WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade unions meet

  1. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... response is not straightforward: they could pursue a strategy of surveillance and control, leading to closer cooperation with public authorities (e.g., tax and immigration authorities) in order to impose sanctions and fines on employers violating existing agreements and legislation - a strategy often met...

  2. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  3. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  4. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  5. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff (The Danish Society of Engineers, The Association of Lawyers and Economists, and The Danish Association of Masters and PhD’s) as found in their strategy and positio...

  6. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  7. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  8. Trade unions and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (the review of energy policy by the Trades Union Congress); energy objectives and the energy crisis; energy planning (a planning framework for supply and demand; energy demand management; public planning inquiries; a plan for Britain; beyond Britain); a low energy growth strategy (UK primary energy demand); choice of supplies (coal; oil and gas; nuclear energy); new sources of energy (e.g.solar, geothermal, biofuels, wave, wind, tidal); conservation; health and safety - employers in the energy industries; conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Currency Unions, Trade Flows, and Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    James Yetman

    2003-01-01

    Trade within currency unions has been shown to be much larger than outside of currency unions, even after factoring in many relevant variables. The existing empirical evidence is based on reduced form models of trade, and therefore indicates that there exists a high correlation between currency union membership and trade, but does not indicate the causality, or the mechanism at work. This paper argues that the balance of evidence points to a large and statistically significant causal relation...

  10. Trade union policy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, D.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; energy policy; the beginning of doubt; SERA's role [SERA = Socialist Environment and Resources Association]; the 1980 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the 1981 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the issues reviewed (supply and demand; safety and employment; security); review of policy trends; conclusions. Appendix: a review of union policy statements. (U.K.)

  11. The Development of Trade Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the growth and evolution of the British labor union movement, troubles between the national officials and the local shop stewards, class differences and conflict between the artisans and laborers, violence between unions, and eventual transition to peaceful constitutionalism. (MF)

  12. Revitalizing the Malaysian Trade Union Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... for transnational corporations in the electronics industry is declining. This strategic shift enables union activists to bypass enterprise and state-based unions and to establish larger, regionally based unions. However, newly organized unions have not yet overcome resistance from global corporations, nor have...... organizations prefer non-partisan engagement. In order to revitalize themselves, the unions must demonstrate to the Malaysian public that they are both relevant and important for increased productivity and that they can play a significant role in enabling Malaysia to move beyond the middle-income ‘trap’ towards...

  13. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  14. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  15. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  16. Trade Union Participation in University Research Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    1984-01-01

    The recent development of Dutch research coordination agencies, the Science Shops, forms the context for a description of the relationship between university research and policy at Amsterdam University and the national trade union organization. Management tools such as project financing and other elements of this system are discussed. (MSE)

  17. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    This paper tends to examine the impact of trade unionism .... NLC waxed very strong despite the incessant harassments, detention and intimidation on the ..... effect the decisions of such agreements in a negative way as could be seen in many ...

  18. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private ... private businesses are very clear to the actors of industrial relations; those of their ... selfish interests; unions in the public sector ought to function as uplift unions, ...

  19. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  20. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  1. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically examines and evaluates inter alia Trade Unions as. Organisations and the key issues and problems of Internal Democracy within them. It transcends this analysis to assert that these core issues apply equally well to Political Organisations. Thus, from an ideological standpoint, Trade Unions play a great ...

  2. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  3. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-07-01

    New typological features of social movements are formed on the basis of a new type of social and communication links. Social hierarchy and class antagonisms, which provided the basis for the existence and development of trade unions in the past, expired. Therefore, the organizational forms of trade unions as social movements have become more available and acceptable for contemporary citizens.

  4. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...

  5. The nuclear issue as seen by a trades union leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations of the Fuel and Power Committee of the Trades Union Congress are presented. Technical, economic, organisational and social aspects of the UK nuclear programme are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear energy, conflict between the milieu and trade union movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krozer, J.; Lugt, B. van der; Oudshoorn, N.; Staal, A.

    1980-01-01

    The opposition between the Anti Nuclear Energy Movement (AKB) and the trade union (FNV) in the Netherlands over the question of nuclear energy has been analysed. The movements have different social backgrounds which are reflected in their respective strategies. The trade union represents the workers and judges technical developments from their viewpoint. The milieu movement aims to maintain a clean environment and critically considers technical developments. (C.F.)

  7. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  8. Organising methods and member recruitment in Irish Trade Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Michelle; D'Art, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Purpose This paper explores the recruiting and organising methods used by Irish full-time union officials to recruit new members in the private sector of the economy. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on a survey of full-time union officials in eight Irish trade unions. Findings Results indicate that the use of organising techniques by officials had no significant impact on changes in membership numbers but did have a significant and po...

  9. New Roles for the Trade Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Sø Rocha, Robson

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  10. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  11. Leaving an emissions trading scheme : Implications for the United Kingdom and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) may opt to leave the European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) for greenhouse gases. This policy brief examines the implications. The UK is a large importer of emission permits. Thus, meeting its climate policy targets would be much more difficult without the EU ETS,

  12. Rationalities in Trade Union Practices: A Discourse Analytic Perspective on The Strategies of Three Danish Trade Unions for Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff as found in their strategy and position papers. Using discourse analytic methods, the paper analyzes, discusses, and compares the strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation clarifies the discursive premises of the unions and it shows how these premises restrain and afford their agendas. The overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that shape the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. Through an archaeological investigation, the paper critically examines the implicit and tacit naturalizations made in the documents and reveals the ideological presuppositions of the discursive practices of the authors. The paper documents how “strategic management” has become an integral part of Danish trade unions practices and the paper sets out to discuss this trend in relation to the general neo-liberal decentering of the “social” and promotion of “community” as the locus of governance. Through examples from the practices of the Danish trade unions for professionals, the paper substantiates how new technologies of governance and the subjectification of union members as “customers” tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of “political actors” to “service providers” in the advanced liberal societies.

  13. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages t...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  14. Foreign Trade Dvelopment between Libya and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Maitah; Nassir Salim; Abulgasem Bazina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of foreign trade development betweenLibyaand the European Union in the recent years. Libya is one of the developing countries with large area, low density of population and large endowment of natural resources, oil and gas. The Libyan economy like a number of other Arab economies, depends heavily on oil revenue, it relies heavily on a single exportable commodity, as the main source of foreign exchange earnings. Trade relations betweenLibyaand the European ...

  15. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper attempts to evaluate the significance of different factors determining the trade union participation in organized leather industry in Kolkata. The research has been conducted based on three sample leather units engaged in three different commercial functions and these units have been selected based on types of ...

  16. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  17. Judicial aspects of emission trade. Emission trade in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Emission trade will start in Europe in 2005. In a series of articles an overview will be given of several juridical aspects with respect to the international and national trade of emission. In part 1 attention was paid to the international judicial basis for the present climate policy. In this article an overview is given of developments with regard to emission trade in the European Union [nl

  18. THE RIGHTS GRANTED TO TRADE UNIONS UNDER THE COMPANIES ACT 71 OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C Schoeman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the workplace. It is argued that rights afforded to trade unions by the act ought to be granted only to trade unions that are registered in terms of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995. In addition, it is also argued that the Companies Act 71 of 2008 ought in principle to differentiate between rights that are granted to registered trade unions representing employees at the workplace and rights that are granted to registered majority trade unions, or at the least to sufficiently representative trade unions.

  19. The role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguen T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the role of the trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes and the legal basis of the role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam.

  20. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African ... trade unions in terms of international labour standards and the Constitution. In part one the article examines the concept of majoritarianism, pluralism and ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  2. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  3. The Rights Granted to Trade Unions Under the Companies Act 71 of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the ...

  4. Trade unions and liberal values: struggle or complementarity in a democratic society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tupitzya

    2014-02-01

    Thus, viewing the political position of trade unions in a modern democratic society suggests that the trade union units are fully capable to absorb some elements of liberal doctrines. This indicates a broad base complementarity and mutual conceptual foundations of trade unionism and democratic society.

  5. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  6. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  7. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Ave, NW...

  8. 78 FR 46921 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053...

  9. 77 FR 58356 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  10. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  11. A Branding and Marketing Plan for a Trade Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pihonen-Randla, Marjut

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to define a branding and a marketing plan based on study and research into successful brands and marketing strategies. The goal was to increase visibility by creating a cohesive brand image and to define a marketing plan to suit this purpose. This project looked into trade unions in Finland and how they conduct marketing. This project also looked into research that was available of target audiences for client website and Facebook site. The client...

  12. Trade With the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic Commerce Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... trade with the European Union (EU). As major trading partners, the United States and the EU are currently addressing several trade-related issues, including their approach to electronic commerce, or e-commerce...

  13. The impact of Romanian adhesion to European Union on exterior trade

    OpenAIRE

    Craciunas, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the Romanian external trade policies in European integration context underlining the external trade policy of Romania which according with European Union policies after the joining to the European Union, the improvement and adaptation of external trade policy to the European standards through internal and external measures and the commercial effect of the extensions of the European Union over non member countries of Europe and on the European Union position in the international co...

  14. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  15. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  16. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  17. Social Capital and the Trade Unions: Reciprocity, or Understanding the Ties that Bind Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaites, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Australia once enjoyed the highest union density in the world but is now facing a "crisis of membership". Trade union membership and density have been in decline in Australia since the late 1970s with a 50 percent decrease in density since 1990. The Australian Bureau of Statistics currently puts trade union density at around 25 percent…

  18. Discussion on nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    For over one year there was a discussion about the problems of nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'. Invited by the editors, scientists from the university of Bremen also participated in this contoversy. In early 1977, an article with the title, Blessing or curse of the future' written by Bremen scientists was published in 5 parts. A reply was written by nine scientists, all but one from the Nuclear Research Centre in Juelich. This criticism caused the reaction of 17 persons from the university of Bremen. This document contains the articles which appeared in vanious numbers of the journal 'Metall', including the readers letters written by colleagues from the Union. (orig./GL) [de

  19. 77 FR 35941 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... promotion programs; and issues related to innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The...

  20. 78 FR 21911 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... review the role of the U.S. government in supporting the early adoption of environmental technologies and...

  1. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  2. Learning architectures and negotiation of meaning in European trade unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Creanor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As networked learning becomes familiar at all levels and in all sectors of education, cross-fertilisation of innovative methods can usefully inform the lifelong learning agenda. Development of the pedagogical architectures and social processes, which afford learning, is a major challenge for educators as they strive to address the varied needs of a wide range of learners. One area in which this challenge is taken very seriously is that of trade unions, where recent large-scale projects have aimed to address many of these issues at a European level. This paper describes one such project, which targeted not only online courses, but also the wider political potential of virtual communities of practice. By analysing findings in relation to Wenger's learning architecture, the paper investigates further the relationships between communities of practice and communities of learners in the trade union context. The findings suggest that a focus on these relationships rather than on the technologies that support them should inform future developments.

  3. Trade Unions facing the dual challenge of globalising work division and globalising environmental degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Räthzel, N; Uzzell, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a project aimed at investigating the ways in which trade unions in the “Global North” and the “Global South” respond to the dual challenge of a globalising work division and globalising environmental degradation, and whether and under what conditions trade unions perceive and address these issues as connected. While globalising corporations are forming new international relations of power, trade unions are lagging behind in unifying their efforts to counter glob...

  4. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  5. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upston-Hooper, K.; Perrells, A.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  6. Legislative Provisions Underlying Trade Unions' Right to Define Their Organizational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobchenko, Victoria V.; Penov, Yury V.; Safonov, Valery A.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of constitutional and other legislative provisions that ensure a trade union's right to define its own administrative structure in European states. The aim of the study is to reveal the management's problems of European trade unions, declarative and empirical mass-character legislative provisions, which…

  7. Trade union policy of the Ukrainian left Galicia in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Begej

    2015-03-01

    Despite the fact that the majority of  ukrainian workers appeared not to sapolsky trade unions, and in the  ukrainian professional organizations. But, unfortunately, they were not accepted in the international trade Union associations. This was explained by non­state status of the  ukrainian people.

  8. The role of trade unions in the pursuit of HSE-goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjelldal, T.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper discusses the role of trade unions in Norway in pursuing Health, Safety, Environment (HSE). In the Norwegian tradition social responsible unions, broad participation, continuous development of the company organization, are key factors to improve the working environment. In laws and agreements the unions have a well-defined role in pursuing HSE goals. Joint action programmes between the confederations NHO/LO (Norwegian Employers' Confederation/Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions) and other investments in HSE, pays off. The paper concentrates on the HSE-organization, factors which might improve the working environment, and the union role. 10 refs., 7 figs

  9. The role of trade unions in the pursuit of HSE-goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjelldal, T [Norwegian Oil and Petrochemical Union, NOPEF (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The conference paper discusses the role of trade unions in Norway in pursuing Health, Safety, Environment (HSE). In the Norwegian tradition social responsible unions, broad participation, continuous development of the company organization, are key factors to improve the working environment. In laws and agreements the unions have a well-defined role in pursuing HSE goals. Joint action programmes between the confederations NHO/LO (Norwegian Employers` Confederation/Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions) and other investments in HSE, pays off. The paper concentrates on the HSE-organization, factors which might improve the working environment, and the union role. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  10. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The teleconference....S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and products. The ETTAC was originally...

  11. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The teleconference... expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and products. The ETTAC was...

  12. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The teleconference... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and products...

  13. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... ability to participate in the international market. Topics to be considered: The agenda for the October 16... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA), Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of federal...

  14. TRADE UNIONS AND TRANSFER PAYMENTS: WHEN ARE THEY REASONS TO PREFER DEMOCRACY TO DICTATORSHIP?

    OpenAIRE

    John Roemer

    2003-01-01

    Under dictatorship, trade unions and strikes are illegal, and so wages are low and employment is full. Under democracy, there are two institutional innovations: trade unions, which can keep the wage about the Walrasian level, and the citizen franchise, by which citizens may vote transfer payments to the unemployed. I model the dictatorial equilibrium as Walrasian, and the democratic equilibrium as the Nash equilibrium of a game played between voters and union members--more formally, between t...

  15. Education for the Rights and Responsibilities of Trade Union Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    It is vitally important for workers in all regions of the world to form unions and to exercise the rights and discharge the responsibilities which membership involves. The right to organize or join a union is essential not only for the welfare of the individual worker, or for all of those belonging to the union, but also for the welfare of society…

  16. From 'precarious informal employment' to 'protected employment': The 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the discussions on the challenge of transitioning from precarious informal employment to more protected employment. This paper looks into a rather under-researched area - the role of trade unions in facilitating this process of 'transitioning' as well as in containing the spread of this type of employment. We refer to this process, along with its outcomes, as the 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions. Through 10 case studies from nine countries (Br...

  17. The “hollowing-out” of trade union democracy in COSATU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African labour movement's strength has often been attributed to the vitality of local democratic structures and institutionalised mechanisms of worker control that govern unions affiliated to the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). Workers and shop-stewards continue to participate actively in local ...

  18. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...

  19. Organising Learning: Informal Workplace Learning in a Trade Union Child-Care Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Trade unions, like many other membership-based social movement organisations, are confronted by the challenge of growth and revitalisation. Declining membership numbers, an increasingly restrictive legislative framework, and dramatic changes in modes of employment have combined to challenge many unions to rethink the way they work. In…

  20. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  1. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  2. Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article suggests that this unidimensional strategy meant that building the union's capacity was neglected, reducing its ability to respond proactively to technological innovation and work reorganisation. While it does not present union capacity as a panacea, the article presents international examples that indicate that ...

  3. The Global Challenge of Human Rights and Solidarity to Nordic Global Companies and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Schiller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that corporations, besides making profit, have a social responsibility to society is not new in history. Nor is it new that unions besides representing material interests stand for a universal ambition as defenders of the oppressed in the world. The article argues that corporations’ social responsibility and trade union solidarity, to the extent both are based on universal principles of human rights, ought to open for cooperation concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, where trade unions should be recognized as important stakeholders in corporations. This idea is new, even if examples exist, and it challenges traditional concepts of the role of management and unions in the company. However, trade unions have taken a critical attitude to CSR, the implementation of which they have mainly been excluded from. Instead, they have tried to get global agreements, Global Framework Agreements (GFAs, with the MNCs.1 In the article the development of the attitudes of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC and of the Nordic national centers is investigated. A long-term historical perspective, in addition to a general theory of collective action will be used to draft the hypothesis that, when unions as interest organizations, through the process of national integration, have achieved a strong position in the domestic labor market, they lack reasons to take transnational action and seek international trade union solidarity. This hypothesis is valid today for the well-established unions in the Nordic countries. But in questions concerning social responsibility and human rights, the article presents the possibility that GFAs might become a platform from which to extend the Nordic model of national partnership to the global level, while at the same time global competition will increasingly make it difficult for the unions to show international solidarity in interest questions of capital investments and outsourcing.

  4. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  5. Relationships of the Trade Unions with the Media: The Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Krašenkienė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The various practices of different countries show that, in order to achieve trade unions’ goals, working relationships with the media are very important, especially in terms of influencing public (stakeholder opinion, as well as instilling confidence in trade unions. This paper presents some examples and empirical research results that prove the significance of such relationships. The situation in Lithuania is analyzed based on qualitative research results. The results reveal that Lithuanian trade unions do not have effective tools at their disposal for the promotion of their activity. Moreover, their notion of their relationships with the media is limited to a narrow understanding such as “the article or broadcast in media”. Due to this and other reasons, the promotion of employers’ concessions is weak. Different situations can be noticed by analyzing the independent trade unions which use other practices and systems.

  6. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  7. 146 Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    explicit purpose of goals, through division of labour and functions, and through a hierarchy of ... Union is non democratic, attention should be given to their goals and practices. The rational .... Oppressor/oppressed divide. Inspite of over eight ...

  8. New Partnerships--New Interests: An Ethnographic Investigation Some of the Effects of Employer Involvement in Trade Union Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dennis; Carlen, Margata

    2009-01-01

    The head gangman in the Swedish building trade is a worker elected organiser in a gang comprising between about 4 and 16 workers and an "on-site" and trained representative of the trades union. In 2002 the employer association for the building industry in Sweden (BI) and the Swedish Building and Allied Trades Union (SBATU) signed a joint…

  9. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  10. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law 103-392...

