolabial folds, 45 perioral wrinkles, and 39 lip volume.Results: Study results show an excellent correction of facial defects. Tolerance and aesthetic quality of the correction obtained indicate considerable safety features and absence of side effects. From a clinical point of view, hydrogel is gradually absorbed into the injection site without migration issues.Conclusion: Cross-linked CMC hydrogel proves to be an ideal agent for soft tissue augmentation with regard to safety and ease of application. It did not cause infection, extrusion, migration, or adverse reactions in the patients who have been

  7. Proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jember, Abebaw; Hailu, Mignote; Messele, Anteneh; Demeke, Tesfaye; Hassen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    A medication error (ME) is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm. Voluntary reporting has a principal role in appreciating the extent and impact of medication errors. Thus, exploration of the proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses is important to inform service providers and program implementers so as to improve the quality of the healthcare services. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 nurses from March 6 to May 10, 2015. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire which was adopted from studies conducted in Australia and Jordan. A pilot study was carried out to validate the questionnaire before data collection for this study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with the proportion of medication error reporting among nurses. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses was found to be 57.4%. Regression analysis showed that sex, marital status, having made a medication error and medication error experience were significantly associated with medication error reporting. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses in this study was found to be higher than other studies.

  8. Evaluation of psychometric properties of the German Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and its potential for cross-cultural comparisons: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambashidze, Nikoloz; Hammer, Antje; Brösterhaus, Mareen; Manser, Tanja

    2017-11-09

    To study the psychometric characteristics of German version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and to compare its dimensionality to other language versions in order to understand the instrument's potential for cross-national studies. Cross-sectional multicentre study to establish psychometric properties of German version of the survey instrument. 73 units from 37 departments of two German university hospitals. Clinical personnel (n=995 responses, response rate 39.6%). Psychometric properties (eg, model fit, internal consistency, construct validity) of the instrument and comparison of dimensionality across different language translations. The instrument demonstrated acceptable to good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.64-0.88). Confirmatory factor analysis of the original 12-factor model resulted in marginally satisfactory model fit (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05; standardised root mean residual (SRMR)=0.05; comparative fit index (CFI)=0.90; goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.88; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.88). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in an alternative eight-factor model with good model fit (RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.05; CFI=0.95; GFI=0.91; TLI=0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.73-0.87) and construct validity. Analysis of the dimensionality compared with models from 10 other language versions revealed eight dimensions with relatively stable composition and appearance across different versions and four dimensions requiring further improvement. The German version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for use in German hospitals. However, our comparison of instrument dimensionality across different language versions indicates limitations concerning cross-national studies. Results of this study can be considered in interpreting findings across national contexts, in further refinement of the instrument for cross-national studies and in better

  9. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-02-18

    Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Cross-sectional study. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698

  11. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  12. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  13. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dermatologically diseased patients: A cross-sectional study in Meerut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Keswani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a noted fact that dermatologic diseases have varied oral manifestations. By far, there have been inordinately few studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is significant as oral lesions may be the only or the primary feature of the skin disease, which could be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and sociobehavioral correlates of OML in skin disease patients attending outpatient′s facility of Subharti Hospital, Dermatology Clinic, Meerut, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in Meerut during the period from August 2013 to October 2013. A total of 500 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 14.11 years, 41.4% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher′s exact test were used. Results: At least one kind of OML was registered in 11.8%, males (58.6%: 60.0% versus females (40.0%: 45.6%, P < 0.01 skin disease patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Aphthae were the most frequently diagnosed OML (3.4%, followed in descending order by oral lichen planus (1.8% and geographic tongue (1.6%. Conclusion: OML were frequently diagnosed in skin disease patients (11.80% and varied systematically with the dermatologic disease, age, and gender. The substantial prevalence rates of OML emphasize the importance of routine examination of the oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.

  14. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River States, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-02-20

    Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers' last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public healthChildhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross-sectional design, provides evidence of a link between poor

  16. Erectile dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study in northern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction affects quality of life and is a common dysfunction in drug abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of erectile dysfunction in drug abusers on methadone maintenance therapy to reduce this drug side effect in the future studies.This cross-sectional study was conducted with two hundred addicted individuals on methadone maintenance therapy. Erectile dysfunction was surveyed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF. Finally, all data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics such as measures of variability and central tendency and Chi-squared (χ(2 test using SPSS Version18.0 software.The amount of the total frequency of erectile dysfunction was pointed 30 or less among the two hundred patients and included the moderate and severe cases. In this study, the number of patients with erectile dysfunction was fifty three (26.5%.The frequency of erectile dysfunction in our study was approximately 1.5 times of prevalence of the public (16.1%. In this study, all the factors related to sexual function such as erectile function, libido, orgasm, and sexual pleasure showed a decline among drug abusers.

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Shiraz Male Wushu Players: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Emami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wushu is one of the martial arts that combines explosive strength and speed movements with combat techniques. Most studies to date of wushurelated injuries have been published in Chinese languages. No published studies have reported the prevalence of these injuries in Iran. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in male wushu players in Shiraz. Methods: Male wushu athletes aged 18 to 30 years were included in this cross sectional study if they had been practicing for 2 hours per session, twice a week during the past 3 years. The athletes were recruited by convenience sampling from 30 wushu clubs in Shiraz, Iran. The sample size was 165. The study was conducted from June to September 2016. Each participant was asked to complete an information questionnaire about his musculoskeletal injuries related to wushu during the previous year. Results: About two third (65.45% of wushu players had one or more injuries during the previous year. Severe injuries were most commonly located in the head/neck and knee/tibia areas, and inflammation was more prevalent than the other types of injuries. Conclusion: Wushu players in this study reported a high prevalence of injuries affecting different parts of the body.

  18. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  19. Prevalence of depression in mothers of intellectually disabled children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Chandravanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a permanent and highly disabling condition. The birth of a disabled child induces complex feelings in mother and other family members. This study was planned to investigate phenomenology of ID and the prevalence of depression in their mothers. Objective: To find prevalence, influence of various sociodemographic variables, and its clinical correlation with depression in mothers of ID children. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as ID were included in the study. Objective data were collected in a special Pro forma, and mothers of these patients were evaluated with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age of patients with ID was 11.52 years, had received an average of 3.01 years of schooling, mean age at diagnosis was 6.01 years, mean intelligence quotient was 45.17, and 79% had significant comorbidities. The prevalence of depression in mothers was 79%; it was more in mothers of female ID child, ID child with significant comorbidities, severer forms of retardation, and with higher levels of anxiety in the mother. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in mothers of ID children in the present study seems to be much greater than those reported from the previous studies. The determination of predictors of depression among mothers of ID children may help health professionals in identifying mothers at risk. Regular screening of mothers of ID children should be included in the protocol for management.

  20. Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Ilona; Stefaniak, Tomasz J; Stadnyk, Magdalena; Książek, Janina

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology. The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction. Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses. The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen of cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, C. K.; Choi, B. I.; Park, J. H.; Chang, K. H.; Yeon, K. M.; Han, M. C.; Kim, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of cross sectional image of CT, ultrasound and magnetic resonance, the need for knowledge of cross sectional anatomy is stranger than ever. To meet this need, preparation of cross sectional anatomy specimen using cadaver is indispensable, not only because it tis the real cut surface anatomy but also because overt limitations of radiographic image in both contrast and special resolution. Authors prepared cross sectional anatomy specimen using a male cadaver, comprising photographs and slides of the 60 cross cut slices from the head to the pelvis. After photography, each slices was embedded using transparent resin allowing permanent preservation of specimen without altering its original architecture. Author's unique method of preparation is presented and 4 representative specimens are illustrated comparing cadaver's CT image, cross cut surface photography, and photography of resin embedded slice of the same cut surface.

  2. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter; Kyrlesi, Athina; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-09-15

    Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004-2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females) participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08-3.08), parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45-5.89), and having pocket money > or = 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19-5.98). Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money > or = 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  3. Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: Results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data about the predictors of smoking among adolescents in Greece are sparse. We tried to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Greece in the context of GYTS study. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a questionnaire study using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey methodology was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking among adolescents in Greece. Data were collected in 2004–2005. The outcome variable was cigarette smoking within the past 30 days preceding the survey while independent variables included age, gender, parental educational status, parental smoking, perception of harmfulness of smoking, and the amount of pocket money at the adolescent's disposal. Results 6141 adolescents (51.5% males and 48.5% females participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was associated with male gender (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1, 08–3.08, parental smoking (OR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.45–5.89, and having pocket money ≥ 16 Euros (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.19–5.98. Conclusion Male gender, parental smoking, and having pocket-money ≥ 16 Euros were independently associated with current smoking among Greek students. These findings could be taken into account in order to formulate a comprehensive anti-smoking strategy in Greece.

  4. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  5. Preliminary study of cross-field plasma injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.; Hartman, C.W.; Simonen, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of cross-field plasma injection in the 2XIIB mirror machine. Plasma accelerated by a coaxial deflagration gun was observed to pass 3.5M across the vacuum field, and some trapping was observed when the gun plasma intersected a plasma streaming along B at the center of the magnetic well. Parameters for the experiment are: gun plasma kinetic energy 50 to 200 eV, n/sub gun/ = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 , streaming plasma 25 to 50 eV and n/sub streaming/ = 6 x 10 11 cm -3 , duration of both 100 to 200 μsec. For the trapped plasma, n = 2.4 x 10 12 cm -3 , and the decay time is t/sub 1 / 2 / = 400 μsec consistent with Coulomb scattering loss at 100 eV mean ion energy

  6. Crossed molecular beam study of the reaction O(3P) + allene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoltner, A. M.; Huang, S. Y.; Brudzynski, R. J.; Chu, P. M.; Lee, Y. T.

