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Sample records for trade unions meet

  1. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    Although Denmark has not experienced an increase in the number of migrant workers from Eastern Europe to same degree as the UK or Ireland, Danish unions in the construction sector are concerned that the collective bargaining system could be undermined by the presence of Eastern European Country...... (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... with distrust on behalf of the migrants. Or should they focus first and foremost on the workplace and aim to organise the EEC workers? Or might they be able to do both? In this article we describe problems and challenges trade unions have faced due to the presence of EEC workers in the Danish construction...

  2. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... response is not straightforward: they could pursue a strategy of surveillance and control, leading to closer cooperation with public authorities (e.g., tax and immigration authorities) in order to impose sanctions and fines on employers violating existing agreements and legislation - a strategy often met...... with distrust on behalf of the migrants. Or should they focus first and foremost on the workplace and aim to organise the EEC workers? Or might they be able to do both? In this article we describe problems and challenges trade unions have faced due to the presence of EEC workers in the Danish construction...

  3. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  4. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  5. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  6. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  7. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  8. Migration and Trade Union Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2010-01-01

    We study in this paper both theoretically and empirically the influence of trade union rights in origin countries on bilateral migration flows. Theoretically, we propose two complementary models. In the first model, trade union rights are supposed to increase the bargaining power of workers. We model these rights as a transfer from high-skilled workers to low-skilled workers, assuming that this latter category of workers will benefit more from freedom of association and collective bargaining....

  9. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  10. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  11. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  12. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  13. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  14. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  15. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  16. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy......This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  17. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    In this study the reasons for joining a trade union are analyzed statistically using high quality data from Statistics Denmark comprising the entire Danish workforce combined with European Social Survey data from rounds 1-3. These data enables measuring the effect of union density at the workplace...... level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...... to be a value rational motive. The statistical results indicate that the most important predictor of joining the union is workplace union density and only in a secondary manner does political attitude matter. It is concluded that the normative pressure of one’s colleagues is the dominating reason for joining...

  18. The Negotiated Curriculum in Trade Union Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mel

    1993-01-01

    Examines how participants in trade union courses can effectively influence their learning experience through discussion, consultation, and negotiation with the instructor while the training activity is in progress. (JOW)

  19. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE UNIONS TO AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS SUSTEM EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Шиленко

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade union as a social institution in charge of monitoring the social and labor rights was first formed in the west, and later became the basis for the organization of a similar structure in pre-revolutionary Russia. This organizational structure, having undergone a transformation during the first half of the XX century, was formed in the Soviet trade unions. However, there has been a tendency to reduce the popularity of the trade unions in the countries in which originated the concept of trade unions. Therefore there are some reasons, both economic and political. To analyze this issue, consider examples of typical cases of foreign trade unions. These cases can be seen in the media, as well as in the analysis of studies on the characteristics of modern trade unions, both in our country and abroad. As a results-based on facts and stereotypes to define the place of trade unions in the modern economic system and a comparative analysis of the structure of our country and the United States ' Trade Union.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-99

  1. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  2. Revitalizing the Malaysian Trade Union Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... organizations prefer non-partisan engagement. In order to revitalize themselves, the unions must demonstrate to the Malaysian public that they are both relevant and important for increased productivity and that they can play a significant role in enabling Malaysia to move beyond the middle-income ‘trap’ towards...... a more developed market economy....

  3. Trade unions and democratisation in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In writings about the role of trade unions in the democratization process in Africa one can distinguish a pessimistic and an optimistic school. However, recent research presents a more complex picture. In this chapter the author has selected three case studies for an in-depth comparative analysis:

  4. The Educational Role of Soviet Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1983-01-01

    How to increase the productivity of the labor force is of extreme importance in Russia today because of the declining birthrate. What trade unions are doing to educate their currently employed workers and youth is the focus of the articles in this issue. (RM)

  5. Special Issue: Women's Participation in Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Shirley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This special issue explores women's participation in trade unions through the following topics: empowerment; strategies to increase women's participation; the effect of women on the world of work; the need for self-analysis, gender sensitization, educational programs, and mentors; and regional reports from Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin…

  6. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    trade union organisation and action are the World. Bank / IMF driven Structural Adjustment. Programmes in Third World countries (Imoisili,. 1987; Onimode, 1998), globalisation (Iyayi,. 2003b; Jenkins, 1987; Susskind, 2002); changing structure of industrial ownership, employment and the labour force (Fashoyin, 2002).

  7. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  8. The Trade Union approach to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, Bill

    1988-01-01

    A report is given by a Trade Union Congress representative to the UK Parliamentary group for Energy Studies on recent developments in TUC energy policy since 1984. The main changes are increasing attention to both public accountability and to environmental aspects of energy policy. Topics covered include nuclear energy, privatization of the electricity supply, the effects on coal and energy policy and long term security. (U.K.)

  9. Trade Union Membership and Earnings in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Manda , Damiano Kulundu; Bigsten, Arne; Mwabu , Germano

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of trade unions on earnings in Kenyan manufacturing using a switching regression model, which takes into account endogeneity of union status of workers. In contrast to earlier studies of the Kenyan labour market, which indicate that the union effect on wages is negative, our results show a strong positive trade union effect. We also show that it is workers with relatively weak position in the labour market that joins the union.

  10. Impacting working conditions through trade union training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudart, Corinne; Petit, Johann; Dugué, Bernard; Daniellou, François; Davezies, Philippe; Théry, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a training course in work analysis via an understanding of real work. The course was aimed at trade unionists and was produced by researchers in ergonomics and occupational medicine. Designing this type of training is closely associated with the history of ergonomics in France and goes back to the basic principles: training by and for action, focusing on the concept of activity and the co-construction of knowledge, involving all actors in the relevant area of work. One hundred and fifty trade unionists were trained over a period of 18 months, successfully completing company projects in the field of occupational health. The course was organised into seven 3-day modules. Each module included plenary sessions on fundamental topics relating to health/work, and small work groups where the trade union projects were prepared, based on gaining an understanding of the real work involved. There were two types of results: an understanding of the way work is currently changing and of the consequences of these changes for workers' health; transformations in trade unionists' representations of work, giving them a better awareness of health/work relationships, new ways of transforming work, and also information about the teaching content required when designing training programmes for trade unionists. Understanding the notion of activity and constructing interaction with employees are crucial elements for carrying out this type of project successfully.

  11. Trade union membership and works councils in West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Pannenberg, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The fraction of works councillors belonging to a trade union in Germany is much higher than union density among employees. If works councils represent the face of unions, union membership of employees should be related positively to the existence of works councils and their proximity to unions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic-Panel SOEP we find that (a) works councillors exhibit a higher probability of being a union member, (b) the mere existence of a works council within an establi...

  12. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  13. Trade Union Responses to Labour Immigrants: Selective Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish service sector trade union Palvelualojen ammattiliitto or Service Union United has the largest amount of migrant members of all Finnish trade unions. It walks the narrow line between defending the perceived interests of its members from the ‘threat’ of labour immigration, and simultaneously trying to act as an immigrant-friendly force. This qualitative case study analyses the outcomes of the union’s strategies in questions related to immigration. The outcomes affect different immigrant groups in a different manner. Furthermore, the established quasi-state character of the Finnish trade union movement affects both the strengths and weaknesses of its strategies. The politicized anti-immigration views in the Finnish society indirectly to some degree impact trade union strategies. Results suggest that the lay distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ based on nationality still shapes trade union strategy in a way that can be labeled selective solidarity.

  14. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically examines and evaluates inter alia Trade Unions as. Organisations and the key issues and problems of Internal Democracy within them. It transcends this analysis to assert that these core issues apply equally well to Political Organisations. Thus, from an ideological standpoint, Trade Unions play a great ...

  15. Learning for Renewal; Learning in a Trade Union Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze learning in a Swedish trade union board in a workplace, according to contemporary challenges in working life and conditions, of decentralization and local independency of trade union work and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on ethnographic studies of two Swedish local trade…

  16. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  17. Education for Trade Union Officials and Militants in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglay, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes labor education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The course system consists of three levels of courses, including (1) local short-term trade union courses, (2) regional permanent courses that last up to a month, and (3) seminars at the Trade Unionist Upgrading Institute. (CH)

  18. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-07-01

    New typological features of social movements are formed on the basis of a new type of social and communication links. Social hierarchy and class antagonisms, which provided the basis for the existence and development of trade unions in the past, expired. Therefore, the organizational forms of trade unions as social movements have become more available and acceptable for contemporary citizens.

  19. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  20. The Development of Trade Union theory and Mainstream Economic Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Katselidis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The pre-war approaches to trade unions were mainly based on the theoretical and methodological viewpoints of early institutional economics. Trade unions were conceived of as politico-economic organizations whose members were motivated by relative comparisons and also were concerned with issues of equity and justice. In the post-war period, there was a major theoretical and methodological shift towards the idea of unions as optimizing economic units with well-defined objective functions which ...

  1. Trade Union Education in Times of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinone, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses a number of important factors having a bearing on the new requirements of workers' education. They include the expansion of workers' interests and trade unions' responsibilities, the expansion of collective bargaining, a movement toward effective tripartism, and the incorporation of rural workers into unions. (CT)

  2. New Roles for the Trade Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Sø Rocha, Robson

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  3. Pattern persistence in European trade Union density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2002-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the postwar pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  4. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  5. Political attitude and trade union membership in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    . The results show that left-wing political attitudes have the most impact on the likelihood of trade union membership in Sweden and to a lesser extent in Denmark. In Norway and Finland, there is no statistically significant impact. I argue that the impact of left-wing political attitudes on unionization......Do political attitudes influence the likelihood of employees being members of a trade union, and to what extent is this the case in the Nordic countries with their high aggregate levels of membership? In this article, I address these questions using European Social Survey data from 2012...

  6. Trade unions in Uruguay: some historical features explaining their economic role

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cassoni

    2000-01-01

    The knowledge of the nature and structure of trade unions is a basic requisite to correctly model bargaining between firms and unions. Thus, in this paper the historical background and the current characteristics of the Uruguayan trade unions are summarised.

  7. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam.......On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...

  8. Ports modernization and its influence on trade unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Regina Heloisa; Lopes, Taise Araújo; Gonçalves, Rosemary Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    The restructuring of production resulting from the Port Modernization Law (Law 8.630/90) caused significant changes in work organization of Brazilian Ports. In the case of Mucuripe (Fortaleza, Ceará), in particular, the changes were very intense as Mucuripe is an old port that, before the Law, had labor regulation being governed by Trade Unions. This paper aims to present the perceptions of Union Representatives on the changes brought about by the Law on work organization in the port of Fortaleza, its influence in the organization and in the way the Unions deal with this new reality. Open and exploratory interviews were conducted with representatives of occasional labor workers registered in the Port of Fortaleza OGMO (Orgão Gestor de Mão de Obra, Labor Regulation Management). The analysis of the collected material in the interviews was based on the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979). Trade Unions have undergone a great loss of power and it has reflected in a relative inability to perform its function and to fight for the rights of the workers. The obvious Trade Unions weakness - a reduction of strikes and less unionized workers - reflects the dominating ideology of capital.

  9. Role of trade unions in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mauri; Partanen, Timo

    2002-01-01

    Since the 19th century, workers have organized in trade unions and parties to strengthen their efforts at improving workplace health and safety, job conditions, working hours, wages, job contracts, and social security. Cooperation between workers and their organizations and professionals has been instrumental in improving regulation and legislation affecting workers' health. The authors give examples of participatory research in occupational health in Denmark and Finland. The social context of workplace health promotion, particularly the role of unions and workers' safety representatives, is described in an international feasibility study. Health promotion is rife with fundamental political, socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, gender- and ethnicity-related, psychological, and biological problems. Analysis of power and context is crucial, focusing on political systems nationally, regionally, and globally. The authors advocate defending and supporting workers and their trade unions and strengthening their influence on workplace health promotion. In the face of rapid capitalist globalization, unions represent a barricade in defense of workers' health and safety. Health promoters and related professionals are encouraged to support trade unions in their efforts to promote health for workers and other less privileged groups.

  10. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper attempts to evaluate the significance of different factors determining the trade union participation in organized leather industry in Kolkata. The research has been conducted based on three sample leather units engaged in three different commercial functions and these units have been selected based on types of ...

  11. Workplace Learning: A Trade Union Failure to Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Dean; Fairbrother, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to open up discussion about the relationship between trade unions and workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an analysis of a series of case-studies of restructuring in the European steel industry, incorporating interviews, observation and documentary analysis. Findings: The…

  12. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REALLY? Lindy Heinecken. Stellenbosch University. Introduction. The opinion piece by Eric Z. Mnisi claiming that national security has been sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions is a claim often muted, not only in South Africa but elsewhere. In the Handbook on. Human Rights ...

  13. Variables Inducing Trade Union Disputes in Nigerian Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University occupies a strategic position in the production of high level manpower for the development of any nation. Rampant strikes or work stoppages in the system as a result of disputes embarked upon by Trade Unions to press forth their demands are contrary to the demands of a growing economy. The loss of time ...

  14. Globalization and Trade Union Resistance in Nigeria | Onyeonuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Far reaching changes witnessed in the global economy encompassed in the term 'globalization' have enormous implications for trade unions now said to be in a fatal decline due to irresistible neo-liberal economic globalization pressures. This paper examines the authenticity of such claims and found them problematic.

  15. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private Sectors Of Business: An Imperative For Institutionalizing Industrial Peace And Progress. ... This would help induce a self functioning motivational system of labour relations that minimizes the incidence of industrial conflicts; which in turn would give ...

  16. 146 Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their working lives”. ... terms and conditions of employment of workers, whether the combination in question would or would not, apart ... Democracy within Trade Unions, developed nations such as Canada, United. Kingdom and United States of ...

  17. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private Sectors Of Business: An Imperative For Institutionalizing Industrial Peace And Progress. ... It is believed that for the purpose of institutionalizing industrial peace and progress in today's mixed economies, governments must enact labour laws that ...

  18. Theorizing European Union Trade Politics: Contending or Complementary Paradigms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Orbie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue aims to take the first step towards an inter-paradigmatic debate in the study of European Union trade politics. In this introduction we highlight the importance of trade as an EU policy domain that is currently undergoing radical changes. We also give a brief overview of the literature on EU trade politics, pointing to the fragmentation of different theoretical approaches. Furthermore, we suggest that more dialogue between different paradigms may be fruitful. We conclude by situating the contributions to this special issue in terms of their theoretical and ontological perspectives.

  19. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  20. Judicial aspects of emission trade. Emission trade in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Emission trade will start in Europe in 2005. In a series of articles an overview will be given of several juridical aspects with respect to the international and national trade of emission. In part 1 attention was paid to the international judicial basis for the present climate policy. In this article an overview is given of developments with regard to emission trade in the European Union [nl

  1. THE RIGHTS GRANTED TO TRADE UNIONS UNDER THE COMPANIES ACT 71 OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C Schoeman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the workplace. It is argued that rights afforded to trade unions by the act ought to be granted only to trade unions that are registered in terms of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995. In addition, it is also argued that the Companies Act 71 of 2008 ought in principle to differentiate between rights that are granted to registered trade unions representing employees at the workplace and rights that are granted to registered majority trade unions, or at the least to sufficiently representative trade unions.

  2. Into the Eighties--Trade Union Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, John

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews developments and trends in trade union education in the United Kingdom. Priorities for the eighties constituting a major concern for the Trades Union Congress and the Workers' Educational Association are analyzed. (CT)

  3. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  4. Trade unions and liberal values: struggle or complementarity in a democratic society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tupitzya

    2014-02-01

    Thus, viewing the political position of trade unions in a modern democratic society suggests that the trade union units are fully capable to absorb some elements of liberal doctrines. This indicates a broad base complementarity and mutual conceptual foundations of trade unionism and democratic society.

  5. The Rights Granted to Trade Unions Under the Companies Act 71 of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF FEASIBILITY OF MONETARY UNION INTHESADCAND EAC: EVIDENCE FROM ANALYSIS OF TRADE OPENNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EphremHabtemichaelRedda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The SADC and EAC are working toward developingmonetary unionsin theirrespective regions in the near future. Trade openness of an economy is a crucialcharacteristic in assessing the feasibility of a monetary union andtheadoption ofa common currency. Trade is usually regarded as the main channel through whichthe benefits from a common currency are enjoyed by member countries. Thepurpose of this paperisto analyse the feasibilityof a monetary union in theSADC andtheEAC through the analysis of trade openness within the twoeconomic regions. Descriptive and comparative analysesareemployed to achievethe outcomes of the study.Results showthat,ingeneral,most of the SADCmember countries are open to external trade, meeting the requirement of theoptimum currency area (OCA theory in this regard.This may mean that theystand to benefit from adopting a common currency in as far as trade openness isconcerned. However, the low intra-regionaltrade is expected to limit suchbenefitsbecause most of the transactions are made with the rest of the world,using foreign currencies such as the US dollar and the euro.While the countries inthe EAC region have shown some progress in openingtheir economies in the last30 years, results showthat none of them has attained the required criterion.Ourfindings suggestthat the countries in the EAC region may not stand to benefitfrom adopting a common currency.Both economic regions need to significantly increase their intra-regionaltrade before the implementationofthe envisagedmonetary union.

  7. Currency Unions and International Trade : The Case of the Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Paulin, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and practicality of currency areas is a controversial source of debate in the field of economics nowadays. Advocates of the system predict that currency unions lead to higher trade volumes as a result of reduced exchange rate uncertainty and higher integration. Possibly the most prominent example of a currency area nowadays is the EMU, initiated in 1995 with the purpose of nurturing a unified European market as one of the main aims. There is no consensus on whether the EMU has ...

  8. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-01-01

    The development of trade unions in the public and political dimension associated with maintaining by them socio-political movements, which in different periods of political history had the status of social movements. Among these movements are a social democratic and labor movements in Europe, which later acquired the status of parties. In addition, social movements are informal and very broad associations that need support group of values, or focused on single-step action, such as changing th...

  9. Trade With the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic Commerce Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... trade with the European Union (EU). As major trading partners, the United States and the EU are currently addressing several trade-related issues, including their approach to electronic commerce, or e-commerce...

  10. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  11. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  12. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053...

  13. 78 FR 21911 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  14. 78 FR 46921 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053...

  15. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  16. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  17. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  18. 77 FR 58356 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401...

  19. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053...

  20. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of... Hinman, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053...

  1. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  2. Discussion on nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    For over one year there was a discussion about the problems of nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'. Invited by the editors, scientists from the university of Bremen also participated in this contoversy. In early 1977, an article with the title, Blessing or curse of the future' written by Bremen scientists was published in 5 parts. A reply was written by nine scientists, all but one from the Nuclear Research Centre in Juelich. This criticism caused the reaction of 17 persons from the university of Bremen. This document contains the articles which appeared in vanious numbers of the journal 'Metall', including the readers letters written by colleagues from the Union. (orig./GL) [de

  3. Central America and the Dominican Republic: Trade Union Training for Women Workers--Some Encouraging Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulshoefer, Petra

    1985-01-01

    Describes a project designed to assist national trade union centers with their specific activities in the area of the organization and training of women workers. Discusses the setting up of women's committees as support structures for the trade union confederations. The effectiveness of the program and the response of women trade unionists are…

  4. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  5. Diffusing EU Law Beyond the Borders of the Union: The Judicialization of the European Trading Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Tatham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU lies at the heart of a network of free trade agreements (FTAs, negotiated with partner countries in Europe and beyond. Within such a context, this paper focuses on the extent to which the judicialization of trade policy in the Union and its diffusion externally have impacted on states which are members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA, reflecting the process of Europeanization as a manifestation of the Union external governance.

  6. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...... Plan, for the Nordic trade unions in following their British and American colleagues in breaking with the World Federation of Trade Unions and establishing the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions? In Denmark, American authorities came to function as a kind of mediator between labor...

  7. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upston-Hooper, K.; Perrells, A.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  8. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... ability to participate in the international market. Topics to be considered: The agenda for the October 16... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA), Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of federal...

  9. Trade union policy of the Ukrainian left Galicia in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Begej

    2015-03-01

    Despite the fact that the majority of  ukrainian workers appeared not to sapolsky trade unions, and in the  ukrainian professional organizations. But, unfortunately, they were not accepted in the international trade Union associations. This was explained by non­state status of the  ukrainian people.