  11. Strategies for Strengthening Women's Participation in Trade Union Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcock, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Union efforts to increase representation of women in leadership include (1) strong policy commitment; (2) identification of factors/barriers affecting women's leadership; (3) intensified training; and (4) organizational/structural changes such as alteration of rules and adoption of quotas. (SK)

  12. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  13. All China federation of trade unions : structure, functions and the challenge of collective bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Traub-Merz, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In China, the All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole legal trade union organisation. It was established in 1925 and over the years and decades has gone through many changes. After 1949 it was restructured according to the needs of a socialist command economy and became the »transmission belt« through which the Party controlled workers. The year 1978 was again a turning point, when China started its liberalisation and, fed by surplus labour from a peasant economy, gradually r...

  14. Towards Strengthening the Relationship between Trade Unions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities are a repository of the most specialised and skilled manpowers. They are places where the manpower needs of a nation are nurtured. However, the management of these institutions is becoming complex nowadays because of the ravaging conflicts between the universities management and the various trade ...

  15. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  16. The European Window: Challenges in the Negotiation of Mexico's Free Trade Agreement with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Lora; Jaime Zabludovsky

    2005-01-01

    On 1 July 2000 regulations to liberalize trade flows between Mexico and the European Union came into force, after more than six years of diplomatic work and complex negotiations. These regulations are part of the ¿Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLCUEM), which is also one of the components of the Agreement on Economic Association, Political Concertation and Cooperation (¿Global Agreement¿). The Global Agreement through its three components ¿ political dialogue, trade liberalization and cooperation...

  17. THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GOODS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES AFTER TWO YEARS OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babucea Ana-Gabriela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, more countries, rich and poor alike, enter global markets and are forced to face fierce competition. The European Union is the largest trading power in the world, accounting for 20% of total imports and exports worldwide. In recent years EU trade in goods has evolved very positively both in absolute terms and relative. As was expected, the global economic crisis dramatically affected trade flows globally and regionally and inevitably affected the trade of the EU through a tumultuous period. Time analysis will show that reducing the volume of EU trade is in line with the decreases in global trade and regional registered and that exports were affected differently.

  18. THE TRADE UNIONS IN TODAY’S RUSSIA: SOME DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Anosov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is a preliminary analysis of some areas of research of the institute of trade unions in Russian society, the definition of the most significant approaches, and fixing of the main research topics raised in connection with this social phenomenon. Methodology. Methods of comparative, institutional, structural-functional, and, in part, historical analysis were utilized. In general, the methods used are determined by the one or other of the approaches analyzed that in turn specify a specific analysis methodology. Results. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon of trade unions continues to be actively studied in the social sciences, what is connected with the need to rethink the role and significance of the “early industrial” institutions in modern society. It is shown that the following topics are to be the heuristic tools for studying this institution: functionality, as compliance of generic, initial tasks of the institute and actually performed functions; the role of trade unions in social consolidation and integration, related to the peculiarities of the realization in Russia of the formula of “tripartism”, or social dialogue between the state, business and society, in which the unions have a role to play; institutional trust, expressed in varying degrees of social support for this institution and its legitimization on the part of mass consciousness. It was also demonstrated that one of the most promising areas of research could be the institutional analysis of trade unions on the basis of theories that pay attention to the sociocultural and historical foundations of institutional design and development. Practical implications. The obtained results can be applied in substantiating further studies of the phenomenon of the trade union movement in the domestic society, becoming an element of educational and methodological materials in educational practice, and serving as one of the theoretical and

  19. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations.......Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...

  20. Trade unionism in the information technology (IT) industry: an employee's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to understand the information technology (IT) employees' perception and approach towards union formation in the Indian IT Industry. Fifty IT professionals from three different organizations participated in this study who were dispersed throughout the organizational hierarchy and were selected via randomized quota sampling to reflect a mix of age, experience, gender and position they held with the organization. Qualitative methods were used in order to collect the data, through phenomenological principles. Discussion with the participants led to the emergence of four themes which influence the employees' perception of trade union formation the Indian IT industry. These were: (a) feeling of a blue collar, (b) collective to individual bargaining, (c) changing role of HR and (d) other reasons. This study provided a tentative starting point towards the greater understanding of the employee's perceived notion of organizational life that influences employee's outlook towards trade unionism. Based on the study findings, there is an imperative that the human resource department, organizational forerunners and trade union philosophers continue to use research findings to understand employees' views about union formation in the IT industry.

  1. THE RIGHT TO FORM AND TO JOIN TRADE UNIONS AS DEFINED IN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The right of workers to form and to join trade unions is one of the most important international labour standards. This means that employees, no matter where they are employed (public or private sector, have the right to form their own organizations (unions. Apart from the employees, employers also have the right to form and join in employers’ associations. The right of employees and employers to organize is based on the following principles: voluntariness, autonomy and democracy. The general objective of the formation of unions and employers’ associations is to protect the rights and interests of members of the union and the employers’ association, as well as their promotion in an organized manner. The provision and guarantee of union and workers' rights are guaranteed by a number of international and regional legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, regulations, such as ILO, UN, Council of Europe and the European Union, which will be analysed further in this paper. The main objective arising from these documents is to improve the position of workers and their protection. Within the paper, we will also analyse the most important legal acts of the Republic of Macedonia concerning the right to join unions. By analysing the content of the national labour legislation, we will determine the extent to which the international labour law is being implemented. Moreover, the paper will analyse the basic principles underlying union organization and association.

  2. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...

  3. The Importance of Workplace Learning for Trade Unions: A Study of the Steel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between trade unions and learning in the workplace, particularly in relation to the enhancement of worker employability profiles. With the restructuring and modernising of the European steel industry as its context, this paper argues that the organisational and structural features of a sector have a…

  4. Romania’s foreign trade with the European Union in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Stangaciu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I proposed to analyze the spatial concentration of international trade flows between Romania and the European Union both overall and by the sections of the Combined Nomenclature. Using statistical analysis methods such as square and Gini’s index or Onicescu informational energy, I concluded that Romania’s main trade partners are Italy, Germany and France and trade relations with these 3 countries are characterized by exchanges of good to cover, generally a wide range of products.

  5. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Upston-Hooper, K.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  6. The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – A Challenge for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana–Antonia Colibășanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, the United States and European Union have discussed the development of bilateral and regional trade agreements. The TTIP – Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership was announced in February 2013 and is currently under negotiation. The initiative aims at establishing a trade agreement between the two blocs, removing all trade barriers, including the non-tariff ones, in a wide range of economic sectors. The paper looks at several key elements that the bilateral negotiations are set to challenge from the European Union perspective. We focus on the main causes for resistance within the EU towards establishing the agreement, seeking to understand the future framework for international trade for the European states. While the EU continues integration to establish a functioning internal market, still continuing the process of diminishing and eliminating non-tariff barriers among the member states, we examine whether liberalisation of trade and investment between the US and the EU will benefit the EU as a whole, considering the current socio-economic trends at the Union’s level.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND CHANGE. THE EVOLUTION OF TRADE UNIONS ORGANIZATION FORMS IN ROMANIA AFTER 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA CRISTINA CIOCAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study: „Management and organizational change. Evolution of union organization forms in Romania after 1989” propose as subject of analyze a type of organization which, through its affiliation to the civil society and through its role conferred by low, becomes the key for the proper functioning of the labor market. Along with the change of political regime from December 1989, the trade union organizations were put in a position to cope with a triple: reorganization, learning a new social role and public image reconfiguration, including cancellation of the association (inevitable with the “ancient” trade union. The study proposes three major subjects: defining the term union organization accompanied by possible interpretations of the role of this type of organization at the society level – „collective voice”, counter pole , political actor, collective negotiator, transnational and promoter of the class struggle, the last role not being characteristic to a democratic society; the description of the syndicate organizations evolution in Romania, after 1990; the argue of the necessity of an organizational change felt by the unions, under the impact of some factors depending on socio-economic and politic changes.

  8. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... of mobility....

  9. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  10. Harambee narratives: A rhetorical framing of the Kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses discourse on trade unionism contained in the coverage of Labour Day (May 1 celebrationsinone leading Kenyan daily national newspaper, The East African Standard, from 1966 to 2013. I assess slightly over fortyarticles qualitativelyusing rhetorical criticism. This is done by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. I chose rhetoricalcriticism of a news media corpusin order to explore how diverse power relations have been transformed into mechanisms that keep the Kenyan labour movement tolerable to the government of the day. The research identifies themes surfaced by and in the news coverage. The paper shows how diverse power relations are colonized and articulated into more general mechanisms that keeps the industrial population governable with minimal disruptions.

  11. Trade Union Practices in the EU and Latvia: Experience for Eastern Partnership Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacenko Sergejs

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article will show major dimensions in the experience of EU Member States that could be shared with the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries. The framework of the study is the EU concept of trade unions in social dialogue and social partnership in the public sector. This study outlines the concept of social dialogue as a core element of industrial relations and will focus on industrial relations specifically in the public sector.

  12. Agricultural Trade Restrictiveness in the European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Luca Salvatici

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a summary measure of the Uruguay Round tariff reduction commitments in the European Union and the United States, using the Mercantilistic Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) as the tariff aggregator. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The levels of the MTRI under the actual commitments of the Uruguay Round are computed and compared with two hypothetical cases,...

  13. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  14. Analysis of Ukraine’s foreign trade turnover in context of free trade zone with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.Shymanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the free trade zone between Ukraine and the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages for our country. The changes in Ukraine’s economic integration vector cause much dispute about its prospects and profitability. Nevertheless, the strengthening of economic and political crisis leads to the reduction in foreign trade of Ukraine with the EU. Although in recent years, many institutional limitations for the Ukrainian producers’ entrance to European markets have been removed. The analysis of Ukraine's foreign trade turnover with EU countries showed the indicators of exports and imports structure in the partner countries and allowed to reveal decreasing of intensity of these operations. This can be a negative indicator of activities for the implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU. The study has formulated the perspective directions of foreign trade policy of Ukraine, in particular with respect to the modernization of informational and technical support of the customs clearance of the goods movement, increasing control over the quality of Ukrainian goods and opportunities for the small and mediumsized entities entrance to the European markets.

  15. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through permit sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Johan; Hagem, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union (EU) as it is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper, we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve permit sales requirement, complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements would enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model, we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China could significantly cut the EU's total compliance cost. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (author)

  16. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko

    2006-01-01

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  17. Fourth ITER negotiations meeting. Site offers from European Union and Japan join Canada's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rager, J.-P.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth ITER Negotiations Meeting took place in Cadarache, France on 4-6 June, 2002. The European Union hosted the meeting, which was also attended by delegations from Canada, Japan and Russian Federation. During the Meeting the delegations informed each other of the latest developments concerning the ITER project in their respective countries. ITER potential site offers from EU and Japan were proposed

  18. The Ghent effect for whom? Mapping the variations of the Ghent effect across different trade unions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an unemployment insurance system based on voluntary membership in unemployment insurance funds (known as the ‘Ghent system’) and a high union density has long been known and well documented and even referred to as a special ‘Ghent effect’. However the Ghent system, especially...... to map Danish wage earners’ reasons for joining or leaving unemployment insurance funds and trade unions. The article finds that there are great variations among Danish trade unions in term of how strongly they are dependent on a Ghent effect as a recruiting mechanism. We may expect the same variations...

  19. Intra- and Extra-Union Flexibility in Meeting the European Union's Emission Reduction Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The EU has proposed four flexibility mechanisms for the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013-2020: (1) the Emissions Trade Scheme (ETS), a permit market between selected companies; (2) trade in non-ETS allotments between Member States; (3) the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to purchase offsets in developing countries; and (4) trade in CDM warrants between Member States. This paper shows that aggregate abatement costs fall as flexibility increases. However, limited flex...

  20. Intra- and extra-union flexibility in meeting the European union's emission reduction targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The EU has proposed four flexibility mechanisms for the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013-2020: (1) the Emissions Trade Scheme (ETS), a permit market between selected companies; (2) trade in non-ETS allotments between Member States; (3) the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  1. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) Futures Liquidity Effects: Evidence from the European Energy Exchange (EEX)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibikunle, Gbenga; Gregoriou, Andros

    2011-01-01

    We examine liquidity effects after the onset of trading in phase II of the EU-ETS for European Union Allowance (EUA) futures contracts. We obtain evidence of long-term improvement in liquidity of the EEX EUA December 2008 futures contract after the commencement of trading in phase II. Our results suggest the application of a new regime of trading rules in Phase II led to the improvements in liquidity.

  2. 77 FR 7131 - Addendum to Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Addendum to Environmental Technologies... agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will be changed to... & Environmental Industries, International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW...

  3. The trade union freedom of foreigners with no authorization to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Nieto Roales-Nieto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need of working, intended in its most primitive expression, as a mean for subsistence, is one of the fundamental causes for the increasement of migratory movements. As a result, a peculiar situation arises: there are foreign workers to whom the law that regulates the right to work does not apply.As trade union freedom is one of the fundamental rights related to work, it does not apply either. The article analyses the compatibility of the dispositions about foreigners that, in this respect, condition the exercise of the freedom of syndication, to the authorization of permanence in the country or residence permission with the scope of application of trade union freedom right provided by the Spanish Bill of Rights. The study does not try to establish the practical viability of the possibility for a foreigner to be covered by the right of syndication but the legitimacy of the normative implications when foreigner´s law (Ley de extranjería is applied confronted to the principles stated in the Spanish Constitution and in international treaties.

  4. European Union-Emission Trading Scheme: outlook for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, P.; Alberola, E.

    2013-01-01

    From 2013, under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), Europe will cap its emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and per-fluorocarbons (PFC) from the chemical industry. Besides, 336 chemical industry facilities will be forced to limit their emissions at 45.8 million tons of CO 2 per year from 2013 to 2020. At date August 1, 2012, almost 70% of the carbon credits issued by the clean development mechanism (CDM) were carried out mainly through the destruction of hydro-fluorocarbons (HFC-23) (42%) and N 2 O (22%). The contribution of emission reductions through chemical processes in the Joint Implementation (JI) projects is smaller but still amounted to 32% of all projects. From 1 May 2013 the European Union will refuse CDM and JI credits from emission reductions of HFC-23 and N 2 O. The issues of the introduction of the chemical industry in the EU-ETS in the context of low CO 2 prices and limited validity of CDM and JI chemical projects are high. Therefore, domestic CO 2 emissions reductions from energy consumption of the chemistry sector will take a larger share. (authors)

  5. Common and different in the development of trade unions of Galicia first quarter of the ХХ century and modern Ukraine: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ja. Berest

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the trade union movement of modern Ukraine are its origins back to the 80’s of the ХХ century. However, the final stage of almost 70­year history of professional organizations as a single centralized structure began last XIX Congress of Trade Unions of the USSR, held in 1990. Trade union movement since then began to develop on a completely different basis ­ federalism and konfederalizm that has long been practiced in the world in countries with highly developed democracy. And after Ukraine became independent trade unions immediately felt the change in the political situation, new and not simple environment for their activities. This study is one of the first attempts systematic research activities of trade unions on the territory of Galicia during the first quarter of the XX ­ XXI century. The article gives an opportunity to reveal one of the most important issues ­ the historical experience of activity of trade Union organizations of Eastern Galicia and modern Ukraine. It also shows the role and importance of trade unions in the political life of Galicia in the last century. The use of the comparative analysis made it possible to find the common and different in the activities of trade Union organizations of different historical periods.

  6. Geographical and Occupational Mobility of Workers in the Aircraft and Electronics Industries, Regional Trade Union Seminar (Paris, 21st-22nd September, 1966). Final Report and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The trade unions in the European aerospace and electronics industries have become concerned with the sweeping and rapid economic and technical changes taking place in the industries. This seminar enabled trade union representatives from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom aerospace industry and the electronics sector working…

  7. A review of the political situation in Eastern Galicia at the time appearance and operation of trade unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Berest

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Discusses the political situation in the society of Eastern Galicia last quarter of XVIII­XIX centuries, which gave the economic push and social background and working organizations for the purpose of its existence, put the problem of social protection of workers, which became a basis of formation of the first trade unions in the Ukrainian lands. On the basis of the documents given to the assessment of the reform of the Austrian Imperial house, contributing to the emergence and development of new trade unions, and the emergence of the Galician elite that his actions contributed to the formation of the intellectuals in the middle of the XIX century. Ukrainian national movement grows from cultural to political. Awareness of own goals and self­sufficiency dictated Ukrainian leaders the need to develop self, separate from the Polish influence the course. At the same time, the limited capacity of the Ukrainian elite and its social base has not yet been possible to establish a permanent representative body, who defended the interests of Ukrainians in Galicia. In General, the existing system of international relations found its clear expression in many areas of public and political life, including in the working environment, which had a crucial influence on the formation of trade unions, at the same time, defined the strategy and tactics of political forces in the political life, the integral part of which, undoubtedly, there were trade unions.

  8. Information and training on radiation protection for trade union representatives from the nine Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of its training and information programme on radiation protection, the Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs (Health and Safety Directorate) organized for the third and fourth time (in October 1977 and 1978) seminars on radiation protection on behalf of trade union representatives from the nine Member States; the seminars served in particular as a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences. The present volume reproduces the papers read on those occasions, covering the following topics: the independence of radiaton protection units; training and information in radiation protection; analysis of the main innovations in radiological protection concepts emerging from ICRP Publication No 26; the protection of occasionally exposed workers; the work of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; the concept of optimization; future developments in dosimetry. Although the publication is destined mainly for the participants in the two meetings, the information it contains may also be of use to anyone interested in the problems of radiation protection and the spreading of knowledge in this field

  9. The Development of Computer Policies in Government, Political Parties, and Trade Unions in Norway 1961-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgsaas, Knut; Hegna, Håvard

    A “Council for Government Electronic Data Processing” was established in 1961. This was the start of development of a common policy for computers and data within the public administration. In 1969-70, computers got on the agenda of political parties and the trade unions. In the course of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties the government, the political parties, and the trade unions established a more comprehensive view of data political questions that we will designate by the term data policy. This paper puts some light on the causes and forces that drove the evolvement of a data policy within these central sectors in Norway. We will also show how various actors of research, trade and industry, and political life influenced the development of data policy and present links between the actors that indicate that they mutually influenced each other.