    1993-08-01

    The reaction between ground state (3P) oxygen atoms and allene was studied under single collision conditions using the crossed molecular beams method. Product angular distributions and the translational energy distribution were determined for each channel. Two major reaction channels could be identified unambiguously: the formation of carbon monoxide and ethylene following oxygen atom attack on the central carbon atom, and the formation of allenyloxy (formyl-vinyl) radical and hydrogen atom following oxygen atom attack on the terminal carbon atom. In addition, at least one other reaction channel, which could be identified as the production of vinyl and formyl radicals, occurs. This channel involves the decomposition of acrolein which is formed by the addition of oxygen to the terminal carbon atom, followed by 1,2-hydrogen migration.

  7. Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

    2010-02-01

    This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish.

  8. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The labour force participation rate of married women varies considerably between the European countries. There may be several explanations for this evidence. In this study, the effect of the different income tax schemes on female labour force participation is investigated and compared. A common...... of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....... labour supply function is estimated on cross-section household samples for each of the countries Britain, Denmark, Ireland, and East and West Germany. Based on the estimated labour supply functions, we calculate for each of the countries the hypothetical part time and full time participation rates...

  9. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length, and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only 2 years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after 5 years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  10. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  11. Parental social determinants of risk for intentional injury: a cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Diderichsen, Finn; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of family social and economic circumstances on intentional injury among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional register study of youths aged 10 to 19 years who lived in Sweden between 1990 and 1994. We used socioeconomic status, number of parents...... in the household (1- or 2-parent home), receipt of welfare benefits, parental country of birth, and population density as exposures and compiled relative risks and population-attributable risks (PARs) for self-inflicted and interpersonal violence-related injury. RESULTS: For both genders and for both injury types......, receipt of welfare benefits showed the largest crude and net relative risks and the highest PARs. The socioeconomic status-related PAR for self-inflicted injury and the PAR related to number of parents in the household for interpersonal violence-related injury also were high. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional...

  12. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge: a cross-sectional study with adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate and compare sexual and reproductive knowledge and sources of information, between public school adolescents from Goiânia-Goiás. A cross-sectional study conducted with 2,449 students. We analyzed data from the self-reported questionnaire using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 13.0. We investigated the differences between proportions using c2 tests and a significance level (p<0.05. We observed a statistical difference between sex considering the knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Infections and, STI and contraception prevention (p<0.000. Additionally, male adolescents presented higher exposure risk to sexual relations without preservative (p<0.000. About the acquisition of preventive methods for STIs and contraception, women were more knowledgeable about access to devices, as well as; they searched different sources and content information about sexual and reproductive health. We concluded that male adolescents presented higher social and individual vulnerability profiles.

  13. The role of Duschinsky rotation in intersystem crossing: A case study of uracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinski Mihajlo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intersystem crossing rate for the transition between the lowest excited singlet and triplet electronic states of uracil was studied by means of ab initio methods. The rate was evaluated using the timedependent approach based on the correlation function and its two approximations: the second-order cumulant expansion and the short-time approximation. The normal modes of the singlet and triplet states are related by the Duschinsky transformation, i.e., by rotation and translation. It was found that for singlet-triplet adiabatic energy gaps below 6000 cm-1, the inclusion of the Duschinsky rotation is necessary for quantitative results. Above energy gaps of 6000 cm-1, the rates obtained with and without the Duschinsky rotation are similar. The cumulant expansion approximates well the correlation function. The short-time approximation, although crude, can be used as the first estimate of the rate.

  14. CrossRef A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Baldini, L; Ferroli, R Baldini; Batignani, G; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; Corvaglia, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D׳Incecco, M; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Fattibene, E; Ferraro, A; Forster, R; Frolov, V; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Grazzi, S; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Maggiora, A; Maron, G; Mazziotta, M N; Miozzi, S; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Nozzoli, F; Panareo, M; Panetta, M P; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Righini, G C; Rodriguez, A R; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Schioppa, M; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Squarcia, S; Stori, L; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Vistoli, M C; Votano, L; Williams, M C S; Zani, S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  15. Hyperuricemia and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poletto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and associated risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians. We obtained data on demographic, health history, food intake, and laboratory variables. Chi-square and prevalence ratios were used as measures of association. 35.3% of the subjects presented hyperuricemia, which was more frequent in smokers, males, age > 55 years, with co-morbidities, individuals on uric acid-increasing medication, serum creatinine > 1.4mg/dL, high alcohol consumption, and low consumption of milk and dairy products. In the multivariate analysis, the associations remained significant with gender, overweight, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and use of specific drugs. Among males, low intake of saturated fat was associated with hyperuricemia. Individuals with hypertension showed a negative association with dairy product consumption. The high hyperuricemia prevalence suggests that changes in nutritional profile and control of associated co-morbidities could help minimize occurrence of this condition.

  16. Spelling acquisition in English and Italian: A cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria eMarinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian and an inconsistent orthography (English. The effects of frequency, lexicality, length and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only two years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after five years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  17. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.F.; Jørgensen, L.C.; Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    importance to dyspnoea/polypnoea and C-reactive protein levels >50mg/L. None of the other typical symptoms of pneumonia had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GPs' diagnostic criteria for pneumonia differ substantially between Denmark and Spain. The high prevalence of pneumonia...... and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2......,698 patients with LRTI were included. RESULTS: In Denmark, 47% of the patients with LRTI were classified with a diagnosis of pneumonia compared with 11% in Spain. In Spain, fever and a positive x-ray weighted significantly more in the diagnosis of pneumonia than in Denmark. Danish GPs, however, attached more...

  18. A combined crossed molecular beams and theoretical study of the reaction CN + C2H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Petrucci, Raffaele; Wang, Xingan; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Gargano, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The CN + C2H4 reaction has been investigated experimentally, in crossed molecular beam (CMB) experiments at the collision energy of 33.4 kJ/mol, and theoretically, by electronic structure calculations of the relevant potential energy surface and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) estimates of the product branching ratio. Differently from previous CMB experiments at lower collision energies, but similarly to a high energy study, we have some indication that a second reaction channel is open at this collision energy, the characteristics of which are consistent with the channel leading to CH2CHNC + H. The RRKM estimates using M06L electronic structure calculations qualitatively support the experimental observation of C2H3NC formation at this and at the higher collision energy of 42.7 kJ/mol of previous experiments.

  19. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  20. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar disc: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Dadian, Mohammad; Firouznia, Keykavous; Alalawi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in a sample of patients with image proven lumbar disc herniation. A single group cross-sectional study was conducted in a three year period from 2007 in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Overall, 202 patients aged more than or equal to 18 years with image proven herniated lumbar disc and with physical findings suggestive of lumbosacral root irritation were included. Overall, 146 (72.3%) participants had sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in females (pSacroiliac joint dysfunction is a significant pathogenic factor with high possibility of occurrence in low back pain. Thus, regardless of intervertebral disc pathology, sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered in clinical decision making.

  1. Palliative therapy in adults with cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Visentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the socioeconomic and clinical profile of adult cancer patients in palliative therapy. Method: Cross-sectional study in an oncology hospital in Paraná, with 124 adult patients who started palliative therapy in the period from Jan. 2 to June 30, 2015. Results: Of the participating population, 60.5% were women, 68.5% white, 48.4% married, 72.6% catholic and with income of one to two minimum wages. Non-smokers, 45.2%, non-alcoholics 75%, and 92% had Performance Status 1 and 2. The predominant primary diagnosis was breast cancer, with previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The sites of metastasis were lung/mediastinum/bronchi and lymph nodes. Conclusion: The socioeconomic and clinical context characterized the profile of adult patients in palliative therapy. The demand arising from the increase in cases of advanced cancer requires nursing care at all stages of treatment.

  2. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Kriebel, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p work accidents. Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well. PMID:16734911

  3. A cross-cultural study of noblesse oblige in economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddick, Laurence; Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Janicki, Maria; Lee, Sean; Erlich, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    A cornerstone of economic theory is that rational agents are self-interested, yet a decade of research in experimental economics has shown that economic decisions are frequently driven by concerns for fairness, equity, and reciprocity. One aspect of other-regarding behavior that has garnered attention is noblesse oblige, a social norm that obligates those of higher status to be generous in their dealings with those of lower status. The results of a cross-cultural study are reported in which marked noblesse oblige was observed on a reciprocal-contract decision-making task. Participants from seven countries that vary along hierarchical and individualist/collectivist social dimensions were more tolerant of non-reciprocation when they adopted a high-ranking perspective compared with a low-ranking perspective.

  4. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng, E-mail: ZFAN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhou, Yu [Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Center (ARTC), 3 Clean Tech Loop, CleanTech Two, Singapore 637143 (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis.