  10. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African Perspective. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home ... The abuse of trade unions under the previous government gave rise to a unique entrenchment of labour rights in the Constitution.

  11. Legislative Provisions Underlying Trade Unions' Right to Define Their Organizational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobchenko, Victoria V.; Penov, Yury V.; Safonov, Valery A.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of constitutional and other legislative provisions that ensure a trade union's right to define its own administrative structure in European states. The aim of the study is to reveal the management's problems of European trade unions, declarative and empirical mass-character legislative provisions, which…

  12. Lifelong Learning: A National Trade Union Strategy in a Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, John

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the concepts of modernization and risk society in relation to trade unions. Discusses the role of unions in education and training. Argues the need for a coherent union strategy regarding education and places the discussion within the context of globalization. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  13. The role of trade unions in the pursuit of HSE-goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjelldal, T.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper discusses the role of trade unions in Norway in pursuing Health, Safety, Environment (HSE). In the Norwegian tradition social responsible unions, broad participation, continuous development of the company organization, are key factors to improve the working environment. In laws and agreements the unions have a well-defined role in pursuing HSE goals. Joint action programmes between the confederations NHO/LO (Norwegian Employers' Confederation/Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions) and other investments in HSE, pays off. The paper concentrates on the HSE-organization, factors which might improve the working environment, and the union role. 10 refs., 7 figs

  14. R&D Intensive Goods Trade and Competitiveness of Turkey in the European Union Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Seymen; Baþak Gümüþtekin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to measure trade competitiveness of Research and Development (R&D) intensive goods of Turkey in the European Union (EU) market, using different trade indices. Concentration Ratio (Michaely, 1958), Export-Import Commodity Composition Index (Muscatelli, 1991), Intra-Industry Trade Index (Grubel, Lloyd, 1971) and Sectoral-Bilateral Trade Intensity Ratios (Seymen, 2009) are calculated to analyze the technology composition of manufacturing goods trade between Turkey and the EU27. R...

  15. Trade Union Responses to Transnational Labour Mobility in the Finnish-Estonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trade union strategies in relation to labor migration in Estonia and Finland, drawing on face-to-face interviews with trade unionists and official union statements. The study considers the national trade union strategies located in two separate but interconnected localities that represent different approaches to market economy. Previous research suggests that the national industrial relations system is a key factor in explaining unions’ labor migration strategies. Unions operating in liberal market economies are claimed to be more open toward immigration and more inclusive toward immigrants than unions in coordinated markets. This study analyzes the extent to which this theory holds in the context of Estonia and Finland—Finland representing a coordinated market economy and Estonia a liberal market economy. Furthermore, the analysis examines how the emergence of a translocal labor market, resulting from the geographical vicinity and linguistic affinity between Finland and Estonia as well as from free mobility within the EU, is reflected in trade union approaches to labor migration. The study finds that Finnish trade union strategies influence labor mobility, whereas Estonian trade unions remain bystanders in the issue.

  16. The depletion of narrative resources in the kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss in this study the problems of mobilization and effectiveness faced by Kenyan trade unions. In a country with high levels of unemployment and weak labour legislation, it is imperative that the labour movement devise ways of remaining relevant and effective. We combine in-depth interviews with a qualitative assessment of secondary documents on trade unions in Kenya. We do this by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. We argue that labour leaders need to enrich their vocabularies of persuasion in order to neutralize the current discourses around trade unionism in Kenya. Such an approach would enable the union leadership to acquire new repertoires of action to enhance their capacity to mobilize.

  17. Firm-level versus sector-level trade Unions: The role of rent-sharing motives

    OpenAIRE

    De Pinto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    What are the effects of firm- and sector-level trade unions on unemployment and aggregate output if individuals have rent-sharing motives? To answer this question, we extend a Melitz-type model to unionized labor markets. Because individual rent-sharing motives are only taken into account and asserted by firm-level unions which capture a higher fraction of firms' rents via firm-specific wages, average profits are higher under sector-level trade unions. As a consequence, firm-selection increas...

  18. Education for the Rights and Responsibilities of Trade Union Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    It is vitally important for workers in all regions of the world to form unions and to exercise the rights and discharge the responsibilities which membership involves. The right to organize or join a union is essential not only for the welfare of the individual worker, or for all of those belonging to the union, but also for the welfare of society…

  19. African Regional Agreements: Their Impact on Trade With or Without Currency Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Céline CARRERE

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is (i) to assess the impact of regional agreements on members’ trade in Sub-Saharan Africa (intra-regional trade as well as trade with the rest of the world), controlling for the other traditional determinants, including geography and transport costs and (ii) to compare the respective effect of the preferential trade agreements and the monetary unions. Considering the period 1962-1996, we first assess the average impact of each regional agreement on their implementation ...

  20. International Seminar on the Role of Trade Unions in Educational Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, K.

    1977-01-01

    Presents the content and conclusions from sessions of an international seminar on the role of trade unions in educational reform, organized by the International Labour Office in May 1976 and held near Oslo, Norway. (MF)

  1. The Role of Workers' Education in the Promotion of Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Worker educators have a challenge to present the history and relevance of trade union rights in such a fashion that workers will find the subject so significant that they will want to know more. (Author)

  2. Trade Union and University Cooperation in the Field of Labour Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, John R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Principles of the International Labour Organization Workers' Education Program and the role of university-centered labor education are outlined, involving collaboration between trade unions and universities in providing courses to promote the collective advancement of labor. (MF)

  3. Legal nature of the functions of trade unions as the subjects of labor law

    OpenAIRE

    Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Самборська, Анастасія Геннадіївна

    2014-01-01

    The article defines the concept of "function of trade unions", reveals the function of trade unions as the main direction of their activities on the implementation representation and protection of the rights and interests of employees and employers before implementation of the powers of control over the observance of labor legislation and labor protection, scientists analyzed the position regarding the classification. English abstract S. Vyshnovetska , A. Samborska Legal nature of the functio...

  4. Emigration and labour shortages: an opportunity for trade unions in new member states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Kahancová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Emigration from the post-socialist states which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 has reduced unemployment rates and created shortages of some skills. This should provide opportunities for trade unions to improve their situation, by facilitating union organizing and strengthening their bargaining

  5. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...

  6. The “hollowing-out” of trade union democracy in COSATU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African labour movement's strength has often been attributed to the vitality of local democratic structures and institutionalised mechanisms of worker control that govern unions affiliated to the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). Workers and shop-stewards continue to participate actively in local ...

  7. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  8. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    but ultimately resulted in the three country North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) in 1994. Historically, Mexico sought economic relationships...Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ).2 European Union: Trading To Control In post-World War II Europe, age-old tensions remained between France and Germany...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United

  9. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  10. Trade unions, inequality, and democracy in the US and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tilly, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Unions have been hailed as defenders of democracy and equality, and damned aspreservers of privilege and corruption. The global spread of neoliberalism has intensified this debate world-wide, but nowhere has it reached a higher pitch than in the United States and Mexico. In these two neighboring North American countries, one rich and one middle-income, economic liberals have battered unions over the last three decades, and unions have fought a largely defensive battle. This article surveys un...

  11. The Global Challenge of Human Rights and Solidarity to Nordic Global Companies and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Schiller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that corporations, besides making profit, have a social responsibility to society is not new in history. Nor is it new that unions besides representing material interests stand for a universal ambition as defenders of the oppressed in the world. The article argues that corporations’ social responsibility and trade union solidarity, to the extent both are based on universal principles of human rights, ought to open for cooperation concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, where trade unions should be recognized as important stakeholders in corporations. This idea is new, even if examples exist, and it challenges traditional concepts of the role of management and unions in the company. However, trade unions have taken a critical attitude to CSR, the implementation of which they have mainly been excluded from. Instead, they have tried to get global agreements, Global Framework Agreements (GFAs, with the MNCs.1 In the article the development of the attitudes of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC and of the Nordic national centers is investigated. A long-term historical perspective, in addition to a general theory of collective action will be used to draft the hypothesis that, when unions as interest organizations, through the process of national integration, have achieved a strong position in the domestic labor market, they lack reasons to take transnational action and seek international trade union solidarity. This hypothesis is valid today for the well-established unions in the Nordic countries. But in questions concerning social responsibility and human rights, the article presents the possibility that GFAs might become a platform from which to extend the Nordic model of national partnership to the global level, while at the same time global competition will increasingly make it difficult for the unions to show international solidarity in interest questions of capital investments and outsourcing.

  12. Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article suggests that this unidimensional strategy meant that building the union's capacity was neglected, reducing its ability to respond proactively to technological innovation and work reorganisation. While it does not present union capacity as a panacea, the article presents international examples that indicate that ...

  13. Trade unions in transnational automotive companies in Russia and Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinz, Sarah; Morris, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    by the model of German work councils, but structural power is weakly exercised and unions rely on non-conflictual engagement with management. In Russia, structural workingclass power remains strong, but the opportunities for transforming this into lasting associational, let alone institutional power, remain...... limited; thus, new unions make use of unconventional methods of protest to promote worker interests....

  14. Trade Unions, immigration and immigrants in Europe revisited: Unions’ attitudes and actions under new conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, S.; Penninx, R.; Roosblad, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the comparative approach used by Penninx and Roosblad (Trade Unions, Immigration and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993. New York: Berghahn Books) to study trade unions’ attitudes and actions in relation to immigrant workers in seven Western European countries. It reassesses that

  15. 76 FR 7816 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...: Public Session 1. Opening remarks. 2. Trade Promotion Activities Update, including U.S. Japan Global... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States...

  16. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export... meeting. Comments may be submitted to the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee, Office of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee...

  17. 76 FR 61669 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... United States laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export... the meeting. Comments may be submitted to the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee, Office of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee...

  18. Economic effects of bilateral trade agreements: China, United States, European Union and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tobías, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Economic integration and international trade among different regions are analysed in this study. It describes recent history and explains a theoretical framework of economic integration. It focuses in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements, more specifically in the biggest ones, TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) and TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), both of them still under negotiation. These agreements involve the most important economies in the world such as the European Union (f...

  19. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  20. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions: A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kruger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the new political dispensation in 1994 heralded the coming of a new labour dispensation. Labour relations and labour policies changed significantly from that which prevailed under the previous government. The review of the labour legislation framework was at that stage a priority for the new government, with specific focus on the review of the collective bargaining dispensation. The abuse of trade unions under the previous government gave rise to a unique entrenchment of labour rights in the Constitution. The drafters thereof were determined to avoid a repetition of this abuse after 1994. Section 23 of the Constitution goes to great lengths to protect, amongst others, the right to form and join a trade union, the right of every trade union to organise and the right of every trade union to engage in collective bargaining. In furtherance of section 23(5 of the Constitution, the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 was promulgated. One of the most significant changes of the LRA was that it now provided for legislated organisational rights. Commentators have often viewed the LRA as favouring larger unions and as conferring clear advantages on unions with majority support at the establishment or industry level. It is within this context that this article examines the impact of section 18 of the LRA on the constitutionally entrenched right of every person to freedom of association, the right of every trade union to engage in collective bargaining, and the right of every trade union to organise. Furthermore, this article explores the justifiability of the impact of section 18 on minority trade unions in terms of international labour standards and the Constitution. In part one the article examines the concept of majoritarianism, pluralism and industrial unionism in the context of South African Labour market. Part two deals with the impact of section 18 of the LRA on minority Trade Unions. Whilst part three explores the concept of workplace

  1. Relationships of the Trade Unions with the Media: The Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Krašenkienė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The various practices of different countries show that, in order to achieve trade unions’ goals, working relationships with the media are very important, especially in terms of influencing public (stakeholder opinion, as well as instilling confidence in trade unions. This paper presents some examples and empirical research results that prove the significance of such relationships. The situation in Lithuania is analyzed based on qualitative research results. The results reveal that Lithuanian trade unions do not have effective tools at their disposal for the promotion of their activity. Moreover, their notion of their relationships with the media is limited to a narrow understanding such as “the article or broadcast in media”. Due to this and other reasons, the promotion of employers’ concessions is weak. Different situations can be noticed by analyzing the independent trade unions which use other practices and systems.

  2. Challenges in Trade Union Education: A Case for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mel

    1992-01-01

    Because labor unions are voluntary, democratic, collective organizations, labor education is better delivered through active participative learning methods, built on participant knowledge, with the teacher as facilitator of the process. (SK)

  3. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  4. Top Human Resources Managers Views on Trade Union Action in Brazilian Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carvalho Neto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the perception of human resource (HR top managers at strategic level in Brazilian corporations regarding labor union activity. It is a quantitative study about the perception of 354 experienced HR top managers on the unionization of employees, influence of the union on the organization, recognition of the union for labor negotiations and the existence of an advisory committee (workers’ council within organizations. The theoretical approach addresses both the fields of study on HR and Industrial Relations (IR. The research shows low unionization and management perceptions that unions have little influence on organizations. On the other hand, the HR managers recognize the union influence for collective bargaining purposes and for defining general terms of employment. These contradictions are related to the fact that collective bargaining is mandatory in Brazilian legislation. In general terms of employment, Brazilian legislation is too rigid, prescriptive and detailed. This strong state of regulation reserves to the union an automatic participation in the negotiation process with employers, although this trade union action is somehow inefficient. In this scenario, the perception of HR managers of a relative union influence, although inefficient, is an expected consequence.

  5. African Regional Agreements: Impact on Trade with or without Currency Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is (i) to assess the impact of regional agreements on members’ trade in Sub-Saharan Africa (intra-regional trade as well as trade with the rest of the world), controlling for the other traditional determinants and (ii) to compare the respective effect of the preferential trade agreements and the currency unions. Considering the period 1962–96, we first assess the average impact of each regional agreement on their implementation period and second we show how these impacts...

  6. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  7. All China federation of trade unions: Structure, functions and the challenge of collective bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Traub-Merz, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In China, the All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) is the sole legal trade union organisation. It was established in 1925 and over the years and decades has gone through many changes. After 1949 it was restructured according to the needs of a socialist command economy and became the »transmission belt« through which the Party controlled workers. The year 1978 was again a turning point, when China started its liberalisation and, fed by surplus labour from a peasant economy, gradually r...

  8. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  9. THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GOODS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES AFTER TWO YEARS OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babucea Ana-Gabriela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, more countries, rich and poor alike, enter global markets and are forced to face fierce competition. The European Union is the largest trading power in the world, accounting for 20% of total imports and exports worldwide. In recent years EU trade in goods has evolved very positively both in absolute terms and relative. As was expected, the global economic crisis dramatically affected trade flows globally and regionally and inevitably affected the trade of the EU through a tumultuous period. Time analysis will show that reducing the volume of EU trade is in line with the decreases in global trade and regional registered and that exports were affected differently.

  10. Towards Strengthening the Relationship between Trade Unions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities are a repository of the most specialised and skilled manpowers. They are places where the manpower needs of a nation are nurtured. However, the management of these institutions is becoming complex nowadays because of the ravaging conflicts between the universities management and the various trade ...

  11. THE TRADE UNIONS IN TODAY’S RUSSIA: SOME DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Anosov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is a preliminary analysis of some areas of research of the institute of trade unions in Russian society, the definition of the most significant approaches, and fixing of the main research topics raised in connection with this social phenomenon. Methodology. Methods of comparative, institutional, structural-functional, and, in part, historical analysis were utilized. In general, the methods used are determined by the one or other of the approaches analyzed that in turn specify a specific analysis methodology. Results. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon of trade unions continues to be actively studied in the social sciences, what is connected with the need to rethink the role and significance of the “early industrial” institutions in modern society. It is shown that the following topics are to be the heuristic tools for studying this institution: functionality, as compliance of generic, initial tasks of the institute and actually performed functions; the role of trade unions in social consolidation and integration, related to the peculiarities of the realization in Russia of the formula of “tripartism”, or social dialogue between the state, business and society, in which the unions have a role to play; institutional trust, expressed in varying degrees of social support for this institution and its legitimization on the part of mass consciousness. It was also demonstrated that one of the most promising areas of research could be the institutional analysis of trade unions on the basis of theories that pay attention to the sociocultural and historical foundations of institutional design and development. Practical implications. The obtained results can be applied in substantiating further studies of the phenomenon of the trade union movement in the domestic society, becoming an element of educational and methodological materials in educational practice, and serving as one of the theoretical and

  12. 78 FR 44535 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting AGENCY: ITA, DOC..., U.S. Department of Commerce, Herbert Clark Hoover Building, 1401 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington...

  13. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...... developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations....

  14. Report of the International Seminar on Trade Union Documentation and Research Services. (Geneva, 23 October-4 November, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). International Vocational Training Information and Research Centre.

    The purpose of this international seminar was to facilitate full analysis, especially in regard to developing nations, of the role assigned to the Trade Union Research Service; its work and methods, its organization, and patterns of cooperation with trade union officers and executives responsible for programs of labor education. On the basis of…

  15. THE RIGHT TO FORM AND TO JOIN TRADE UNIONS AS DEFINED IN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Majhoshev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The right of workers to form and to join trade unions is one of the most important international labour standards. This means that employees, no matter where they are employed (public or private sector, have the right to form their own organizations (unions. Apart from the employees, employers also have the right to form and join in employers’ associations. The right of employees and employers to organize is based on the following principles: voluntariness, autonomy and democracy. The general objective of the formation of unions and employers’ associations is to protect the rights and interests of members of the union and the employers’ association, as well as their promotion in an organized manner. The provision and guarantee of union and workers' rights are guaranteed by a number of international and regional legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, regulations, such as ILO, UN, Council of Europe and the European Union, which will be analysed further in this paper. The main objective arising from these documents is to improve the position of workers and their protection. Within the paper, we will also analyse the most important legal acts of the Republic of Macedonia concerning the right to join unions. By analysing the content of the national labour legislation, we will determine the extent to which the international labour law is being implemented. Moreover, the paper will analyse the basic principles underlying union organization and association.

  16. What Do Trade Unions Think about Continuing Education for Teachers in Galicia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampudia, Baena; Tilve, Ana Ma. Fernandez; Dolores, Ma.

    2016-01-01

    The common ups and downs of school agendas coupled with the existence of new educational challenges have created a complicated scenario that places the issue of continuing education for teaching staff directly under the spotlight. As a consequence, the role of teachers' trade unions as with other requirements of continuing education is now put…

  17. The Impact of the Labour Relations Act on Minority Trade Unions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    minority trade unions in terms of international labour standards and the Constitution. In the first part of this .... development, social justice, labour peace and democratisation of the workplace by fulfilling its primary ...... in the labour context. Therefore, any measures taken by the LRA to limit access to organisational rights.

  18. The Dependency Theory of Trade Unionism and the Role of the Industrial Registrar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gerard; Scarcebrook, Victor

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the argument that Australian trade unions, because they are created by the state, are dependent on state for membership, authority, power, and the provision of industrial conditions. Subjects the explanation of the origins of the movement to empirical analysis and focuses on the key role ascribed to the actions of the early Industrial…

  19. African Trade Unions and the Challenge of Organizing Women Workers in the Unorganized Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date-Bah, Eugenia

    1993-01-01

    Democratization should be considered in terms of equal representation of women and men in government as well as in the relevant bodies and decision-making organs of society. Trade unions should be perceived and assessed in relation to the participation of women within their structures and the reflection of women's concerns in their policies and…

  20. The “hollowing-out” of trade union democracy in COSATU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    INTRODUCTION. The emergence of the independent labour movement in the 1970s led to the development of distinctive trade union structures that reflected the need to break with traditional bureaucratic organisational models. Many attributed the rapid growth of the. South African labour movement in the 1980s to the ...

  1. Trade union politics of Ukrainian social democratic party for its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Begej

    2015-03-01

    Attention is drawn to the understanding of the organic interdependence of the social democratic and professional movement theorists in different directions left (Karl Marx , Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Otto Bauer, Julian Bachinski, Vladimir Lewinski, Anton czernecki, differences in the views of these leaders on this issue, which requires predominance in the context of the activities of trade unions and leftist parties of modern Ukraine.