  10. THE CHANGING ROLES OF TRADE UNIONS IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION (NTPC, UNCHAHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade unions are a major component of the system of modern industrial relations in any nation, each having, in their constitution, their own set of objectives or goals to achieve. Change in the political, social and educational environment has seen them rechristened as a forum that protects and furthers workers' interests and improves the quality of life of workers, enlarging their traditional roles of establishing terms and conditions of employment. This paper focuses on plant level trade unions, particularly those of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC Unchahar plant, one of the largest and best Public Sector Undertakings of India. This exploratory study of the different trade unions operational at the Unchahar plant will also highlight their ideologies, objectives and structures. We aim to capture the changing paradigms in the roles of plant-level unions: from maintaining good industrial relations, once considered their primary role, they now work actively to improve the quality of life of workers, a role earlier considered to be secondary.

  11. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  12. 2004 winter meeting: nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This year's Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. focused on Nuclear Energy and Safety of Supply in the Enlarged European Union. Numerous participants from Germany and abroad discussed contributions from politics, industry, and science in Berlin, February 4 to 5, 2004. The general understanding was that a secure, economically viable and non-polluting supply of energy for Europe and the European Union was indispensable, and that the power industry faced major projects as a result of the foreseeable need to build new power plants, or replace decommissioned old plants, of 40,000 MW generating capacity in Germany and 200,000 MW in Europe. (orig.)

  13. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  14. Agricultural protectionism of the European union in the conditions of international trade liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.

  15. Trade union activity, cultural, public and political life of Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute in the second half of 1950s–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Valeriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on rich documentary, the article studies the activity of the trade union organization in Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute and the impact the trade union had on the cultural, public and political life of the Institute in the second half of the 1950s-1980s. The activity is stated to be held in different forms and areas: amateur arts, propaganda, wall-newspaper and house magazine, vigilant groups, University of Culture, student club, lecturing agitation group, student construction brigades, department, groups and hostels competitions. The authors come to the conclusion that involving students and faculty members into cultural, public and political life added greatly to fostering the future engineers as it took them less time to adapt to the team-spirited workforce after graduating from the higher educational establishment. The article is intended for the people interested in history of higher education in Siberia and Russia.

  16. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  17. Workers of the world unite (or not?) The effect of ethnic diversity on the participation in trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Benos, Nikos; Kammas, Pantelis

    2018-01-01

    This paper advances the hypothesis that workers participate less in trade unions in more ethnically fragmented societies. This hypothesis dates back at least to Marx and Engels who first suggested that increased ethnic and racial antipathies among workers undermine class consciousness and weaken the unity of the working class in the United States. Building on a set of innovative instruments derived from biogeography and more precisely the parasite-stress theory of values and sociality (Finche...

  18. Supply-chain trade and labor market outcomes : The case of the 2004 European Union enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Lennart C.; Kohl, Tristan; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    The structure of international trade is increasingly characterized by fragmentation of production processes and trade policy. Yet, how trade policy affects supply-chain trade is largely unexplored territory. This paper shows how the accession of 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to

  19. Income, Economic Structure and Trade: Impacts on Recent Water Use Trends in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-1990s to the recent international economic crisis, the European Union (EU27 experienced a significant economic growth and a flat population increase. During these years, the water resources directly used by the EU countries displayed a growing but smooth trend. However, European activities intensively demanded water resources throughout the whole global supply chain. The growth rate of embodied water use was three times higher than the growth in water directly used by these economies. This was mainly due to the large upsurge of virtual water imports in the EU (e.g., about 25% of the change in water imports in the world was directly linked to the increasing imports in the EU27 countries. In this context, we analyze water use changes in the EU27 from 1995 to 2009, combining the production and consumption perspectives. To that aim, we use the environmentally extended input-output approach to obtain the volume of water embodied in domestic production and in trade flows at the sector and country levels. In the empirical analysis, we utilize multi-regional input-output data from the World Input Output Database. In addition, by means of a structural decomposition analysis we identify and quantify the factors explaining changes in these trends. We focus both on the role of domestic production and trade and estimate the associated intensity, technology and scale effects. This analysis is done for different clusters, identifying singular patterns depending on income criteria. Our results confirm the boost of demand growth in that period, the positive but negligible effect of structural change, and the decline in water intensity which, however, was not enough to compensate the effects on water associated to the economic expansion in the period. These findings also point at a gradual substitution of domestic water use for virtual water imports. More concretely, in most countries the food industry tended to reduce its backward linkages with the

  20. Cost effects of international trade in meeting EU renewable electricity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The European market for renewable electricity received a major stimulus from the adoption of the Directive on the Promotion of Renewable Electricity. The Directive specifies the indicative targets for electricity supply from renewable energy sources (RES-E) to be reached in European Union (EU) Member States in the year 2010. It also requires Member States to certify the origin of their renewable electricity production. This article presents a first EU-wide quantitative evaluation of the effects of meeting the targets, using an EU-wide system for tradable green certificates (TGC). We calculate the equilibrium price of green certificates and identify which countries are likely to export or import certificates. Cost advantages of participating in such an EU-wide trading scheme are determined for each of the Member States. Moreover, we identify which choice of technologies results in meeting targets at least costs. Results are obtained from a model that quantifies the effects of achieving the RES-E targets in the EU with and without trade. The article provides a brief insight in this model as well as the methodology that was used to specify cost potential curves for renewable electricity in each of the 15 EU Member States. Model calculations show that within the EU-wide TGC system, the total production costs of the last option needed to satisfy the overall EU RES-E target equals 9.2 eurocent/kWh. Assuming that the production price of electricity on the European power market would equal 3 eurocent/kWh in the year 2010, the indicative green certificate price equals 6.2 eurocent/kWh. We conclude that implementation of an EU-wide TGC system is a cost-efficient way of stimulating renewable electricity supply

  1. The european union emission trading scheme and energy markets: economic and financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates relationships between the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and energy markets. A special focus is given to fuel switching, the main short term abatement measure within the EU ETS. This consists in substituting Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGTs) for hard-coal plants in off-peak power generation. Thereby coal plants run for shorter periods, which allows power producers to reduce their CO 2 emissions. In Chapter 1, we outline different approaches explaining relationships between carbon and energy markets. We also review the literature relating to these issues. Next, we further describe the fuel switching process and, in particular, we analyze the influence of energy and environmental efficiency of thermal power plants (coal and gas) on fuel switching. In Chapter 2, we provide a theoretical analysis that shows how differences in the efficiency of CCGTs can rule interactions between gas and carbon prices. The main result shows that the allowance price becomes more sensitive to the gas price when the level of CO 2 emissions increases. In Chapter 3, we examine interactions between carbon, coal, gas and electricity prices in an empirical study. Among the main results, we find that there is a significant link between carbon and gas prices in the long-run equilibrium. In Chapter 4, we analyze the cross-market price discovery process between gas and CO 2 markets. We identified in previous chapters that there is a robust significant link between gas and CO 2 markets. They are linked commodities, and their prices are affected by the same information. In an empirical analysis, we find that the carbon market is the leader in cross-market price discovery process. (author)

  2. Tracing Southern Cosmopolitanisms: the intersecting networks of Islam, Trade Unions, Gender and Communism, 1945-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of World War 2, there were high hopes across the Indian Ocean for a new world in which the relationships between working people would mean more than the borders which separated them. This paper will explore the fate of the hopes for new worlds, in the decades after 1945, by following the uneven relationships among working class Australians, Indonesians and Indians in the aftermath of an intense political struggle in Australia from 1945 to 1949 in support of Indonesian independence. They had been brought together by intersections between the networks established through colonialism, like trade unions, communism and feminism, with those having much longer histories, like Islam. The men and women in this Australian setting expressed their vision in 1945 for a future of universal and transnational networks across the Indian Ocean which would continue the alliances they had found so fruitful. Today their experiences as well as their hopes might be called cosmopolitanism – they expected that the person-to-person friendships they were forming could be sustained and be able to negotiate the differences between them to achieve common aims. Although these hopes for new futures of universal alliances and collaborations were held passionately in the 1940s, all seem to have died by 1970, diverted by newly independent national trajectories and defeated by the Cold War. Yet many of the relationships persisted far longer than might be expected and their unravelling was not inevitable. This paper will trace the course of a few of the relationships which began in the heat of the campaigns in Australia, 1943 to 1945, in order to identify the continuing common ground as well as the rising tensions which challenged them.

  3. Policy-making under uncertainty: commentary upon the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    The authors undertake a critical assessment of the intellectual foundations supporting the new European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS, or the Scheme), the cornerstone of polices designed to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Agreement of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Despite its considerable scope, the authors found that officially sponsored research and academic efforts in support of ETS were surprisingly limited. Importantly, in advance of implementation, a definitive consensus on both the potential economic impact and the usefulness of the Scheme in reducing the GHG emissions had not been reached. Reviewing the literature, the authors encountered varying and, at times, conflicting viewpoints, officially and in academic research, on the potential economic impact of the Scheme. These included attempts to quantify its benefits and costs, raising concern that this huge and encompassing multi-national policy initiative may have been launched with inadequate intellectual ground-work. According to the authors consistency between the ETS and other EU policies, such as those relating to energy, should have been a key concern, but such aspects have received only minimal attention in both official and academic research. The European Commission has promoted open and competitive markets for gas and power across member states, but the record in achieving such conditions is relatively poor and the authors argue that, as a result, the environmental objectives of the EU Scheme may not be thwarted. In addition, continuing disagreement over the Kyoto Agreement itself-especially with regard to its potential costs and benefits-further frustrates efforts to rigorously justify a policy in support of reducing GHG emissions. The authors argue that, given the scope of the EU Scheme, the paucity of research evidencing that it is likely to succeed in reducing GHG emissions in the form of CO 2 is surprising and should be of concern to those affected by it along with

  4. Policy-making under uncertainty: Commentary upon the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Haar, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The authors undertake a critical assessment of the intellectual foundations supporting the new European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS, or the Scheme), the cornerstone of polices designed to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Agreement of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Despite its considerable scope, the authors found that officially sponsored research and academic efforts in support of ETS were surprisingly limited. Importantly, in advance of implementation, a definitive consensus on both the potential economic impact and the usefulness of the Scheme in reducing the GHG emissions had not been reached. Reviewing the literature, the authors encountered varying and, at times, conflicting viewpoints, officially and in academic research, on the potential economic impact of the Scheme. These included attempts to quantify its benefits and costs, raising concern that this huge and encompassing multi-national policy initiative may have been launched with inadequate intellectual ground-work. According to the authors consistency between the ETS and other EU policies, such as those relating to energy, should have been a key concern, but such aspects have received only minimal attention in both official and academic research. The European Commission has promoted open and competitive markets for gas and power across member states, but the record in achieving such conditions is relatively poor and the authors argue that, as a result, the environmental objectives of the EU Scheme may not be thwarted. In addition, continuing disagreement over the Kyoto Agreement itself-especially with regard to its potential costs and benefits-further frustrates efforts to rigorously justify a policy in support of reducing GHG emissions. The authors argue that, given the scope of the EU Scheme, the paucity of research evidencing that it is likely to succeed in reducing GHG emissions in the form of CO 2 is surprising and should be of concern to those affected by it along with

  5. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Marks; Anna Olsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more acto...

  6. A Study of the Determinants of Emissions Unit Allowance Price in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maydybura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the European Union (EU began the first phase of the largest and most ambitious emissions trading system (EU ETS ever attempted, which then applied to all members of the EU. In its second phase whichbegan in 2008 the EU ETS now applies to all 27 members of the EU together with Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein, the members of the European Economic Area (EEA which are not members of the Union. Inthe first phase of the EU ETS permits to emit carbon into the atmosphere known as European Union Allowances (EUA were traded in a market where the price rose to €30 and eventually fell to well below 10 Euro cents as the imperfections of the market became obvious. In the second phase which began in 2008 the price has fluctuated between €30 and €8. EUA are traded in a manner which is similar to the trading of financial instruments and a range of derivatives has developed with the total value of the market now above €120b, a growing market dominated by a few large players.This paper reports some results of an empirical investigation into the factors which appear to drive the carbon price and the key determinants of the price of an EUA. Over the last decade a number of environmental products have been developed alongside the EUA, including Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs, Renewable Energy Certificates and White Certificates (energy efficiency credits and markets have developed for a range of these environmental products. A better understanding of the determinants of these markets willhelp regulators manage these new markets and this paper aims to enhance our knowledge of the market.

  7. The “hollowing-out” of trade union democracy in COSATU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The constitutions of COSATU and its affiliates all provide formally that control lies in ... election of regional and national union leaders.5 Over time, as unions grew, .... elections and roles, as well as a range of informal relationships, practices ...

  8. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...

  9. Involvement of trade unions to supervision and control of legislation on labor maintenance in the period of establishment in Ukraine in 1917–1921

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Василівна Терела

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, on the basis of the conducted analysis of the resolutions, instructions, subtitles of the People's Commissariat of Labor of the UkrSSR, the memoranda of the local departments of labor as well-known and for the first time discovered in the archival funds, it was determined that the factory and plant committees and local service committees, being primary centers of All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions, served as a low authority to legislation on labor legislation maintenance. For this purpose, under the factory committees and trade unions permanent commissions were established for labor protection. The order of the involvement of trade unions to the election of labor (legal, out of district and sanitary labor inspectors, controllers of the People's Committee of state control is analyzed. It was clarified that in practice the involvement of trade unions in the activity of supervision and control bodies in the field of labor was not as active as it was decreed, and was partially replaced by the party representation. It is confirmed that due to proclaimed at the tenth congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks the necessity of full transfer of functions on labor protection from the People's Commissariat of Labor to the All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions, the Labor inspectorate joined the board of trade unions with the preservation of all its state-compulsory functions, including control over the implementation of labor service, the fight against desertion. It is concluded that after the events of 1917, trade unions lost the role of antipodes of state power and began to play the role of its active ally, which stemmed from the class nature of the state of the proletariat, which was declared as a defender of the interests of workers.

  10. The “hollowing-out” of trade union democracy in COSATU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    political and intellectual influences.27 This democratic union culture comprised a set of practices and ... 1984” (1985) 18 Labour, Capital and Society at 278. .... the public sector (42%), metalworking (11%), chemicals and paper (11%), mining.

  11. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    representing different interests, power will be distributed in a manner that is fair. It ... In this case the union was denied organisational rights to which it .... scope of the Public Service Co-ordinating Bargaining Council or a Bargaining Council.

  12. 75 FR 57544 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Trade Controls' Web site, at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov 2 weeks prior to the meeting. Members of the... requesting reasonable accommodation should notify the Alternate DFO by the same date. Each non-member...

  13. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATACs) will hold closed meetings on May 6, 2010. The advisory committees are administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4)(6). USTR has determined that public access to the meetings would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  14. Implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP for Investment Flows Between the European Union and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP is a controversial subject, but at the same time it is perceived to be the most comprehensive international agreement on free trade and investment protection. Among the topics that evoke criticism on the part of different social groups is the investor‑state dispute‑settlement (ISDS, as well as its legal consequences for the EU Member states. A less discussed issue is the potential implications of the agreement on the state of economic co‑operation between the European Union and the USA in the field of investment flows, with special reference to foreign direct investment (FDI. The aim of this paper is to present the discussion related to the ISDS and examine some of the economic, political and legal implications of TTIP provisions for FDI flows between the EU and the USA. The proposals of the European Commission to change the investment protection system might be treated as an attempt to make the system of arbitrage more transparent and convincing to societies, and safer for states. The effects of the TTIP agreement for FDI between both partners might be dependent on the scale of trade creation and diversion effects, and the mirror effects of investment creation and diversion under a free trade area.

  15. Trade and production fragmentation : Central European economies in European Union networks of production and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Ng, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Developments driven by trade liberalization and tehcnological progress mean that old development strategies, based on state intervention and trade protection, no longer work. Global competition has brought a growing emphasis on product standards, rapid innovation, adaptability, and speedy response. Technology has made possible the fragmentation of production. Firms that become part of glob...

  16. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... registrants requesting to make statements is greater than can be reasonably accommodated during the meeting... meeting. Man K. Cho, Acting Director, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries. [FR Doc. 2011-10149...

  17. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... make statements is greater than can be reasonably accommodated during the meeting, ITA may conduct a... within 90 days of the meeting. Man K. Cho, Team Leader for Energy, Office of Energy and Environmental...

  18. Canada's Minister of International Trade meets IDRC-supported ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... Fostering entrepreneurship, discussing how trade can benefit women and ... and the Caribbean such as micro-franchising and door-to-door sales. ... Local innovations and reforms can help strengthen health system in Niger.

  19. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    President George H.W. Bush sought means to influence the policies of Latin American states more effectively. Mexico , particularly in the post-Cold War era...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy, and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s... President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement facilitate U.S. enduring national

  20. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION-DINAMICS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Nona CHILIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents briefly the evolutions in world trade and Romanian foreign trade, especially with the EU. A significant increase in exports, but also in imports was recorded over the interval 2000-2011, accompanied by major structural changes: decline in the shares of low value added and labor intensive products and advance of the more technologically advanced products. However, Romania's trade balance with the EU and most countries in this region remained negative, similar to other new Member States, which generally import more from than export to the EU. Years 2009-2011 marked a sharp drop and a relative stabilization of the trade deficit with the EU, due to significant reduction in exports, but especially in imports, and to the adjustments induced by the crisis after 2008.

  1. limits of trade union strategy and action at ArcelorMittal, Vanderbijlpark

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a case study of the Vanderbijlpark Plant currently owned by the global steel corporation .... labour relations framework which gives unions a voice, and building their research ... subsequent job losses, the dominance of public sector workers within COSATU who had ..... 2010) were funded by German sponsors.

  2. Boxing and dancing: Dutch trade union and works council experiences revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Sprenger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a quantitative analysis of approaches and results of 67 projects of Dutch company union groups and Works Councils to influence technological and organisational change, in three generations between 1975 and 1996. The effectiveness of problem-solving activities jointly undertaken

  3. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  4. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more actors and partnerships to combat these crimes, which led to adoption of the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, (Forced Labour Protocol in June 2014. Examples from Malaysia and Thailand highlight the role that trade unions can play in policy development and service provision, and also some of the challenges associated with unionisation of a vulnerable, temporary, and often repressed, migrant workforce.