  6. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis

  7. Copy Number Variation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: A Cross-Disorder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Yu, Dongmei; Marshall, Christian; Davis, Lea K.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Li, Bingbin; Cappi, Carolina; Gerber, Gloria; Wolf, Aaron; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Osiecki, Lisa; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Kirby, Andrew; Illmann, Cornelia; Haddad, Stephen; Gallagher, Patience; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Derks, Eske M.; Dion, Yves; Rosário, Maria C.; Eapen, Valsama; Evans, Patrick; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hounie, Ana G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A.; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; McCracken, James T.; McMahon, William; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L; Neale, Benjamin M; Nurmi, Erika; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark; Robertson, Mary M.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Oostra, Ben A.; Moessner, Rainald; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Heutink, Peter; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson; Petryshen, Tracey; Posthuma, Danielle; Jenike, Michael A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Brentani, Helena; Scherer, Stephen W.; Arnold, Paul D.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Mathews, Carol A.; Knowles, James A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Pauls, David L.; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable, neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date. Method The primary analyses utilized a cross-disorder design for 2,699 patients (1,613 ascertained for OCD, 1,086 ascertained for TS) and 1,789 controls. Parental data facilitated a de novo analysis in 348 OCD trios. Results Although no global CNV burden was detected in the cross-disorder analysis or in secondary, disease-specific analyses, there was a 3.3-fold increased burden of large deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders (p=.09). Half of these neurodevelopmental deletions were located in a single locus, 16p13.11 (5 patient deletions: 0 control deletions, p=0.08 in current study, p=0.025 compared to published controls). Three 16p13.11 deletions were confirmed de novo, providing further support to the etiological significance of this region. The overall OCD de novo rate was 1.4%, which is intermediate between published rates in controls (0.7%) and in autism or schizophrenia (2–4%). Conclusion Several converging lines of evidence implicate 16p13.11 deletions in OCD, with weaker evidence for a role in TS. The trend toward increased overall neurodevelopmental CNV burden in TS and OCD suggests that deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders may also contribute to these phenotypes. PMID:25062598

  8. Digitomotography in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Maetzler

    Full Text Available Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD are usually assessed with semi-quantitative tests such as the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS which are limited by subjectivity, categorical design, and low sensitivity. Particularly bradykinesia as assessed e.g. with speeded index finger tapping exhibits low validity measures. This exploratory study set out to (i assess whether force transducer-based objective and quantitative analysis of motor coordination in index finger tapping is able to distinguish between PD patients and controls, and (ii assess longitudinal changes. Sixteen early-stage and 17 mid-stage PD patients as well as 18 controls were included in the cross-sectional part of the study; thirteen, 16 and 16 individuals of the respective groups agreed in a reassessment 12 months later. Frequency, force, rhythmicity, regularity and laterality of speeded and metronome paced tapping were recorded by digitomotography using a quantitative motor system ("Q-Motor". Analysis of cross-sectional data revealed most consistent differences between PD patients and controls in variability of tap performance across modalities assessed. Among PD patients, variability of taps and the ability to keep a given rhythm were associated with UPDRS motor and finger tapping scores. After 12 months, laterality parameters were reduced but no other parameters changed significantly. This data suggests that digitomotography provides quantitative and objective measures capable to differentiate PD from non-PD in a small cohort, however, the value of the assessment to track PD progression has to be further evaluated in larger cohorts of patients.

  9. Overweight, obesity and foot posture in children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose A; Morales-Asencio, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between obesity and foot posture in children. This cross-sectional study is based on a sample population of 1798 schoolchildren (873 boys and 925 girls) aged between 6 and 12 years. The height and weight of each subject was measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Foot posture was described by means of the foot posture index (FPI). The differences among various foot postures in relation to BMI, for the total sample, were tested using the Games-Howell test. In addition, cross tabulation for different gender groups and BMI categories was applied and tested using χ 2 . The mean BMI was 18.94 (standard deviation (SD) 3.65 kg/m 2 ) in the boys and 18.90 (SD 3.64 kg/m 2 ) in the girls, and the FPI was 3.97 (SD 2.98) in the boys and 3.68 (SD 2.86) in the girls. The FPI results show that among the boys aged 6 years, the right foot was more pronated than among the girls (FPI 4.8-4.1, P = 0.034), while among the boys aged 7 years, this was true for the left foot (4.4-3.7, P = 0.049). For the other ages, there were no significant differences in the FPI between the sexes. There were no significant differences between the value, or categories, of BMI and the FPI in the different age groups. In children aged between 6 and 12 years, body mass does not appear to have an important bearing on static foot posture. Furthermore, the variables gender and age are of scant importance in determining foot posture in children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  11. The relationship between impulsive choice and impulsive action: a cross-species translational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Broos

    Full Text Available Maladaptive impulsivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders. However, there is only limited evidence available on whether different measures of impulsivity represent largely unrelated aspects or a unitary construct. In a cross-species translational study, thirty rats were trained in impulsive choice (delayed reward task and impulsive action (five-choice serial reaction time task paradigms. The correlation between those measures was assessed during baseline performance and after pharmacological manipulations with the psychostimulant amphetamine and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. In parallel, to validate the animal data, 101 human subjects performed analogous measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting task, DDT and impulsive action (immediate and delayed memory task, IMT/DMT. Moreover, all subjects completed the Stop Signal Task (SST, as an additional measure of impulsive action and filled out the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11. Correlations between DDT and IMT/DMT were determined and a principal component analysis was performed on all human measures of impulsivity. In both rats and humans measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action did not correlate. In rats the within-subject pharmacological effects of amphetamine and atomoxetine did not correlate between tasks, suggesting distinct underlying neural correlates. Furthermore, in humans, principal component analysis identified three independent factors: (1 self-reported impulsivity (BIS-11; (2 impulsive action (IMT/DMT and SST; (3 impulsive choice (DDT. This is the first study directly comparing aspects of impulsivity using a cross-species translational approach. The present data reveal the non-unitary nature of impulsivity on a behavioral and pharmacological level. Collectively, this warrants a stronger focus on the relative contribution of distinct forms of impulsivity in psychopathology.

  12. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  13. A Preliminary Study on Time Projection Chamber Simulation for Fission Cross Section Measurements with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Youngouk; Kim, Jae Cheon

    2014-01-01

    We present the details of the TPC simulation with Geant4 and show the results. TPC can provide more information than a fission chamber in that it is possible to distinguish different particle types. Simulations are conducted for uranium and plutonium targets with 20MeV neutrons. The simulation results are compared with the reference and show reasonable results. This is the first phase of study for realizing a TPC in the NFS at RAON, and we have more work to do, such as applying an electric field, signal processing in the simulation, and manufacturing of a TPC. The standard in fission cross section measurement is a fission chamber. It is basically just two parallel plates separated by a few centimeters of gas. A power supply connected to the plates sets up a moderate electric field. The target is deposited onto one of the plates. When fission occurs, the fragments ionize the gas, and the electric field causes the produced electrons to drift to the opposite plate, which records the total energy deposited in the chamber. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a gas ionization detector similar to a fission chamber. However, it can measure the charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions by adding several readouts on the pad plane (fission chamber has only one readout one a pad plane). The specific ionization for each particle track enables the TPC to distinguish different particle types. A TPC will be used for fission cross section measurements in the Neutron Science Facility (NSF) at RAON. As a preliminary study, we present details of TPC simulation with Geant4 and discuss the results

  14. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  15. Oligomerisation of Synaptobrevin-2 Studied by Native Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Cross-Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Sabine; Haupt, Caroline; Hoffmann, Waldemar; Kostmann, Susann; Pagel, Kevin; Schmidt, Carla

    2018-06-01

    Synaptobrevin-2 is a key player in signal transmission in neurons. It forms, together with SNAP25 and Syntaxin-1A, the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex and mediates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles with the pre-synaptic membrane. While Synaptobrevin-2 is part of a four-helix bundle in this SNARE complex, it is natively unstructured in the absence of lipids or other SNARE proteins. Partially folded segments, presumably SNARE complex formation intermediates, as well as formation of Synaptobrevin-2 dimers and oligomers, were identified in previous studies. Here, we employ three Synaptobrevin-2 variants—the full-length protein Syb(1-116), the soluble, cytosolic variant Syb(1-96) as well as a shorter version Syb(49-96) containing structured segments but omitting a trigger site for SNARE complex formation—to study oligomerisation in the absence of interaction partners or when incorporated into the lipid bilayer of liposomes. Combining native mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking, we find that the truncated versions show increased oligomerisation. Our findings from both techniques agree well and confirm the presence of oligomers in solution while membrane-bound Synaptobrevin-2 is mostly monomeric. Using ion mobility mass spectrometry, we could further show that lower charge states of Syb(49-96) oligomers, which most likely represent solution structures, follow an isotropic growth curve suggesting that they are intrinsically disordered. From a technical point of view, we show that the combination of native ion mobility mass spectrometry with chemical cross-linking is well-suited for the analysis of protein homo-oligomers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 multiwire architecture: a local structure study with nanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Criado, Gema; Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Chu, Manh-Hung; Tucoulou, Remi; López, Iñaki; Nogales, Emilio; Mendez, Bianchi; Piqueras, Javier

    2014-10-08

    Crossed nanowire structures are the basis for high-density integration of a variety of nanodevices. Owing to the critical role of nanowires intersections in creating hybrid architectures, it has become a challenge to investigate the local structure in crossing points in metal oxide nanowires. Thus, if intentionally grown crossed nanowires are well-patterned, an ideal model to study the junction is formed. By combining electron and synchrotron beam nanoprobes, we show here experimental evidence of the role of impurities in the coupling formation, structural modifications, and atomic site configuration based on crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 nanowires. Our experiment opens new avenues for further local structure studies with both nanometer resolution and elemental sensitivity.