  2. Trade Union Activism among University Teachers during Cameroon’s Political Liberalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Academic staff trade unions in universities have succeeded in preserving a considerable degree of autonomy versus the state in a number of West African countries since independence, enabling them to play a significant role in the defence of their members’ interests. Cameroon forms an exception in

  3. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... is based on a statistical analysis of registry data from Denmark and contains almost 2 million employees employed in 111 different industries (NACE-coded). The analysis shows that trade union density especially in the private sector industries is significantly influenced by level of segmentation and level...

  4. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Upston-Hooper, K.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  5. Too Few Indians and Too Many Chiefs. Is This One Reason for Declining Trade Union Membership in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Voxted

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The decline in trade union membership in many countries since the 1970s and the consequent weakening of the trade unions is due to a number of reasons, including occupational changes, welfare state and social regulation, liberalism and individualization, and in Denmark (and Sweden and Finland changes in unemployment insurance legislation and the institutional settings of the unemployment insurance system. All these factors are well known and have been analyzed in the literature. This article sums up all these facts and reasons for trade union decline in Denmark, but the main analysis focuses on a supplementary reason for membership decline among LO (the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions-affiliated unions: many trade union members leave their unions to become members of unions that organize managers. When workers become managers, some prefer to join an organization expert in servicing managerial staff, while others leave their trade unions because they define themselves as managers without being formally appointed as such and without having formal managerial responsibilities. Reasons for this behavior will be discussed in the article.

  6. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... meeting will be held at the U.S. Department of Commerce, Herbert Clark Hoover Building, 1401 Constitution... & Environmental Industries, International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Ave, NW., Washington... and education. Public Participation: The meeting will be open to the public and the room is disabled...

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND CHANGE. THE EVOLUTION OF TRADE UNIONS ORGANIZATION FORMS IN ROMANIA AFTER 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA CRISTINA CIOCAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study: „Management and organizational change. Evolution of union organization forms in Romania after 1989” propose as subject of analyze a type of organization which, through its affiliation to the civil society and through its role conferred by low, becomes the key for the proper functioning of the labor market. Along with the change of political regime from December 1989, the trade union organizations were put in a position to cope with a triple: reorganization, learning a new social role and public image reconfiguration, including cancellation of the association (inevitable with the “ancient” trade union. The study proposes three major subjects: defining the term union organization accompanied by possible interpretations of the role of this type of organization at the society level – „collective voice”, counter pole , political actor, collective negotiator, transnational and promoter of the class struggle, the last role not being characteristic to a democratic society; the description of the syndicate organizations evolution in Romania, after 1990; the argue of the necessity of an organizational change felt by the unions, under the impact of some factors depending on socio-economic and politic changes.

  8. 76 FR 45253 - Meeting of the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union Executive Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Meeting of the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union Executive Board AGENCY: Environmental...-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Union (MANE-VU) Executive Board. This meeting will deal with matters relative...

  9. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... of mobility....

  10. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  11. Quality of Employment: Strategies and Interpretations of Spanish Employers and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different discourses of trade unions and employers on quality of employment in Spain. The study takes a qualitative approach, using discussion groups to obtain discursive information about the meanings of quality, assessments and the different strategies employed by social agents. Trade unions use the ‘quality discourse’ as a reason to examine and reconstruct their current role, extending their main concerns and paradigms from those which defend workers’ interests to those which consolidate their criticism of a reprehensible Spanish employer class. Employers’ discourse, on the other hand, is aimed at highlighting the market’s productive purpose, and sustaining their privileged position in labour management, whilst disassociating and distancing themselves from the employment decisions they make.

  12. Harambee narratives: A rhetorical framing of the Kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses discourse on trade unionism contained in the coverage of Labour Day (May 1 celebrationsinone leading Kenyan daily national newspaper, The East African Standard, from 1966 to 2013. I assess slightly over fortyarticles qualitativelyusing rhetorical criticism. This is done by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. I chose rhetoricalcriticism of a news media corpusin order to explore how diverse power relations have been transformed into mechanisms that keep the Kenyan labour movement tolerable to the government of the day. The research identifies themes surfaced by and in the news coverage. The paper shows how diverse power relations are colonized and articulated into more general mechanisms that keeps the industrial population governable with minimal disruptions.

  13. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  14. Analysis of Ukraine’s foreign trade turnover in context of free trade zone with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.Shymanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the free trade zone between Ukraine and the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages for our country. The changes in Ukraine’s economic integration vector cause much dispute about its prospects and profitability. Nevertheless, the strengthening of economic and political crisis leads to the reduction in foreign trade of Ukraine with the EU. Although in recent years, many institutional limitations for the Ukrainian producers’ entrance to European markets have been removed. The analysis of Ukraine's foreign trade turnover with EU countries showed the indicators of exports and imports structure in the partner countries and allowed to reveal decreasing of intensity of these operations. This can be a negative indicator of activities for the implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU. The study has formulated the perspective directions of foreign trade policy of Ukraine, in particular with respect to the modernization of informational and technical support of the customs clearance of the goods movement, increasing control over the quality of Ukrainian goods and opportunities for the small and mediumsized entities entrance to the European markets.

  15. The advantages of being a member of the European Monetary Union and its influence on trade in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Monetary Union is of great importance for its member states, since being its part implies a lot of privileges. One of them is transaction costs reduction due to the elimination of currency exchange. Lower transaction costs enable easier and much more profitable trade between Member States of the European Monetary Union. The most notable achievement of the European Monetary Union is the single currency - the euro which becomes frequently used today in the international trade. A significant benefit is an elimination of foreign exchange risks since it influences reinforcement of internal market and reduces investment risks. Price transparency in trade between two Member States and within them, leads to the price homogenisation in the EU. This work examines and analyses the advantages of being the part of the European Monetary Union, with a particular attention paid to its influence on trade in the Eurozone.

  16. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko

    2006-01-01

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  17. Left-wing, democracy, and trade union insurgency in Mexico: nuclear, mining, and metallurgical workers, 1972-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Necoechea Gracia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the history of trade union insurgency in Mexico during the 1970s and the relationship established between the left and the labor class. To do this, experiences of the Mexican National Nuclear Energy Trade Union and those of sections 11 and 147 of the mining-metallurgical trade union are analyzed. In the first case, its relationship with the democratic movement of electrical workers and the current of revolutionary nationalism are observed and in the second its links with the political organization Línea Proletaria, which has a Maoist affiliation. Both currents proposed various strategies that revived the tension existing in the Mexican labor movement in the early century, between those who thought that trade unions should not ally to political parties and instead exert direct action at work and those who advocated for political alliances, which they called multiple action. Both movements converged in the trade union movement of that period, which demanded trade union democracy and demonstrated against the austerity policy imposed by the government, as well as for the defense of natural resources. On the other hand, labor activism was manifested in an environment of greater rebelliousness combined with other social groups, a situation that ascertains advances in the struggles of workers from the industry and services, and its impact on the political, social, and cultural life in the country.

  18. The European Union's Trade Policy Response to the Crisis: Paradigm lost or reinforced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi De Ville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the European Union's (EU trade policy response to the global financial and economic crisis. Contrary to what would be expected, we find that the EU's neoliberal trade paradigm, as frankly presented in the 2006 Global Europe strategy, has not been delegitimized. The neoliberal (dis-course has even been reinforced. First, we theorize on the conditions for paradigmatic change and the importance of framing in the delegitimization phase. Second, we analyze the Commission's framing of the crisis, amounting to (i a downplaying of the nature of the crisis to a crisis in the financial subsystem of global capitalism; (ii an emphasis on the danger of protectionism that would worsen the crisis and lead to a 1930s 'Great Depression' scenario; and (iii advocation for further trade liberalization as a contribution to European and global recovery. Third, we show that this has been translated in practice such as through the limited use of anti-dumping measures and ever more ambitious trade agreements as with Korea. Finally, we explain why the crisis has not led to a delegitimization of the existing trade paradigm, pointing to the absence of a workable alternative paradigm, the role of European social democratic parties and the labour movement, and the interests of transnational business.

  19. Mondays without dread: the Trade Union response to byssinosis in the Lancashire cotton industry in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Sue; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2003-04-01

    Trade unions have often been criticized for their failure to address occupational health issues. This article explores their response to byssinosis-a chronic respiratory disease caused by exposure to cotton dust that was rife in the Lancashire cotton industry in the early nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Using the archives of the cardroom and spinning unions, it is demonstrated that trade union efforts to combat byssinosis began before the First World War and were sustained for over 70 years. During that period, byssinosis became a recognized medical condition and a compensatable disease, due in no small measure to the trade unions campaigning tirelessly for better dust control, compensation for all affected workers, and more medical research.

  20. The Ghent effect for whom? Mapping the variations of the Ghent effect across different trade unions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an unemployment insurance system based on voluntary membership in unemployment insurance funds (known as the ‘Ghent system’) and a high union density has long been known and well documented and even referred to as a special ‘Ghent effect’. However the Ghent system, especially...... in the three classic Ghent countries Finland, Sweden and Denmark have come under significant pressure in recent years and many researchers are referring to an erosion of the Ghent system as a recruiting mechanism for trade unions. But prior research aimed at documenting the Ghent effect seems to disregard...... variations in how strongly trade unions benefit from the Ghent system as a recruiting mechanism. Hence, this article sets out to investigate whether all trade unions equally benefit from a Ghent effect across different sectors and occupations by studying the Danish case. Unique survey data made it possible...

  1. Trade unions in the independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus: present state, problems, and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ergashev, Bakhodyr

    2011-01-01

    The trade unions that operate in the independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus have had to adjust to the world financial and economic crisis and its repercussions, rising unemployment, increasing informal employment, illegal trade migration, etc. They must to show more efficiency when dealing with social and labor conflicts, find new and more efficient forms of cooperation between employers and employees, and learn to coordinate their efforts. The events which shook the world trade ...

  2. The Illusion of Choice: The European Union and the Trade-Labor Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Adriaensen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What explains the European Union’s (EU reluctance to include a legally enforceable social clause in trade agreements? Moreover, what explains the lack of coherence in its linkage policy across the multilateral, bilateral and unilateral levels? This article assesses the diversity of EU approaches towards trade and labour and argues that the conception of the European Union as a particular normative actor is not fully capable to grasp this diversity. Instead, the EU’s policies are contingent upon a generic cost-effectiveness calculation constrained by the internal and external context where decisions on labour standards have been taken. At the internal level, decision-making rules have sometimes directed trade-labour linkage policies to a ‘lowest common denominator’. At the external level, the EU’s decisions have been shaped by the perceptions and market power of negotiating partners. To prove its claim, the article explores the EU’s trade-labour linkage at the multilateral, bilateral and unilateral settings.

  3. Impact of the Enlargement of the European Union on the Foreign Trade and Development of the New Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajišnik Milenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of the process of globalization is the creation of different regional economic integrations. The most developed regional economic integration in the world is the European Union. Since it was found, when six founder countries created the free trade area for coal and steel, European Union passed all the phases of development of the economic integration, through the customs union and common market to the economic and monetary union. Through the six waves of enlargement European Union has become the integration of 28 countries with over 500 million habitants. Every enlargement of this regional integration had an impact on the economic position and the development of both the old and the new members. The biggest increase in the number of members brought the 5th big enlargement of the European Union, when the number of the member countries increased in total for 12 countries, first for 10, and then for 2 more.

  4. "Obey", "disobey" or "tinker with" reforms to the system: a subject for French teacher trade unions to work on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau-Bareille, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our work to support and train members of the teaching sectors of two trade unions. The aim was to encourage participants to discuss practices, the difficulties in their day-to-day work and impediments to taking action, given the current reforms to primary education, and thereby assess the reforms' impact on the teachers' activity. It was also intended to help trade unions build up a collective dynamic around their work and re-positioning the work activity at the heart of their preoccupations. This project consisted of one/two day workshops held at local trade union branches. They were led by an ergonomist and a trade union representative. The discussions revealed that the prescriptions received from the management increasingly contradict the values of the profession. Therefore, in the name of professional ethics, different strategies of resistance have emerged, from minor modifications to the prescriptions received, to disobedience. However, adopting such strategies is itself a cause of suffering for teaching staff, and leads to some leaving the profession prematurely. We will discuss the difficulty trade unions have in dealing with the issue of work, their strategic positioning as regards developments within the profession, and the role an ergonomist can play in this process.

  5. Suggestions for an East Asian Monetary Union: Focusing on the Effects of Monetary Integration on Bilateral Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chang Ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores alternative ways toward the East Asian monetary union, focusing on the effect of monetary integration on bilateral trade. For this purpose, we analyze with gravity model changes of the bilateral trade among countries of EU, NAFTA, and East Asia. A distinctive feature of this model is that it includes the dummy variables that show the cultural intimacy among North-East Asian countries, Asian NIEs countries, and East Asian countries (North-East Asian and ASEAN countries. We discovered that bilateral trade increased at a highest level among East Asian countries than the other two cases. This result suggests that the once-and-for-all strategy to develop an East Asian monetary union including North-East Asian and ASEAN countries would be more efficient than the multitrack strategy that forms the monetary union of North-East Asian countries in the first place and then tries to extend it to ASEAN countries.

  6. Geographical and Occupational Mobility of Workers in the Aircraft and Electronics Industries, Regional Trade Union Seminar (Paris, 21st-22nd September, 1966). Final Report and Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The trade unions in the European aerospace and electronics industries have become concerned with the sweeping and rapid economic and technical changes taking place in the industries. This seminar enabled trade union representatives from Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom aerospace industry and the electronics sector working…

  7. Education Is a Human Right 1998: El Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    In many countries, often at great personal cost, teachers and education support staff are at the forefront of the struggle for basic trade union and human rights. This book acknowledges their contributions. It also draws inspiration and hope from their efforts to show that a commitment to the interests of every child, to quality education, and to…

  8. The Symposium Report. General Discussion. Current Workers' Education Approaches and Activities in Trade Union Development. Considerations for the Furthering of Development Education within Workers' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium on Special Issues for Workers' Education in Industrialized Countries covered several topics: trade union opinions, the need for public debate, development education, new trends, investments and respect for union rights, union solidarity, resources allocated to workers' education, the role of the International Labor Office, and right…

  9. Information and training on radiation protection for trade union representatives from the nine Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of its training and information programme on radiation protection, the Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs (Health and Safety Directorate) organized for the third and fourth time (in October 1977 and 1978) seminars on radiation protection on behalf of trade union representatives from the nine Member States; the seminars served in particular as a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences. The present volume reproduces the papers read on those occasions, covering the following topics: the independence of radiaton protection units; training and information in radiation protection; analysis of the main innovations in radiological protection concepts emerging from ICRP Publication No 26; the protection of occasionally exposed workers; the work of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; the concept of optimization; future developments in dosimetry. Although the publication is destined mainly for the participants in the two meetings, the information it contains may also be of use to anyone interested in the problems of radiation protection and the spreading of knowledge in this field

  10. A New Kind of Student Union Aims To Meet Academic and Social Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Mary

    1996-01-01

    The new student union at George Mason University (Virginia) integrates traditional functions (food services, meeting rooms, offices, study areas, bookstore) with recreational activities (movie theater, dance studios) and academic uses (library, department offices, classrooms). Administrators hope the facility will bring faculty, staff, and…

  11. The Development of Computer Policies in Government, Political Parties, and Trade Unions in Norway 1961-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgsaas, Knut; Hegna, Håvard

    A “Council for Government Electronic Data Processing” was established in 1961. This was the start of development of a common policy for computers and data within the public administration. In 1969-70, computers got on the agenda of political parties and the trade unions. In the course of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties the government, the political parties, and the trade unions established a more comprehensive view of data political questions that we will designate by the term data policy. This paper puts some light on the causes and forces that drove the evolvement of a data policy within these central sectors in Norway. We will also show how various actors of research, trade and industry, and political life influenced the development of data policy and present links between the actors that indicate that they mutually influenced each other.

  12. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade..., Office of Energy & Environmental Industries, International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401... administration of programs to expand U.S. exports of environmental technologies, goods, services, and products...

  13. THE CHANGING ROLES OF TRADE UNIONS IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION (NTPC, UNCHAHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade unions are a major component of the system of modern industrial relations in any nation, each having, in their constitution, their own set of objectives or goals to achieve. Change in the political, social and educational environment has seen them rechristened as a forum that protects and furthers workers' interests and improves the quality of life of workers, enlarging their traditional roles of establishing terms and conditions of employment. This paper focuses on plant level trade unions, particularly those of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC Unchahar plant, one of the largest and best Public Sector Undertakings of India. This exploratory study of the different trade unions operational at the Unchahar plant will also highlight their ideologies, objectives and structures. We aim to capture the changing paradigms in the roles of plant-level unions: from maintaining good industrial relations, once considered their primary role, they now work actively to improve the quality of life of workers, a role earlier considered to be secondary.

  14. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... trade policy with India 4. Discussion of DOC small modular reactor report 5. Discussion of subcommittees... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC). The members will discuss issues outlined in the...

  15. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... compromise the development by the U.S. government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or...

  16. 77 FR 25961 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    .... laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export policies... meeting. Comments may be submitted to the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee, Office of Energy... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee...

  17. Agricultural protectionism of the European union in the conditions of international trade liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.

  18. 75 FR 31505 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... identifying data such as driver's license number, U.S. Government ID, or U.S. Military ID, to the DTAG... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting SUMMARY: The Defense Trade Advisory Group (DTAG) will meet...

  19. 76 FR 66775 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... identifying data such as driver's license number, U.S. Government ID, or U.S. Military ID, to the DTAG... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting Summary: The Defense Trade Advisory Group (DTAG) will meet...

  20. 76 FR 16652 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... birth; and identifying data such as driver's license number, U.S. Government ID, or U.S. Military ID, to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting Summary: The Defense Trade Advisory Group (DTAG) will meet...

  1. Cost effects of international trade in meeting EU renewable electricity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Voogt, M.H.

    2005-12-01

    The European market for renewable electricity received a major stimulus from the adoption of the Directive on the Promotion of Renewable Electricity. The Directive specifies the indicative targets for electricity supply from renewable energy sources (RES-E) to be reached in European Union (EU) Member States in the year 2010. It also requires Member States to certify the origin of their renewable electricity production. This article presents a first EU-wide quantitative evaluation of the effects of meeting the targets, using an EU-wide system for tradable green certificates (TGC). We calculate the equilibrium price of green certificates and identify which countries are likely to export or import certificates. Cost advantages of participating in such an EU-wide trading scheme are determined for each of the Member States. Moreover, we identify which choice of technologies results in meeting targets at least costs. Results are obtained from a model that quantifies the effects of achieving the RES-E targets in the EU with and without trade. The article provides a brief insight in this model as well as the methodology that was used to specify cost potential curves for renewable electricity in each of the 15 EU Member States. Model calculations show that within the EU-wide TGC system, the total production costs of the last option needed to satisfy the overall EU RES-E target equals 9.2 eurocent/kWh. Assuming that the production price of electricity on the European power market would equal 3 eurocent/kWh in the year 2010, the indicative green certificate price equals 6.2 eurocent/kWh. We conclude that implementation of an EU-wide TGC system is a cost-efficient way of stimulating renewable electricity supply

  2. Trade union activity, cultural, public and political life of Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute in the second half of 1950s–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Valeriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on rich documentary, the article studies the activity of the trade union organization in Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute and the impact the trade union had on the cultural, public and political life of the Institute in the second half of the 1950s-1980s. The activity is stated to be held in different forms and areas: amateur arts, propaganda, wall-newspaper and house magazine, vigilant groups, University of Culture, student club, lecturing agitation group, student construction brigades, department, groups and hostels competitions. The authors come to the conclusion that involving students and faculty members into cultural, public and political life added greatly to fostering the future engineers as it took them less time to adapt to the team-spirited workforce after graduating from the higher educational establishment. The article is intended for the people interested in history of higher education in Siberia and Russia.

  3. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  4. Role of Workers' Education in Making Trade Unions Effective Agents for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Bent

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how unions with strong leadership training can help workers with their problems and describes the education needs of union members. Describes typical union policies for workers' education, as well as essential features of a workers' education program. Covers curriculum development and long-range planning. (CH)

  5. Tramps, trade union travellers, and wandering workers: how geographic mobility undermined organized labour in Gilded Age America

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will argue that high levels of internal migration in Gilded Age America undermined the stability and growth of trade unions and labour-based parties. Most of the traditional ‘American Exceptionalist’ arguments which asserted a lack of class consciousness will be challenged. Significant weight will be given to the racial, ethnic, and gender divisions within the American working class as a source of relative organizational weakness. As archival sources reveal, however, despite thei...