  5. The Netherlands: The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the cleaning activities sector

    OpenAIRE

    Grünell, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cleaning sector is a small but important sector of the Dutch service economy, employing around 2% of the work force. Employers are organised in one association, the Employer Organisation Cleaning and Business Services, de Ondernemersorganisatie Schoonmaak- en Bedrijfsdiensten, OSB. Employees in the sector are organised, either by the unions of FNV or CNV, the two main employee organisations. These three parties conclude the collective labour agreement on behalf of the 750 members of OSB (...

  6. The Responsibility Of Trade Unions In Transaction Collective Instruments About Compensatory Time

    OpenAIRE

    Manuella de Oliveira Soares; Rui Carvalho Piva

    2016-01-01

    The democratic State of Direct aims to provide assurance and effectiveness of fundamental rights in order that human dignity is preserved. In this way, among other fundamental rights is the right to health, in one of its aspects, protects workers' health. Thus, this study, through a bibliographical research aims to demonstrate that unions should be held responsible for damage caused to workers when preparing collective bargaining instruments to the creation of compensatory time with condition...

  7. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the european union: A panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  8. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  9. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP

  10. Progress in the pattern of intra-industrial trade between the European Union and Latin America: The cases of Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodil Marzábal, Óscar; Sánchez Carreira, María del Carmen; López Arévalo, Jorge Alberto; Arrazola Ovando, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes in the pattern of intra-industrial trade (exchange of different varieties of the same good) between the European Union (EU) and the countries of Latin America (LA) over the last two decades, paying special attention to the cases of Brazil and Mexico. It focuses on the extent to which these trade relations are changing from a traditional profile based on complementarity (inter-industrial) and on static advantages (provision of resources) to a more modern, competitiv...

  11. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., treaties and regulations, advocacy, and talent and education. Public Participation: The meeting will be... Secretary for Manufacturing, Acting. [FR Doc. 2010-12814 Filed 5-27-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-DR-P ...

  12. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  13. Labor conflict, general strikes and dynamics of trade union organizations in the Gran La Plata 1969-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Nava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is inscribed within studies on the history of the labor movement during the years '60 and '70 in Argentina and aims to analyze the cycle of general strikes and labor conflictivity that took place more specifically between the years 1969-1972 on a particular region: the Gran La Plata. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis we will approach the dynamics of general strikes and their impact on our study region, as a kind of struggle that allows us to analyze the different tendencies and forms assumed by the conflict, the degrees of unity within the labor movement, the dynamics of trade unions, alliances with other social forces and the relationship with the state. Therefore, this article contributes to study not only certain specific dynamics of labor conflictivity in our study region, but also the more general cycle of social protest and political radicalization that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies

  14. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  15. The Responsibility Of Trade Unions In Transaction Collective Instruments About Compensatory Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella de Oliveira Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The democratic State of Direct aims to provide assurance and effectiveness of fundamental rights in order that human dignity is preserved. In this way, among other fundamental rights is the right to health, in one of its aspects, protects workers' health. Thus, this study, through a bibliographical research aims to demonstrate that unions should be held responsible for damage caused to workers when preparing collective bargaining instruments to the creation of compensatory time with conditions that endanger the health of workers .

  16. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  17. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    market , accounting for $24.9 billion in exports . An estimated 800,000 U.S. jobs are tied to trade with China .6 President Nixon’s 1972 goal of bringing...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United...framework to facilitate better cooperation with their powerful southern neighbor.9 Reagan’s North American Accord with Mexico took longer to evolve

  18. Mapping the Teaching of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in the European Union and European Free Trade Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridou, Despoina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; De Briyne, Nancy; Saunders, Jimmy; Bravo, Ana

    2018-06-13

    Developing a common market and allowing free movement of goods, services, and people is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Area. In the field of scientific research, Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes aims to improve the welfare of laboratory animals by following the principle of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement). Each breeder, supplier, and user must appoint a designated veterinarian to advise on the well-being and treatment of the animals. In our report we investigate how the undergraduate veterinary curriculum prepares future veterinarians for the role of designated veterinarian, by analyzing data from 77 European veterinary education establishments. Over 80% of them provide training in laboratory animal science and medicine in their curriculum. All countries in the EU and the European Free Trade Area, having national veterinary schools, include such training in the curriculum of at least one of their establishments. Laboratory animal science and medicine courses can be obligatory or elective and are often part of more than one subject in the veterinary curricula. Post-graduate courses or programs are available at more than 50% of those veterinary schools. Most authorities in the European region consider graduate veterinarians ready to seek the role as designated veterinarian immediately after graduation.

  19. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  20. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  1. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  2. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  3. 78 FR 17993 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... policies, regulations, and technical issues affecting defense trade. The purpose of the meeting will be to... discussed: review of the current definitions of technical data, as well as the control language applied in... statement to the committee in writing. As seating is limited to 125 persons, those wishing to attend the...

  4. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  5. EUROPEAN UNION PARTICIPATION IN NEGOTIATIONS ON TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rudenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the discussion surrounding involvement of interest groups in the political process on the European and global level. My purpose here is to examine how groups of interest can affect EU’s role as a global actor and find out which mode of lobbying regulation could strengthen Europe’s position in global governance. In this article, I am trying to bind concepts which at first glance might seem quite remote: groups of interests and global governance. By analyzing Europe’s position on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership (TPP, I argue that European ambitions on international arena are undermined by innertensions. These tensions are mainly caused by discrepancy in positions of different groups of interest who try to infl uence the outcome of the political process and, thus, make it less stable and predictable. At the same time, adequate lobbying regulation could increase accountability and transparency and, therefore, help to overcome inconsistencies in EU’s position in global governance system. The results suggest that without proper backing from inside actors like business groups and civil society associations the EU will constantly wobble and will not be able to fully achieve its global goals.

  6. Establishment risk from pet-trade freshwater turtles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopecký O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pet-turtle market has grown in recent years and become an important pathway for the introduction of alien species in Europe. The import of Trachemys scripta elegans has been banned by European Commission Regulation due to its species’ expanding territory and negative impact on native species. Since the demand from hobby breeders persists, however, blocking imports of this popular subspecies opens up the possibility for the introduction of other potentially invasive turtles. We determined those turtle species most common in the pet trade within the Czech Republic, which is the most important producer, importer and exporter of ornamental aquatic animals in the EU. The determination of establishment risk for the EU as a whole was then individually evaluated for turtle species based on known establishment models. Chelydra serpentina, Apalone spinifera, Apalone mutica, and Sternotherus odoratus were considered most problematic, because these species have serious establishment risk and are imported to the EU in substantial numbers. Also localities in the EU were identified where probability is highest for establishment of non-native turtles.

  7. Identification of Hotspots in the European Union for the Introduction of Four Zoonotic Arboviroses by Live Animal Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Benoit; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Beck, Cécile; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Balenghien, Thomas; Chevalier, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU), of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database), environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors) and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases) were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU. PMID:23894573

  8. On the determinants of industrial competitiveness: The European Union emission trading scheme and the Italian paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) represents the masterpiece that the EU adopted to achieve the Kyoto Protocol and “Europe 2020” strategy goals of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG). Although the EU-ETS is designed “in order to promote reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner” and “without prejudice for the Treaty”, the system has become a concern issue for firms and industries over competitiveness in European and international markets in addition to carbon leakage. This paper analyses whether and to what extent the EU-ETS may harm competitiveness, by following a qualitative approach, and presenting the case of the Italian paper industry, included in the system as an energy-intensive sector. More specifically, first the paper identifies those key factors that provide a qualitative measure of the “competitiveness risk” related to the EU-ETS; then, those factors are used to examine the Italian paper industry and to assess the actual and potential risks affecting the sector. This analysis is of interest given the lack of similar studies on the Italian paper industry and represents a starting point to serve further studies and future policymaking in Italy and Europe. - Highlights: • The European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) and the effects on the Italian paper industry competitiveness. • Key factors that provide a measure of the “competitiveness risk” for the Italian paper industry. • Those risks are limited at the moment, but some factors need to be carefully managed, such as electricity uses and prices. • Industrial policies and new firms strategies are required to manage the “competitiveness risk” in the coming years

  9. Several companies will not be able to earn amounts necessary to meet strictest European Union standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Costs of meeting environmental laws, regulations and directives applying to industrial companies are relatively high. Some companies are therefore concerned that they will not be in the position to accumulate sufficient funds to meet the requirements of newly introduced legislation reflecting the European Union (EU) environmental standards. And those plants that will not manage to comply with the new regulation by the set deadline, will face a threat of being closed down. In some cases the threat will be softened by transition periods agreed on in course of pre-entry negotiations on the chapter environment and through time schedules provided for in the newly introduced regulations. Danish consultant company Niras in co-operation with Institute of Slovak and World Economy at SAV (Slovak Academy of Science) calculated that the costs related to implementation EU environmental standards by 2035 would amount to 437 bn Slovak crowns (Sk) (10.57 billion Euro). Chief Negotiator of Slovakia's EU-entry, Jan Figel confirmed that from financial point of view the implementation of environmental standards was the most demanding requirement of all. Experts cannot predict yet what part of these costs will be covered by companies themselves. The highest amount should be spent on water protection - 185 billion Sk (4.47 billion Euro) until 2030. In the waste disposal industry the necessary investments during the same period are estimated to 130 billion Sk (3.14 billion Euro) and another 90 billion Sk (2.18 billion Euro) will have to be spent on big incineration facilities. The mentioned amount of 437 billion Sk (10.57 billion Euro) does not include any costs related to liquidation of old environmental burdens. But this problem will be partially solved through the new environmental arrangements. Several industrial companies are not allowed to build new waste dumps as long as they have not liquidated the old ones or at leas have addressed the matter of contaminated soil. There is no

  10. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  11. Relationship between Workplace Incivility, Job Attitudes and Muslim Religiosity Personality among Trade Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizan H. M.

    2016-12-01

    .01; Organizational Commitment, Tolerance = .72, VIF = 1.39, Muslim Religiosity Personality, Tolerance =.72, VIF =1.39. Conclusively, the results of this study demonstrate a negative relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the job attitude variables. Furthermore, this study shows the moderating effect of an individual religiosity personality trait on the relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the job attitudes. Consequently, implications of the research include further contribution to workplace incivility theoretical aspects, Muslim religiosity personality research, managerial decision making and employer - union interventions for workplace incivility.

  12. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  13. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde Trade unionism, Unified Health System (SUS and private health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.The article intends to discuss the patterns of interlocution between the Brazilian trade unionism, the public health system (SUS and the private health insurance sector. Some thesis originated in the Public Health area about the subject are debated, in the light of more recent Social Science's studies concerned the Brazilian unionism. It presents a documentary analysis for the case of the largest National Workers Organization, named CUT. The need to discuss the problem in distinct political and economic conjunctures of the country is pointed out. The conflicts between the workers and the companies, added to the unemployment and deregulation of the labor markets

  14. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  15. From "Embrace and Change" to "Engage and Change": Trade Union Renewal and New Management Strategies in the UK Automotive Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul; Wass, Victoria

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 32 British union representatives and a survey of 200 auto workers found that union strength was renewed because of new management techniques in industry, which have increased local autonomy. Unions are directly engaged in the issues involved in teamwork, quality control, and flexible manufacturing. (SK)

  16. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  17. 75 FR 80038 - Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATAC) will hold closed meetings on January 13, 2011. The advisory committees are administered by USDA and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4) and (6). USTR has determined that public access to this meeting would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. Government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  18. 76 FR 60582 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Finance Update. --Trans-Atlantic Business Dialogue Activities. --U.S. Commercial Service National Export... Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11) AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... Business (ITAC-11) will hold a meeting on Wednesday, October 12, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting...

  19. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  20. Quantifying the trade in marine ornamental fishes into Switzerland and an estimation of imports from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica V. Biondo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Millions of marine ornamental fishes are traded every year. Today, over half of the known nearly 4000 coral reef fish species are in trade with poor or no monitoring and demand is increasing. This study investigates their trade into and through Switzerland by analyzing import documents for live animals. In 2009, 151 import declarations with attached species lists for marine ornamental fishes from non-EU countries totaled 28 356 specimens. The 62% of the fishes remaining in Switzerland, comprised 440 marine species from 45 families, the rest transited to EU and non-EU countries. Despite the recognized large trade volume for the European region, due to bilateral agreements, no data is collected for imports from the EU. However, inferred data shows that more than 200 000 marine ornamental fishes could be imported into Switzerland every year and an unknown quantity re-exported. As biggest import region, it is therefore safe to assume, that the European region is importing at least as many marine ornamental fishes as the US. There is no adequate data-collecting system known to be in place in any country for monitoring this trade. The EU Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES to monitor animal diseases could be adjusted to gather compulsory information for the EU and Switzerland. More than half of the species imported into Switzerland are not assessed by the IUCN and therefore marked as ‘not evaluated’ on the Red List. Overall, 70% of all known coral reef fish species have not been evaluated. If coral reef fishes are threatened or endangered due to large, possibly unsustainable numbers traded, it may be rational to monitor the trade in these species through the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES.

  1. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  2. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  3. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  4. Three models of labor conflict in chile: the weight of the economy, trade union organization, and work regime in illegal strike tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medel Sierralta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From the return to democracy to the present, illegal strikes have acquired a prominent role in Chile’s labor conflicts, mainly due to the fact that many more workers mobilize, compared to those who participate in legal strikes. Nevertheless, existing studies on the subject focus on descriptions and general tendencies, thus neglecting the in-depth analysis of the factors determining the specific occurrence of the extralegal strikes. Consequently, the factors that might be contributing to the possibility of illegal strikes remain unknown. If labor strikes are construed as analytical events that are fundamental in order to understand power relations in capitalist enterprises, the review of the international literature on the subject helps us solve that problem, since it proposes statistical analysis models to study the economy at the national level (economic cycles, trade union organization (membership and size of unions, and work regime (fragmentation and job insecurity, as well as a further company-level analysis of the last two models. On the basis of statistics regarding the strikes that took place in Chile between 1990 and 2015 and a binary logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the weight of each one of those statistical models separately and that of all of them taken together, in the private sector of the economy (in which it is possible to opt for one or the other strike modality in the Chilean case. The results show that the trade union organization and the work regime models have a greater power to determine illegal strikes, and that the economic model loses meaning when its variables are included in the complete model. Finally, the article presents the conclusions regarding the relevance of the distinction between legal and illegal strikes for the Chilean case, in terms of workers that not only represent subjects without rights, but also actors with a certain autonomy regarding legality. In this sense, these

  5. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  6. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  7. How do medical doctors in the European Union demonstrate that they continue to meet criteria for registration and licencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Meritxell; Panteli, Dimitra; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Döring, Nora; Busse, Reinhard; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews procedures for ensuring that physicians in the European Union (EU) continue to meet criteria for registration and the implications of these procedures for cross-border movement of health professionals following implementation of the 2005/36/EC Directive on professional qualifications. A questionnaire was completed by key informants in 10 EU member states, supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature and a review conducted by key experts in each country. The questionnaire covered three aspects: actors involved in processes for ensuring continued adherence to standards for registration and/or licencing (such as revalidation), including their roles and functions; the processes involved, including continuing professional development (CPD) and/or continuing medical education (CME); and contextual factors, particularly those impacting professional mobility. All countries included in the study view CPD/CME as one mechanism to demonstrate that doctors continue to meet key standards. Although regulatory bodies in a few countries have established explicit systems of ensuring continued competence, at least for some doctors (in Belgium, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the UK), self-regulation is considered sufficient to ensure that physicians are up to date and fit to practice in others (Austria, Finland, Estonia and Spain). Formal systems vary greatly in their rationale, structure, and coverage. Whereas in Germany, Hungary and Slovenia, systems are exclusively focused on CPD/CME, the Netherlands also includes peer review and minimum activity thresholds. Belgium and the UK have developed more complex mechanisms, comprising a review of complaints or compliments on performance and (in the UK) colleague and patient questionnaires. Systems for ensuring that doctors continue to meet criteria for registration and licencing across the EU are complex and inconsistent. Participation in CPD/CME is only one aspect of maintaining

  8. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS AND MUTATIONS CAUSED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FURNITURE TRADE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Marginean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he global economic crisis had most negative effects on the entire economic sphere and especially in what the consuming industry is concerned, which may be considered “luxurious”, the way in which we may talk about the furniture industry. Along times of economic crisis at social level, a decrease in financial power at microeconomic, individual level is felt. Under conditions of social decrease in buying capacity, the request for commercial furniture is in rapid fall and thus the industry as such suffers serious structural mutations. Analyzing a series of macroeconomic indices from the European furniture industry led to the result that during the late years there has been a positive trend within the furniture industry in matters of production, however, with concern to trading, the situation is more complicated. There is a behaviour difference in the furniture industry between emergent countries and EU developed states and based on the performed analysis, a SWOT analysis at sectorial level crystallized, in which we propose ways of growth in the European furniture industry.

  9. It’s not the Fish that Stinks! EU Trade Relations with Morocco under the Scrutiny of the General Court of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummelbrunner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s international agreements with Morocco on trade in agricultural and fishery products have drawn criticism due to their application to the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a territory that remains on the list of non-self-governing territories to be decolonised in accordance with the right of self-determination of the indigenous Sahrawi people. Recently, the Sahrawi liberation movement Front Polisario brought an action for annulment before the General Court of the European Union (GC against the Council Decision approving the conclusion of one such agreement, alleging multiple violations of European and international legal norms. Interestingly, although the GC concurred by annulling the Decision insofar as it applies to Western Sahara, it chose to exclusively base its judgment on EU fundamental rights, invoking the EU’s failure to ensure that the fundamental rights of the Sahrawi people were not infringed by applying the agreements to Western Sahara. By summarily setting aside Front Polisario’s other claims, several relevant questions of applicable international and European law, which warrant further discussion, remain. This article examines these questions using the GC’s judgment in Front Polisario, thereby combining general matters of international and European law with the specific circumstances of the EU-Morocco relations and Western Sahara.