  17. Women in relationships with cross-dressing men: a descriptive study from a nonclinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R

    1994-10-01

    Over a 6-year period, 106 women involved with men who cross-dress (mostly heterosexual transvestites) completed a questionnaire regarding themselves, their male partners, and their relationships. Interview data supplemented these questionnaires for 75% of the respondents. All respondents were recruited from nonclinical settings. The "modal" female partner was a 40-year-old Protestant, Caucasian woman, who was a firstborn child, in her first marriage. She was more likely than other women her age to be childless, and to have earned at least a 2-year college degree. She was no more likely to have had lesbian experiences or substance use problems than comparably aged American women. She had been married to her cross-dressing mate for 13 years and had known of his activities for 9 years. A quarter of women reported at least occasional sexual arousal to their mate's cross-dressing. The two variables associated with low acceptance of cross-dressing were discovery of their partner's cross-dressing after marriage and lack of sexual arousal to cross-dressing stimuli. Low acceptance was unrelated to firstborn status, amount of exposure to cross-dressing activities, or having had children. This group may be more representative of women in relationships with cross-dressing men than previous reports limited to cross-dressers and spouses who are in treatment.

  18. Study of water flowrate using time transient and cross-correlation techniques with 82Br radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Brandao, Luiz E.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to determinate the water flowrate using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques. The detection system uses two NaI (T1) detectors adequately positioned on the outside of pipe and a gamma-ray source ( 82 Br radiotracer). The water flowrate measurements using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques were compared to invasive conventional measurements of the flowrate previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowmeter previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowrate values were found to be less than 3% in relation to conventional ones. (author)

  19. Driver characteristics associated with child safety seat usage in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Razak, Ahmad; Schenk, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    The rapidly motorizing environment in Malaysia has made child occupant safety a current public health concern. The usage of child safety seats (CSS) is a widely regarded intervention to enhance child occupant safety, yet no study has been conducted on CSS in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the CSS usage rates in Malaysia and to assess driver characteristics that are associated with CSS usage. Nine variables - urban versus rural study location, age, gender, marital status, educational status, monthly family income, number of children present in the vehicle, distance traveled to the study location, and attitude - were examined through a cross-sectional study of interviewing drivers of 230 vehicles transporting at least one child safety in Malaysia. The results indicate that interventional efforts should focus on educational programs geared toward drivers that are less educated or extended family members who inconsistently transport young children. Furthermore, any educational efforts could be strongly enhanced by legislation mandating the use of CSS. Every effort should be made to thoroughly assess the effectiveness of any educational or legislative activities that are implemented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Profile of Saudi Nursing Workforce: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alboliteeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.

  1. Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Career: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534

  2. Profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla Guerra, Sonia; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we described the profile of advanced nursing practice in Spain. A cross-sectional study design was used to explore the extent and patterns of advanced nursing practice activity within the domains of expert care planning, integrated care, interprofessional collaboration, education, research, evidence-based practice, and professional leadership. Data were collected in 2015/2016. Purposive sampling yielded a sample of 165 specialist and expert nurses employed by a dual tertiary and community hospital in an urban setting. The study included specialist and expert nurses who had a higher practice profile than registered general nurses. The performance of activities according to age, current position, years of experience, nursing grade, and education was compared. Practice domains were more strongly influenced by the predictors of nursing position and professional career ladder. Age and experience predictors were found to be weak predictors of advanced practice domains. This study offers essential information of the nursing workforce, and clarifies both the advanced nursing practice profile and nomenclature in the context of study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

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    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  5. Prospective cross-sectional study of tuberculosis screening in United Arab Emirates.

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    Almarzooqi, Farida; Alkhemeiri, Aysha; Aljaberi, Ahmed; Hashmey, Rayhan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2018-05-01

    Intense migrations from tuberculosis endemic areas to Gulf countries create special risks for people in the region. The purpose of this study was to provide data that could justify implementing universal, regular TB screening in UAE. This prospective, cross-sectional study used interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen for TB among Emirati citizens between August-2016 and May-2017; expatriates were not included in this study. Participants were recruited from Emiratis attending Tawam Hospital Polyclinics for problems unrelated to TB risk assessment. IGRA was requested for all enrolled participants. A risk-assessment questionnaire was completed by all participants. In addition, a retrospective review of IGRA results (January-2011 to April-2016) was conducted to compare prevalence of positive IGRA in the 'prospective sample' with that in 'patients screened in the past'. Four hundred fifty-five participants (69% females) were enrolled in this study. Participants' age (mean±SD) was 42±16y. The majority of participants had traveled to or had helpers from TB-endemic areas. Two hundred forty (53%) participants had IGRA test. Forty-five (18.8%) participants had positive IGRA, similar to the retrospective results of 12.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of positive-IGRA in this study is high. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental Use of Antibiotics as Self Medication to Their School Going Children: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication with antibiotics constitutes a major form of irrational use of medicine and it is associated with risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Parents many times use antibiotics as self medication for their children which is hazardous. There is a need to find out such practices if they are happening. Aim and Objectives: to find out the prevalence and practices of antibiotics use as self medication in children amongst the parents and reasons for the same. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Schools from Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area were the study place. Parents of primary and secondary school students were the study subjects. The sample size was 1407. Cluster sampling method was used. The study duration was of 6 months. The questionnaire was used as a study tool. Results: The prevalence of non prescriptional parental use of antibiotic for school going children was 22.8%. Most common symptom treated was runny nose (41.43%. Majority parents (35.51% selected antibiotic by using their own experience. Commonest reason was 'convenience' (27.72%. Gender and type of family are the strong predictors for self-medication with antibiotic for children. Conclusion: Parental use of non prescribed antibiotic was high. Risk for parental use of self medication was high with nuclear families and mothers.

  7. A cross sectional study at subcentre level reflecting need for improving coverage of maternal health services

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    Geetu Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Health Sub-centre is the most peripheral and first point of contact between the primary health care system and the community. It is imperative to get insight into their functioning which were established with the objectives of minimizing the hardships of the rural people. Objective: To study the coverages of maternal services at subcentres in district Jhansi. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sample of 20 subcentres in the district Jhansi from June 2012 to July 2013. Various records of the Health workers were examined for maternal health services coverages and noted down on a pre-designed questionnaire. Results: Present study showed that currently married pregnant women aged 15-49 years registered for ANC were 72.1%. Women who received antenatal check-up in first trimester in subcentres were around 50%. Women who received 3 or more antenatal visits were only 29% in study. Meager 3.6% women received IFA for 100 days or more. Similarly women with full antenatal check-up were only 3%. In current study it was found that family planning coverages for female Sterilization was 60% but male Sterilization was just 0.5%. Conclusion: Higher emphasis needs to be given for better coverage of all maternal services. There should be provision for improvement of competence, confidence and motivation of health workers to ensure full range of maternal care activities specified under NRHM program.

  8. Anorectal pathology amongst HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital: a cross-sectional study.

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    Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Fualefeh-Morfaw, Ellis Atemlefeh; Malongue, Agnes; Temfack, Elvis; Lekpa, Fernando Kemta; Donfack-Sontsa, Olivier; Ndip, Lucy; Ditah, Ivo Che

    2017-03-01

    While gastrointestinal disease is common among HIV infected individuals, the prevalence and distribution of ano-rectal pathology has not been well studied in our setting. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and determinants of ano-rectal pathology in HIV infected patients attending the Douala General Hospital HIV treatment centre. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken. We collected socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data using a structured questionnaire and patients' files. Each study participant had a full physical and ano-rectal examination. We further studied factors associated with having at least one ano-rectal lesion by logistic regression reporting odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 390 HIV infected patients. The mean age was 41 (SD: 8) years and 48% were men. Median duration since HIV diagnosis was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5) years and median CD4 cell count was 411 (interquartile range: 234-601) cells/mm 3 . Prevalence of ano-rectal pathology was 22.8% (95% CI: 18.7-27.3). Hemorrhoids and proctitis were most common lesions found; each in 10% of patients. From multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with ano-rectal pathology were CD4 HIV infected patients. Care givers should actively investigate and treat them as this will improve the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  9. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  11. The preliminary study on a single balloon cross-medline expansion using unipedicular approach in kyphoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Jin Peng; Liu Xunwei; Hao Runsong; Xie Zhiyong; Li Fandong; Yi Yuhai; Zhang Xuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of kyphoplasty with single balloon cross-midline expansion using unipedicular approach for osteoporotic vertebral body compressive fracture (OVCF). Methods: Thirty six cases of painful OVCF were included in the study, with 61 vertebrae involved. Under X-ray fluoroscopy monitoring, kyphoplasty was performed using a unilateral, single, balloon via a unilateral transpedicular approach. A final balloon position was in the midline of the vertebral body with the balloon cross-midline expansions and bone cement filled. Clinical outcomes were determined by comparison of preoperative and postoperative VAS and ODI scores. Radiographic assessment included vertebral height restoration and correction of kyphosis. Follow-up was conducted for 6.0-12.0 months (mean 9.2 months). Results: Thirty-six consecutive patients with 61 vertebrae were successfully operated with an operative time of (37.4 ± 9.6) min per vertebra. All patients had significant pain relief and functional recovery within 96 h after the procedure with no surgery- and device-related complications. VAS score improved from (7.3 ± 1.0) preoperatively to (2.7 ± 0.8) postoperatively (t=19.53, P<0.01). ODI score was decreased from(71.1±10.9)% preoperatively to(26.6±6.4)% postoperatively(t=18.54, P<0.01). The average anterior body height loss was (14.3±2.8) mm before procedure and (10.0 ± 1.8) mm after procedure (t=14.68, P<0.01). The average middle body height loss was (10.2 ± 2.7) mm before procedure and (5.9±1.8) mm after procedure (t=16.44,P<0.01). The Cobb's angle was corrected from 23.4 degree ± 5.0 degree to 16.2 degree ± 2.8 degree (t=15.60,P<0.01). Some leakages of cement around the anterior margin of vertebra and inter-vertebral space were found in 2 patients, but there were no clinical symptoms. X-ray examination indicated there were no cement leakages in other vertebra. The pain relief and functional recovery were substantial and maintained to