  6. Trade Unions as moderator of the social dialogue in the rule of law of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara SUSARENCO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tripartite Social Dialogue gives particular importance to the three social partners: trade unions, employers and Government. At the table of negotiations into question issues related to social, labor relations and occupational safety and health of employees. The rule of law RM interaction mechanism is adopted political society and civil society through social dialogue, which creates favorable conditions for cooperation and developing a democratic society.

  7. 78 FR 69648 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on... Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries, Room 4053, 1401... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee...

  8. Tracing Southern Cosmopolitanisms: the intersecting networks of Islam, Trade Unions, Gender and Communism, 1945-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of World War 2, there were high hopes across the Indian Ocean for a new world in which the relationships between working people would mean more than the borders which separated them. This paper will explore the fate of the hopes for new worlds, in the decades after 1945, by following the uneven relationships among working class Australians, Indonesians and Indians in the aftermath of an intense political struggle in Australia from 1945 to 1949 in support of Indonesian independence. They had been brought together by intersections between the networks established through colonialism, like trade unions, communism and feminism, with those having much longer histories, like Islam. The men and women in this Australian setting expressed their vision in 1945 for a future of universal and transnational networks across the Indian Ocean which would continue the alliances they had found so fruitful. Today their experiences as well as their hopes might be called cosmopolitanism – they expected that the person-to-person friendships they were forming could be sustained and be able to negotiate the differences between them to achieve common aims. Although these hopes for new futures of universal alliances and collaborations were held passionately in the 1940s, all seem to have died by 1970, diverted by newly independent national trajectories and defeated by the Cold War. Yet many of the relationships persisted far longer than might be expected and their unravelling was not inevitable. This paper will trace the course of a few of the relationships which began in the heat of the campaigns in Australia, 1943 to 1945, in order to identify the continuing common ground as well as the rising tensions which challenged them.

  9. Policy-making under uncertainty: Commentary upon the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Haar, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The authors undertake a critical assessment of the intellectual foundations supporting the new European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS, or the Scheme), the cornerstone of polices designed to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Agreement of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Despite its considerable scope, the authors found that officially sponsored research and academic efforts in support of ETS were surprisingly limited. Importantly, in advance of implementation, a definitive consensus on both the potential economic impact and the usefulness of the Scheme in reducing the GHG emissions had not been reached. Reviewing the literature, the authors encountered varying and, at times, conflicting viewpoints, officially and in academic research, on the potential economic impact of the Scheme. These included attempts to quantify its benefits and costs, raising concern that this huge and encompassing multi-national policy initiative may have been launched with inadequate intellectual ground-work. According to the authors consistency between the ETS and other EU policies, such as those relating to energy, should have been a key concern, but such aspects have received only minimal attention in both official and academic research. The European Commission has promoted open and competitive markets for gas and power across member states, but the record in achieving such conditions is relatively poor and the authors argue that, as a result, the environmental objectives of the EU Scheme may not be thwarted. In addition, continuing disagreement over the Kyoto Agreement itself-especially with regard to its potential costs and benefits-further frustrates efforts to rigorously justify a policy in support of reducing GHG emissions. The authors argue that, given the scope of the EU Scheme, the paucity of research evidencing that it is likely to succeed in reducing GHG emissions in the form of CO 2 is surprising and should be of concern to those affected by it along with

  10. Policy-making under uncertainty: commentary upon the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    The authors undertake a critical assessment of the intellectual foundations supporting the new European Union (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS, or the Scheme), the cornerstone of polices designed to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Agreement of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Despite its considerable scope, the authors found that officially sponsored research and academic efforts in support of ETS were surprisingly limited. Importantly, in advance of implementation, a definitive consensus on both the potential economic impact and the usefulness of the Scheme in reducing the GHG emissions had not been reached. Reviewing the literature, the authors encountered varying and, at times, conflicting viewpoints, officially and in academic research, on the potential economic impact of the Scheme. These included attempts to quantify its benefits and costs, raising concern that this huge and encompassing multi-national policy initiative may have been launched with inadequate intellectual ground-work. According to the authors consistency between the ETS and other EU policies, such as those relating to energy, should have been a key concern, but such aspects have received only minimal attention in both official and academic research. The European Commission has promoted open and competitive markets for gas and power across member states, but the record in achieving such conditions is relatively poor and the authors argue that, as a result, the environmental objectives of the EU Scheme may not be thwarted. In addition, continuing disagreement over the Kyoto Agreement itself-especially with regard to its potential costs and benefits-further frustrates efforts to rigorously justify a policy in support of reducing GHG emissions. The authors argue that, given the scope of the EU Scheme, the paucity of research evidencing that it is likely to succeed in reducing GHG emissions in the form of CO 2 is surprising and should be of concern to those affected by it along with

  11. The european union emission trading scheme and energy markets: economic and financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates relationships between the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and energy markets. A special focus is given to fuel switching, the main short term abatement measure within the EU ETS. This consists in substituting Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGTs) for hard-coal plants in off-peak power generation. Thereby coal plants run for shorter periods, which allows power producers to reduce their CO 2 emissions. In Chapter 1, we outline different approaches explaining relationships between carbon and energy markets. We also review the literature relating to these issues. Next, we further describe the fuel switching process and, in particular, we analyze the influence of energy and environmental efficiency of thermal power plants (coal and gas) on fuel switching. In Chapter 2, we provide a theoretical analysis that shows how differences in the efficiency of CCGTs can rule interactions between gas and carbon prices. The main result shows that the allowance price becomes more sensitive to the gas price when the level of CO 2 emissions increases. In Chapter 3, we examine interactions between carbon, coal, gas and electricity prices in an empirical study. Among the main results, we find that there is a significant link between carbon and gas prices in the long-run equilibrium. In Chapter 4, we analyze the cross-market price discovery process between gas and CO 2 markets. We identified in previous chapters that there is a robust significant link between gas and CO 2 markets. They are linked commodities, and their prices are affected by the same information. In an empirical analysis, we find that the carbon market is the leader in cross-market price discovery process. (author)

  12. 75 FR 41276 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of an opened meeting. SUMMARY: The Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority..., unless otherwise notified. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Sky Resort, located at 1 Lone...

  13. A Study of the Determinants of Emissions Unit Allowance Price in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maydybura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the European Union (EU began the first phase of the largest and most ambitious emissions trading system (EU ETS ever attempted, which then applied to all members of the EU. In its second phase whichbegan in 2008 the EU ETS now applies to all 27 members of the EU together with Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein, the members of the European Economic Area (EEA which are not members of the Union. Inthe first phase of the EU ETS permits to emit carbon into the atmosphere known as European Union Allowances (EUA were traded in a market where the price rose to €30 and eventually fell to well below 10 Euro cents as the imperfections of the market became obvious. In the second phase which began in 2008 the price has fluctuated between €30 and €8. EUA are traded in a manner which is similar to the trading of financial instruments and a range of derivatives has developed with the total value of the market now above €120b, a growing market dominated by a few large players.This paper reports some results of an empirical investigation into the factors which appear to drive the carbon price and the key determinants of the price of an EUA. Over the last decade a number of environmental products have been developed alongside the EUA, including Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs, Renewable Energy Certificates and White Certificates (energy efficiency credits and markets have developed for a range of these environmental products. A better understanding of the determinants of these markets willhelp regulators manage these new markets and this paper aims to enhance our knowledge of the market.

  14. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    particular, Vietnam demonstrates Thompson’s first function of trade in its pursuit of an improved economy . While the U.S. has less to gain in its TPP...Thompson’s trade function of influence or “voice opportunities,” for the U.S. to influence Vietnam to liberalize its economy , support labor reforms, and...ideological base, as well as an economic model for marketizing their economies within tight government controls: China is Vietnam s largest trading

  15. Pattern Persistence in European Trade Union Density: A longitudinal analysis 1950-97

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the post-war pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  16. Canada's Minister of International Trade meets IDRC-supported ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... Photo credit: Canadian Embassy in Colombia Fostering entrepreneurship, discussing how trade can benefit women and their families, and creating job opportunities for the most vulnerable was at the heart of the roundtable discussion with Canada's Minister of International Trade, the Honourable ...

  17. 75 FR 16077 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Constitution Ave, NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Frank Caliva, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries, International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Ave... attending for the first time. 2. Discussion of civil nuclear trade priority issues. Public Participation...

  18. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  19. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...

  20. The British Labour Party and the Trade Unions: Crisis and Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Lewis

    1974-01-01

    The article offers an historical overview of the changing social and economic environment in which the English political parties and labor unions have operated, discussing the links between the two groups and the ensuing problems facing the British government. (MW)

  1. Linkages between Agriculture, Trade and the Environment in the Context of the European Union Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of trade on environment in Romania using a partial equilibrium model of bilateral trade in beef between Romania and the EU. We use a recursive dynamic model to analyse beef production and trade and adjust it as to include a component to evaluate the impact of liberalised trade due to Romania’s accession to the EU on groundwater and air quality. The environmental module of the model associates the pollution to the use of production inputs. We link the use of itro...

  2. Proposal for a model for analyzing strategies for cross-border trade union collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rubio Campos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to analyze the effectiveness of cross-border union collaboration to address the adverse effects of globalization on working conditions. The methodology used is compared analysis, with cases from North America and the European Union. In a first level of analysis, the cases were divided into four typologies and in a second level two categories were constructed, the intensity and effectiveness of the collaboration, with graduation variables within each category. The value of the study lies in the new proposed model of analysis and the number of cases reviewed, but one limitation is its exploratory nature. It was found that cross-border union collaboration result an effective strategy to address the adverse effects of globalization on labor conditions, to varying degrees depending on institutionalization and frequency of collaboration.

  3. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION-DINAMICS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Nona CHILIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents briefly the evolutions in world trade and Romanian foreign trade, especially with the EU. A significant increase in exports, but also in imports was recorded over the interval 2000-2011, accompanied by major structural changes: decline in the shares of low value added and labor intensive products and advance of the more technologically advanced products. However, Romania's trade balance with the EU and most countries in this region remained negative, similar to other new Member States, which generally import more from than export to the EU. Years 2009-2011 marked a sharp drop and a relative stabilization of the trade deficit with the EU, due to significant reduction in exports, but especially in imports, and to the adjustments induced by the crisis after 2008.

  4. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  5. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more actors and partnerships to combat these crimes, which led to adoption of the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, (Forced Labour Protocol in June 2014. Examples from Malaysia and Thailand highlight the role that trade unions can play in policy development and service provision, and also some of the challenges associated with unionisation of a vulnerable, temporary, and often repressed, migrant workforce.

  6. Boxing and dancing: Dutch trade union and works council experiences revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Sprenger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a quantitative analysis of approaches and results of 67 projects of Dutch company union groups and Works Councils to influence technological and organisational change, in three generations between 1975 and 1996. The effectiveness of problem-solving activities jointly undertaken

  7. Emigration and labour shortages: an opportunity for trade unions in new member states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Kahancová, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores whether and how unions in the post-socialist EU member states have responded to the opportunity of improving their situation, offered by the increased emigration after the recent EU enlargements. Migration influences the labour force composition and unemployment rates, which could

  8. A Question of Power: Co-Determination and Trade Union Capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    workplace forums. The new Labour Relations Act (LRA), which many have lauded as a victory for workers and unions (Baskin and Satgar, 1995;. Benjamin, 1995 ; Lagrange, 1995), came into effect on .... ated change process, was one of the fruits of their struggles for workplace ..... they enjoyed during the era of resistance.

  9. The Netherlands: the representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the private security sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2012-01-01

    The private security sector is a dynamic and growing part of the Dutch economy. The social partner for employers is the Association for Private Security Organisations (VPB), with the unions FNV Bondgenoten, CNV Dienstenbond and De Unie/MHP representing about 30% of the sector’s employees. The VPB

  10. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the european union: A panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  11. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP

  12. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  13. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    Spill-overs in the EU We explore international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. To assess and quantify the channels through which a fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, foreign exports, and foreign output, we estimate a dynamic empirical model of government

  14. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  15. Labor conflict, general strikes and dynamics of trade union organizations in the Gran La Plata 1969-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Nava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is inscribed within studies on the history of the labor movement during the years '60 and '70 in Argentina and aims to analyze the cycle of general strikes and labor conflictivity that took place more specifically between the years 1969-1972 on a particular region: the Gran La Plata. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis we will approach the dynamics of general strikes and their impact on our study region, as a kind of struggle that allows us to analyze the different tendencies and forms assumed by the conflict, the degrees of unity within the labor movement, the dynamics of trade unions, alliances with other social forces and the relationship with the state. Therefore, this article contributes to study not only certain specific dynamics of labor conflictivity in our study region, but also the more general cycle of social protest and political radicalization that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies

  16. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  17. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  18. Attacks upon the Romanian Welfare State and the Trade Union Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Frunzaru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has dramatically affected the Romanian economy and consequently the Romanian labour market. The Romanian right-wing government tackled these challenges by cutting 25% of the public sector salaries and introducing new laws that radically changed the labour rights. Therefore, the economic crisis and the global economic competition are causes and justifications for the implementation of the new policies that gave less social rights to the employees and made them less protected by unions. In a broader perspective, the welfare state regime became more liberal with a lower level of decomodification.

  19. 75 FR 80038 - Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... compromise the development by the U.S. Government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or...

  20. Estatutos Sindicales, la Fuente Olvidada: El caso de las estructuras sindicales de empleados de comercio Union Statutes, the forgotten source: The case of the structures of trade union employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Abal Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estatutos sindicales, junto a la Ley de Asociaciones Sindicales, definen las dinámicas de funcionamiento y los métodos de participación y decisión al interior de las estructuras sindicales. Son piezas fundamentales de la organización interna. En el presente trabajo se analizan las sucesivas reformas registradas por los estatutos correspondientes al Sindicato de Empleados de Comercio de Lanús Y Avellaneda con el objeto de definir los rasgos principales de la estructura sindical de la región y sus relaciones con la federación.The union statutes, together with the Trade Unions Act, define the dynamics of functioning and the methods of participation and decision to the interior of the union structures. They are fundamental pieces of the internal organization. In the present work there are analyzed the successive reforms registered by the bylaws corresponding to the Union of Employees of Trade of Lanús And Avellaneda in order to define the principal features of the union structure of the region and his relations with the federation.

  1. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  2. The Analysis Of Equity-Efficiency Trade-Off In The European Union Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socol Cristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s economic evolution for the last sixty years is specific to the long term stages of the economic cycle, of Kondratieff type. The economic expansion period has been characterized by a higher efficiency level (growth in productivity, in the labour occupation degree which favoured the reducing of the inequalities related to incomes through the redistribution process. The economic recession stage showed that, under the terms of an increased unemployment, of a low aggregate demand and of a less flexible aggregate supply, the economic efficiency level is relatively lower. On these conditions, the providing of social equity (of the cohesion will affect negatively the efficiency degree, fact which will extend the period of economic recession within The European Union.

  3. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  4. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  5. Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of analysis of U.S. foreign trade policy during the early decades of the country's history. Examines bilateral U.S. trade relations with France and Great Britain, provides import and export statistics, details on commodities and products imports and exported, trade statistics, and information on the political and economic factors shaping U.S. trade during this period.

  6. Identification of hotspots in the European union for the introduction of four zoonotic arboviroses by live animal trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Durand

    Full Text Available Live animal trade is considered a major mode of introduction of viruses from enzootic foci into disease-free areas. Due to societal and behavioural changes, some wild animal species may nowadays be considered as pet species. The species diversity of animals involved in international trade is thus increasing. This could benefit pathogens that have a broad host range such as arboviruses. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk posed by live animal imports for the introduction, in the European Union (EU, of four arboviruses that affect human and horses: Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Importation data for a five-years period (2005-2009, extracted from the EU TRACES database, environmental data (used as a proxy for the presence of vectors and horses and human population density data (impacting the occurrence of clinical cases were combined to derive spatially explicit risk indicators for virus introduction and for the potential consequences of such introductions. Results showed the existence of hotspots where the introduction risk was the highest in Belgium, in the Netherlands and in the north of Italy. This risk was higher for Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE than for the three other diseases. It was mainly attributed to exotic pet species such as rodents, reptiles or cage birds, imported in small-sized containments from a wide variety of geographic origins. The increasing species and origin diversity of these animals may have in the future a strong impact on the risk of introduction of arboviruses in the EU.

  7. Several companies will not be able to earn amounts necessary to meet strictest European Union standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Costs of meeting environmental laws, regulations and directives applying to industrial companies are relatively high. Some companies are therefore concerned that they will not be in the position to accumulate sufficient funds to meet the requirements of newly introduced legislation reflecting the European Union (EU) environmental standards. And those plants that will not manage to comply with the new regulation by the set deadline, will face a threat of being closed down. In some cases the threat will be softened by transition periods agreed on in course of pre-entry negotiations on the chapter environment and through time schedules provided for in the newly introduced regulations. Danish consultant company Niras in co-operation with Institute of Slovak and World Economy at SAV (Slovak Academy of Science) calculated that the costs related to implementation EU environmental standards by 2035 would amount to 437 bn Slovak crowns (Sk) (10.57 billion Euro). Chief Negotiator of Slovakia's EU-entry, Jan Figel confirmed that from financial point of view the implementation of environmental standards was the most demanding requirement of all. Experts cannot predict yet what part of these costs will be covered by companies themselves. The highest amount should be spent on water protection - 185 billion Sk (4.47 billion Euro) until 2030. In the waste disposal industry the necessary investments during the same period are estimated to 130 billion Sk (3.14 billion Euro) and another 90 billion Sk (2.18 billion Euro) will have to be spent on big incineration facilities. The mentioned amount of 437 billion Sk (10.57 billion Euro) does not include any costs related to liquidation of old environmental burdens. But this problem will be partially solved through the new environmental arrangements. Several industrial companies are not allowed to build new waste dumps as long as they have not liquidated the old ones or at leas have addressed the matter of contaminated soil. There is no

  8. EUROPEAN UNION PARTICIPATION IN NEGOTIATIONS ON TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rudenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the discussion surrounding involvement of interest groups in the political process on the European and global level. My purpose here is to examine how groups of interest can affect EU’s role as a global actor and find out which mode of lobbying regulation could strengthen Europe’s position in global governance. In this article, I am trying to bind concepts which at first glance might seem quite remote: groups of interests and global governance. By analyzing Europe’s position on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership (TPP, I argue that European ambitions on international arena are undermined by innertensions. These tensions are mainly caused by discrepancy in positions of different groups of interest who try to infl uence the outcome of the political process and, thus, make it less stable and predictable. At the same time, adequate lobbying regulation could increase accountability and transparency and, therefore, help to overcome inconsistencies in EU’s position in global governance system. The results suggest that without proper backing from inside actors like business groups and civil society associations the EU will constantly wobble and will not be able to fully achieve its global goals.

  9. Establishment risk from pet-trade freshwater turtles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopecký O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pet-turtle market has grown in recent years and become an important pathway for the introduction of alien species in Europe. The import of Trachemys scripta elegans has been banned by European Commission Regulation due to its species’ expanding territory and negative impact on native species. Since the demand from hobby breeders persists, however, blocking imports of this popular subspecies opens up the possibility for the introduction of other potentially invasive turtles. We determined those turtle species most common in the pet trade within the Czech Republic, which is the most important producer, importer and exporter of ornamental aquatic animals in the EU. The determination of establishment risk for the EU as a whole was then individually evaluated for turtle species based on known establishment models. Chelydra serpentina, Apalone spinifera, Apalone mutica, and Sternotherus odoratus were considered most problematic, because these species have serious establishment risk and are imported to the EU in substantial numbers. Also localities in the EU were identified where probability is highest for establishment of non-native turtles.

  10. Relationship between Workplace Incivility, Job Attitudes and Muslim Religiosity Personality among Trade Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizan H. M.