  10. 77 FR 42484 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    .... If the number of registrants requesting to make statements is greater than can be reasonably.... Copies of CINTAC meeting minutes will be available within 90 days of the meeting. Man K. Cho, Team Leader...

  11. 76 FR 66775 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... further study. Agenda topics will be posted on the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls' Web site, at... requesting reasonable accommodation should notify the Alternate DFO by the same date. Each non-member...

  12. 75 FR 31505 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... topics for further study. Agenda topics will be posted on the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls' Web... accommodation should notify the Alternate DFO by the same date. Each non-member observer or DTAG member that...

  13. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  14. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  15. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  16. 76 FR 16652 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Controls' Web site, at http://www.pmddtc.state.gov approximately 2 weeks prior to the meeting. Members of... person requesting reasonable accommodation should notify the Alternate DFO by the same date. Each non...

  17. 75 FR 41276 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    .../Retaliation Issue --U.S.-China Trade Issues, including China Currency, Export Subsidies, Indigenous Innovation, IPR, and other issues. --Trade Promotion --Export Finance Myesha T. Ward, Acting Assistant U.S. Trade...

  18. Sindicalismo, condições de trabalho e saúde: a perspectiva dos profissionais da educação do Rio de Janeiro Trade unionism, working conditions and health: the perspective of educational professionals in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Reis de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar e interpretar os problemas e as perspectivas da ação sindical para se alcançar mudanças no trabalho e se promover saúde nas escolas por intermédio da experiência do Programa de Formação em Saúde, Gênero e Trabalho nas Escolas Públicas. Para isso, realizamos entrevistas com sindicalistas e profissionais da educação, tendo como foco privilegiado de análise o relato de um caso - do Sindicato Estadual dos Profissionais de Educação do Rio de Janeiro (SEPE-RJ. Constatamos que, após o Programa de Formação, as lutas passaram a não se concentrar somente na defesa de certos direitos tradicionalmente existentes na pauta sindical. A noção de saúde amplia a concepção sindical de condições de trabalho, como também permite que os trabalhadores das escolas sejam os protagonistas do movimento de mudanças. Verificamos, ainda, o sentido de renovação que o tema "trabalho" - em sua relação com a saúde - proporcionou à militância sindical.The scope of this paper is to analyze and interpret the problems and prospects of trade union activity, in order to achieve changes in the workplace and promote health in schools by means of the experience of the Training Program in Health, Gender and Work in Public Schools. In order to conduct this research we staged interviews with union leaders and education professionals. In our analysis we concentrated on the report of a specific case, namely the State Union of Education Professionals in Rio de Janeiro (SEPE-RJ. We perceived that, after the training program, the campaign began to focus not only on the defense of certain rights that are traditionally present on the union agenda. The concept of health broadens the union concept of working conditions; it also allows workers in schools to be the protagonists of movements for change. We note, moreover, the sense of renewal that the theme "work" - in its relation to health - has given to trade union

  19. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  20. HANNES MEYER Y LA ESCUELA FEDERAL ADGB: LA SERIE COMO ESTRATEGIA FORMAL / HANNES MEYER AND THE ADGB TRADE UNION SCHOOL: SERIES AS A FORMAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Larripa Artieda

    2017-11-01

    postulates and that new way of creating architecture is probably the ADGB Trade Union School, built in Bernau between 1928 and 1930. This article studies that work in light of the Swiss architect’s architectural and social ideology and it attempts to explain the strategy that lies behind its formalisation: the series. Indeed, using said design mechanism, which is based on the almost infinite repetition or reproduction of constructive systems or programme units –or both at the same time– those architects discovered a new and modern way of generating modern architectural form. This was a path on which values such as horizontality, the absence of a centre or hierarchy, equality and objectivity were raised as the new story of architecture.

  1. The single non-representative trade union as a political and economic instrument of the Franco Regime | El sindicato vertical como instrumento político y económico del régimen franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicerio Sánchez Recio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The single non-representative trade union followed the pattern of the single party in order to carry out the function specified in the title of this article. With compulsory membership for all workers and employers, the single trade union was deployed by the Franco regime in order to bring both sides of industry together. An analysis of its history shows that it was a political and economic instrument of the regime. The regime gave the union its powers and solved the conflicts that arose, while at the same time using it to control and contain the workers, and pay back owners and managers for their support. | El sindicato único y vertical fue el instrumento parejo del partido único para ejercer la función que se le atribuye en el título. A través del sindicato único, de afiliación generalizada y obligatoria para obreros y empresarios, el franquismo trataba de integrar al mundo del trabajo y de la empresa. A través del análisis de su trayectoria puede afirmarse que el sindicato vertical fue un instrumento político y económico del régimen franquista, que fue éste el que le dio la fuerza y resolvió los problemas que se le plantearon, pero que, al mismo tiempo, lo utilizó para controlar y encuadrar a los obreros y compensar a los empresarios y patronos por los apoyos que le prestaban.

  2. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  3. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other political

  4. True 'core' splitting. Trade unions and citizens' groups in conflict over nuclear power. Die eigentliche Kernspaltung. Gewerkschaften und Buergerinitiativen im Streit um die Atomkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallerbach, J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    Massive unemployment and the fear of a barred future put at present the unions and civil initiative to the apparent alternatives; securing work places or securing life and future. How the 'atomic fight' is fought and its result can have considerable consequences for our society. This volume presents a dialogue: Firstly the situation and environment must be understood giving rise to the controversial arguments. Reports, analyses and interviews are presented on this as basic structure for the future discussion. The quality and direction of the technical progress are dealt with in the core of the discussion. Is atomic technology acceptable. Who should decide and whom does it serve. What is progress going to look like anyway.

  5. The effects of union mergers and internal restructuring:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Trade union mergers and restructuring are often seen as strategy for union revitalisation and renewal and have been ongoing in the majority of European trade unions. This paper explores how recent union mergers and internal restructuring has affected unions service provision, union democracy...... and interest representation. This is analysed drawing on longitudinal data from two Danish shop steward surveys conducted in 1998 and 2010, comparing shop stewards in merged and non-merged unions respectively. The main results are that although it could be expected that union mergers and internal restructuring......, where union size and less so the union’s recent merger and restructuring history appears to affect shop stewards’ relations with their unions....

  6. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  7. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  8. Les relations entre syndicats et associations en Belgique : Le cas de la réforme du minimex Relations between Trade Unions and Other Voluntary Associations in Belgium with Special Reference to Basic Income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Faniel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur se penche sur les relations entre organisations syndicales et milieux associatifs en Belgique. Dans la première partie, il passe en revue la littérature scientifique internationale consacrée au syndi­ca­lisme et aux “nouveaux mouvements sociaux” afin de dégager des hypothèses de travail spécifiquement applicables à l’étude, peu développée, des relations entre ces deux types d’acteurs. Dans la partie em­pirique, il aborde, dans le contexte belge, les positions adoptées par les syndicats et les mouvements as­sociatifs face à la réforme du “minimum de moyens d’existence” (minimex et les mo­bilisations engen­drées par cette réforme. Il souligne l’existence de différences importantes entre les atti­tudes de certaines associations (la Ligue des Droits de l’Homme, des organisations de sans-emploi et de pré­caires, etc. et la position officielle des grands syndicats. L’étude met également en lumière les diffé­rences de réaction perceptibles entre les associations elles-mêmes et au sein des deux principales orga­nisations syndicales nationales. L’auteur cherche enfin à expliquer les différentes logiques à l’œu­vre et confronte hypothèses de travail et étude empirique quant aux relations qu’entretiennent syndicats et associations.In the light of work on Trade Unions and New Social Movements, hypotheses as to their relationships in Belgium are here elaborated. Their respective positions and campaigns regarding basic income are empirically examined. Significant differences between the Union stance and that of given associations such those concerned with human rights or the unemployed, are highlighted. Divergences also appear amongst the associations themselves as well as between the two main Unions. The contribution concludes with an analysis of the various logics at stake and the empirical relevance of the afore mentioned hypotheses.

  9. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  10. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  11. Operational forest management planning methods: proceedings, meeting of steering systems project group, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Bucharest, Romania, June 18-24, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Navon

    1978-01-01

    These 14 papers were submitted to a conference of Project Group P4.07 Division IV, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations. Topics discussed included the uses of simulations, analytical techniques, and mathematical programming techniques in land management planning, reforestation programs, intensive forestry, timber management and production, tree growth...

  12. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    July 1989 No.19 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 55th Annual. Meeting ... in the world, keeping alive atthe same time his research interests, abreast .... theory made a comeback with many new ideas and with the success of the ...

  13. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose ... regional and international comparisons of ... as Fashoyin (2002:15) has admitted, 'the choice ... factors and conditions that impact upon the ... new technologies, the entry of new firms into the market, the introduction of new products into the.

  14. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.; Reilly, John M.

    2003-01-01

    We estimate reference CO 2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO 2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include 9 European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensities among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91 in the United Kingdom to $385 in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%

  15. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  16. Partidos, sindicatos y organización en el lugar de trabajo: La huelga de los obreros de la carne de Avellaneda en 1932 Political parties, trade unions and the shop‐floor organization: The strike by the meatworkers of Avellaneda in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ceruso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La intención principal del trabajo es profundizar la línea de investigación que analiza la relación entre las corrientes de izquierda y el movimiento obrero argentino durante la década del treinta. En particular, abordamos el estudio de los programas y prácticas sindicales que desplegó el Partido Comunista en uno de los sectores económicos de mayor relevancia en la estructura productiva nacional: la industria frigorífica. Procuramos revisar las políticas sindicales de las estructuras internacionales, continentales y nacionales del comunismo con la voluntad de observar su impacto en la organización sindical de los obreros de la carne. Encaramos la investigación desde una perspectiva de análisis que prioriza dar cuenta de las prácticas y estrategias de los trabajadores en el lugar de trabajo. La labor de los obreros en las fábricas y empresas se examina durante la preparación y el desarrollo de la huelga en los frigoríficos de Avellaneda en 1932. La propuesta de analizar la relación entre izquierda y movimiento obrero se traduce aquí en el análisis de las tácticas sindicales del comunismo y su impacto en la organización gremial de base durante la huelga en los frigoríficos de Avellaneda en 1932.The main intention of the work is to deepen the line of research that examines the relationship between the left-wing currents and the labor movement argentine during the 1930s. In particular, we will approach the study of the programs and trade union practices deployed the Communist Party in one of the economic sectors of greater relevance in the productive structure national: the meat industry. We seek to revise the trade union policies of the structures international, continental and national of the communism with the willingness to observe its impact on the trade union organization of workers from the meat. We face the investigation from a perspective of analysis that prioritizes give an account of the practices and strategies of

  17. Industrial Unionism and Its Bargaining Correlates in Nigeria Industrial Relations System

    OpenAIRE

    Francis C. Anyim; Joy Onyinyechi Ekwoaba; Adedoyinsola Olajumoke Shonuga

    2013-01-01

    Between 1960-1966, industrial relations system in Nigeria was based on Laissez-faire doctrine or voluntary ethic. The colonial trade union ordinance of 1938 allowed any five or more persons to form trade unions. The trend led to the proliferation of over 1000 mushroom unions which were not well organized and badly managed. Besides, all was not well with the organization, administration, finance, leadership and foreign relations of the unions. It was against this backdrop that government initi...

  18. Os subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional: as políticas da União Europeia e dos Estados Unidos da América The agricultural subsidies in international trade: the policies adopted by the European Union and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Marcelo Rodrigues Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a prática de subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional, tendo como principal objetivo dimensionar a sua prática enquanto instrumento econômico estratégico para o setor agrícola, especialmente para os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia. Uma completa proibição dos subsídios não é desejável porque sua prática, em essência, constitui uma alternativa à busca do bem-estar social da nação. Contudo, a utilização dos subsídios agrícolas, na forma como vêm sendo praticados, constituem-se em intervenções de cunho protecionista que provocam distorções no comércio internacional. Sendo os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia as nações que mais os utilizam no comércio internacional, tem-se gerado preocupações sobre sua própria eficiência enquanto instrumento de política comercial estratégica para o comércio internacional.This study examines the practice of agricultural subsidies in international trade, aiming at scaling its practice as a strategic economic tool primarily for the agricultural sector, especially to the United States and the European Union. A complete ban on subsidies is not desirable because its practice, in essence, is a path to improve the welfare of the nation. However, the way the agricultural subsidies have been employed, constitute protectionist interventions that distort international trade. The United States and the European Union are the major users of this instrument in international trade, a factor that has raised concerns about their own efficiency as a strategic trade policy for international trade.

  19. Changes in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products under accession to the European Union Zmainy w polskim handlu zagranicznym produktami rolno-spożywczymi w warunkach integracji z Unią Europejską

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.

  20. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...

  1. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...

  2. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...

  3. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  4. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  5. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  6. Trade in uranium: Tools available to address import disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The presentation covers five topics with respect to the international uranium market: (1) the role of the US Trade Representative (USTR) and the formulation of US trade policy; (2) US trade policy today; (3) the remedies available where imports or other countries' trading practices are damaging or may be threatening to damage US production or commerce; (4) trade policy with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union; and (5) some remarks on trade in uranium and emerging issues

  7. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina BÃLÃNEASA

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions. The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizat...

  8. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  9. 28th annual meeting of the European Society for New Methods in Agricultural Research and International Union of Radioecology (IUR) Working Group Soil-to-Plant Transfer annual meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Forty-three contributions presented at the Meeting were input to INIS; these fall largely in the working groups Radiation Technology, Advanced Methods in Animal Sciences, and Soil-Plant Relationships. (P.A.)

  10. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared by the bargained wage. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I demonstrate that, under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and countercyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus sheds new insights into two business cycle features...

  11. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and counter-cyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus, and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus offers new insights into two business cycle features...

  12. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 2961 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Closed Meeting The following notice of a closed meeting is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94- 409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME...

  14. 76 FR 70709 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice This notice that an emergency meeting was held is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading...

  15. 78 FR 6306 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Closed Meeting The following notice of a closed meeting is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94- 409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME...

  16. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  17. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  18. 75 FR 18482 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its quarterly meeting to discuss environmental technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee...

  19. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its first plenary meeting of 2010 to discuss environmental technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general...

  20. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  1. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  2. Users and Union Catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  3. The Trading Potential of Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Kun; Winters, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This paper fits a gravity model to the trade of 76 market economies. It then applies the model to data on East European economies to estimate what their trading potential might have been, had behaved like market economies in the mid-1980s. At existing levels of national income, the liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is unlikely to affect their mutual trade and trade with developing countries, but it will increase trade with industrial counties by factors of three to thirty....

  4. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  5. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to..., direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. The application deadline has been extended to...

  6. Explaining Leaving Union Membership by the Degree of Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced....... Their analysis shows the impact of labour market attachment and firm-level characteristics on union leaving and points especially to important differences across gender....

  7. 76 FR 71378 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory... Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 30, 2011; 2-4:30 p.m.; U.S...

  8. 77 FR 65581 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory... Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 13, 2012; 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m...

  9. 29 CFR 452.41 - Working at the trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working at the trade. 452.41 Section 452.41 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.41 Working at the trade. (a) It would ordinarily be reasonable for a union to require candidates to be employed at the trade or even to...

  10. [On the improvement of the legal support of the food safety in the conditions of trade and economic integration of states-members of the Customs union and the Russian Federation's accession to the WTO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, I V; Aksenova, O I; Bokit'ko, B G; Gorsky, A A

    2013-01-01

    In the article priority activities of The Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare on improvement of standard legal support of safety of foodstuff and control of compliance of foodstuff to legislation requirements are reported. The main documents directed on harmonization of the international requirements with national ones and requirements of the Customs union on safety of foodstuff are submitted. Work within a framework of Russian Federation's accession to the WTO is described. And data on control of quality and safety of foodstuff are provided also.

  11. Trade promotion of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  12. 77 FR 43064 - Meeting; Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... customer fund segregation laws, and making false statements in financial statements filed with the... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Meeting; Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). ACTION: Notice of emergency meeting of technology advisory committee...

  13. 1990 Fall Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1990 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 3-7, continued the steady growth trend for the western meeting set over the last decade. About 5200 members registered for the meeting and 3836 papers were given. The scientific kickoff to the meeting was provided by a Union session on initial results of the current Magellan mission to Venus. The mission was also the focus of a public lecture and short film on highlights of the mission and an extensive Union poster session.

  14. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  15. Integration, Disintegration and Trade in Europe : Evolution of Trade Relations during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.; Fidrmuc, J.

    2000-01-01

    The gravity model of trade is used to assess the economic consequences of new borders, which arose in the wake of break-ups of multinational federations in Eastern Europe. The intensity of trade relations among the constituent parts of Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union and the Baltics was very high

  16. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  17. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  18. Trade reforms, mark-ups and bargaining power of workers: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... workers between 1996 and 2007, a model of mark-up with labor bargaining power was estimated using random effects and LDPDM. ... Keywords: Trade reform, mark-up, bargaining power, rent, trade unions ...

  19. International nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.; Cormis, F. de; Kerever, A.

    1998-01-01

    This third part is relative to the international nuclear trade it includes: the 1996 EURATOM/Usa Agreement on the peaceful Uses of nuclear energy: EURATOM Strengthened, a case study on IVO Power engineering Oy as a supplier to Russia, lessons learned from the Us/EURATOM Agreement for Cooperation, negotiating the parameters of nuclear regulation: lessons from South Africa, Good and new business in Brazil's nuclear energy field, cooperation between Russia and european union in the nuclear field: the legal basis, present status and future prospects, the industrial implications of the non proliferation policy. (N.C.)

  20. Meeting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  1. The effects of competing trade regimes on bilateral trade flows: case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Bjelić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of competing trade regimes on Serbian trade with its most significant (traditional partners, like European Union and CEFTA 2006 signatories, and other untraditional trade partners with favourable trade regime, like the USA. To this end, gravity model with bilateral and time effects is estimated by Hausman-Taylor AR(1 instrumental variable estimator, using panel data on bilateral trade between Serbia and its main trade partners during the period 2001-2010. The results indicate that overall level of development and difference in factor endowments stimulate Serbia’s exports, which is in accordance with theoretical foundation that inter-industry trade is predominant in exports of less developed countries. Moreover, competing trade regimes appear as important determinant of Serbia’s trade relations, whereas additional liberalization of trade regime with the USA as untraditional trade partner, even asymmetrical to Serbia’s favour, cannot divert trade flows from traditional partners in the long-run. This could mean that distance plays more prominent role in bilateral trade than the degree of liberalization of trade regimes in case of Serbia. The result could be due to the contemporaneous effects of trade preferences granted to Serbia by the EU and other CEFTA 2006 signatories, main trading partners of Serbia.