  12. An Inter-, Trans-, Cross- and Multidisciplinary Approach to Higher Education in the Field of Business Studies

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    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern academic education in economics, and especially that in the field of business, frequently tries, and rather seldom manages to combine, interfere and unify, to varying degrees, distinct disciplines with practical interests usually similar or even seemingly adverse; its concrete action is an example of the successful attempt at prompt adaptation to the entrepreneurial reality, which is constantly changing, and also to the more and more dynamic economic environment, perhaps excessively so in the last two decades. This paper attempts to clarify the conceptual differences and the relatively common parts of inter-, trans-, cross- and multidisciplinarity in general, and in particular in education, focusing on business education. A brief introduction structures the inter-, trans-, cross- and multidisciplinary investigative approach within an educational context in business, and a review of the scientific literature section clarifies both the meaning of those major concepts, extending from simple paradigm of each concept to their multiple aggregative paradigm, and some modern educational trends in economics. A second section is devoted to the method of investigating opinions, based on the volume of a sample determined statistically and from a scientific methodology of observation and recording, by collecting individual data, validating the rigor of research on the diversity in business education approaches, by simply and consistently noting them by the students and graduates of faculties of economics. The study of the graduates’ opinions focused on an original questionnaire, presented in the a annexes of the paper, and the resulting databases were subjected to a descriptive statistical analysis, made with the software package Eviews, with emphasis on the homogeneity, symmetry, skewness and normality of distributions. The third section is a brief analysis of the research results, supplemented naturally by some clarifying discussions, which

  13. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Results Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables “thoughts about dropping out of college,” “medication use because of studies,” “medication and supplements use for body change,” “body mass index,” “socioeconomic status,” “age,” and “performance in course” were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9–26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. Conclusion The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross

  14. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivière, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses' quality of work life (QWL). A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111) selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4%) of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) stress, employment status and educational attainment. In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care) were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-14.5) times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses' QWL. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Di Tullio, Marco R; Carrera, Emmanuel; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L; Homma, Shunichi

    2008-09-30

    A causal relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO) and migraine has been hypothesized, and improvement of migraine frequency and severity after percutaneous PFO closure has been reported. Population-based data on the relationship between PFO and migraine are sparse, however. The objective of this study was to examine the association between PFO and migraine among stroke-free individuals in an urban, population-based, multiethnic cohort. As a part of the ongoing Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), 1101 stroke-free subjects were assessed for self-reported history of migraine. The presence of PFO was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The mean age of the group was 69+/-10 years; 58% were women. Forty-eight percent were Caribbean Hispanic, 24% were white, 26% were black, and 2% were another race/ethnicity. The prevalence of self-reported migraine was 16% (13% migraine with aura). The prevalence of PFO was 15%. Migraine was significantly more frequent among younger subjects, women, and Hispanics. The prevalence of PFO was not significantly different between subjects who had migraine (26/178, or 14.6%) and those who did not (138/923, or 15.0%; P=0.9). In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, the presence of PFO was not associated with increased prevalence of migraine (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.61). Increasing age was associated with lower prevalence of migraine in both subjects with a PFO (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.99 per year) and those without PFO (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99 per year). The observed lack of association between PFO and migraine (with or without aura) was not modified by diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, or dyslipidemia. In this multiethnic, elderly, population-based cohort, PFO detected with transthoracic echocardiography and agitated saline was not associated with self-reported migraine. The causal relationship between PFO and

  16. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS: a cross-sectional study

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    Juzwiak Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. P-values Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%, vitamin A (92.4% and vitamin C (85.1% in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  17. Bullying Behavior and Psychosocial Health - A Cross-sectional Study among School Students of Pyuthan Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Durga Khadka; Thapa, Tulsi Ram; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mahotra, Anita

    2018-03-13

    Bullying remains as pervasive phenomenon affecting children worldwide. Bullying in school has long been a matter of concern as wide range of adjustment problems including poor mental health and violent behavior in school are associated with it. The present study examined the prevalence of bullying behavior (bullies, victims and bully-victims) and their association with depression and psychosomatic symptoms. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 8th, 9th and 10th grade students of Pyuthan Municipality, Mid-Western Nepal. A total of 405 students responded to the structured self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected from randomly selected public and private schools. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. The result of this study showed higher prevalence of bully (55.8%) among students of Relatively Advantaged Janajati whereas victims (64.86%) belonged to Disadvantaged Janajatis. Students who bully were found more in grade 8 and 10 whilst the students of grade 9 were more victims. Bullying behavior prevailed more in private schools than in public schools. The overall prevalence of bullying behavior (either bully or victim) is 69.14%. The finding bolsters an association between bullying behavior and depression, psychosomatic symptoms and school type. Higher prevalence of bullying behavior suggested by this study portends the alarming consequences among school students. Bullying needs to be addressed fleetly. Effective interventions that reduce bullying practice in school is essential.

  18. Mindfulness predicts student nurses' communication self-efficacy: A cross-national comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Vibeke; Sundler, Annelie J; Holmström, Inger K; Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager; Eide, Hilde

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

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    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  20. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  1. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students

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    Japhereena Murugavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. Aim: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Results: Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Conclusion: Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  2. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Yohannes Gebreegziabhere Haile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study (p value = 0.01, worshiping frequency (p value = 0.048, marital status (p value = 0.03, and common mental disorder (p value < 0.001 were identified associated factors of insomnia. There was no significant association between insomnia and academic performance (p value = 0.53, β = −0.04. Insomnia explained 1.2% (r2 = 0.012 of the difference in academic performance between students. Conclusions. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  3. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

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    Naseh, Ladan; Rafiei, Hossein; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have an important role in caring for terminally ill patients. They are often confronted with euthanasia but little is known about their attitudes towards it. The present study aimed to examine Iranian Muslim nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, all qualified registered nurses working in two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) in Iran were invited to participate. The Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) was used to assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia. Of 266 nurses who fit the criteria, 190 participated in the study (response rate 72.9%); 91.1% (n=173) were female and 8.9% (n=17) were male. In total, 57.4%, 3.2% and 39.5% of nurses reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia respectively. Nurses reported their most negative attitude to the domain 'practical consideration' with mean of 2.36±0.9 and most positive attitude to the domain 'treasuring life' with a mean EAS score of 2.85±0.4. The majority of Muslim nurses were found to have negative attitudes to euthanasia. We recommend that future studies should be conducted to examine Muslim nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in different cultures to determine the role of culture and religious beliefs in attitude to euthanasia.

  4. Epidemiology of Cerebellar Ataxia on the Etiological Basis: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Simindokht Hosseini Seyede

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias are a heterogenous group of disorders, clinically and etiologically, that result in considerable health burden. Finding out about the various etiologies, and their relative prevalences in the population suffering from cerebellar ataxia helps the clinician to perform a better management, in treatment process. This is a cross sectional study designed to estimate the relative prevalence of each etiologic factor. One-hundred and thirty-five patients ,in the range of 6 to 73 years from march 1993 to march1999, were classified in different groups on the basis of etiological findings. Relative prevalence of each of the etiological factors , common accompanying disorders besides ataxia in the patients,CT and MRI changes,and CSF alterations are studied and recorded. A widely spread age group, and the extended number of the cases under study, are the advantages of the current study over the previously reported case series. Among the etiologic groups, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular accidents and hereditary cerebellar ataxia, were the most common etiologic factors associated with cerebellar ataxia respectively.

  5. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  6. Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ≥21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3% versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7% versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening. PMID:23843781

  7. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study in Pediatric Inpatients.

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    Dhankar, Mukesh

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in acutely sick hospitalized children and factors associated with it. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary care center of Delhi, India. Children admitted to a pediatric unit during the study period were assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. Out of the total 887 admitted children, 161 (18.1%) were using complementary and alternate medicine in one form or another. Of these, 113 (70.2%) were using complementary and alternate medicine for the current illness directly leading to admission and the remaining 48 (29.8%) had used complementary and alternate medicine in past. The common complementary and alternate medicine use observed in our study was combined ayurveda and spiritual approach (25.5%), ayurveda (24.8%), spiritual (21.7%), homeopathic (13%), and 47.2% of children were using spiritual approach in form of Jhada (tying piece of cloth on arm or leg or keeping a knife by the side of child). The significant factors associated with complementary and alternate medicine use were younger age, female gender, and father being employed. Complementary and alternate medicine is commonly used even in acutely sick children.

  10. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

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    Pooja Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause. Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method. Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet. Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  11. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

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    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  13. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Arebu I. Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%, shampoos and conditioners (35%, and deodorants and perfumes (29%. Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44% of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area.