    2016-12-01

    .01; Organizational Commitment, Tolerance = .72, VIF = 1.39, Muslim Religiosity Personality, Tolerance =.72, VIF =1.39. Conclusively, the results of this study demonstrate a negative relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the job attitude variables. Furthermore, this study shows the moderating effect of an individual religiosity personality trait on the relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the job attitudes. Consequently, implications of the research include further contribution to workplace incivility theoretical aspects, Muslim religiosity personality research, managerial decision making and employer - union interventions for workplace incivility.

  11. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  12. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde Trade unionism, Unified Health System (SUS and private health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.The article intends to discuss the patterns of interlocution between the Brazilian trade unionism, the public health system (SUS and the private health insurance sector. Some thesis originated in the Public Health area about the subject are debated, in the light of more recent Social Science's studies concerned the Brazilian unionism. It presents a documentary analysis for the case of the largest National Workers Organization, named CUT. The need to discuss the problem in distinct political and economic conjunctures of the country is pointed out. The conflicts between the workers and the companies, added to the unemployment and deregulation of the labor markets

  13. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  14. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  15. Peri-prosthetic humeral non-union: Where biology meets bio-mechanic. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciurlia Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We assume that an aggressive revision surgery done with bone autograft implant and a bone healing therapy administering teriparatide off-label can reduce the convalescence in non-unions and can improve prognosis.

  16. 76 FR 60582 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Finance Update. --Trans-Atlantic Business Dialogue Activities. --U.S. Commercial Service National Export... Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11) AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... Business (ITAC-11) will hold a meeting on Wednesday, October 12, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting...

  17. ILO African Regional Workers' Education Meeting Conclusions and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Central issues of the International Labour Organisation meeting were financing workers' education in Africa, identification and development of special training programs, and the role of trade unions in labor education. (SK)

  18. Peri-prosthetic humeral non-union: Where biology meets bio-mechanic. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ciurlia Emanuele; Puddu Leonardo; Caggiari Gianfilippo; Andreozzi Matteo; Carlo Doria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The worldwide incidence of traumatic fractures has been growing over the last years due to the progressive aging of the population. Today, the increase of arthroplasty procedures in orthopaedic surgery is related to a high rate of peri-prosthetic fractures. Healing of the fracture is a multifactorial metabolic process; if these factors are impaired, healing process could be interrupted resulting in non-union. Presentation of case: We report our experience about a case of a hu...

  19. Building blocks for a precautionary approach to the use of nanomaterials: positions taken by trade unions and environmental NGOs in the European nanotechnologies debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; Reijnders, Lucas

    2011-10-01

    As partners in the European capacity-building project NanoCap, trade unions and environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have established positions on the development of nanotechnologies. Key in their positioning is their view that the use of nanomaterials with currently unknown occupational and environmental hazards must have consequences for the risk management and use of nanoproducts. They have made proposals for responsible manufacturing and for applying the precautionary principle to the use of nanoproducts and they urgently call for the acceptance and the operationalization of a precautionary approach by the industry and governments. The trade unions and NGOs are calling for transparency and openness regarding processes and products that contain nanomaterials and have proposed specific tools for nanomaterial use that put the precautionary principle into practice, including the principles no data → no exposure and no data → no emission. The proposed tools also include compulsory reporting of the type and content of nanoparticles applied in products, a register of workers possibly exposed to nanoparticles, and the use of nano reference values as guides to assess workplace exposure to nanoparticles. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  1. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  2. Quantifying the trade in marine ornamental fishes into Switzerland and an estimation of imports from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica V. Biondo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Millions of marine ornamental fishes are traded every year. Today, over half of the known nearly 4000 coral reef fish species are in trade with poor or no monitoring and demand is increasing. This study investigates their trade into and through Switzerland by analyzing import documents for live animals. In 2009, 151 import declarations with attached species lists for marine ornamental fishes from non-EU countries totaled 28 356 specimens. The 62% of the fishes remaining in Switzerland, comprised 440 marine species from 45 families, the rest transited to EU and non-EU countries. Despite the recognized large trade volume for the European region, due to bilateral agreements, no data is collected for imports from the EU. However, inferred data shows that more than 200 000 marine ornamental fishes could be imported into Switzerland every year and an unknown quantity re-exported. As biggest import region, it is therefore safe to assume, that the European region is importing at least as many marine ornamental fishes as the US. There is no adequate data-collecting system known to be in place in any country for monitoring this trade. The EU Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES to monitor animal diseases could be adjusted to gather compulsory information for the EU and Switzerland. More than half of the species imported into Switzerland are not assessed by the IUCN and therefore marked as ‘not evaluated’ on the Red List. Overall, 70% of all known coral reef fish species have not been evaluated. If coral reef fishes are threatened or endangered due to large, possibly unsustainable numbers traded, it may be rational to monitor the trade in these species through the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES.

  3. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  4. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuperberg, J.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Biczo, I.L. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  5. Quantification of the risk for introduction of virulent Newcastle disease virus into Spain through legal trade of live poultry from European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vizcaino, Fernando; Perez, Andres; Lainez, Manuel; Sanchez-Vizcaino, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) causes large economic losses in poultry production worldwide. Spain has reported two ND epidemics in poultry farms since 1993, the most recent in 2009. The recent increase in the number of ND epidemics reported in Spain and in other European Union (EU) member countries along with the failure to identify the source of the Spanish epidemics caused concern over the vulnerability that Spain has to the disease. Some of the epidemics recently reported in EU member states were associated with legal introduction of live poultry; the large number of susceptible species annually imported by Spain from the EU suggests that legal imports of poultry may impose a risk for the introduction of virulent ND virus (v-NDV) into the country. This article presents the results of the first quantitative assessment of the risk for v-NDV introduction into an ND-free country via legal trade of live poultry. The geographical variation of the risk and the relative contribution of exporting countries and susceptible poultry species to the risk were also estimated. The model here estimated that if prevailing conditions persist, then it would be expected that ND epidemics caused by legal trade of live poultry will occur, on average, once every 196 years in Spain. These results suggest that the risk for ND epidemics in Spain, and probably the sources of recent epidemics reported in the country, were associated with routes of entry other than legal trade of poultry.

  6. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  7. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  8. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  9. Three models of labor conflict in chile: the weight of the economy, trade union organization, and work regime in illegal strike tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medel Sierralta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From the return to democracy to the present, illegal strikes have acquired a prominent role in Chile’s labor conflicts, mainly due to the fact that many more workers mobilize, compared to those who participate in legal strikes. Nevertheless, existing studies on the subject focus on descriptions and general tendencies, thus neglecting the in-depth analysis of the factors determining the specific occurrence of the extralegal strikes. Consequently, the factors that might be contributing to the possibility of illegal strikes remain unknown. If labor strikes are construed as analytical events that are fundamental in order to understand power relations in capitalist enterprises, the review of the international literature on the subject helps us solve that problem, since it proposes statistical analysis models to study the economy at the national level (economic cycles, trade union organization (membership and size of unions, and work regime (fragmentation and job insecurity, as well as a further company-level analysis of the last two models. On the basis of statistics regarding the strikes that took place in Chile between 1990 and 2015 and a binary logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the weight of each one of those statistical models separately and that of all of them taken together, in the private sector of the economy (in which it is possible to opt for one or the other strike modality in the Chilean case. The results show that the trade union organization and the work regime models have a greater power to determine illegal strikes, and that the economic model loses meaning when its variables are included in the complete model. Finally, the article presents the conclusions regarding the relevance of the distinction between legal and illegal strikes for the Chilean case, in terms of workers that not only represent subjects without rights, but also actors with a certain autonomy regarding legality. In this sense, these

  10. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  11. Radiation protection - the unions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned trade union viewpoints on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. The main contentious issue was that the 5 rem dose limit might have been lower if ICRP had agreed to involve employers and the trade union movement in their considerations. However, it was concluded that, on balance, the trade union movement would welcome the proposed Regulations. (U.K.)

  12. Union members receive better redundancy terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In July 2003, a trade union affiliated to the Dutch Christian Trade Union Federation (CNV) negotiated extra benefits for its own members in a redundancy agreement with the Getronics IT company. A similar deal was reached in 2002 by an affiliate of the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV) at Ballast

  13. The Brazilian trade policy between the MERCOSUR´s crisis and the negotiations with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Luiza Kegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the coupling of Brazil's trade policy to MERCOSUR in the context of institutional and operational crisis. The difficulty to conclude a bi-regional agreement with the EU should encourage Brazil to rethink the general framework for joint negotiations, seeking to develop new international reintegration mechanisms.

  14. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  15. How the occupational physician works with the unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, J S

    1997-02-01

    A few attitudinal and behavioural principles will bring about a productive liaison between the occupational physician and trade unions. An effective working relationship with these organizations and employee associations can be developed, provided the occupational health care professionals are impartial in their practice, the loyalty to medicine replacing any bias toward the favouring of a managerial view. Respect must be given union officials, for in their organization they have status and can advance or defeat various health programs. Union representation on an occupational health committee will gain union support and minimize the filing of health-based grievances. The presentation of occupational health information at union meetings will communicate the goals of in-plant programs and familiarize workers, through their accustomed channels, with the objectives of health care policies and procedures.

  16. 78 FR 21910 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Kincaid, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries, ITA, Room 4053, 1401...

  17. 77 FR 42484 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... Energy & Environmental Industries, ITA, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20230...

  18. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS AND MUTATIONS CAUSED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FURNITURE TRADE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Marginean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he global economic crisis had most negative effects on the entire economic sphere and especially in what the consuming industry is concerned, which may be considered “luxurious”, the way in which we may talk about the furniture industry. Along times of economic crisis at social level, a decrease in financial power at microeconomic, individual level is felt. Under conditions of social decrease in buying capacity, the request for commercial furniture is in rapid fall and thus the industry as such suffers serious structural mutations. Analyzing a series of macroeconomic indices from the European furniture industry led to the result that during the late years there has been a positive trend within the furniture industry in matters of production, however, with concern to trading, the situation is more complicated. There is a behaviour difference in the furniture industry between emergent countries and EU developed states and based on the performed analysis, a SWOT analysis at sectorial level crystallized, in which we propose ways of growth in the European furniture industry.

  19. It’s not the Fish that Stinks! EU Trade Relations with Morocco under the Scrutiny of the General Court of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummelbrunner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s international agreements with Morocco on trade in agricultural and fishery products have drawn criticism due to their application to the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a territory that remains on the list of non-self-governing territories to be decolonised in accordance with the right of self-determination of the indigenous Sahrawi people. Recently, the Sahrawi liberation movement Front Polisario brought an action for annulment before the General Court of the European Union (GC against the Council Decision approving the conclusion of one such agreement, alleging multiple violations of European and international legal norms. Interestingly, although the GC concurred by annulling the Decision insofar as it applies to Western Sahara, it chose to exclusively base its judgment on EU fundamental rights, invoking the EU’s failure to ensure that the fundamental rights of the Sahrawi people were not infringed by applying the agreements to Western Sahara. By summarily setting aside Front Polisario’s other claims, several relevant questions of applicable international and European law, which warrant further discussion, remain. This article examines these questions using the GC’s judgment in Front Polisario, thereby combining general matters of international and European law with the specific circumstances of the EU-Morocco relations and Western Sahara.

  20. 78 FR 71022 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties between the United States and the United Kingdom and Australia... address listed below, by close of business Thursday, January 9, 2014. If notified after this date, the...

  1. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  2. Planning and implementing forest operations to achieve sustainable forests: Proceedings of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Michael A. Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Contains a variety of papers presented at the joint meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and International Union of Forest Research Organizations Subject Group S3.04 and that support the meeting theme "Planning and Implementing Forest Operations to Achieve Sustainable Forests."

  3. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  4. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    these premises restrain and afford their agendas. Thus the overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that have shaped the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. This archaeological investigation will be the point of departure for a critical...

  5. [Emissions trading potential : a mechanism to meet sustainability requirements for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govendor, V.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (sustainable development, adaptation to negative impacts, achieving compliance by developed nations, emission reduction against a defined baseline), and potential mechanisms for managing the CDM were described. In effect, the CDM is a means to ensure cost efficient greenhouse gas emissions reductions. It is also a tool to promote sustainable development in developing countries. As for managing CDM, the mechanism must include equitable regional representation, and balanced representation between developed and developing nations. It was emphasized that the mandate must be clear and unambiguous, and should include clarification of eligible projects, liaison between agencies and COP/MOP, managing the adaptation fund, oversee allocations to adaptation projects, and audit 'certified emission reduction' (CER) certified by CDM agencies. CERs should be based on solid technical definition and should be carefully verified, and joint implementation (JI) and emission trading should be measured and assessed against common criteria

  6. Union membership variation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates covariates of union density in ten West European countries. It adds to previous research by showing that collective bargaining coverage plays a substantial role. Hence future analyses of union density should emphasize the collective bargaining coverage variable, since...... trade unions may influence both the extent of coverage and the content of agreements. Of course, the question of the direction of the causality remains...

  7. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  8. Between Immediacy and Imagination: The Place of the Educator and Organiser in Union Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Can the current education programme of the Australian trade union movement contribute to reviving union growth and union culture, develop new activists and leaders, and encourage and facilitate the organisational change needed to re-orient unions to develop broader alliances? Twenty-five Australian trade union leaders were asked to describe the…

  9. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  10. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  11. 77 FR 43416 - Notice of Meeting of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee on Small and Minority Business (ITAC-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Fees. --Access to and use of U.S. Small Business Administration State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grants by San Diego-area business. --Congressional perspective on trade barriers for small and minority...

  12. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  13. Nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union. Opening address at the 2004 winter meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maichel, G.

    2004-01-01

    The EU expansion in 2004 will completely change the face of the European community of states. The structure of the power supply system, too, will undergo major changes. Both the expansion of the EU and the reliability of electricity supply are topical problems in need of perspectives of solutions. Nuclear power can and will contribute to these solutions. For Germany, it is imperative that an energy consensus be worked out and put into effect across all party lines in an effort to create reliable framework conditions for the next twenty or thirty years. The goal must be a balanced energy mix also ensuring the competitiveness of Germany as an industrialized country. The individual strengths of each of the energy sources must be pooled so as to result in an optimum. Foregoing the use of nuclear power in the future is wrong in respect of the national economy, power economy, and climate policy. Developments in the neighboring countries in Europe and worldwide document that the opting-out policy of the German federal government is an approach peculiar to Germany. The final storage of radioactive waste in Germany is a topic to be finalized speedily. The Konrad and Gorleben mines constitute a promising concept of final storage of all types of radioactive waste in Germany. This goal must be pursued further in a firm policy and must not be delayed by new site selection procedures. In the field of nuclear research, Germany must not be separated from international developments. Nuclear competence must be preserved and promoted. The future power supply situation in Europe is characterized by the need for a considerable addition of generating capacity. As is demonstrated by the project of the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland, nuclear power is going to play an important role in meeting this need.(orig.) [de

  14. Maternizando lo político: mujeres y género en el Movimiento Sindical de la Industria Salmonera Chilena Political mothering: women and gender on the Chilean Salmon Trade Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Cid Aguayo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las fases de proceso de la industria salmonera chilena emplean gran cantidad de mano de obra femenina sobre la base de la naturalización de una ideología de género que atribuye a las mujeres tanto habilidades motrices como un supuesto recelo a participar en organizaciones sindicales. Sin embargo, en un contexto de alta conflictividad laboral y en respuesta a la precariedad del trabajo, se observa la emergencia de importantes liderazgos sindicales femeninos. El presente trabajo analiza por una parte los sindicatos salmoneros, y su capacidad de incluir temas de género, como también aspectos de la subjetividad y los discursos de las emergentes mujeres dirigentas. En este sentido se observará que las lideresas no compartimentan su experiencia personal, sino que organizan su subjetividad en forma integrada, aunque tensionada por los diversos roles, por una parte maternizando su trabajo sindical y por la otra, politizando su vida privada.The Chilean salmon industry processing plants demand important amounts of female labour-force on the ground of naturalized attributed female gender characteristics, such as nimble fingers and particularly, lower union participation. However, in a context of high labour conflict and in response to precarious labour condition, important female leaderships have emerged. This work analyzes, on the one hand, the salmon unions, and their capacity to include gender issues, and, on the other hand, aspects of the subjectivity and speeches of the emergent women leaders. I will argue that female leaders do no fragment their personal experience, but organized their subjectivity in an integrated but also stressed way, on the one hand mothering their trade union activity, and on the other, politicizing their private life.

  15. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  16. The effects of union mergers and internal restructuring:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Trade union mergers and restructuring are often seen as strategy for union revitalisation and renewal and have been ongoing in the majority of European trade unions. This paper explores how recent union mergers and internal restructuring has affected unions service provision, union democracy...... and interest representation. This is analysed drawing on longitudinal data from two Danish shop steward surveys conducted in 1998 and 2010, comparing shop stewards in merged and non-merged unions respectively. The main results are that although it could be expected that union mergers and internal restructuring...... may entail lower service levels, democratic deficit and weakening of union identities, this is not always the case. Danish shop stewards appear more satisfied with their union’s service provision anno 2010 compared to 1998 and feel more able to influence union politics. However, variations also exist...

  17. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  18. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  19. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the invitation of the Physical Research. Laboratory, the 58th Annual Meeting of the. Academy was held at Ahmedabad from 6 to 9. November 1992. The meetings were held at the. Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) and the. Space Applications Centre (SAC) and were organized by PRl, in cooperation with ~AC, the.

  20. Global regulation of international intellectual property through Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS: The European Union and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Aurélie Laurence Defossez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper focuses on the regulation of copyrights at international level by comparing the situation under the TRIPS agreement in Brazil and in the European Union. Methodology/approach/design – This article analyses standards and literature on regulation, as well as the role of TRIPS agreement. Attention was specially drawn to the market failure theory for justifying regulation, advocated by Baldwin & Cave. The TRIPS agreement will be analysed through Baldwin’s five criteria for good regulation. Findings – The TRIPS agreement substantially widened the scope of governance of copyrights but imposes the WTO view on the matter. Notwithstanding its flaws, the TRIPS agreement remains the most comprehensive international agreement on intellectual property. According to Baldwin’s theory, the TRIPS agreement as a regulation is a good regulation. Indeed, it achieves the major part of the goals it set. However, some of the declared goals have never come to existence and had been replaced by other goals. On the overall, the TRIPS agreement has the capacity to regulate international intellectual property. Originality/value – This paper analyses the TRIPS agreement as a way forward in the harmonization of the rules on intellectual property.

  1. Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwin, Val R.

    1975-01-01

    The balance of power inside the dominant socialist and Catholic blocs in Belgium, which were once incontestably led by the political elites, has been shifting toward the trade unions. Regionalism has fragmented the political system far more than the industrial relations system; the unions' political influence will continue in importance. (Author)

  2. Les relations entre syndicats et associations en Belgique : Le cas de la réforme du minimex Relations between Trade Unions and Other Voluntary Associations in Belgium with Special Reference to Basic Income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Faniel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur se penche sur les relations entre organisations syndicales et milieux associatifs en Belgique. Dans la première partie, il passe en revue la littérature scientifique internationale consacrée au syndi­ca­lisme et aux “nouveaux mouvements sociaux” afin de dégager des hypothèses de travail spécifiquement applicables à l’étude, peu développée, des relations entre ces deux types d’acteurs. Dans la partie em­pirique, il aborde, dans le contexte belge, les positions adoptées par les syndicats et les mouvements as­sociatifs face à la réforme du “minimum de moyens d’existence” (minimex et les mo­bilisations engen­drées par cette réforme. Il souligne l’existence de différences importantes entre les atti­tudes de certaines associations (la Ligue des Droits de l’Homme, des organisations de sans-emploi et de pré­caires, etc. et la position officielle des grands syndicats. L’étude met également en lumière les diffé­rences de réaction perceptibles entre les associations elles-mêmes et au sein des deux principales orga­nisations syndicales nationales. L’auteur cherche enfin à expliquer les différentes logiques à l’œu­vre et confronte hypothèses de travail et étude empirique quant aux relations qu’entretiennent syndicats et associations.In the light of work on Trade Unions and New Social Movements, hypotheses as to their relationships in Belgium are here elaborated. Their respective positions and campaigns regarding basic income are empirically examined. Significant differences between the Union stance and that of given associations such those concerned with human rights or the unemployed, are highlighted. Divergences also appear amongst the associations themselves as well as between the two main Unions. The contribution concludes with an analysis of the various logics at stake and the empirical relevance of the afore mentioned hypotheses.