  2. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  3. International Union of Radioecologists' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (I.U.R.) has maintained a vigorous program of activities in accordance with the goals of its charter. To meet these goals, the I.U.R. has sponsored a number of workshops, meetings, and other related activities aimed at improving our ability to understand and predict the consequences of release of radionuclides to the environment. These include: intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies and a continuous feedback between scientists engaged in mathematical modeling and those carrying out field studies. Specialized workshops dealing with problems in understanding transfer coefficients in the terrestrial environment are being held. In the marine environment, long-distance transport in sediments plays an important role for the spread of radioisotopes released from reprocessing plants (e.g., in the Eastern Atlantic, the Northland Baltic Sea). Representatives of the countries concerned (including from Northern Countries) will define conditions of information exchange, sampling (time, character of sediments), and modelisation

  4. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  5. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...

  6. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  7. 76 FR 67583 - Community Development Revolving Loan Fund Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... in which a credit union applies for funds and how NCUA renders a decision on that application. Each... union meets NCUA's underwriting criteria for a loan, the lending decision should not also be subject to... decision to the Board. A commenter expressed concern that a credit union that is considered nonqualified...

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  10. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S; Klaus, S; Scharte, M; Harnisch, J [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S; Bertenrath, R [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  11. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  12. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  13. 78 FR 70539 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME AND DATE: 10:00 a.m., Friday, December 13, 2013. PLACE: 1155 21st St. NW... meetings change, an announcement of the change, along with the new time, date and location of the meeting...

  14. Seasonal unit roots in trade variables

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Manuel Cantavella Jordá

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine the presence of seasonal unit roots in trade variables for Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy, using the procedure developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) [HEGY]. Both quarterly and monthly data reject the presence of unit roots at most seasonal frequencies, more frequently in quarterly than in monthly data. This has important implications for econometric modeling of trade balance, exchange rates and income in European Union (EU) countries. ...

  15. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnim, Rudi von; Beck, Stefan; Compa, Lance; Eberhardt, Pia; Grumiller, Jan; Raza, Werner; Taylor, Lance; Tröster, Bernhard; Scherrer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The United States of America and the European Union are currently negotiating a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It is one of the most ambitious free trade and investment initiatives, going much further than eliminating tariffs. TTIP mainly aims at reducing “non-tariff barriers”. While tariffs on goods have been imposed with an eye to foreign competition, most of the non-tariff barriers are the laws and regulations that are the result of social struggles for the protecti...

  16. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  17. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  18. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P; Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  19. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  20. Learning and Adapting for Organisational Change: Researching Union Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The last quarter century saw a restructuring of employment, production and trade and a dramatic decline in union membership and density levels. There are many explanations for this, including the hostile industrial relations framework imposed by many governments, but there have been other factors such as the growth of new non-unionized industries…

  1. Women workers and unions in Europe: an analysis by industrial sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, S; Coleman M

    1992-01-01

    Based on a survey carried out in 1992. Identifies various factors influencing the degree of trade unionization of women. Studies the concentration and growth of women's employment in part-time work and the small firm sector. Covers the relationship between union membership and the extent of unemployment insurance, maternity leave and maternity benefits.

  2. Invisible, scattered, difficult to contact: union challenges and strategies to engage contract workers in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.; Keijser, C.; Tesorio, J.

    2013-01-01

    This report is the result of a study of how trade unions can respond to the challenges of dealing with an increasingly flexible and fragmented labour force. A literature study, a survey and open interviews in four countries were carried out to identify how CNV partner unions can support workers who

  3. Roots of women's union activism : South Africa 1973-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tshoaedi, Cynthia Malehoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the mobilisation of South African women into trade union activities between the period 1973 and 2003. Firstly, it underscores the role of South African women in fighting for workers’ rights in the workplace and their contributions in the building of the labour movement at the

  4. The work-family balance on the union's agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K.

    2005-01-01

    High employment rates of both young parents and women increase the need for good childcare provi-sions. Employers can allocate time and money to their employees for this purpose, and trade unions are the appropriate actors to bargain over the relevant terms and conditions. But is the employees’

  5. Unions on the edge: Between Inertia and Agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Dawson, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    The paper compare experiences of trade unions in Australia and Denmark. While there is a significant decline in membership in Australia, many of the issues facing these two countries are similar. IT, virtualisation, BPR and TQM represent global challenges. On this background the room for manouver...

  6. Secondary Education in the European Union: Structures, Organisation and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This study examines the existing secondary education structures of the European Union member nations, the organization of education, teacher training, and the way in which secondary education is managed in Europe today. The three European Free Trade Association/European Economic Area (EFTA/EEC) countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) also…

  7. The game of trading jobs for emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arto, I.; Rueda-Cantuche, J.M.; Andreoni, V.; Mongelli, I.; Genty, A.

    2014-01-01

    Following the debate on the implications of international trade for global climate policy, this paper introduces the topic of the economic benefits from trade obtained by exporting countries in relation to the emissions generated in the production of exports. In 2008, 24% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 20% of the employment around the world were linked to international trade. China “exported” 30% of emissions and hosted 37.5% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide. The European Union and the United States of America were the destination of 25% and 18.4% of the GHG emissions embodied in trade. The imports of these two regions contributed to the creation of 45% of the employment generated by international trade. This paper proposes the idea of including trade issues in international climate negotiations, taking into account not only the environmental burden generated by developed countries when displacing emissions to developing countries through their imports, but also the economic benefits of developing countries producing the goods exported to developed countries. - Highlights: • Employment and trade issues should be considered in GHG emission reduction policies. • In 2008 24% of global GHG emissions and 20% of the employment are linked to trade. • 43% of GHG and 45% of employment embedded in trade are due to EU and US imports. • China exports 30% of the GHG and hosts 38% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide

  8. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  9. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  10. 75 FR 52716 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its quarterly meeting to discuss environmental technologies industry competitiveness issues, the National Export Initiative, and general...

  11. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  12. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horse meat demonstrates the reliability of this assay for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L B; Hill, D E; Parker, S; Tessaro, S V; Gamble, H R; Gajadhar, A A

    2008-03-01

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horse meat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. The assay consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue and two sequential sedimentation steps in separatory funnels to recover and concentrate larvae for detection with a stereomicroscope. With defined critical control points, the assay was conducted within a quality assurance system compliant with International Organization for Standardization-International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17025 guidelines. Samples used in the validation were obtained from horses experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis to obtain a range of muscle larvae densities. One-, 5-, and 10-g samples of infected tissue were combined with 99, 95, and 90 g, respectively, of known negative horse tissue to create a 100-g sample for testing. Samples of 5 and 10 g were more likely to be positive than were 1-g samples when larval densities were less than three larvae per gram (lpg). This difference is important because ingested meat with 1 lpg is considered the threshold for clinical disease in humans. Using a 5-g sample size, all samples containing 1.3 to 2 lpg were detected, and 60 to 100% of samples with infected horse meat containing 0.1 to 0.7 lpg were detected. In this study, the double separatory funnel digestion assay was efficient and reliable for its intended use in food safety and trade. This procedure is the only digestion assay for Trichinella in horse meat that has been validated as consistent and effective at critical levels of sensitivity.

  13. Triggering Solidarity Actions towards Contingent Workers and the Unemployed. The Point of View of Grassroots Trade Unionists and Labour Activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Karakioulafis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, trade unions have suffered a decrease in membership, public legitimacy and the capacity to achieve their core objectives. Renewal strategies have varied, depending on the national context. Part of them focused on rank-and-file mobilization and social movement unionism. In the Greek context, the academic discussion about the crisis of trade unions took place mainly during the 2000s, but without having an impact within union circles or on union strategies. Additionally, grassroots and rank-and-file unions that adopted a social movement and radical unionism approach, and contested the 'institu-tionalized official' trade unions, remained marginal and their actions were not very visible. The recent fis-cal crisis and the implementation of the Memoranda brought up previous dysfunctions. In a context of in-creasing employment precarity and unemployment, the general position of official trade unions towards contingent workers and the unemployed has been strongly contested, while grassroots rank-and-file un-ions claim a more active role in this area. Given the above considerations, this article focuses on the strat-egies of trade unions towards contingent workers and the unemployed, in the Greek context. Results de-rive from interviews with Greek grassroots trade unionists and labour activists in the framework of the TransSOL (Transnational Solidarity at Times of Crisis EU-funded program.

  14. Trade in parts and components across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frensch, R.; Hanousek, J.; Kočenda, Evžen

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2016), s. 236-262 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : international trade * production networks * gravity model * panel data * European Union Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kocenda-0460323.pdf

  15. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  16. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  17. Linking project-based mechanisms with domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bygrave, S.; Bosi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are a number of possible links between emission trading and project-based mechanisms, the focus of this paper is on linking domestic GHG emission trading schemes with: (1) domestic; and, (2) international (JI and CDM) GHG reduction project activities. The objective is to examine some of the challenges in linking DETs and project-based mechanisms, as well as some possible solutions to address these challenges. The link between JI / CDM and intergovernmental international emissions trading (i.e. Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol) is defined by the Kyoto Protocol, and therefore is not covered in this paper. The paper is written in the context of: (a) countries adhering to the Kyoto Protocol and elaborating their strategies to meet their GHG emission commitments, including through the use of the emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. For example, the European Union (EU) will be commencing a GHG Emissions Trading Scheme in January 2005, and recently, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament agreed on a text for an EU Linking Directive allowing the use of JI and CDM emission units in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); and (b) all countries (and/or regions within countries) with GHG emission obligations that may choose to use domestic emissions trading and project-based mechanisms to meet their GHG commitments. The paper includes the following elements: (1) an overview of the different flexibility mechanisms (i.e. GHG emissions trading and PBMs), including a brief description and comparisons between the mechanisms (Section 3); (2) an exploration of the issues that emerge when project-based mechanisms link with domestic emissions trading schemes, as well as possible solutions to address some of the challenges raised (Section 4); (3) a case study examining the EU-ETS and the EU Linking Directive on project-based mechanisms, in particular on how the EU is addressing in a practical context relevant linking issues (Section 5); (4) a

  18. Endogeneity of Currency Areas and Trade Blocs: Evidence from the Inter-War Period

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Nikolaus; Ritschl, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the gravity model of international trade in the wake of Rose (2000) affirms that currency union formation doubles or triples trade. However, currency unions could also be established precisely because trade among their members was already high. In OLS estimation, this would cause endogeneity bias. The present paper employs both fixed effects and binary choice methods to trace endogeneity in the formation of historical currency arrangements. Studying the formation of curr...

  19. Are unions an anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, R

    1979-01-01

    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  20. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  1. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  2. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  3. New institutional assemblages for borderless customs control in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Hofman, W.; Enserink, B.; Kotterink, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a use case proposing a Single Window implementation for borderless customs control in the European Union (EU). This EU e-Customs initiative proposes to combine trade facilitation from a customs perspective with secure trade based on supply chain risk analysis. To achieve

  4. TRADE LIBERALISATION IN EUROPE AND THE REST OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Spiridon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to disseminate how liberalisation processes were conducted around the globe and especially in Europe since the XIXth century up to date. The research objective is to review the liberalisation of trade dynamics and create an image of the architecture of the most important trading blocs. Analysis will be conducted considering the three major regional blocs: Europe, North America and East Asia. The main findings will show that, despite the few mutations that occurred in international trade as a result of the emergence of developing nations as major trade partners, the European Union and the United States remain the economic and trade hegemons.

  5. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  6. Quotum for CO2. Trading system in preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Weijden, C.; Dingenen, S.

    2002-01-01

    CO2 emission rights trading is one of the most promising tools for limiting the release of CO2 in the short term. While development of a trading system continues at the European Union level, the Netherlands is working on a system of its own, which will differ from its European counterpart in various critical respects. Although the Netherlands is likely to be one of the main beneficiaries of emission trading, the nation nevertheless has an obligation to pursue technical innovation [nl

  7. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  8. GMM Estimator: An Application to Intraindustry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of intraindustry trade (IIT, horizontal IIT (HIIT, and Vertical IIT (VIIT in the automobile industry in Portugal. The trade in this sector between Portugal and the European Union (EU-27 was examined, between 1995 and 2008, using a dynamic panel data. We apply the GMM system to solve the problems of serial correlation and the endogeneity of some explanatory variables. The findings are consistent with the literature. The difference between per capita incomes and factor endowments present a positive sign. These results are according to Heckscher-Ohlin predictions. The economic dimension has a positive impact on trade. A negative effect of the distance on bilateral trade was expected and the results confirm this, underlining the importance of neighbour partnerships for all trade.

  9. Teaming Up with Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the concept, first encouraged by Irving Bluestone of the United Auto Workers, that union and management personnel should work together to achieve company goals. The history of this cooperative effort movement within the United Auto Workers is described. (CH)

  10. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  11. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open...; understanding best value in government procurement; de minimis reform; intellectual property protections in the...

  12. Negotiating services liberalization within TTIP : The EU external trade policy at crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the new external trade policy of the European Union (EU) and an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  13. Non-unions force wage cut-backs in pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D

    1984-03-01

    Faced with another year of high unemployment and shrinking markets, Western Canada's unionized pipeline construction trades have taken a step toward stabilizing the industry. The unions have struck a bargain to combat an increasing number of non-union open shops. Management and labor cooperated to insure that the unions regain their share of the pipeline construction market. The pipeline construction boom has ended, with an overcapacity, a downturn in sales, and few major projects on the drawing boards. The bargains included wage reductions of 30%, daily living allowance reductions of nearly 50%, the elimination of double time, and the use of composite crews.

  14. Search, Dealers, and the Terms of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera

    2001-01-01

    I study a search theoretic model with pairwise meetings where dealers arise endogenously. The extent of intermediation depends on its cost, trade frictions, and the dealers' ability to negociate favorable terms of trade. Under Nash bargaining, there is a unique equilibrium where dealers buy and hold the low-storage-cost good and, depending on their relative bargaining power, resell it at a premium or a discount. The distribution of the terms of trade is non-degenerate unless storage cost and ...

  15. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending.

  16. The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: A quantitative assessment for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Hoffmann, Tim; Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, Casiano

    2006-01-01

    From 1 January 2005 onwards the European Union has launched the first large-scale international carbon emissions trading program. As the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) covers only part of domestic carbon emissions, it implies a segmented environmental regulation scheme: Each EU Member State must specify additional domestic abatement policies for the sectors outside the EU-ETS in order to meet its emissions budget under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement. We highlight the generic problems of segmented carbon regulation in terms of information requirements for international carbon prices and domestic abatement costs of sectors outside the EU-ETS. Based on numerical simulations for Germany, we quantify the excess costs of segmented carbon regulation and conclude that inefficiencies can be much better explained by lobbying of influential EU-ETS sectors than by information problems. (Author)

  17. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  18. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United States-European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.

    2009-01-01

    . The RadSTraM project was specifically cited as a candidate for a RFID Lighthouse Project by the EU/DOC collaboration in meeting their mutual goal of developing a 'joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for RFID technologies.' Concurrently, the Universal Postal Union (UPU) identified this project as a candidate for radioisotope packages shipped by the postal service between the United State Postal Service (USPS). and European Post Agencies.

  19. Customs unions, currency crises, and monetary policy coordination: The case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vinokurov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After achieving substantial progress in establishing a common customs territory and regulations, customs unions face potential disruptions due to a lack of monetary policy coordination. These disruptions might appear in the form of currency shocks and the ensuing trade conflicts. We approach this issue by looking at the case of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. The volatility of national currencies in 2014–2015 resulted in sizable shifts in competitiveness, culminating in a currency crisis in some member states. This raises the questions of how to gradually achieve a more coordinated monetary policy, what monetary policy options are available, and what would be their relative impact on macroeconomic stability. Using a set of modeling tools and econometric models, we review three monetary regimes, which represent moves from fully independent exchange rate policy through increased policy coordination to joint exchange rate setting.

  20. An employee/trade union perspective to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Pekka O.

    1992-01-01

    Risk assessment does not easily lend itself to precise description. In some of its current forms of application, it is little more than a modern way of throwing bones or looking at tea leaves or the entrails of sheep, like our ancestors used to do not so many centuries ago (the only real difference being perhaps that laboratory rats are cheaper and less messy than sheep). A its best, however, risk assessment can be used as a good tool to identify the needs for changes required to reduce hazards and to prevent accidents to humans or damage to the environment. This paper approaches risk assessment as a tool, highlighting the need and usefulness as well as the right of employees and their representatives to participate in all the steps involved in assessing the risks of the workplace and its environment

  1. Trade unions protest in front of Swedish Embassy / Milda Seputyte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seputyte, Milda

    2005-01-01

    Leedu saatkonnatöötajate ametiühingud protestisid Rootsi saatkonna ees, väites, et saatkonnas töötavad leedulased on kõrvale jäetud ning neisse suhtutakse kui teisejärgulistesse töötajatesse. Saatkonnatöötajaid ühendava ametiühingu esinaise Sniege Naku väitel on pärast Rootsi suursaadiku Leedus Malin Karre ametisse asumist saatkonna töötajate olukord halvenenud

  2. Exchange Rate and Trade: J-curve in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lupu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU economy is experiencing a severe recession amid the global crisis, and although in other regions began to appear mild signs of recovery, in EU countries are recorded a continuously worsening. In many European states, the economic contraction is a consequence of the decrease in net exports component of GDP. The aim of the article is to analyze the situation in which the EU chooses to devalue its currency to increase exports. We found that, the depreciation of the Euro, has no influence on exports and that in EU, it is not expressed a J-curve effects.

  3. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    low costs, widely available raw material and world class quality that make. India one of the world's ... safety or health. However, with the ... for unskilled /low skilled workers in tanneries and leather manufacturing units in KMDA area should be ...