  14. A cross-sectional study on thyroid status in North Indian elderly outpatients with dementia

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    Rachna Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several population based studies have demonstrated an association between hypo-or hyperthyroidism and dementia in last two decades. As a consequence, thyroid stimulating hormone has become part of the screening laboratory test for dementia. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and Alzheimer′s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD and to determine the risk of AD and VaD in clinically euthyroid patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional hospital based study was carried out in subjects diagnosed with AD/VaD and were assessed for thyroid status as routine screening test. Results: Free T3, free T4 and TSH were studied in 114 AD patients (mean age: 65 years, 35 VaD patients (mean age: 62 years and 105 control subjects (mean age: 62 years. In AD group, TSH levels were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.00 and for each unit increase in TSH level, the odds of having dementia decreased by 37.1%. No such relation was seen in VaD. Conclusion: The results suggest a consistent association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and AD.

  15. Systemic Thinking and Partnership Working: A Cross Sectional Study in a Medical Sciences University in Iran

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    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic thinking can provide practice in multidisciplinary team working and improve the organizational efficacy. This study aimed to determine the association between systemic thinking and partnership working in the employees of a medical sciences university in the south of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZAUMS in 2015. The study population consisted of all employees in ZAUMS; 370 participants were selected through stratified random sampling. Two standard questionnaires were used for data gathering. The data were analyzed in SPSS (v21 using Pearson, One way ANOVA, and logistic regression. The level of significance was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, 225 participants (60.8% were female and their mean age was 34.7±8.7. The score of partnership working for 362 participants was higher than the mean standard (40. Systemic thinking had a positive association with partnership working (p=0.001 and married status of the participants (p=0.04. Partnership working in male and older staff was more than others in ZAUMS (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic thinking had a positive association with the employees’ working partnership. Moreover, the male staff had better systematic thinking. It is recommended that the managers should promote systematic thinking in staff, especially in females, for better partnership and efficacy in organizations.

  16. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

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    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  17. Preschoolers’ Technology-Assessed Physical Activity and Cognitive Function: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Minghui Quan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood is a critical period for development of cognitive function, but research on the association between physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children is limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the association between technology-assessed physical activity and cognitive function in preschool children. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Physical Activity and Cognitive Development Study was conducted in Shanghai, China. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and cognitive functions were assessed using the Chinese version of Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence (C-WYCSI. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between physical activity and cognitive function. A total of 260 preschool children (boys, 144; girls, 116; mean age: 57.2 ± 5.4 months were included in analyses for this study. After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that Verbal Intelligence Quotient, Performance Intelligence Quotient, and Full Intelligence Quotient were significantly correlated with light physical activity, not moderate to vigorous physical activity, in boys. Standardized coefficients were 0.211, 0.218, and 0.242 (all p < 0.05 in three different models, respectively. However, the correlation between physical activity and cognitive functions were not significant in girls (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that cognitive function is apparently associated with light physical activity in boys. Further studies are required to clarify the sex-specific effect on physical activity and cognitive functions.

  18. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study ( p value = 0.01), worshiping frequency ( p value = 0.048), marital status ( p value = 0.03), and common mental disorder ( p value academic performance ( p value = 0.53, β = -0.04). Insomnia explained 1.2% ( r 2 = 0.012) of the difference in academic performance between students. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  19. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

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    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Use of Head Guards in AIBA Boxing Tournaments-A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

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    Loosemore, Michael P; Butler, Charles F; Khadri, Abdelhamid; McDonagh, David; Patel, Vimal A; Bailes, Julian E

    2017-01-01

    This study looks at the changes in injuries after the implementation of a new rule by the International Boxing Association (AIBA) to remove head guards from its competitions. A cross-sectional observational study performed prospectively. This brief report examines the removal of head guards in 2 different ways. The first was to examine the stoppages due to blows to the head by comparing World Series Boxing (WSB), without head guards, to other AIBA competitions with head guards. Secondly, we examined the last 3 world championships: 2009 and 2011 (with head guards) and 2013 (without head guards). World Series Boxing and AIBA world championship boxing. Boxers from WSB and AIBA world championships. The information was recorded by ringside medical physicians. Stoppages per 10 000 rounds; stoppages per 1000 hours. Both studies show that the number of stoppages due to head blows was significantly decreased without head guards. The studies also showed that there was a notable increase in cuts. Removing head guards may reduce the already small risk of acute brain injury in amateur boxing.

  1. Job satisfaction and mental health of Palestinian nurses with shift work: a cross-sectional study.

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    Jaradat, Yousef; Birkeland Nielsen, Morten; Kristensen, Petter; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Associations between shift work, mental distress, and satisfaction were estimated from χ 2 tests and linear regression analyses using Stata/IC10. The study was approved by the ministry of health. Written informed consent was provided by all participants. In 2012, we recruited 372 registered nurses from the Hebron governorate in the occupied Palestinian territory. 28 (8%) nurses were excluded, and the final sample (n=344) included 213 (62%) women and 131 (38%) men. 338 nurses rated their job satisfaction, and 309 nurses completed the GHQ-30. After adjusting for covariates, men with shift work reported significantly lower job satisfaction (β-coefficient -3·3, 95% CI -6·2 to -0·5) than men with day schedules. Women with shift work reported significantly higher levels of mental distress (3·6, 95% CI 0·3 to 7·0) than women with day schedules. Distress was reported by more women than men, but this difference concerned only nurses working day shifts. No differences in job satisfaction associated with shift work was seen between men and women. We found no demonstrable interaction between sex and shift work for job satisfaction (β-coefficient -1·6, 95% CI -4·4 to 1·2) or distress (-0·03, 95% CI -5·3 to 5·3). Shift work was associated with low job satisfaction in male nurses and high distress in female nurses. Because the study had a cross-sectional design and both exposure and outcomes were

  2. Impact assessment of gilgel gibe hydroelectric dam on schitosomiasis: a cross sectional study in southwest ethiopia.

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    Yami, Alemeshet; Kebede, Sileshi; Mamo, Yoseph

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is

  3. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-08-05

    Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Cross-sectional study. India. Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15-49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; pwomen who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; pIndian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. A cross-cultural study of acceptability and food pairing for hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jee; Chung, Seo-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Nielsen, Belinda; Ishii, Rie; O'Mahony, Michael

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to understand the acceptance levels of hot sauces among consumers from different culinary cultures. Two newly developed hot sauces [fermented red chili pepper with soybean-paste-based sauce(GS) and fermented red chili-pepper-based sauce(KS)] were compared with Tabasco sauce(TB) and Sriracha sauce(SR). Two separate cross-cultural home-use tests(HUTs) were conducted: pizza and cream soup were provided as food items in HUT 1, whereas grilled chicken wings and rice noodle soup were provided in HUT 2. Consumers residing in Denmark, South Korea, and US participated in each HUT (n≅100 per country). Acceptance levels and the reasons for (dis)liking particular hot sauces applied to food systems were assessed. The food items that paired well with different hot sauces when the sauces were applied freely to regular meals were also analyzed among the US and Korean subjects. When the hot-sauce samples were applied to pizza and cream soup, the preferred order of the samples exhibited a cross-cultural agreement (GS = KS > TB). In the case of grilled chicken and rice noodle soup, the acceptance rating was similar for the three types of hot sauces among Koreans, whereas the acceptance was higher for SR among the US subjects for both foodstuffs, while Danish subjects preferred GS and KS over SR. The US subjects did not like hot-sauce samples with sweet and weak spiciness, whereas the Korean and Danish subjects disliked the hot-sauce sample when it was too spicy and not sufficiently sweet. These findings indicate that the matching of particular sauces with specific food items is culture-dependent, and this needs to be considered when trying to export food products such as hot sauce to other countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cross Sectional Study of Microbial Contamination of Medical Students’ White Coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhadi, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of microbial contamination on medical students’ white coats, the way they handle and clean their white coats and their perception towards contamination. For this purpose, cross sectional survey of the bacterial contamination of white coats in a medical college has been carried out in 3 different locations; Royal College of Medicine, Perak, University of Kuala Lumpur and a private college attached to Ipoh General Hospital. It was found that the incidence of Staphylococus aureus, was 32% on short-sleeved and 54% on long-sleeved white coats. Bacillus species was the second most common type of bacteria found. Male collars and female pockets had higher microbial contaminations (p=0.01, 0.03 respectively. Clinical students’ white coats were significantly less contaminated than non-clinical students (p=0.001 although they tend to wear it for a longer period (5.75 ± 2.19 h vs. 2.32 ± 0.81 h (p=0.001. Clinical students owned more short-sleeved coats (p=0.001 and washed their coats more often (p=0.01 than non-clinical ones. More than eighty one percent of clinical students wear their white coats in the college the majority of whom were females (p=0.005. Perception of clinical and non-clinical students towards white coat contamination was similar. Medical students’ white coats are contaminated with bacteria and they are potentially source of cross infection. Student’s way of handling and washing white coats should be corrected by issuing and following standard guidelines. Students should be bared from wearing white coats in non-clinical areas. Washing hands and using plastic aprons is highly recommended before examining wounds.