  3. Labor unions

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    "Labor unions are interest associations of workers in waged employment. They are formed to improve the market situation and the life chances of their members, by representing them in the labor market, at the workplace, and in the polity, and in particular by collectively regulating their members' terms of employment. Unions emerged in the transition to industrial society in the nineteenth century, together with the de-fedualization of work, the rise of free labor markets, and the commodificat...

  4. 75 FR 57827 - Notice of Meeting of the Committee of Chairs of the Industry Trade Advisory Committees (ITACs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ..., located at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The... Policy Agenda, including discussion of ongoing negotiations and trade strategies. Myesha Ward, Assistant...

  5. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  6. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  7. Effects of Union Organization on Strike Incidence in EU Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo

    2014-01-01

    The author reinvestigates the relationship between the organizational power of trade unions and strikes based on data from the European Company Survey 2009 (ECS-2009) and the Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) database, which

  8. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  9. The Structure of Firm-Specific Labour Unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Müller (Julia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate trade union formation. To this end we apply a model with two types of labour where both groups decide on whether they prefer to be represented by either two independent craft-specific (professional) labour unions or by a joint (encompassing) labour union.

  10. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes...... disputes—the US upland cotton and European Union sugar cases—serve to suggest that the authority of international trade law is not as significant as assumed by the legalisation thesis. Rather, domestic politics and institutions have an important impact on the outcome of trade disputes........ By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...

  11. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Purpose: The meeting will include a review and discussion of current...

  12. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The organization and arrangements for the scientific meetings, cultural event and the visits to Lothal and SAC were superb. The Academy is grateful to the Physical Research Laboratory particularly R K Varma, Director, PRL, to the. Institute for Plasma Research and its Director. P K Kaw, to the Space Applications Centre and.

  13. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Defence Minister, Government of India on some of his experiences in technology development in India. A summary of his lecture appears in this issue. In the afternoon the .... of steel armour for our Light Tank which has found wide application to meet the ... basic issues: how information is encoded in the structure of DNA ...

  14. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1985-11-07

    Nov 7, 1985 ... Business Meeting of Fellows. Evening Lecture. Architecture of the universe- R Cowsik ... and technical capabilities to plan, design and build satellites for earth observations, such as. Bhaskara I and II have ... Water Resources Systems Planning-. Some case studies for India. Edited by. Mahesh C Chaturvedi ...

  15. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  16. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry.The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  17. Nuclear power and supply safety in an enlarged European Union. Winter meeting of the German Atomforum; Kernenergie und Versorgungssicherheit in der erweiterten EU. Wintertagung des Deutschen Atomforums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, F. [Kienle Consultants, Energie und Politik Beratung, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-04-05

    Foreign countries within the European Union do not accept the ending of nuclear power generation like in Germany. They won't afford CO2- reduction with new energy supply measures. France looks upon the reactor generations like EPR, ABWR or AP1000, which shall be constructed from the year 2010 in big series. The most countries of the Union won't be longer dependent from fossil fuels but accept advanced nuclear power completed with state-of-the-art equipment for alternative power generation. (GL)

  18. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina BĂLĂNEASA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions.The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizations in response to the challenges of the globalization.The policy of multinational companies is, as it comes from the results presented in this paper, to avoid as far as possible syndicates recognition for collective bargaining of the reciprocal rights and obligations. One of the reasons would be that trade unions recognition would imply for the managers of these companies some restrictions of control management prerogatives.In order to show strength against multinational companies, trade unions have joined at European and international level, trying to formulate a strategic response to the challenges of the globalization. Through global trade unions such as Global Syndicate Federations (GSF and the European Trade Union Confederation, employees have obtained the right to be consulted, informed and negotiate their rights through international and European social dialogue.Although multinational companies have an attitude of avoiding trade union recognition, the internationalization and Europeanization of syndicates contribute to maintaining the strategic partner role of the union in the struggle to ensure satisfactory life and working conditions of its members.

  19. Explaining union participation: The effects of union commitment and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bolton

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between trade union commitment and union participation among blue-collar workers in South Africa. Survey questionnaires were completed by 93 participants (response rate = 62 %. Findings are consistent with previous research and showed that after controlling for demographic factors, 43% of the variance in participation can be explained by union commitment. In this study, Black participants displayed significantly higher levels of commitment and participation than their Coloured counterparts did.

  20. Operational forest management planning methods: proceedings, meeting of steering systems project group, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Bucharest, Romania, June 18-24, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Navon

    1978-01-01

    These 14 papers were submitted to a conference of Project Group P4.07 Division IV, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations. Topics discussed included the uses of simulations, analytical techniques, and mathematical programming techniques in land management planning, reforestation programs, intensive forestry, timber management and production, tree growth...

  1. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-01-01

    Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitivenes...

  2. Gümrük Birliği Antlaşmasını Takip Eden Süreçte Türkiye-BRICS Dış Ticareti Yoğunlaşma Analizi(Analysis of Concentration of Foreign Trade between Turkey and BRICS during the Period Following the Customs Union Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KUŞAT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Customs Union Agreement served as an intermediary for ensuring the partial economic integration between Turkey and the EU. During the initial years of this integration, the trade relations with the European Union had a significant role in the Turkish economy. However, it can nowadays be observed that the EU’s share in Turkey’s foreign trade is gradually diminishing. In this context, this study, which analyzes the concentration of trade between Turkey and BRICS in the post-CU period based on products and countries, benefited from the data provided by the Turkish Statistics Institution. As a result of the study, it was observed that the country-based trade intensification moved from Russia to China after the ratification of the CU Agreement. It was determined that the product-based concentration in exportation occurred only within the product group named “Crude Materials, Inedible, Except Fuels” (54.8%, whereas the concentration within importation occurred in the product groups named “Mineral Fuel, Lubricants and Related Materials” (35.3%, “Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles” (32.% and “Animal and Vegetable Oils, Fats and Waxes” (30.5%.

  3. The Southern African Development Community trade legal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    List of abbreviations and acronyms. ACP – African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States. BLNS- Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. CRTA- Committee on Regional Trade Agreements. CTG- Council on Trade in Goods. EPA- Economic Partnership Agreements. EU- European Union. FTA- Free Trade Area.

  4. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    catastrophic phase of labour unrest and this led to a successful general strike in 1945. To ensure a sustained ... Unilorin lecturers for failure to break the strike over the non implementation of the December 2001 .... exposure, agricultural innovations, mass production of goods and cultural awareness. These aspect of national ...

  5. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  6. Highlights of the Customs Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Kharlov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize the main results of two years of the operation of the Customs Union in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, which is hardly impressive in the aftermath of the global financial crisis and economic instability in Belarus. However, the authors stressed that it is too early to jump to conclusions about the effectiveness of the Customs Union. In addition, the structure of trade, working arrangements and the list of goods are changed. Separately it is analyzed the changing economic situation in Kazakhstan, where the increased influx of Russian investments are after joining the Customs Union fully operational. In different sectors of the domestic economy are active joint Kazakh-Russian companies because Kazakhstan has more attractive business environment, compared to Russia. Russian companies are interested in Kazakhstan and produce this product to sell back to Russia or Belarus. For Kazakhstan benefit is job creation, expansion of production base, increasing tax revenues, new investments.

  7. Partidos, sindicatos y organización en el lugar de trabajo: La huelga de los obreros de la carne de Avellaneda en 1932 Political parties, trade unions and the shop‐floor organization: The strike by the meatworkers of Avellaneda in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ceruso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La intención principal del trabajo es profundizar la línea de investigación que analiza la relación entre las corrientes de izquierda y el movimiento obrero argentino durante la década del treinta. En particular, abordamos el estudio de los programas y prácticas sindicales que desplegó el Partido Comunista en uno de los sectores económicos de mayor relevancia en la estructura productiva nacional: la industria frigorífica. Procuramos revisar las políticas sindicales de las estructuras internacionales, continentales y nacionales del comunismo con la voluntad de observar su impacto en la organización sindical de los obreros de la carne. Encaramos la investigación desde una perspectiva de análisis que prioriza dar cuenta de las prácticas y estrategias de los trabajadores en el lugar de trabajo. La labor de los obreros en las fábricas y empresas se examina durante la preparación y el desarrollo de la huelga en los frigoríficos de Avellaneda en 1932. La propuesta de analizar la relación entre izquierda y movimiento obrero se traduce aquí en el análisis de las tácticas sindicales del comunismo y su impacto en la organización gremial de base durante la huelga en los frigoríficos de Avellaneda en 1932.The main intention of the work is to deepen the line of research that examines the relationship between the left-wing currents and the labor movement argentine during the 1930s. In particular, we will approach the study of the programs and trade union practices deployed the Communist Party in one of the economic sectors of greater relevance in the productive structure national: the meat industry. We seek to revise the trade union policies of the structures international, continental and national of the communism with the willingness to observe its impact on the trade union organization of workers from the meat. We face the investigation from a perspective of analysis that prioritizes give an account of the practices and strategies of

  8. Energy efficiency improvement in oil refineries through flare gas recovery technique to meet the emission trading targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Renzi, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Flare gas recovery is one of the most attractive methods to improve energy efficiency in oil refineries to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The recovered gas is used to feed refinery processes, granting advantages in terms of fuel economy and flare stress. This paper presents the results obtained by a feasibility study of a flare gas recovery system in a real refinery; the work focused on: i) the choice and the design of the flare gas recovery system; ii) the gas treatment and reuse; iii) the economic feasibility, and the payback period. An experimental campaign has been performed to evaluate both the composition and the flow rate of the flare gas. Results showed that the flare gas had a strongly variable flow rate and composition due to the different gas species processed in refinery. A methodology for the system selection is presented: a 400 kg/h liquid ring compression device is chosen; its basic design is described as well as the chemical treatments of inert gases and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S). The yearly energy recovery was estimated to be 2900 TOE, corresponding to 6600 tons of CDE (Carbon Dioxide Equivalent). Finally, an economic evaluation was carried out, showing a payback period of about 2.5 years. - Highlights: • A liquid ring compressor flare gas recovery system is applied to an oil refinery. • The composition of the flare gas and the design of the compressor are presented. • The system allows to recover 400 kg/h of flare gas with a LHV of 39,951 kJ/kg. • Cash flow derives from the spared energy and the emission trading allowances market. • The pay-back period of the presented flare gas recovery system is about 2 years.

  9. Industrial Unionism and Its Bargaining Correlates in Nigeria Industrial Relations System

    OpenAIRE

    Francis C. Anyim; Joy Onyinyechi Ekwoaba; Adedoyinsola Olajumoke Shonuga

    2013-01-01

    Between 1960-1966, industrial relations system in Nigeria was based on Laissez-faire doctrine or voluntary ethic. The colonial trade union ordinance of 1938 allowed any five or more persons to form trade unions. The trend led to the proliferation of over 1000 mushroom unions which were not well organized and badly managed. Besides, all was not well with the organization, administration, finance, leadership and foreign relations of the unions. It was against this backdrop that government initi...

  10. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11:30 a.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution...

  11. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution Ave. NW...

  12. Os subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional: as políticas da União Europeia e dos Estados Unidos da América The agricultural subsidies in international trade: the policies adopted by the European Union and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Marcelo Rodrigues Bruno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a prática de subsídios à agricultura no comércio internacional, tendo como principal objetivo dimensionar a sua prática enquanto instrumento econômico estratégico para o setor agrícola, especialmente para os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia. Uma completa proibição dos subsídios não é desejável porque sua prática, em essência, constitui uma alternativa à busca do bem-estar social da nação. Contudo, a utilização dos subsídios agrícolas, na forma como vêm sendo praticados, constituem-se em intervenções de cunho protecionista que provocam distorções no comércio internacional. Sendo os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia as nações que mais os utilizam no comércio internacional, tem-se gerado preocupações sobre sua própria eficiência enquanto instrumento de política comercial estratégica para o comércio internacional.This study examines the practice of agricultural subsidies in international trade, aiming at scaling its practice as a strategic economic tool primarily for the agricultural sector, especially to the United States and the European Union. A complete ban on subsidies is not desirable because its practice, in essence, is a path to improve the welfare of the nation. However, the way the agricultural subsidies have been employed, constitute protectionist interventions that distort international trade. The United States and the European Union are the major users of this instrument in international trade, a factor that has raised concerns about their own efficiency as a strategic trade policy for international trade.

  13. Changes in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products under accession to the European Union Zmainy w polskim handlu zagranicznym produktami rolno-spożywczymi w warunkach integracji z Unią Europejską

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.

  14. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  15. Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

    2010-11-16

    Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region.

  16. Falls among union carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John M

    2003-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the construction trades. We identified a cohort of 16,215 active union carpenters, hours worked, and their workers' compensation claims for a 10-year period. The data on this well-defined cohort were used to describe their work-related falls; to define rates of injury and the associated costs; and to identify high-risk groups. Same level falls occurred at a rate of 1.8/200,000 hours worked; falls from elevations at a rate of 2.3/200,000 hours worked. These injuries resulted in direct payments of 0.30 dollars per hour of work or 2.40 dollars per 8-hr day. Mean costs per fall increased with increasing age. Age was not associated with risk of falls from elevations; younger carpenters had modestly reduced rates of falls from the same level. Rates of falls decreased with increasing time in the union. Carpenters whose usual work involved drywall installation or residential work were at highest risk. Falls are a significant public health risk for carpenters and they are responsible for a significant burden of work-related injury costs. While there is a need for prevention of falls from elevations--through training, enforcement of fall protection regulations, improved safety climate, or engineering changes--there is also the need to prevent falls from lower elevations. Differences in risk likely reflect varying exposures and safety practices in different areas of carpentry, as well as training, experience, and job assignments based on longevity in the union. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Examination of forest products trade between Turkey and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of getting in the foreign trade forms one of the basic stones of economic development for countries. The current and potential trading volume among countries and determining the main factors affecting trade are quite important. The trade currents of the European Union (EU) countries and Turkey in the forest ...

  18. Trade in uranium: Tools available to address import disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The presentation covers five topics with respect to the international uranium market: (1) the role of the US Trade Representative (USTR) and the formulation of US trade policy; (2) US trade policy today; (3) the remedies available where imports or other countries' trading practices are damaging or may be threatening to damage US production or commerce; (4) trade policy with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union; and (5) some remarks on trade in uranium and emerging issues

  19. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation and a number of bilateral (preferential trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement. In this case, we have analysed Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA negotiated by the European Union and Canada. For both sides of Atlantic, the CETA is supposed to bring the solution for today's issues concerning the important trading aspects and, also, to facilitate the EU-Canada bilateral trade by creating competition.

  20. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  1. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina BÃLÃNEASA

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions. The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizat...

  2. EUROPEAN ACCESSION AND THE TRADE FACILITATION AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN S. WILSON; XUBEI LUO; HARRY G. BROADMAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of improved trade facilitation measures and institutional capacity in a set of economies in transition Europe. Our results suggest that behind-the-border barriers play an important role in determining bilateral trade flows (controlling for the effects of tariffs, development levels, distance, and regional characteristics of exporters and importers, among other factors). For European Union (EU) members that joined the Union in 2004 and less developed and candidat...

  3. 28th annual meeting of the European Society for New Methods in Agricultural Research and International Union of Radioecology (IUR) Working Group Soil-to-Plant Transfer annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Forty-three contributions presented at the Meeting were input to INIS; these fall largely in the working groups Radiation Technology, Advanced Methods in Animal Sciences, and Soil-Plant Relationships. (P.A.)

  4. Unions on the edge: Between Inertia and Agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Dawson, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    The paper compare experiences of trade unions in Australia and Denmark. While there is a significant decline in membership in Australia, many of the issues facing these two countries are similar. IT, virtualisation, BPR and TQM represent global challenges. On this background the room for manouver...... for strategic unionism is discussed....

  5. Customs unions, currency crises, and monetary policy coordination: The case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny Vinokurov; Mikhail Demidenko; Dmitry Korshunov; Mihaly Kovacs

    2017-01-01

    After achieving substantial progress in establishing a common customs territory and regulations, customs unions face potential disruptions due to a lack of monetary policy coordination. These disruptions might appear in the form of currency shocks and the ensuing trade conflicts. We approach this issue by looking at the case of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The volatility of national currencies in 2014–2015 resulted in sizable shifts in competitiveness, culminating in a currency crisis ...

  6. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  7. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  8. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  9. International trade and the position of European low-skilled labour

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Marion

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the potential channels through which international trade affects the position of low skilled workers in the European Union. After an analysis of the European Union's trade flows showing the predominant role of intra-industry trade with other industrialised countries, the discussion focuses on the potential effects of intra-industry trade on low skilled labour. Particular attention is paid to possible interactions between trade and technological change and t...

  10. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Union job fight boiling at DOE cleanup sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE is facing a growing jurisdictional dispute over which unions will perform the majority of clean-up work at its facilities. Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council representing operations employees at the sites believe they have a fundamental right to work. Unions in the AFL-CIO's Building and Construction Trades Dept. insist that they have a clear mandate under federal labor law and the Davis-Bacon Act. The issue has heated up in recent weeks at the policy level and is boiling in a contentious dispute at DOE's Fernald site in Ohio

  12. Good global governance through trade : constitutional moorings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.; Wouters, J.; Marx, A.; Geraets, D.; Natens, B.

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring good global governance through trade is not just a powerful idea, or a ‘global strategy’; it is also firmly anchored in the highest laws of the European Union. Promoting good global governance through trade policy brings together two of the hallmarks of the EU as an international actor. On

  13. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  14. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  15. Bridging the Divide: Examining Professional Unity and the Extended Teacher Union Role in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Sweden has experienced increasing educational inequity levels within its highly decentralized school system. With a reduced capacity to bargain collectively, the two Swedish teacher trade unions, the Swedish Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet) and the National Union of Teachers in Sweden (Lärarnas Riksförbund), have sought to extend their role in…

  16. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  17. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  18. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to..., direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and publicity at industry meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade shows. The application deadline has been extended to...

  19. Entering the Union : European Accession and Capacity-Building Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, John S.; Luo, Xubei; Broadman, Harry G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the impact of trade facilitation on bilateral trade flows. They examine trade facilitation and capacity-building priorities in 12 countries in the Europe and Central Asia region-eight of the current members of the European Union: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, and three candidate members: Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. The results suggest that behind-the-border factors play an important role in determining bilateral tra...

  20. 76 FR 71378 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory... Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 30, 2011; 2-4:30 p.m.; U.S...

  1. 77 FR 65581 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory... Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: November 13, 2012; 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m...

  2. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  3. Trade promotion of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  4. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  5. 29 CFR 452.41 - Working at the trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working at the trade. 452.41 Section 452.41 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.41 Working at the trade. (a) It would ordinarily be reasonable for a union to require candidates to be employed at the trade or even to...

  6. Rent-seeking and grandfathering: The case of GHG trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG...... trading system. This is so because total costs of emission reduction and lobbyism are likely to be smaller than the total rents from having this type of regulation.......The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG....... In other words, we want to explain and observe how rent-seeking (or lobbyism) affects the design of environmental regulation and energy policy in favour of well-organized industrial interest groups. We argue that some firms are likely to reap a net gain from being regulated by a grandfathered emission...

  7. Towards emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, S.

    2001-01-01

    A one-day conference organised by the Institute of Energy was held recently to discuss the way forward for emissions trading of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the UK. In the absence of the Government's draft rules for the scheme, the meeting examined the background to the proposed scheme and its implications for participants. Henry Derwent of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) confirmed that emissions trading would happen despite the US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol. Margaret Mogford of the UK Emissions Trading Group explained the special features of the UK scheme, including its voluntary nature, financial incentives from the Government and the use of targets based on units of output. The scheme would be administered by an emissions trading authority and there would be three possible routes to participation (core participants, emissions savings projects and 'unit' participants). Margaret Mogford also outlined the steps for companies interested in participating

  8. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  9. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  10. [On the improvement of the legal support of the food safety in the conditions of trade and economic integration of states-members of the Customs union and the Russian Federation's accession to the WTO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, I V; Aksenova, O I; Bokit'ko, B G; Gorsky, A A

    2013-01-01

    In the article priority activities of The Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare on improvement of standard legal support of safety of foodstuff and control of compliance of foodstuff to legislation requirements are reported. The main documents directed on harmonization of the international requirements with national ones and requirements of the Customs union on safety of foodstuff are submitted. Work within a framework of Russian Federation's accession to the WTO is described. And data on control of quality and safety of foodstuff are provided also.