  4. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  5. Union Directions - Army Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-06

    reflects the long-held belief in the Army that employee participation in decisions that affect their worklife is healthy and desirable. Although some...pluralistic society, checks and balances are as important for the economy as for the government. Business executives who salivate at the thought of vanishing...Unions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. 37. National Federation of Federal Employees. NFFE’s Guide to Quality of Worklife Programs. No. G-21

  6. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  7. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  8. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  9. Carbon trading thickness and market efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnoli, Alberto; De Vries, Frans P.

    2010-01-01

    This note tests for the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the market for CO 2 emission allowances in Phase I and Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). As usually is the case in emerging and non-competitive markets such as the EU ETS, trading often not occurs on a frequent basis. This has adverse implications for both the gains from permit trade as well as biases the EMH tests. Variance ratio tests are employed to adjust for the thin trading effect. The results indicate that Phase I - the trial and learning period - was inefficient, whereas the first period under Phase II shows signs of restoring market efficiency. (author)

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  11. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  12. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...... concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU....

  13. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...... concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. Udgivelsesdato: NOV...

  14. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  15. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  16. Roots of women's union activism: South Africa 1973-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Tshoaedi, Cynthia Malehoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the mobilisation of South African women into trade union activities between the period 1973 and 2003. Firstly, it underscores the role of South African women in fighting for workers’ rights in the workplace and their contributions in the building of the labour movement at the national level. In explaining the mobilisation of women, this research focuses on their social biography. It explores women’s experiences in society, the family (or personal relationships), the workpl...

  17. The World Trade Organization and the new opportunities in the international market for Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; A Organizacao Mundial do Comercio e as novas oportunidades do mercado internacional para o setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Marili Arruda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro, Mogi Guacu SP (Brazil); Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This main objective of this work is to present the obstacles to the Brazilian participation in the international ethanol and sugar market, specially in the European Union. Therefore it is emphasized the main reasons which conduct Brazil to discuss in the International Trade Organization the production quota system impositions and the heavy subsidy exportation used in the European Union. In despite of improving the negotiation arguments, it has been felt at the most recent International Trade Organization meeting that the Brazilian interests has got to confront international barriers to punish the Brazilian sugar with an high tax importation as in the European Union. Due to those difficulties, the possibility of opening a larger ethanol market, mainly in those countries which wish to reduce pollution emission, mixing anhydrous alcohol to gasoline appeared as a good alternative. Actually the European Community members have strategic reasons to maintain the sugar production subsidies. Brazil and most of the European Community members have been discussing an agreement to reduce the subsidies. The Brazilian victory on the appeal made in the International Trade Organization, on August the 4th; against the subsidies to the sugar conceded by EU, provoked rejection of many. (author)

  18. Organizing Capacities and Union Priorities in the Hotelsector in Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we draw international comparisons between industrial relations regimes in the hotel sector and compare relevant trade union experiences in the selected metropolitan areas of Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto. We ask how union strategies differ in these different hotel markets, and how strategic choices at a local level relate to industrial relations models, regulatory change, and corporate restructuring in the hotel market. The study is based on interviews with union representatives and key informants in Norway, Ireland, and Canada. The main argument we make is that the reorientation of union priorities and the willingness to engage in innovative strategies that has characterized hotel unionism in Toronto and Dublin is not detectable in the case of Oslo. This might be a result of the relatively strong position Norwegian trade unions have in national industrial relations, but can at the same time leave local hotel unions vulnerable as they are facing low unionization levels and corporate restructuring which they are unable to tackle effectively.

  19. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  20. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  1. Nuclear revival, nuclear safety: challenges for the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; Lacoste, Andre-Claude; Stellfox, David; Hajjani, Abdellaziz; Jamet, Philippe; Kaluzny, Yves; Lallier, Michel; Lescoeur, Bruno; Naredo, Fernando; Palm, Martina; Vincent, Cyrille; Faross, Peter; Gillet, Guillaume; Lemaitre, Philippe; Barcelo, Julio; Decobert, Veronique; Doumont, Pierre; Gouze, Jean-Remi; Hohlefelder, Walter; Herczog, Edit; Pouleur, Yvan; Teule, Rianne; Zidi, Latifa; Herzog, Philippe; Ristori, Dominique; Coniam, Jon; Kopp, Gudrun; Lambert de Diesbach, Patrice; Le Roux, Jean-Pierre; Mestrallet, Gerard; Paparizov, Atanas; Rosier, Philippe; Tamburi, Carlo; Lauvergeon, Anne; San Antonio, Santiago; Linkohr, Rolf; Auer, Josef; Bresson, Thierry de; Hohlefelder, Walter; Janouch, Frantisek; MacNaughton, Joan; Onyszkiewicz, Janusz; Reul, Herbert; Dolinsek, Urska; Komarov, Kirill; Boshkov, Aleksander; Bartuska, Vaclav; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Grimston, Malcolm; Jesien, Leszek; Keussen, Urban; Schmitt von Sydow, Helmut; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Jouyet, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon

  2. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  3. Getting to the CORE of the Chicago Teachers’ Union Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brogan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a comparative study of urban change and rank-and-file teacher rebellion in New York City and Chicago, to explore the contemporary dynamics of what Jamie Peck (2013 calls “austerity urbanism” and its relationship to a rebirth of a social justice, grassroots teacher unionism in US urban centres. Tracing the trajectories of one group of rank-and-file teacher dissidents in Chicago, it argues that municipal unions are uniquely situated to lead the fight against austerity urbanism and the crisis tendencies of contemporary capitalism. To do this, however, trade unions will need to be reinvented and a different form of working class politic forged, grounded both in and outside of the trade union movement. Only then may we see organized labour in North America contribute to a movement for radical and systemic change, which is key to building a more socially just urbanism and society more broadly. The case of the Chicago teachers is highly instructive for activists, both inside and outside of the North American labour movement.

  4. International and domestic uses of solid biofuels under different renewable energy support scenarios in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Resch, Gustav; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS based intermodal biomass transport model was developed for the European Union. • It was linked to the renewable energy model Green-X updated with biomass trade. • Scenarios of renewable energy deployment in the EU27 to 2020 were assessed. • Domestic biomass resources will remain the largest source of bioenergy (over 90%). • But increasing amounts of solid biomass will be traded (up to 506 PJ in 2020). - Abstract: This article describes the development of a geographic information systems (GIS) based biomass transport analysis tool BIT-UU used in combination with the European renewable energy model Green-X. BIT-UU calculates cost and GHG emissions from lowest cost routes, using intermodal transport (by road, rail, inland waterways and sea) between origins of supply and demand destinations. With the developed biomass trade module in Green-X, the role of bioenergy can be evaluated in the larger context of renewable energy deployment. The modeling framework takes into account the current and future energy policies at EU and country levels, competition with alternative sources of renewable energy (e.g. photovoltaic, wind) and sectors (electricity, heat, transport fuels) as well as competition between EU member states for the same biomass resources. Scenario projections to 2020 are used to demonstrate the developed modeling framework. According to these scenarios, biomass from domestic supply remains the most important source of bioenergy (91–93% in 2020). However, the role of traded solid biomass will become increasingly important. With a business as usual scenario, assuming continuation of current renewable energy policies to 2020, the binding renewable energy targets will not be achieved, but trade of solid biomass will still increase up to 451 PJ in 2020. In the scenario that meets the conditions to achieve the 20% renewable energy target in 2020, traded solid biomass is projected to increase to 440 PJ if sustainability criteria are

  5. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  6. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  7. Investigation of Economic Impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements between Sub-Saharan Africa and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Pişkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the economic effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs which have been negotiating between sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and European Union (EU. The study addresses the following questions:  How are African countries likely to gain or lose from a bilateral trade liberalisation between Africa and the EU?, what are the welfare implications for the African countries from the EPAs?, how will the formation of EPAs affect trade expansion through trade creation and trade diversion effects?, what are the potential fiscal implications of the EPAs. Even though the full reciprocity principle appears to be trade expanding (singularly infavour of EU, this study indicates that it will pose serious implications for deepening of regional integration in Africa because of trade diversion effect between African countries.  Another key finding is welfare effect through the way of trade expantion between EU and SSA.

  8. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  9. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  10. The emergence of industrial relations in regional trade blocks: a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Visser, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence and institutionalization of regional industrial relations arrangements in six regional integration agreements (European Union, North American Free Trade Association, Mercado Común del Sur, Economic Community of West African States, Southern African Development

  11. Impact of Zimbabwe - South Africa Trade Relations: A Bilateral, Regional, or Multilateral Approach?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayihlome, Levi

    1997-01-01

    .... Whereas a functional bilateral trade agreement or a regional customs union culminating in a common market might improve Zimbabwe's regional competitiveness in the short run' due to South Africa's...

  12. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  13. Unolympic Unionism or Apocryphal Olympism? Ideas for future anti-doping governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kornbeck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present ideas for future anti-doping governance by considering the relative merits of trade union-based athlete representation (ATU as opposed to the current system of so-called athletes’ commissions or athletes’ committees (AC. It therefore revisits recent examples of the rejection of trade unionism in anti-doping governance and questions the legitimacy of current arrangements. In order to investigate the normative basis of current practice and possible revisions, the author examines the use made, in the World Anti-Doping Code, of the concept of ‘Olympism’. The question is asked whether ‘Olympism’ is an appropriate justification for rejecting athlete representation via trade unions.

  14. Emissions trading for business and industry. A new instrument to achieve environmental goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Key components of the Kyoto Protocol are the flexible instruments or mechanisms: namely trading emissions, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. These mechanisms make it possible to trade in CO2 emissions or emission permits, thereby enabling the Kyoto Protocol targets that have been imposed on all states, to be attained in the most cost-effective way. Although the Kyoto targets are binding only on states, it is likely that governments will pass responsibility for meeting them on to specific target groups and impose absolute or relative (energy efficiency or CO2 per unit) targets on them. Flexible instruments, especially Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), can also be used by companies to achieve their emission targets. Until now, the VNO-NCW Confederation of Netherlands Industry has generally been positive about the use of flexible instruments. However, various developments have persuaded the VNO-NCW that it is a good idea to examine more specific questions with regard to flexible instruments. First, the CO2 trade committee (the Vogtlaender Committee) has been asked to issue recommendations concerning the possibilities inherent in a national system for emissions trading. A basic variant will be explored, in which protected sectors (households, the service industry, small industrial enterprises) will be assigned absolute ceilings and internationally operating companies will be assigned with relative targets. Second, in March 2000 the European Commission published a Green Paper on trade in greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union in order to launch an European Union (EU)-wide debate on the introduction of an EU system for trade in emissions in 2005. In common with the Netherlands, various EU member states are studying the possibilities for phasing in a system of trade in CO2 emissions; only in Denmark has such a system actually been introduced. In industry, too, many initiatives have been taken in

  15. The evolution of the EU external trade policy in services - CETA, TTIP, and TiSA after Brexit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the external trade policy of the European Union (EU). It is also an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  16. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  17. Oil's role in free trade agreement crux of Mexico's petroleum sector dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico's president Salinas' efforts at privatization have not yet touched Mexico's most valuable industry, oil. That remains under control of state owned Petroleos Mexicanos. Pemex and Mexico's huge oil union have come under increasing criticism for alleged abuses of power. In addition, controversy rages as to the true extent of Mexican oil resources and whether Pemex has the wherewithal to meet domestic demand and sustain oil exports. Critics also contend opening Mexico's oil sector to foreign participation would introduce new efficiencies and cost cutting measures in the cash strapped state oil industry. This paper reports that at the center of the controversy is the proposed Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, pushed strongly by Salinas. Oil's role in the FTA may prove the pact's main sticking point

  18. Systemic trade risk of critical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Obersteiner, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the role of strongly interconnected markets in causing systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. We show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of nonfuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the worldwide trade networks spanned by these resources. At the global level, we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. At the regional level, we find that, to some extent, region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade risk indicators are often those that are produced as by-products of major metals. We identify significant strategic shortcomings in the management of systemic trade risk, in particular in the European Union.

  19. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  20. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  1. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  2. Toward a More Perfect Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  3. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged with...

  4. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  5. The Asian economy: trade structure interpreted by feedback loop analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sonis, Michael; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recent discussions that focused on the problems of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] together with the emergence of strengthened and expanded free trade areas [such as NAFTA, European Union and MERCOSUL/MERCOSUR] have created the need for careful analysis of the nature of internal and external dependence among nations and, within any nation, among the constituent regions. The picture that is obtained from inspection of import and export flows is only ...

  6. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  7. Trade agreements and access to drugs in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2009-01-01

    Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...

  8. Globalisations, Social Movement Unionism and New Internationalisms: The Role of Strategic Learning in the Transformation of the Municipal Workers Union of EMCALI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores processes of social movement learning within SINTRAEMCALI, a public service trade union in the South West of Colombia, which has successfully prevented a series of attempts by the national government to privatise public utilities. The paper develops the concept of "strategic learning" and applies it to an exploration…

  9. New learning arenas for shop stewards - a new political agenda for unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    . In the paper I will discuss results from a project involving shop stewards from four different unions, all members of LO (the confederation of trade unions for skilled and unskilled workers). We worked with different methods in the project ending with ‘future-creating workshops' where shop stewards...... in daily practices can be analysed us a combination of perspectives from different theoretical traditions. Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development...... of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation and reaction to this development....

  10. The Union view of back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    After a long political and technical discussion, the German trade unions united in the German Federation of Labor (DGB) arrived at the finding that back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany, in addition to the present concept of the Government providing for a reprocessing plant, should also include studies of the alternative possibility to store spent fuel elements over long periods of time, perhaps with a possibility to recover them later. That decision is also based on a report by the Nuclear Technology Working Group of the Metal Workers Union (IG Metall) and the Public Workers Union (OeTV). (orig.) [de

  11. Patterns and determinants of business cycle synchronization in the enlarged European Economic and Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SIEDSCHLAG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence about the degree of business cycle synchronization between the euro area countries and eight new European Union member states. We analyze the direct and indirect effects of similarity of economic structures and trade intensity on the co-movement of fluctuations of economic activity across these countries and find that bilateral similarity of economic structures and trade intensity were positively and significantly associated with business cycle correlations. This result is robust to different estimation techniques. Similarity of economic structures had an additional indirect positive effect on business cycle synchronization via its positive effect on trade intensity. The bilateral business cycle correlations are found to be endogenous with respect to bilateral similarity of economic structures and bilateral trade intensity suggesting that the new European Union countries will better satisfy the Optimum Currency Area criteria after the adoption of the euro.

  12. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  13. The Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien

    2015-08-01

    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO 2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  14. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  15. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2000 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2000, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2000, some 2446 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 2720 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union and Russia, South Korea, and Brazil. (orig.) [de

  16. The State of the Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some of the contributi...... of the contributions to this volume deal with the Union in a comparative European context. Both Scottish nationalism and Scottish unionism are analysed, and Anglo-Scottish relations are looked at from historical, sociological, linguistic and literary angles...

  17. Proceedings of the Emissions trading conference : effective strategies for successful emissions trading in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest everywhere in the topic of emissions trading in order to meet the commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol. During this conference, most aspects of emissions trading were discussed, ranging from the need to establish credible emission reduction estimates to the means of achieving those goals, to the trading activities of Ontario Power Generation in the field of emissions trading both at the domestic and the international level. There were presentations that focussed on greenhouse gas policies, markets and strategic plays, and the preparation for the regulation of greenhouse gas. An emissions trading regime for Canada was examined by one of the presenters. This conference provided a useful venue for all stakeholders to discuss various strategies and ideas related to emissions trading. Speakers represented governments, the private sector and utilities, as well as the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. tabs., figs

  18. Emissions trading and the climate change levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connett, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the flexible mechanisms established in the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework on Climate Change focussing on the mechanism whereby countries achieving their target for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases can trade their excess to countries having difficulty achieving their target. UK measures to meet their commitment, the UK government's proposed climate change levy on the use of energy, negotiated agreements, emissions trading, and the nature, supply and trading of permits are examined. Compatibility with international agreements and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive, monitoring, and penalties are considered

  19. 78 FR 77426 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Open... development and public perception of manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax policy and export growth...

  20. 78 FR 63964 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open... subcommittees on workforce development and public perception of manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax...

  1. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  2. Steps to Opening the Skilled Trades to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    Employers' and unions' acceptance in attitude and practice of the equal capacity of women to function in the skilled trades and other apprentice-type jobs depends upon knowledge of facts, actual experience, and understanding of equal opportunity laws, according to the authors of the document, which offers to employers first steps to take to…

  3. A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...

  4. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  5. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  6. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  7. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  8. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  9. Latin American astronomers and the International Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    Selected aspects of the participation of the Latin American astronomers in the International Astronomical Union are presented: Membership, Governing bodies, IAU meetings, and other activities. The Union was founded in 1919 with 7 initial member states, soon to be followed by Brazil. In 1921 Mexico joined, and in 1928 Argentina also formed part of the Union, while Chile joined in 1947. In 1961 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela were already member countries. At present (October 2016) 72 countries contribute financially to the Union. The Union lists 12,391 professional astronomers as individual members; of those, 692 astronomers work in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 13 member states (Argentina, Bolivia , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Panamá, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from Ecuador and Puerto Rico. This group comprises 5.58% of the total membership, a figure somewhat lower than the fraction of the population in the region, which is 8.6% of the world population. Of the Latin American members, 23.4% are women and 76.6% are men; slightly higher than the whole membership of Union, which is of 16.9%. In the governing bodies it can be mentioned that there have been 2 Presidents of the Union (Jorge Sahade and Silvia Torres-Peimbert), 7 VicePresidents (Guillermo Haro, Jorge Sahade, Manuel Peimbert Claudio Anguita, Silvia Torres-Peimbert, Beatriz Barbuy, and Marta G. Rovira). The IAU meetings held in the region, include 2 General Assemblies (the 1991 XXI GA took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina and the 2009 XXVIII GA, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 15 Regional Meetings (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay), 29 Symposia (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico), 5 Colloquia (in Argentina and Mexico), 8 International Schools for Young Astronomers (in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Honduras and Mexico), and 11 projects sponsored by the Office of Astronomy

  10. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  11. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  12. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  13. EU trade in the time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtíková, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the European Union (EU trade and trade policy in the time of global financial and economic crisis. The analysis of the EU exports and imports points out that the financial crisis has had a negative impact on the intra as well as on the extra-EU trade in the period 2007-2009, but differences among the EU member states have existed. Although the EU tries to support trade development in the world and remove barriers to trade, some protectionist tendencies were recorded in the time of the economic crisis. The last part of the paper gives emphasis to the EU trade policy and some trade measures which have been taken in the EU and its member states to support trade development or vice versa, to protect domestic industries. The results of the analysis show that, although some protectionist tendencies have been recorded both in extra and intra-EU trade, trade relations which are provided among member states are of significant importance all the time.