  6. Depression in Women with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Cross-Sectional Studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Azar; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Bagheri Nesami, Masoumeh

    2018-01-27

    Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and has more severe mental and emotional effects than other types. Depression as a mental disorder affects people’s mental well-being, physical symptoms, occupational performance, and finally quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine depression levels in Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods: A systematic review study was conducted in 2017. English and Persian databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran) were searched with key words such as Depression Or Depressive Disorders AND Women AND Breast Cancer OR Tumor OR Neoplasm OR Malignancy AND Iran. Inclusion criteria allowed for cross-sectional studies conducted in Iran (published in English or Persian language journals), studies that had key words in their keywords or their titles and standard instruments for measuring depression in patients. Of the 160 publications found, eight were selected after reviewing the title, abstract and full article. Results: Age of women with breast cancer in selected studies ranged from 43.8 (SD = 47.1) to 55.9 (SD = 14.6) years. Duration of cancer in most studies was about 1-2 years. In most studies, mild levels of depression for women with breast cancer were present. However, in one study it was stated that 69.4% of participants had serious levels of depression. Conclusions: There is increase in the risk of depression in women with breast cancer. Therefore, it seems necessary to plan preventive and therapeutic measures in order to improve the mental health and quality of life of the affected patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Cross-talk studies on FPCB of double-sided silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhankui; Li, Haixia; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhusheng; Chen, Cuihong; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Xiuhua; Li, Chunyan; Zu, Kailing

    2014-01-01

    Double-sided silicon micro-strip detector's parameters and a test method and the results of cross-talk of FPCB are given in this abstract. In addition, the value of our detector's readout signal has little relation to FPCB's cross-talk.

  8. Analytical study of a reversed-field pinch with rectangular cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng

    1990-01-01

    An analyic solution of the force-free equation for a toroidal configuration of rectangular cross section is presented. It is shown that the critical value of contraction ratio for the appearance of a reversed field as well as of the ohmic current increases as the elongation of the cross section increases

  9. A study of the multipolar composition of the electrofission cross section of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The electrofission cross section for 237 Np was measured over the energy range from 0,6 to 60,0 MeV. The multipolar composition of this cross section was investigated using the virtual photons formalism with three different techniques of analysis: unfolding and two versions of multiple parameter regression. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  10. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  11. Is hormonal therapy associated with better quality of life in transsexuals? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gebleux, Stéphanie; Penochet, Jean-Claude; Pringuey, Dominique; Albarel, Frédérique; Morange, Isabelle; Loundou, Anderson; Berbis, Julie; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Bonierbale, Mireille

    2012-02-01

    Although the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the self-reported outcomes of transsexuals has been largely described, the data available regarding the impact of hormone therapy on the daily lives of these individuals are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between hormonal therapy and the self-reported quality of life (QoL) in transsexuals while taking into account the key confounding factors and to compare the QoL levels between transsexuals who have, vs. those who have not, undergone cross-sex hormone therapy as well as between transsexuals and the general population (French age- and sex-matched controls). This study incorporated a cross-sectional design that was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public university teaching hospitals in France. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender identity disorder (302.85) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV TR), inclusion in a standardized sex reassignment procedure following the agreement of a multidisciplinary team, and pre-sex reassignment surgery. QoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). The mean age of the total sample was 34.7 years, and the sex ratio was 1:1. Forty-four (72.1%) of the participants received hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy and depression were independent predictive factors of the SF-36 mental composite score. Hormonal therapy was significantly associated with a higher QoL, while depression was significantly associated with a lower QoL. Transsexuals' QoL, independently of hormonal status, did not differ from the French age- and sex-matched controls except for two subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire: role physical (lower scores in transsexuals) and general health (lower scores in controls). The present study suggests a positive effect of hormone therapy on transsexuals' QoL after accounting for confounding factors. These results will be useful for

  12. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; Del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-05-16

    Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires, which were available in 15

  13. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Van Hul, Anke; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  14. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Murphy, Gregory P; Metzler, Ian; Sanford, Thomas; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Osterberg, E Charles; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group. Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the American Urological Association Symptom Index, and non-validated questions about history of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital numbness, and genital saddle sores (all self-reported). 3,118 (53.3%) Women completed the survey, comprising 1,053 (34%) non-cyclists, 1,656 (53%) low-intensity cyclists, and 409 (13%) high-intensity cyclists. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, tobacco use, race, marital status, urinary symptoms, and sexual activity, high-intensity cyclists had lower odds of self-reported sexual dysfunction compared to non-cyclists (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.7, P = .02). There were no statistically significant differences in urinary symptoms across groups. Compared to non-cyclists, both low- and high-intensity cyclists had higher odds of reporting a previous UTI (aOR 1.4, P < .001, and aOR 1.4, P = .009, respectively), genital numbness (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P < .001, and OR 9.1, P < .001, respectively), and saddle sores (OR 6.3, P < .001, and OR 22.7, P < .001, respectively). Women cyclists were more likely to report other genitourinary conditions, including UTIs, genital numbness, and saddle sores. This is the largest study comparing cyclists to other athletes with respect to sexual and urinary function. The study is limited by its cross-sectional design

  15. Study on performance and flow field of an undershot cross-flow water turbine comprising different number of blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Hatano, Kentaro; Inagaki, Terumi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, small hydroelectric generators have gained attention as a further development in water turbine technology for ultra low head drops in open channels. The authors have evaluated the application of cross-flow water turbines in open channels as an undershot type after removing the casings and guide vanes to substantially simplify these water turbines. However, because undershot cross-flow water turbines are designed on the basis of cross-flow water turbine runners used in typical pipelines, it remains unclear whether the number of blades has an effect on the performance or flow fields. Thus, in this research, experiments and numerical analyses are employed to study the performance and flow fields of undershot cross-flow water turbines with varying number of blades. The findings show that the turbine output and torque are lower, the fluctuation is significantly higher, and the turbine efficiency is higher for runners with 8 blades as opposed to those with 24 blades.

  16. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Koichiro; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance, and work engagement.

  17. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  18. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shiba

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1 estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2 identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3 examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665 practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470 indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001, subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001, and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002, even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively. The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job

  19. Conflict management styles among Iranian critical care nursing staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Conflict among nurses has been recognized as an extremely important issue within health care settings throughout the world. Identifying the conflict management style would be a key strategy for conflict management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of conflict management styles and its related factors among Iranian critical care nursing staff. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 149 critical care nurses who worked in the critical care units of 4 teaching hospitals in Sari (Iran) were evaluated. A 2-part self-reported questionnaire including personal information and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II was used for data collection. Although Iranian critical care nurses used all 5 conflict management styles to manage conflict with their peers, the collaborating style was the most prevalent conflict management style used by them, followed by compromising, accommodating, avoiding, and competing. Male gender was a predictor for both compromising and competing styles, whereas position and shift time were significant predictors for compromising and competing styles, respectively. Based on the results of this study, nurse managers need to take these factors into account in designing programs to help nurses constructively manage unavoidable conflicts in health care setting.

  20. Association between benzodiazepines and recurrent falls: a cross-sectional elderly population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossat, A; Fantino, B; Bongue, B; Colvez, A; Nitenberg, C; Annweiler, C; Beauchet, O

    2011-01-01

    While the association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and single fall is long-known, the association between BZD and recurrent falls has been few studied. The aims of this study were 1) to examine whether BZD were associated with recurrent falls while taking into account the effect of potential confounders, and 2) to determine whether there was an interaction in terms of risk of falls between BZD and balance impairment in a community-dwelling population-based adults aged 65 and older. Cross-sectional. Three health centers in North-East of France. 7643 community-dwelling volunteers aged 65 and older. The use of BZD, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), the One Leg Balance (OLB) test, the Five Times Sit-To-Stand test (FTSS), and a history of falls were recorded. Subjects were separated into 4 groups based on the number of falls: 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 3 falls. Among the 1456 (19.2%) fallers, 994 (13.0%) were single fallers and 462 (6.1%) were recurrent fallers (i.e., > 2 falls). The number of falls increased significantly with age (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.04, P falls. After adjustment only the advance in age (IRR=1.02, P falls. The current study shows that the age, the female gender, the use of clobazam or prazepam and a low score at OLB are related to the recurrence of falls.

  1. A randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2013-11-11

    Kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin C and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. The aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. Nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin C) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. Sungold). Fasting blood and urine were collected half hourly to hourly over the eight hours following intervention. The ascorbate content of the plasma and urine was determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Plasma ascorbate levels increased from 0.5 h after the intervention (P = 0.008). No significant differences in the plasma time-concentration curves were observed between the two interventions (P = 0.645). An estimate of the total increase in plasma ascorbate indicated complete uptake of the ingested vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. There was an increase in urinary ascorbate excretion, relative to urinary creatinine, from two hours post intervention (P vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit arms, respectively. Overall, our pharmacokinetic study has shown comparable relative bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C and synthetic vitamin C.

  2. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Nóris; Chatkin, José; Chapman, Kenneth R; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-03-22

    Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence. Using a cross-sectional study, we included 50 current smokers (group I) and 50 lifetime non-smokers (group II), aged 18-75 years. We screened them at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, Canada). The subjects completed a questionnaire with demographic data, lifestyle habits and details of food intake. The PUFAs measured in the RBC membranes were alphalinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to perform an adjusted comparison between smokers and non-smokers we used the ANCOVA model. After adjusting for confounding factors, non-smokers showed higher consumption of PUFAs, especially salmon: 800 g (0-7.740) than smokers 430 g (0-2.150) P smoking. Smokers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, a not previously reported finding. Considering that PUFAs probably interfere in smoking habit, the increase in omega-3 consumption may become a perspective in prevention or treatment of smoking. However, this inference must be evaluated through specific studies.