  11. New trajectories of unionization in the Nordic Ghent countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Kongshøj, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment insurance funds (the ‘Ghent system’), subsidized by the state and controlled by the labour movement, have contributed to high trade union densities in the Nordic countries. However, dependence on these funds as a recruiting mechanism makes trade union membership sensitive to institut......Unemployment insurance funds (the ‘Ghent system’), subsidized by the state and controlled by the labour movement, have contributed to high trade union densities in the Nordic countries. However, dependence on these funds as a recruiting mechanism makes trade union membership sensitive...... to institutional changes to unemployment insurance benefits and the institutional setup surrounding and regulating them. In this article, we investigate recent institutional changes in the three Nordic countries following the Ghent model, Finland, Sweden and Denmark, and analyse the consequences for union and fund...... to a sharp decline in fund membership in Sweden, whereas this trend is less pronounced in Finland and Denmark. Instead, the main trend here has been a shift from union-led to alternative forms of fund membership, but in different ways....

  12. Integration, Disintegration and Trade in Europe : Evolution of Trade Relations during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.; Fidrmuc, J.

    2000-01-01

    The gravity model of trade is used to assess the economic consequences of new borders, which arose in the wake of break-ups of multinational federations in Eastern Europe. The intensity of trade relations among the constituent parts of Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union and the Baltics was very high

  13. Meeting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  14. The effects of competing trade regimes on bilateral trade flows: case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Bjelić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of competing trade regimes on Serbian trade with its most significant (traditional partners, like European Union and CEFTA 2006 signatories, and other untraditional trade partners with favourable trade regime, like the USA. To this end, gravity model with bilateral and time effects is estimated by Hausman-Taylor AR(1 instrumental variable estimator, using panel data on bilateral trade between Serbia and its main trade partners during the period 2001-2010. The results indicate that overall level of development and difference in factor endowments stimulate Serbia’s exports, which is in accordance with theoretical foundation that inter-industry trade is predominant in exports of less developed countries. Moreover, competing trade regimes appear as important determinant of Serbia’s trade relations, whereas additional liberalization of trade regime with the USA as untraditional trade partner, even asymmetrical to Serbia’s favour, cannot divert trade flows from traditional partners in the long-run. This could mean that distance plays more prominent role in bilateral trade than the degree of liberalization of trade regimes in case of Serbia. The result could be due to the contemporaneous effects of trade preferences granted to Serbia by the EU and other CEFTA 2006 signatories, main trading partners of Serbia.

  15. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  16. The Outlook for World Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sutherland

    2003-01-01

    The former GATT and World Trade Organization Director-General (1993–1995) defends the multilateral trade system—“If goods do not pass frontiers, armies will†—and describes the challenges facing the World Trade Organization particularly in meeting the Doha Development Agenda. He responds to critics whose beliefs about globalisation and the role of the WTO he says are based on muddled thinking, and addresses trade-related issues including global governance and the situation of the dev...

  17. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  18. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Union Spinning Mills and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project. Project participants from USM were: • From USM: Operations Director Johan Ferreira, Finishing Manager Anrico (Andrej) Kritzinger...

  19. New trajectories of unionization in the Nordic Ghent countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Kongshøj, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment insurance funds (the ‘Ghent system’), subsidized by the state and controlled by the labour movement, have contributed to high trade union densities in the Nordic countries. However, dependence on these funds as a recruiting mechanism makes trade union membership sensitive...... to institutional changes to unemployment insurance benefits and the institutional setup surrounding and regulating them. In this article, we investigate recent institutional changes in the three Nordic countries following the Ghent model, Finland, Sweden and Denmark, and analyse the consequences for union and fund...... membership. These countries have witnessed different combinations of two types of reform, less attractive unemployment benefits plus new institutional alternatives to the traditional union-run funds, and this has led to different outcomes in each country. Benefit retrenchment and increased contributions led...

  20. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  1. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    This paper studies the spread of the Black Death as a proxy for the intensity of medieval trade flows between 1346 and 1351. The Black Death struck most areas of Europe and the wider Mediterranean. Based on a modied version of the gravity model, we estimate the speed (in kilometers per day......, and geographical position are of substantial signicance. These results are the first to enable us to identify and quantify key variables of medieval trade flows based on an empirical trade model. These results shed new light on many qualitative debates on the importance and causes of medieval trade....

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. International Union of Radioecologists' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (I.U.R.) has maintained a vigorous program of activities in accordance with the goals of its charter. To meet these goals, the I.U.R. has sponsored a number of workshops, meetings, and other related activities aimed at improving our ability to understand and predict the consequences of release of radionuclides to the environment. These include: intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies and a continuous feedback between scientists engaged in mathematical modeling and those carrying out field studies. Specialized workshops dealing with problems in understanding transfer coefficients in the terrestrial environment are being held. In the marine environment, long-distance transport in sediments plays an important role for the spread of radioisotopes released from reprocessing plants (e.g., in the Eastern Atlantic, the Northland Baltic Sea). Representatives of the countries concerned (including from Northern Countries) will define conditions of information exchange, sampling (time, character of sediments), and modelisation

  4. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  5. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  6. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... of shop stewards' learning. And finally I turn to some of the strategic challenges regarding shop stewards' learning and education and the political agenda of the unions. It will be argued that the two issues are closely interrelated, which points to analytical approaches that include subjective learning...

  7. Sustainability in the Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  8. Teacher Unions 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  9. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  10. Workers' Education--Seen by an African Trade Unionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Trade Union Unity gives a broad overview of workers' education activities conducted by that union, describes the activities, and discusses how the activities differ in concept and content from such activities in other parts of the world. (CT)

  11. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  12. Seasonal unit roots in trade variables

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Alexander; Manuel Cantavella Jordá

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine the presence of seasonal unit roots in trade variables for Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy, using the procedure developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) [HEGY]. Both quarterly and monthly data reject the presence of unit roots at most seasonal frequencies, more frequently in quarterly than in monthly data. This has important implications for econometric modeling of trade balance, exchange rates and income in European Union (EU) countries. ...

  13. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  14. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.; Klaus, S.; Scharte, M.; Harnisch, J. [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S.; Bertenrath, R. [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  15. The game of trading jobs for emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arto, I.; Rueda-Cantuche, J.M.; Andreoni, V.; Mongelli, I.; Genty, A.

    2014-01-01

    Following the debate on the implications of international trade for global climate policy, this paper introduces the topic of the economic benefits from trade obtained by exporting countries in relation to the emissions generated in the production of exports. In 2008, 24% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 20% of the employment around the world were linked to international trade. China “exported” 30% of emissions and hosted 37.5% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide. The European Union and the United States of America were the destination of 25% and 18.4% of the GHG emissions embodied in trade. The imports of these two regions contributed to the creation of 45% of the employment generated by international trade. This paper proposes the idea of including trade issues in international climate negotiations, taking into account not only the environmental burden generated by developed countries when displacing emissions to developing countries through their imports, but also the economic benefits of developing countries producing the goods exported to developed countries. - Highlights: • Employment and trade issues should be considered in GHG emission reduction policies. • In 2008 24% of global GHG emissions and 20% of the employment are linked to trade. • 43% of GHG and 45% of employment embedded in trade are due to EU and US imports. • China exports 30% of the GHG and hosts 38% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide

  16. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  17. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  18. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  19. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  20. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  1. 78 FR 41384 - Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission's... Notice, will connect to a live, listen-only audio feed. The international toll and toll-free numbers will...

  2. Pakistan's textile and clothing sector and its future in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA large number of the European community use bed-linen supplied by Pakistan. In 2005, the South Asian economy was the largest supplier of bed-linen to the union (Aziz, 2006). The European Union (EU) is Pakistan's largest trading partner, with textiles and clothing (T&C) accounting for

  3. Mortality of male members of the Danish Semi-skilled Unskilled Workers' Union in 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate contemporary age and cause specific mortalities of a large group of employed men. The population is the 228,612 male members, aged 20-64, of Denmark's largest trade union, the Semi-skilled and Unskilled Workers' Union (SID). A Standard Mort...

  4. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...

  5. Linking project-based mechanisms with domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bygrave, S.; Bosi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are a number of possible links between emission trading and project-based mechanisms, the focus of this paper is on linking domestic GHG emission trading schemes with: (1) domestic; and, (2) international (JI and CDM) GHG reduction project activities. The objective is to examine some of the challenges in linking DETs and project-based mechanisms, as well as some possible solutions to address these challenges. The link between JI / CDM and intergovernmental international emissions trading (i.e. Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol) is defined by the Kyoto Protocol, and therefore is not covered in this paper. The paper is written in the context of: (a) countries adhering to the Kyoto Protocol and elaborating their strategies to meet their GHG emission commitments, including through the use of the emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. For example, the European Union (EU) will be commencing a GHG Emissions Trading Scheme in January 2005, and recently, the Council of ministers and the European Parliament agreed on a text for an EU Linking Directive allowing the use of JI and CDM emission units in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); and (b) all countries (and/or regions within countries) with GHG emission obligations that may choose to use domestic emissions trading and project-based mechanisms to meet their GHG commitments. The paper includes the following elements: (1) an overview of the different flexibility mechanisms (i.e. GHG emissions trading and PBMs), including a brief description and comparisons between the mechanisms (Section 3); (2) an exploration of the issues that emerge when project-based mechanisms link with domestic emissions trading schemes, as well as possible solutions to address some of the challenges raised (Section 4); (3) a case study examining the EU-ETS and the EU Linking Directive on project-based mechanisms, in particular on how the EU is addressing in a practical context relevant linking issues (Section 5); (4) a

  6. Linking in Union Catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Husby, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Library of Estonia organized a Conference on Union Catalogs which took place in Tallinn, in the National Library of Estonia on October 17–19, 2002. The Conference presented and discussed analytical papers dealing with various aspects of designing and implementing union catalogs and shared cataloging systems as revealed through the experiences of Eastern European, Baltic and South African research libraries. Here you can find the texts of the co...

  7. the inception of a doctors union in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... The Kenyan doctors thought they could not continue to leave poor Kenyans dying in public hospitals while they sought greener pastures outside the ... The idea of formation of a trade union for the doctors was not feasible at this point in time in view of the labour laws in Kenya which categorised doctors in ...

  8. Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 unequivocally promotes the policy choice of majoritarianism, in furtherance of orderly collective bargaining and the democratisation of the workplace. The majoritarian model aims to minimise the proliferation of trade unions in a single workplace and to encourage the system of a ...

  9. Roots of women's union activism : South Africa 1973-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tshoaedi, Cynthia Malehoko

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the mobilisation of South African women into trade union activities between the period 1973 and 2003. Firstly, it underscores the role of South African women in fighting for workers’ rights in the workplace and their contributions in the building of the labour movement at the

  10. The Labour Relations Act, majoritarianism and union structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vantages on unions with majority support at the establishment or industry level. While there was some shift .... industrial policy formulation at an industry or sectoral level (Chaison 1995). These assumptions, although often ..... mercial distributive trade. the printing and newspaper industry, security services in Durban. farming ...

  11. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  12. Trade in parts and components across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frensch, R.; Hanousek, J.; Kočenda, Evžen

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2016), s. 236-262 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : international trade * production networks * gravity model * panel data * European Union Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kocenda-0460323.pdf

  13. Endogeneity of Currency Areas and Trade Blocs: Evidence from the Inter-War Period

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Nikolaus; Ritschl, Albrecht

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the gravity model of international trade in the wake of Rose (2000) affirms that currency union formation doubles or triples trade. However, currency unions could also be established precisely because trade among their members was already high. In OLS estimation, this would cause endogeneity bias. The present paper employs both fixed effects and binary choice methods to trace endogeneity in the formation of historical currency arrangements. Studying the formation of curr...

  14. Unions and Wage Determination: Can Monopsonist Unions Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper extends the standard closed shop union model of wage determination by introducing endogeneity of union membership. The labor market outcome with endogenous membership may differ when unions behave monopsonisticaly relative to the case where they are "membership-takers", resulting in higher or lower wages (more or less favorable contract curve in efficient bargaining) according to the form union´s utility function and/or implicit decision process value union size. Some not...

  15. The Impact of Union Corruption on Union Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Christopher; Cebula, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between union corruption actions and union membership. State-level data from the Office of Labor-Management Standards, and other sources, are utilized over two study periods (1974-2000 and 2001- 2008) to test three hypotheses, including the union corruption hypothesis, as pos­sible explanations for the decline in union membership in the United States over time. Although our initial findings suggest a negative relationship exists between union corruption...

  16. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  17. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict......A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...

  18. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  19. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  20. Renewables, Preferential Trade Agreements and EU Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Leal-Arcas; Valentina Caruso; Raphaela Leupuscek

    2015-01-01

    A major aim of the international community is to decarbonize the economy. With renewables, international trade in energy is likely to increase. In turn, the international trading system can be a major vehicle towards moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energy. To this end, it can provide fair competition, economies of scale and knowledge transfer. This article analyzes the impact of European Union (EU) preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in addressing climate change mitigation and ene...

  1. 78 FR 69047 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-business meetings in Taiwan only (not traveling to an additional trade mission country), the participation... business-to-business meetings in Japan only (not traveling to an additional trade mission country), the... business-to-business meetings in Korea only (not traveling to an additional trade mission country), the...

  2. GMM Estimator: An Application to Intraindustry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of intraindustry trade (IIT, horizontal IIT (HIIT, and Vertical IIT (VIIT in the automobile industry in Portugal. The trade in this sector between Portugal and the European Union (EU-27 was examined, between 1995 and 2008, using a dynamic panel data. We apply the GMM system to solve the problems of serial correlation and the endogeneity of some explanatory variables. The findings are consistent with the literature. The difference between per capita incomes and factor endowments present a positive sign. These results are according to Heckscher-Ohlin predictions. The economic dimension has a positive impact on trade. A negative effect of the distance on bilateral trade was expected and the results confirm this, underlining the importance of neighbour partnerships for all trade.

  3. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  4. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  5. Education is not for sale: teachers’ unions pluri-scalar struggles against liberalising the education sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Novelli, M.; Novelli, M.; Ferus-Comelo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which pushes for a progressive liberalization of education all over the world, is being widely contested. Teachers unions and other education stakeholders have opposed and campaigned against the GATS in

  6. New institutional assemblages for borderless customs control in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Hofman, W.; Enserink, B.; Kotterink, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a use case proposing a Single Window implementation for borderless customs control in the European Union (EU). This EU e-Customs initiative proposes to combine trade facilitation from a customs perspective with secure trade based on supply chain risk analysis. To achieve

  7. Increasing Customer Value in Trade Finance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Siew Lin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to provide an understanding of customer value, the process of customer value creation and delivery focused on Trade Finance (TF) in financial services. For customers of trade finance, it is important that the service effectively provides customer value. Service offerings are intangible and increasing value to meet customers’ expectations like price, quality and tailored services are essential to customer value strategy in trade finance. The identificatio...

  8. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three of these ......The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  9. Are unions an anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, R

    1979-01-01

    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  10. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  11. The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: A quantitative assessment for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Hoffmann, Tim; Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, Casiano

    2006-01-01

    From 1 January 2005 onwards the European Union has launched the first large-scale international carbon emissions trading program. As the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) covers only part of domestic carbon emissions, it implies a segmented environmental regulation scheme: Each EU Member State must specify additional domestic abatement policies for the sectors outside the EU-ETS in order to meet its emissions budget under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement. We highlight the generic problems of segmented carbon regulation in terms of information requirements for international carbon prices and domestic abatement costs of sectors outside the EU-ETS. Based on numerical simulations for Germany, we quantify the excess costs of segmented carbon regulation and conclude that inefficiencies can be much better explained by lobbying of influential EU-ETS sectors than by information problems. (Author)

  12. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Francisco Martins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  13. Sindacati, non neutralità della moneta e giochi di politica economica (Unions, Non-neutrality of Money and Policy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Acocella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  The main aim of this article is to investigate the sources of money non-neutrality in policy games involving one or more trade unions in simple analytical settings. We show that there are common roots in the non-neutrality results so far obtained in apparently different contexts.        JEL Codes: E52, J51Keywords: Money, Policy, Trade Unions, Union

  14. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  15. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  16. Marketing the College Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  17. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  18. THE CURRENT BRICS TRADE BARRIERS ON EU`S EXPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a major trading power in the world, the European Union is an important trading partner for five emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS countries. The EU is particularly interested in protecting the interests of developing countries and supports the idea that trade can promote their economic growth and production capacity. The aim of this paper is to present the main trade barriers on the import of goods that are practised currently by BRICS nations, limiting the EU exporters` access on their markets. These barriers were reported to the European Commission which has the mission to take actions to solve this problem. The European Union considers that the trade barriers applied by these five countries are unjustified.

  19. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United States-European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.

    2009-01-01

    . The RadSTraM project was specifically cited as a candidate for a RFID Lighthouse Project by the EU/DOC collaboration in meeting their mutual goal of developing a 'joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for RFID technologies.' Concurrently, the Universal Postal Union (UPU) identified this project as a candidate for radioisotope packages shipped by the postal service between the United State Postal Service (USPS). and European Post Agencies.

  20. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United states- European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    projects in the public sector. The RadSTraM project was specifically cited as a candidate for a RFID Lighthouse Project by the EU/DOC collaboration in meeting their mutual goal of developing a 'joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for RFID technologies.' Concurrently, the Universal Postal Union (UPU) identified this project as a candidate for radioisotope packages shipped by the postal service between the United State Postal Service (USPS). and European Post Agencies.

  1. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The... of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, U.S... was created to advise the U.S. government on environmental trade policies and programs, and to help it...

  2. 75 FR 52716 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The... of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration, U.S....S. government on environmental trade policies and programs, and to help it to focus its resources on...

  3. An employee/trade union perspective to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Pekka O.

    1992-01-01

    Risk assessment does not easily lend itself to precise description. In some of its current forms of application, it is little more than a modern way of throwing bones or looking at tea leaves or the entrails of sheep, like our ancestors used to do not so many centuries ago (the only real difference being perhaps that laboratory rats are cheaper and less messy than sheep). A its best, however, risk assessment can be used as a good tool to identify the needs for changes required to reduce hazards and to prevent accidents to humans or damage to the environment. This paper approaches risk assessment as a tool, highlighting the need and usefulness as well as the right of employees and their representatives to participate in all the steps involved in assessing the risks of the workplace and its environment

  4. Trade Union Responses to the 'Flexible' Workforce in Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  5. Exchange Rate and Trade: J-curve in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lupu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU economy is experiencing a severe recession amid the global crisis, and although in other regions began to appear mild signs of recovery, in EU countries are recorded a continuously worsening. In many European states, the economic contraction is a consequence of the decrease in net exports component of GDP. The aim of the article is to analyze the situation in which the EU chooses to devalue its currency to increase exports. We found that, the depreciation of the Euro, has no influence on exports and that in EU, it is not expressed a J-curve effects.

  6. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    India, 2011). The leather and leather products industry is one of India's oldest manufacturing industries that catered to the international market right from the middle of the ... extent by export orientation from colonial times. The sector is .... manufacturing units, the work is based on almost putting out system and during.

  7. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    traditional leatherworking castes (belonging to the lower castes in the caste ... clusters across India. Labour scenario in Kolkata leather industry: West Bengal's leather industry employs over 200,000 people (Department of labour, Government ... manufacturing units, the work is based on almost putting out system and during.