  14. 'Who Would Be Free, Herself Must Strike the Blow': The National Union of Women Teachers, Equal Pay, and Women within the Teaching Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the formation of the National Union of Women Teachers in England. Examines how it sought to combine, within one organization, elements of feminism, traditional trade union concern for members' salaries and working conditions, and a desire to protect and enhance its members' professional status. (GEA)

  15. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  16. 12 CFR 704.11 - Corporate Credit Union Service Organizations (Corporate CUSOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... course of business of credit unions; and (4) Is structured as a corporation, limited liability company, or limited partnership under state law. (b) Investment and loan limitations. (1) The aggregate of all... in shares, stocks, or obligations of an insurance company, trade association, liquidity facility, or...

  17. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  19. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  20. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  1. Labor-union initiatives on the climate and a fair transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Marylise

    2015-01-01

    For several years now, the CFDT has worked out an approach to sustainable development that is not a pale copy of the grievances expressed by associations or NGOs, but a plan for a new model for developing a fair, environmentally-friendly economy. This French labor union has supported this coherent, global approach in the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). In France, it has strongly backed a bill of parliament on the 'energy transition'. To this end, it mobilized its members and means; but more importantly, it has worked through unusual partnerships with associations, businesses, local authorities, parliament and experts. This campaign, a response to the challenges facing France and Europe, strives to make the Paris Conference a success

  2. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  3. Professionalethics, deontology and unionism in brazilian librarianship: multiple historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Albino Santana

    2017-09-01

    collection, bibliographical and documental research. It presents concepts related to ethics as a science and its importance in the field of professions. It relates ethics and deontology, understanding this as a science of duty, responsible for ascertaining how the norms guiding the professional classes arise and are sustained. It evokes historical elements of the trade union movement in England, its arrival in Brazil and the beginning of unionization of Brazilian librarians. As a result, it highlights the need to broaden the debates about professional ethics and the maturation of class consciousness in Librarianship, which may have repercussions on collective actions of greater visibility with society.

  4. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  5. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  6. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  7. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  8. International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.; Kirchmann, R.

    1995-01-01

    A review of International Union of Radioecology response to the Chernobyl radioecological situation is given. A scope of the activities ((1) Increase of contacts and cooperation with CIS scientists; (2) Organization, usually in collaboration with intergovernmental institution, of international scientific meetings; (3) Synthesis reports dealing with impacts of the Chernobyl fallout; (4) Collaboration with other international organizations and projects (SCOPE-RADPATH, UNESCO-CESN, IAEA); (5) Training of young scientists; and (6) Progress of current activities) is reviewed

  9. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  10. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... United States, in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations with the European Union (EU), is seeking to strengthen the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade and to... participation in transatlantic trade might be strengthened. Public Hearing: The additional hearing will be held...

  11. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... States, in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations, will seek to strengthen U.S.-European Union (EU) cooperation to enhance the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade....-EU cooperation to enhance the participation of SMEs in transatlantic trade. As requested by the USTR...

  12. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union; Rescheduling of Washington...

  13. Rising trade, declining stocks: The global gugul (Commiphora wightii) trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Kulloli, R N; Schippmann, U

    2018-05-07

    Commiphora wightii is exploited in India and Pakistan for an oleo-resin (gum guggul) traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medical systems. Processed C. wightii oleo-resin products are exported from India to 42 countries, including re-export to Pakistan, for anti-inflammatory use and as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-obesity treatment considered to lower cholesterol and lipid levels. The C. wightii export trade has particular relevance to the European Union because Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom are importing countries. Demand and prices for C. wightii oleo-resin are increasing and wild stocks of C. wightii are in decline. The overexploitation of C. wightii after tapping for its commercially valuable oleo-resin is not a new problem, however, but one that has existed for over 50 years. Lopping and chopping trees to extract C. wightii oleo-resin has had a devastating impact on C. wightii populations since the 1960's. The aim of this study was to review the sustainability of the global trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. This included reviewing studies on resin tapping methods and the impacts of wild harvest on C. wightii populations in India and Pakistan. Firstly, we reviewed studies on impacts of C. wightii oleo-resin harvest and on the policy responses taken in relation to harvest and trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. Secondly, we reviewed studies on C. wightii cultivation. Thirdly, global trade data for C. wightii were analyzed. Destructive harvest to obtain the gum is the major threat facing this species. C. wightii populations are also fragmented by habitat loss through clearing for farming. Cutting and lopping in order to extract the medicinal gum are a major threat to C. wightii populations, as is poor recruitment due to grazing by livestock. As a result of over-exploitation, C. wightii oleo-resin production has declined in India. In Gujarat, a key production area, the decline over a 50-year period has

  14. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  15. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  16. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  17. Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System after Doha

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. N.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agree...

  18. Factors impacting on the external environment of the Arabic Maghrib Countries Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Mansur Essayah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Arabic Maghrib Countries. Relations of these countries in their different forms, political, economical, and sociological, have not suddenly appeared, but are founded on a long-term development. At the same time, they have not yet achieved enough progress to make it possible to analyze the contradictory elements in the relation forms and to help these countries achieve the aims required and advantages they desire.Available information and performed analyses show that managerial systems are capable of making this partnership and its continuation effective, especially when they distinguish between what can be agreed upon, and the subjects of disagreement, and move away from the political circumstances, and exploit the geographical location. Location plays an important role in effecting unified relationships between the states of this union and with other countries as well, because it is considered an opportunity, and stimulatory factor, which needs to be exploited by cooperation in economic field.An example of cooperation of these countries can be adoption of unified policies represented by common conduct in negotiations of prices and other trade conditions in the trade with oil and natural gas, and natural resources of its member states, without relating to the old problems, and not linking political matters with economic matters.Focusing on the culture and education are also very important in this subject, because it represents one of the major constructs, which should be considered when trying to improve management systems in these countries. They have to try to overcome weaknesses by cooperation in preparation of educational concepts and systems and developing educational programs capable of meeting the challenges of sweeping societal changes, and the principal challenges, which Arabic Countries are bound to face in the near future. Education in these countries needs a lot of investments in order to

  19. 75 FR 64748 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice of a Matter To Be Added to the Agenda for Consideration at an Agency Meeting TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m., Thursday, October 21, 2010. PLACE: Board Room, 7th Floor, Room 7047, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-3428. STATUS: Open. Matters To...

  20. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  1. 77 FR 56233 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs... Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA...

  2. 77 FR 13153 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of the Free Trade Agreements, technical... of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), a brief presentation on USDOL technical assistance efforts in FTA...

  3. 78 FR 13088 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, as well as a... implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, and a review and discussion by the full...

  4. ENCOURAGING THE USE OF WETLANDS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in water quality trading (WQT) has grown in recent years because of its potential to meet nutrient reduction goals at lower costs. However, one problem identified by researchers in most WQT programs has been few actual trades, usually associated with low numbers of ...

  5. 17 CFR 36.2 - Exempt boards of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquid, to render any contract traded on the commodity highly unlikely to be susceptible to the threat of manipulation; or (iii)No cash market. (2) The commodities that meet the criteria of paragraph (a)(1) of this... underlying any agreement, contract, or transaction executed or traded on the facility when: (A) Cash market...

  6. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K.

    1998-01-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L'Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  7. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  8. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  9. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden......UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...

  10. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  11. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  12. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  13. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  14. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE COMMITTEES IN EUROPEAN UNION EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrascu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.

  15. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  16. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  17. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  18. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  19. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  1. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  2. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  3. On Union-Based Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Linda

    1982-01-01

    A course combining English in the workplace, information seeking and job application skills, occupational safety, and other workplace skills conducted by a community college and a major industrial union is described. The very successful program will be continued and developed based on the initial experience. (MSE)

  4. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  5. Transatlantic Conflict and Cooperation Concerning Trade Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. McKinney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the European Union are major players in the global economy. Economic relations between them are both extensive and deep. They account for about 45 percent of world Gross Domestic Product, 30 percent of world foreign direct investment flows, and 70 percent of world FDI stocks. Given their importance in the world economy, and their importance to each other’s economies, it is critical that they cooperate with each other and keep conflict to a minimum. Fortunately, their trade disputes have been relatively few and have for the most part been settled amicably. Attempts to attain deeper economic integration have met with mixed success. The current negotiations for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have potential for deepening their economic relationship, but care should be taken not to push beyond what is politically feasible.

  6. Customs tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs in the function of the realization of regional economic integrations: The example of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Mile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs have always been important instruments in the protection of domestic production from foreign competition, though the more in the past, the less in today's global economic environment. The idea of protectionism in international trade hasn't evaded the European Union either. The European Union has a common protectionist policy against countries that are not member to it. The agricultural production and the policy of administrative levies on the import of agricultural products pertain to the area that enjoys the highest degree of protection. The realization of such protectionist policy makes the international trade less free, while the free movement of goods is quintessential to the economic growth of the European Union, other regional economic integrations, individual countries and the society as such. The World Trade Organization, which imposes its own rules on the international trade, the creation of regional economic organizations in today's environment of international trade and free-trade agreements between individual states shrank to minimal the diapason of various protectionist measures and instruments. The decline of the idea of protectionism in international trade is evidenced by data on the share of the customs tariffs in the total fiscal revenues of the European Union and of the GDP of the member states. Namely, the fiscal impact of custom tariffs for some years shows a descending tendency, above all due to the process of globalization in foreign trade and liberalization at the scale of global economy. The European Union will be able to facilitate the development of the regional economic integrations only through the liberalization of foreign trade, because the idea of protectionism in international trade doesn't have perspectives on the long run.

  7. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  8. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Lisa A.; Kruse, Douglas L.

    1992-01-01

    A 1984 survey of 250 union members (86 women and 164 men) showed that most women, especially those in private sector white collar jobs, were interested in joining unions but face barriers such as family responsibilities. (SK)

  9. Students Union, University Administration and Political Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students Union, University Administration and Political Development of Nations. ... African Research Review ... resting on the reciprocal determinism of the social learning theory, that students union makes university administration smooth.

  10. Department of Trade annual report 1983-84. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Trade was created on 11 March 1983. It is responsible for the administration of the Government's policies as they relate to international trade, the promotion of Australia's exports and the Australian Trade Commissioner Service. The Department's activities for the financial year 1983/84 are documented in this report. Areas documented are corporate strategy, execution of corporate strategy, management, information services, finance and staffing, Acts administered by the Minister, functions and membership of councils and committees, international trade meetings attended by departmental representatives, departmental publications, and national export award winners.

  11. The Best of Both Worlds? Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international

  12. Unions and the Economic Basis of Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Michael; Bryson, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Unions make differences to employee satisfaction that correspond to their effects on individual economic advantage. Panel data reveal how changes in economic circumstance and changes in job satisfaction are linked to changes in union coverage. When individuals move into a union covered job they receive a wage mark-up and express enhanced pay satisfaction. Conversely, those moving from a union covered job on average lose any mark-up and have significantly reduced satisfaction. Similar findings...

  13. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  14. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  15. The African Union and Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AFRICAN UNION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen Royal Danish Army Colonel Patrick...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen TITLE: The African Union and Conflict Management FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 2 March 2006...WORD COUNT: 5850 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: African Union, Africa, Conflict Management , Capabilities CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Africa is a continent with a

  16. Emissions Trading: The Ugly Duckling in European Climate Policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraake, Markus

    2009-07-15

    The initial years of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) have provided a large-scale testing ground for trading of a new environmental commodity, carbon dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the origins and characteristics of the EU ETS. It then goes on to analyse the most contentious issues that have been discussed in the economics literature and in the public debate surrounding the trading system. The lessons learned are diverse and not all experiences are positive. Nevertheless, invaluable information has been gained from the EU ETS and policy makers in Europe and elsewhere would be wise to make use of it, be they supporters of emissions trading or sceptics to such policies. The paper concludes with a look toward the future, highlighting some upcoming revisions of the EU ETS and at what issues remain unresolved

  17. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (author)

  18. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  19. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  20. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership - A View from America's Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledowski Krzysztof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations run high about the cornucopia of riches which are supposed to fow from the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. TTIP is a proposed free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union. It aims to build upon the already sweeping scope of the North American Free Trade Agreement concluded two decades earlier and the 2013 Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA, which removes 99 % of tariffs between the EU and Canada.1 Te TTIP negotiations were launched in July 2013 with an initial time frame of completion within two years.

  1. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  2. Greenhouse gas emission management in the US - current regional initiatives compared with international carbon trading programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, A.G.; Law, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States (US) there are currently voluntary reporting programs (EPA Climate Leaders, Carbon Disclosure Project and The Climate Registry), organized market-based trading platforms (Chicago Climate Exchange and The Green Exchange) and proposed regional mandatory cap and trade programs in California, the Northeast, the West and the Midwest. The past success of the US Acid Rain 'cap-and-trade' system market-based format together with the availability of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme to serve as a template for future greenhouse gas regulations is promising as the US can participate in the world wide carbon markets already established. (author)

  3. Reconciling Trade and Environmental Protection in ASEAN-China Relations: More than Political Window Dressing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Dosch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the growing pro-environment rhetoric in ASEAN-China relations resulted in the effective mainstreaming of environmental issue into trade agreements and multilateral cooperation frameworks? The article discusses the cases of the ASEAN China Free Trade Area (ACFTA and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and argues that there is no shortage of national and regional policy agendas that visibly link trade growth and environmental considerations. However, this nexus is still a weak one in terms of implementation and effectiveness. The most promising initiatives towards an effective reconciliation of trade growth and environmental sustainability are promoted and often driven by foreign donors, most prominently the European Union (EU.

  4. 77 FR 14199 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of... Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Treaty or Convention) by...

  5. 網路關鍵字廣告之商標權侵害爭議──評析美國與歐盟實務對於商標使用之界定 Trade Mark Use in Keyword Advertisements in the United States and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    謝國廉 Kuo-Lien Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 關鍵字廣告服務的模式多樣而複雜,於歐美已引起諸多商標法爭議。本文深入分析美國Rescuecom 案及歐盟L’Oréal 案的相關爭議與實務見解。在涉及關鍵字廣告的商標權侵害爭議中,侵權行為人可能為搜尋引擎經營者、線上市場經營者,或是透過網路販賣帶有他人商標的商品之人。就侵權行為態樣與對應之法律責任而言,侵權行為人可能必須獨立負擔主要侵權人的責任,或與其他侵權行為人連帶負共同侵權的責任,或負擔幫助行為的責任。欲認定侵害商標權之人須負擔何種責任,須檢視其行為是否符合特定侵權行為的要件。就歐美商標法制的要件而言,以下兩項至為重要:「是否未經授權即就他人商標為商業上之使用」以及「是否有混淆誤認之虞」,其中又以涉及第一項要件的判斷最為困難。具體來說,於本文所探討兩件案例中,搜尋引擎經營者和線上市場經營者是否確有「於商業上使用他人商標」的行為,係相關爭議中的核心問題。 The rapid development of online keyword advertising has triggered a series of trade mark disputes in the United States and Europe. This Article analyses the legal disputes concerning the unauthorised use of trade marks in the keyword advertisements, in particular those in Rescuecom Corp. v. Google Inc. in 2009 and in L’Oréal SA & Ors v. eBay International AG & Ors in 2011. As to the trade mark infringements regarding keyword advertisements, those sued by trademark owners include search engine operators, online marketplace operators, and those involved in promoting online sales of products bearing signs identical or similar to third party trade marks. As regards the types of infringement concerned, those who make unauthorised use of trade marks may be held responsible for primary infringement in certain circumstances, and in the others, the

  6. The global diet: trade and novel infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Ann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Practices designed to meet the demands of global trade can amplify food safety problems. Ever-increasing pressure to churn out more product and better sides of beef has generated processes that compromise existing safety measures. Among the concerns are intensified food production, use of antimicrobials and hormones as growth promoters, and poor sanitary infrastructure in some food producing countries. Accompanying the innovations designed to serve the diversifying global palate are emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, or "trade-related infections." The joint efforts of international public health and industry are required to effectively address these growing health challenges.

  7. Risk management and oil trading contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas, B.

    1992-01-01

    The oil market provides an excellent case study for an analysis of the commodity trading risks and the development of contractual instruments and market structures to meet these risks. The paper identifies the main risks, namely performance, credit/payment, price, regulatory, fiscal, and ''trading'' risk. A conceptual framework provides the basis to trace the evolution of the risk management instruments from relational (e.g. long-term), through ''transactional'' (e.g. spot and forwards) to ''institutional'' (e.g. futures and options) and finally ''pricing'' (e.g. swaps and trigger pricing) contracts. (author)

  8. 75 FR 64742 - Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [USITC SE-10-029] Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission. TIME AND DATE: October 22, 2010... Wireless Communications Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof). In accordance with...

  9. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  10. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  11. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  12. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  13. union publique HR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  14. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  15. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  16. Italian trade and direct investment in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Settimo

    2014-01-01

    More than three years since the events of the Arab Spring, the five North African countries � Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia are still going through a difficult transition. This study provides an overview of Italian trade and direct investment in the region. The main stylized facts are the following: (1) among the countries of the European Union, Italy is the region�s largest trading partner; (2) the region is a crucial source of energy, supplying 31 per cent of the oil and 44...

  17. "Entrepreneurship policy: Trade-offs and impact in the EU"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the notion that trade-offs in public policies form the basis of the separation of managed and entrepreneurial economies; this paper investigates the impact of policy on actual entrepreneurship activity in these two categories of economies. Using data from 19 European Union member countries......, the impact that policy trade-offs in the goal, target, location and system of finance have on entrepreneurship activity is measured using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that while business regulation negatively impact entrepreneurship activity, the location of policy does not show...

  18. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  19. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  20. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...