  3. Cross-sectional multicenter study of patients with urea cycle disorders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Mendel; Lee, Brendan; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Summar, Marshall L; Yudkoff, Marc; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Kerr, Douglas S; Diaz, George A; Seashore, Margaretta R; Lee, Hye-Seung; McCarter, Robert J; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Batshaw, Mark L

    2008-08-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders comprise eight disorders (UCD), each caused by a deficiency of one of the proteins that is essential for ureagenesis. We report on a cross-sectional investigation to determine clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with UCD in the United States. The data used for the analysis was collected at the time of enrollment of individuals with inherited UCD into a longitudinal observation study. The study has been conducted by the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium within the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) funded by the National Institutes of Health. One-hundred eighty-three patients were enrolled into the study. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency was the most frequent disorder (55%), followed by argininosuccinic aciduria (16%) and citrullinemia (14%). Seventy-nine percent of the participants were white (16% Latinos), and 6% were African American. Intellectual and developmental disabilities were reported in 39% with learning disabilities (35%) and half had abnormal neurological examination. Sixty-three percent were on a protein restricted diet, 37% were on Na-phenylbutyrate and 5% were on Na-benzoate. Forty-five percent of OTC deficient patients were on L-citrulline, while most patients with citrullinemia (58%) and argininosuccinic aciduria (79%) were on L-arginine. Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids were reduced in patients treated with ammonia scavenger drugs. Plasma glutamine levels were higher in proximal UCD and in neonatal type disease. The RDCRN allows comprehensive analyses of rare inherited UCD, their frequencies and current medical practices.

  4. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

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    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement.

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    Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2011-04-01

    The experience of role stress has been linked to burnout as an important job stressor, but the impact of this stressor in the context of engagement (characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) has not yet been sufficiently studied among nurses. Personal resources also appear to influence the process of burnout and engagement. This study examines the influence of role stress and personal resources (optimism, hardy personality and emotional competence) in nursing on burnout and engagement dimensions. Cross-sectional data from 508 nurses from general hospitals in Madrid (Spain) showed that both role stress and personal resources were related to burnout and engagement dimensions, although role stress was more closely related to nursing burnout, whereas personal resources were more closely related to nursing engagement. In addition, optimism as a personal resource, showed a moderator effect on exhaustion and the three dimensions of engagement. The study provides additional support about role stress as an important predictor of burnout and engagement in nursing, even after controlling for personal resources and socio-demographic variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

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    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study for Screening of Postural Deficits among University Students

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    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural deviations are frequent in university students and may cause pain and functional impairment. Few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in university students, and to determine whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, and physical activity might explain these deviations, this study helping in preventing aggravation of postural deviations and providing the young adolescent students with exercises and help tips for correcting these problems. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The posture of 48 students in Hail University was assessed by DIER formetric 4D. Their mean age was 20.35 ± 2.678, height was 185.56 ± 7.128 and weight was 54.19 ± 7.085. Results: results revealed positive correlation between height and weight, height and self-image, weight and surface rotation, self-image and pelvic tilting, kyphotic angle and lordotic angle, pelvic tilt and trunk imbalance, lateral deviation and trunk imbalance. Conclusion: high prevalence of abnormalities among students, so it is recommended that all instructors place more emphasis on training and using corrective actions in course one of general physical education. Furthermore, teaching the correct sleeping, sitting and carrying ways will stop high expenses and devoting long times for clinical remedies.

  9. Premenstrual Syndrome: Symptomatic and Diagnosed Prevalence, Dualistic Treatment Approach - A Cross-Sectional Study in Ukraine.

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    Crow, Edith Meszaros; Jeannot, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosing and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) still pose a challenge in the routine medical practice which usually focuses on single pharmacological therapy. Recent research suggests that the combination of treatments including complementary alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be more beneficial. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of diagnosed and nondiagnosed PMS/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) based on the presence of adequate symptoms and to compare population using hormonal or pharmaceutical agents versus CAM therapies. This is a cross-sectional study targeting sample population of 160 females of potentially reproductive age done in Ukraine between May 2014 and April 2015. According to declared symptoms, 29% females versus 26% previously diagnosed by a medical professional qualify for "moderate/severe PMS," P > 0.05. In 30% persons using pharmacological agents, major side effects, namely, nausea, insomnia, headache was caused by painkillers, contraceptives, and antidepressants. Only 37.5% of study population has been using CAM therapy methods to deal with the symptoms of PMS. Of these, 22% have achieved moderate degree in relief of the symptoms long term. We have concluded that when dealing with the burden of PMS/PMDD, the affected treatment-seeking women should have choice and access to the variety of therapies within integrative medicine (both conventional and nonconventional).

  10. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

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    Huici Omar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution.

  11. Workplace Stresses and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Alireza Dehdashti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a significant occupational problem among employees and workers. This study attempted to explore the effect of stressors in the hospital environment on nurses’ development of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of 123 hospital nurses from Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected during working days over 3 months starting from January 2014. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire for stresses and musculoskeletal disorders at work. Musculoskeletal disorders were used as the dependent variables, while demographic, physical, and psychosocial work factors were used as independent variables. Results Our study revealed prevalence of low back ache, neck ache, shoulder ache, arm-elbow ache, and hand-wrist pain rated 48.3%, 39.5%, 33.1%, 31.3%, and 23.4%, respectively. The findings showed significant statistical association between musculoskeletal complaints in neck and upper extremity with exposed stress levels (P = 0.04. Musculoskeletal symptoms rates increased in employees experienced poor work posture (P = 0.01, fatigue (P = 0.04, and work-family conflict (P = 0.04. Conclusions This study provides indication of the relationship between work environment stress levels and musculoskeletal disorders. Physical and psychosocial stressors should be considered for the development of preventive measures.

  12. Attachment styles of nursing students: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

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    Kaya, Nurten

    2010-10-01

    This research included two consecutive studies, the first of which aimed to examine university nursing students' attachment styles and to study a set of variables that affect their attachment styles, while the second study aimed to identify the effect of nursing education on nursing students' attachment styles. This research was conducted as a cross-sectional survey with nursing students from a school of nursing in Turkey. The research also included a longitudinal follow-up of first year students, to evaluate the effect of nursing education on attachment styles. Data were collected by using a "Personal Information Form" and "Relationship Scales Questionnaire". Nursing students' personal characteristics of age, longest place of residence, and economic status; family characteristics of number of siblings and families' longest place of residence; and romantic characteristics of any current romantic relationships and the number of past romantic relationships were found to be the factors that were influential in attachment styles. In addition, the nursing students had a statistically significant decrease in their insecure attachment style mean scores at the end of nursing education. Assessing attachment styles may be a potentially useful way to understand and counsel nursing students. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Postural Sway Parameters and Gait Symmetry in Preschool Children: Cross-sectional study

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    Fabiane E de Sá

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important function of posture is to ensure the maintenance of control during the start and the continuation of human movement, moreover, posture serves as a reference for the production of precise movements. The aim of this study was to relate the postural sway parameters and gait symmetry in preschool children.This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 49 children with a mean age of 4.65 ± 0.44 years. Initially, height and body mass of children were measured using anthropometric scales. Next, an electronic baropodometer was used to evaluate the distribution of dynamic plantar pressure (gait and stabilometry (balance.A Student t test or Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups was used. To correlate variables, a Pearson's correlation or Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The stabilometric parameters showed no significant difference between an eyes open test and eyes closed test in preschool child. We found a moderate relationship between axis inclination and cadence symmetry (R=0.40;p=0.007. Postural sway parameters have relationship cadence symmetry of the gait in preschool children.

  14. Selective mutism. A school-based cross-sectional study from Turkey.

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    Karakaya, I; Sişmanlar, S G; Oç, O Y; Memik, N C; Coşkun, A; Ağaoğlu, B; Yavuz, C I

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of selective mutism (SM) in Kocaeli, Turkey. Kindergarten, first, second and third grade students of all public/private schools within the city were included in the study. "SM screening forms" prepared on basis of DSM-IV were submitted to classroom teachers in all these schools asking whether they had any students meeting such symptoms. About 84.51% of the schools returned forms covering 64,103 children. Five hundred and twenty six of these children were thought to have symptoms of SM by their teachers. After their DSM-IV based clinical evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, only 21 children were diagnosed as SM. Among the SM group, three were in the kindergarten, 15 were in the first grade and three were in the second grade. Twelve of the children were male and nine were female (male: female ratio is 1.3:1). In this cross-sectional study, 0.83% of children were reported to have SM symptoms by their teachers. After the clinical evaluation of these children, the prevalence rate of SM was found to be 0.033%.

  15. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

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    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Practice of use of diapers in hospitalized adults and elderly: cross-sectional study

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    Graziele Ribeiro Bitencourt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the practice of use of diapers in adults and elderly in hospital. Method: observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 105 participants assigned according to the data collection period, from September 2013 to January 2014, in the surgical clinic wards in a University Hospital. Results: it was observed that 38% of the 105 participants of the study did not need the use of diapers. 18% used it because they were disabled and 16% had their cognitive system damaged. As they were hospitalized, it was identified that 51.4% of patients were there ranging from 02 to 10 days, and 60% used diapers for the same period. It is also identified that long term urinary catheter (24.8%, as technology associated to diapers in the urinary control and to pressure ulcers (12.4%, being the main complication. Conclusion: the use of diapers did not have specific criteria to be selected. For this, it was proposed an "Evaluation Scale of Diapers Use in Adults", as for indication as for its monitoring to help the study transposal for the nursing practice.

  17. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

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    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  18. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

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    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  19. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  20. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study.

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    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santos, Shirley Andrade; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.