  8. Trade unions protest in front of Swedish Embassy / Milda Seputyte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seputyte, Milda

    2005-01-01

    Leedu saatkonnatöötajate ametiühingud protestisid Rootsi saatkonna ees, väites, et saatkonnas töötavad leedulased on kõrvale jäetud ning neisse suhtutakse kui teisejärgulistesse töötajatesse. Saatkonnatöötajaid ühendava ametiühingu esinaise Sniege Naku väitel on pärast Rootsi suursaadiku Leedus Malin Karre ametisse asumist saatkonna töötajate olukord halvenenud

  9. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  10. Customs unions, currency crises, and monetary policy coordination: The case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vinokurov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After achieving substantial progress in establishing a common customs territory and regulations, customs unions face potential disruptions due to a lack of monetary policy coordination. These disruptions might appear in the form of currency shocks and the ensuing trade conflicts. We approach this issue by looking at the case of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. The volatility of national currencies in 2014–2015 resulted in sizable shifts in competitiveness, culminating in a currency crisis in some member states. This raises the questions of how to gradually achieve a more coordinated monetary policy, what monetary policy options are available, and what would be their relative impact on macroeconomic stability. Using a set of modeling tools and econometric models, we review three monetary regimes, which represent moves from fully independent exchange rate policy through increased policy coordination to joint exchange rate setting.

  11. Negotiating Union. South Africa’s National Union of Mineworkers and the end of the Post-Apartheid Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    BOTIVEAU, RAPHAEL

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study of South Africa’s largest trade union – the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), this dissertation puts the current mining crisis in historical perspective. Beyond mining, it proposes keys to understand South Africa’s “negotiated” transformation from apartheid to democracy. It concludes that this country currently experiences what one can call the “end of the post-apartheid consensus;” a moment in which shared elitist conceptions of political and socioeconomic change dev...

  12. PROSPECTS FOR THE CUSTOMS UNION IN TERMS OF MODERN THEORIES OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Ghazaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leading the trend of world development is globalization, which covers all areas of public life, including economic, and national economies poses more challenges, fi rst and foremost – ensuring competitiveness on a global scale, fi nd their own niche in the international division of labor.The development of the global trading system is characterized by two interrelated trends – the expansion of economic openness and the formation of trade unions, to ensure the most favorable terms of trade between the participating countries. The latest trend has led to the relevance of research topic "Prospects of Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration."The integration processes taking place in the former Soviet Union in fact since joining the former Soviet republics of the status of independent states. Already in 1991. CIS was created, which brought together 12 post-Soviet countries (all former Soviet republics except the Baltic. Since then, the integration processes in the post-Soviet space are permanent, and therefore, we set a goal – to analyze the prospects of the Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration.Notwithstanding that goal has led to the need to address a number of problems, namely:• consideration of the role and place of regional trade (economic union, the importance of their experience, especially for developing countries and countries with economies in transformation;• justify the importance of the openness of the national economy to generate the preconditions for sustainable economic growth, determining the levels of trade (economic integration;• analysis of modern views on the nature of regional integration;• consideration of the characteristics of individual regional trade and economic unions, including the Customs Union, and determine their place in the modern system of world trade.The study is based on the use of a systematic approach using

  13. Carbon trading thickness and market efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnoli, Alberto; De Vries, Frans P.

    2010-01-01

    This note tests for the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the market for CO 2 emission allowances in Phase I and Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). As usually is the case in emerging and non-competitive markets such as the EU ETS, trading often not occurs on a frequent basis. This has adverse implications for both the gains from permit trade as well as biases the EMH tests. Variance ratio tests are employed to adjust for the thin trading effect. The results indicate that Phase I - the trial and learning period - was inefficient, whereas the first period under Phase II shows signs of restoring market efficiency. (author)

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  15. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  16. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...... concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. Udgivelsesdato: NOV...

  17. Meget mere union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hardø, Philip; Nielsen, Katrine Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust.......Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust....

  18. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  19. The promotion and integration of human rights in EU external trade relations

    OpenAIRE

    Velluti, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of ...

  20. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  1. Schubert Unions in Grassmann Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, T.; Ranestad, K.

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study the linear spans of, and in case of positive characteristic, the number of points on such unions over finite fields. Moreover we study...... a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of points over a finite field for the Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and we give some applications to coding theory. We define Schubert union codes, and study...

  2. The World Trade Organization and the new opportunities in the international market for Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; A Organizacao Mundial do Comercio e as novas oportunidades do mercado internacional para o setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Marili Arruda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro, Mogi Guacu SP (Brazil); Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This main objective of this work is to present the obstacles to the Brazilian participation in the international ethanol and sugar market, specially in the European Union. Therefore it is emphasized the main reasons which conduct Brazil to discuss in the International Trade Organization the production quota system impositions and the heavy subsidy exportation used in the European Union. In despite of improving the negotiation arguments, it has been felt at the most recent International Trade Organization meeting that the Brazilian interests has got to confront international barriers to punish the Brazilian sugar with an high tax importation as in the European Union. Due to those difficulties, the possibility of opening a larger ethanol market, mainly in those countries which wish to reduce pollution emission, mixing anhydrous alcohol to gasoline appeared as a good alternative. Actually the European Community members have strategic reasons to maintain the sugar production subsidies. Brazil and most of the European Community members have been discussing an agreement to reduce the subsidies. The Brazilian victory on the appeal made in the International Trade Organization, on August the 4th; against the subsidies to the sugar conceded by EU, provoked rejection of many. (author)

  3. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  4. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  5. The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa (1919-circa 1934)--The Rise and Fall of a Great Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John

    1989-01-01

    The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICWU), active from 1919-1930, was one of South Africa's first trade unions for Black and Colored workers and the ICWU and its leaders were prominent throughout the 1920s. This article attempts to outline and analyze the history of ICWU. (JOW)

  6. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  7. POSTWAR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PREDECESSOR OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Adrian BANTAȘ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union, as its existence that we can meet in the present moment, is not a creation which came out of nothing or arising of the history’s hazard, but is rather an evolutionary process that began after the end of the Second World War. In this respect, in their continuing search for security, cooperation and common prosperity, European countries have made, in turn, organizations with different profiles (economic, political, security, such as the Treaty of Dunkirk, Western Union, Organization Economic Cooperation in Europe, Council of Europe, Western European Union, all of which are creations precursor Union and, before being dissolved as obsolete or being embedded in Cleaned have served the aims of their times, representing evolutionary steps in defining project European.

  8. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  9. Emissions trading for business and industry. A new instrument to achieve environmental goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Key components of the Kyoto Protocol are the flexible instruments or mechanisms: namely trading emissions, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. These mechanisms make it possible to trade in CO2 emissions or emission permits, thereby enabling the Kyoto Protocol targets that have been imposed on all states, to be attained in the most cost-effective way. Although the Kyoto targets are binding only on states, it is likely that governments will pass responsibility for meeting them on to specific target groups and impose absolute or relative (energy efficiency or CO2 per unit) targets on them. Flexible instruments, especially Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), can also be used by companies to achieve their emission targets. Until now, the VNO-NCW Confederation of Netherlands Industry has generally been positive about the use of flexible instruments. However, various developments have persuaded the VNO-NCW that it is a good idea to examine more specific questions with regard to flexible instruments. First, the CO2 trade committee (the Vogtlaender Committee) has been asked to issue recommendations concerning the possibilities inherent in a national system for emissions trading. A basic variant will be explored, in which protected sectors (households, the service industry, small industrial enterprises) will be assigned absolute ceilings and internationally operating companies will be assigned with relative targets. Second, in March 2000 the European Commission published a Green Paper on trade in greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union in order to launch an European Union (EU)-wide debate on the introduction of an EU system for trade in emissions in 2005. In common with the Netherlands, various EU member states are studying the possibilities for phasing in a system of trade in CO2 emissions; only in Denmark has such a system actually been introduced. In industry, too, many initiatives have been taken in

  10. International and domestic uses of solid biofuels under different renewable energy support scenarios in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Resch, Gustav; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS based intermodal biomass transport model was developed for the European Union. • It was linked to the renewable energy model Green-X updated with biomass trade. • Scenarios of renewable energy deployment in the EU27 to 2020 were assessed. • Domestic biomass resources will remain the largest source of bioenergy (over 90%). • But increasing amounts of solid biomass will be traded (up to 506 PJ in 2020). - Abstract: This article describes the development of a geographic information systems (GIS) based biomass transport analysis tool BIT-UU used in combination with the European renewable energy model Green-X. BIT-UU calculates cost and GHG emissions from lowest cost routes, using intermodal transport (by road, rail, inland waterways and sea) between origins of supply and demand destinations. With the developed biomass trade module in Green-X, the role of bioenergy can be evaluated in the larger context of renewable energy deployment. The modeling framework takes into account the current and future energy policies at EU and country levels, competition with alternative sources of renewable energy (e.g. photovoltaic, wind) and sectors (electricity, heat, transport fuels) as well as competition between EU member states for the same biomass resources. Scenario projections to 2020 are used to demonstrate the developed modeling framework. According to these scenarios, biomass from domestic supply remains the most important source of bioenergy (91–93% in 2020). However, the role of traded solid biomass will become increasingly important. With a business as usual scenario, assuming continuation of current renewable energy policies to 2020, the binding renewable energy targets will not be achieved, but trade of solid biomass will still increase up to 451 PJ in 2020. In the scenario that meets the conditions to achieve the 20% renewable energy target in 2020, traded solid biomass is projected to increase to 440 PJ if sustainability criteria are

  11. Organizing Capacities and Union Priorities in the Hotelsector in Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we draw international comparisons between industrial relations regimes in the hotel sector and compare relevant trade union experiences in the selected metropolitan areas of Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto. We ask how union strategies differ in these different hotel markets, and how strategic choices at a local level relate to industrial relations models, regulatory change, and corporate restructuring in the hotel market. The study is based on interviews with union representatives and key informants in Norway, Ireland, and Canada. The main argument we make is that the reorientation of union priorities and the willingness to engage in innovative strategies that has characterized hotel unionism in Toronto and Dublin is not detectable in the case of Oslo. This might be a result of the relatively strong position Norwegian trade unions have in national industrial relations, but can at the same time leave local hotel unions vulnerable as they are facing low unionization levels and corporate restructuring which they are unable to tackle effectively.

  12. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  13. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  14. Oil's role in free trade agreement crux of Mexico's petroleum sector dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico's president Salinas' efforts at privatization have not yet touched Mexico's most valuable industry, oil. That remains under control of state owned Petroleos Mexicanos. Pemex and Mexico's huge oil union have come under increasing criticism for alleged abuses of power. In addition, controversy rages as to the true extent of Mexican oil resources and whether Pemex has the wherewithal to meet domestic demand and sustain oil exports. Critics also contend opening Mexico's oil sector to foreign participation would introduce new efficiencies and cost cutting measures in the cash strapped state oil industry. This paper reports that at the center of the controversy is the proposed Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, pushed strongly by Salinas. Oil's role in the FTA may prove the pact's main sticking point

  15. Nuclear revival, nuclear safety: challenges for the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; Lacoste, Andre-Claude; Stellfox, David; Hajjani, Abdellaziz; Jamet, Philippe; Kaluzny, Yves; Lallier, Michel; Lescoeur, Bruno; Naredo, Fernando; Palm, Martina; Vincent, Cyrille; Faross, Peter; Gillet, Guillaume; Lemaitre, Philippe; Barcelo, Julio; Decobert, Veronique; Doumont, Pierre; Gouze, Jean-Remi; Hohlefelder, Walter; Herczog, Edit; Pouleur, Yvan; Teule, Rianne; Zidi, Latifa; Herzog, Philippe; Ristori, Dominique; Coniam, Jon; Kopp, Gudrun; Lambert de Diesbach, Patrice; Le Roux, Jean-Pierre; Mestrallet, Gerard; Paparizov, Atanas; Rosier, Philippe; Tamburi, Carlo; Lauvergeon, Anne; San Antonio, Santiago; Linkohr, Rolf; Auer, Josef; Bresson, Thierry de; Hohlefelder, Walter; Janouch, Frantisek; MacNaughton, Joan; Onyszkiewicz, Janusz; Reul, Herbert; Dolinsek, Urska; Komarov, Kirill; Boshkov, Aleksander; Bartuska, Vaclav; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Grimston, Malcolm; Jesien, Leszek; Keussen, Urban; Schmitt von Sydow, Helmut; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Jouyet, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon

  16. The evolution of the EU external trade policy in services - CETA, TTIP, and TiSA after Brexit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) constitutes a priority and key component of the external trade policy of the European Union (EU). It is also an immediate follow-up to several years of regulatory cooperation between the two global trade powers. In an era of

  17. Systemic trade risk of critical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Obersteiner, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the role of strongly interconnected markets in causing systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. We show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of nonfuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the worldwide trade networks spanned by these resources. At the global level, we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. At the regional level, we find that, to some extent, region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade risk indicators are often those that are produced as by-products of major metals. We identify significant strategic shortcomings in the management of systemic trade risk, in particular in the European Union.

  18. 78 FR 17992 - Preparations for the International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8251] Preparations for the International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication Development Conference (ITU WTDC 2014) SUMMARY: This notice announces meetings of the Department of State's International Telecommunication Advisory Committee (ITAC) to review...

  19. 78 FR 48765 - Preparations for the International Telecommunication Union Plenipotentiary Conference 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8416] Preparations for the International Telecommunication... International Telecommunication Advisory Committee (ITAC) to initiate preparations for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Plenipotentiary Conference 2014 (PP14). The ITAC will meet on September 10, 2013 at...

  20. 78 FR 12136 - Preparations for the International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8193] Preparations for the International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication Development Conference (ITU WTDC 2014) SUMMARY: This notice announces meetings of an ad hoc group of the Department of State's International Telecommunication Advisory Committee...

  1. The role of the nordic dimension for foreign trade relations of baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Andresson, Kairi; Reiljan, Janno; Reiljan, Ele

    2001-01-01

    Baltic Sea Region (BRS) can be seen as one good example of an attempt to integrate countries with different development levels. In the long run the Baltic Sea could be seen as the internal sea of European Union. However, as different are the development stages of BRS countries, different is their co-operation experience with European Union (EU). Foreign trade can be seen as one possibility for facilitating economic cooperation between countries. Foreign trade must have a positive impact on ec...

  2. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged with...

  3. 78 FR 33112 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission...)(Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand). The Commission is currently...

  4. 75 FR 26738 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... (``Cantor'') The Expendables domestic box office receipt futures contract could be used for risk management...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11395] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice Agency Holding the Meeting: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Date and Time: May 19, 2010 at 9:30 a.m. Place...

  5. Investigation of Economic Impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements between Sub-Saharan Africa and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Pişkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the economic effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs which have been negotiating between sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and European Union (EU. The study addresses the following questions:  How are African countries likely to gain or lose from a bilateral trade liberalisation between Africa and the EU?, what are the welfare implications for the African countries from the EPAs?, how will the formation of EPAs affect trade expansion through trade creation and trade diversion effects?, what are the potential fiscal implications of the EPAs. Even though the full reciprocity principle appears to be trade expanding (singularly infavour of EU, this study indicates that it will pose serious implications for deepening of regional integration in Africa because of trade diversion effect between African countries.  Another key finding is welfare effect through the way of trade expantion between EU and SSA.

  6. Getting to the CORE of the Chicago Teachers’ Union Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brogan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a comparative study of urban change and rank-and-file teacher rebellion in New York City and Chicago, to explore the contemporary dynamics of what Jamie Peck (2013 calls “austerity urbanism” and its relationship to a rebirth of a social justice, grassroots teacher unionism in US urban centres. Tracing the trajectories of one group of rank-and-file teacher dissidents in Chicago, it argues that municipal unions are uniquely situated to lead the fight against austerity urbanism and the crisis tendencies of contemporary capitalism. To do this, however, trade unions will need to be reinvented and a different form of working class politic forged, grounded both in and outside of the trade union movement. Only then may we see organized labour in North America contribute to a movement for radical and systemic change, which is key to building a more socially just urbanism and society more broadly. The case of the Chicago teachers is highly instructive for activists, both inside and outside of the North American labour movement.

  7. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states....... Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  8. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  9. Unions, training and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Belfield, Clive R.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper uses a combination of workplace and linked employee-workplace data from the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey and the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey to examine the impact of unions on training incidence, training intensity/coverage, and training duration. It also examines the impact of unions and training on earnings and a measure of establishment labour productivity. In addition, the implications of training for the firm's bottom line are evaluated. Union...

  10. Europe's New Trade Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahearn, Raymond J

    2006-01-01

    .... Given that the EU is a global economic superpower, its resumption of a bilateral and preferential trade strategy has implications for the global trading system, as well as for U.S. trade interests...

  11. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  12. Trade agreements and access to drugs in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2009-01-01

    Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...

  13. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  14. Historic evolutions of the effects of the European Union political instruments in the Romanian legal order – effects of the mechanism for cooperation and verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the accession of Romanian to the European Union, many unsolved problems related to the accountability and efficiency of the legal system and of the law enforcement bodies have been identified, a reason for which the European Commission justified the institution of a Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification as a political instrument for the monitoring and optimization of the progresses made by Romania to attain certain reference objectives specific to the field of reform of the legal system and the fight against corruption. This mechanism has been instituted to improve the functioning of the legislative, administrative and legal system and to repair the serious deficiencies in the fight against corruption. The goal of the mechanism for cooperation and verification was and is to ensure the adoption of those measures that may guarantee the Romanians and other member states that the administrative and judiciary decisions, standards and practices in Romania meet those of the European Union. The progresses made in the field of reform of the legal system and the fight against corruption will allow Romanian citizens and trading companies to enjoy their rights in quality of citizens of the European Union.

  15. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  16. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic......, their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study...

  17. Do Labour Standards have a Role in International Trade?: Private Standards, Preferential Trade Agreements or the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Samira; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    It is now common for producers (economic protectionism), consumers and social advocates (humanitarian motives) to urge for the inclusion of labour standards in international trade agreements. In spite of this, there has been little empirical work to determine whether low labour standards lead to trade distortions. This paper provides some empirical evidence pertaining to this question. Consumer groups, social advocates and traditional vested interests such as labour unions have attempted to h...

  18. Union & Disunion: Should Graduate Students Unionize? A Lingua Franca Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua Franca: the review of academic life, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a range of responses from professors and graduate students to the questions: "Will the National Labor Relations Board decision to allow graduate students to unionize dramatically reshape the academic environment? If so, is that for good or ill? Will unions help cure graduate school life of its many afflictions or make those afflictions…

  19. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  20. Globalisations, Social Movement Unionism and New Internationalisms: The Role of Strategic Learning in the Transformation of the Municipal Workers Union of EMCALI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores processes of social movement learning within SINTRAEMCALI, a public service trade union in the South West of Colombia, which has successfully prevented a series of attempts by the national government to privatise public utilities. The paper develops the concept of "strategic learning" and applies it to an exploration…

  1. Explaining Leaving Union Membership by the Degree of Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced...... a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment...

  2. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2000 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2000, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2000, some 2446 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 2720 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union and Russia, South Korea, and Brazil. (orig.) [de

  3. Proceedings of the Emissions trading conference : effective strategies for successful emissions trading in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest everywhere in the topic of emissions trading in order to meet the commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol. During this conference, most aspects of emissions trading were discussed, ranging from the need to establish credible emission reduction estimates to the means of achieving those goals, to the trading activities of Ontario Power Generation in the field of emissions trading both at the domestic and the international level. There were presentations that focussed on greenhouse gas policies, markets and strategic plays, and the preparation for the regulation of greenhouse gas. An emissions trading regime for Canada was examined by one of the presenters. This conference provided a useful venue for all stakeholders to discuss various strategies and ideas related to emissions trading. Speakers represented governments, the private sector and utilities, as well as the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. tabs., figs

  4. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  5. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  6. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  7. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  8. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  9. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  10. Toward a More Perfect Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  11. Patterns and determinants of business cycle synchronization in the enlarged European Economic and Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SIEDSCHLAG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence about the degree of business cycle synchronization between the euro area countries and eight new European Union member states. We analyze the direct and indirect effects of similarity of economic structures and trade intensity on the co-movement of fluctuations of economic activity across these countries and find that bilateral similarity of economic structures and trade intensity were positively and significantly associated with business cycle correlations. This result is robust to different estimation techniques. Similarity of economic structures had an additional indirect positive effect on business cycle synchronization via its positive effect on trade intensity. The bilateral business cycle correlations are found to be endogenous with respect to bilateral similarity of economic structures and bilateral trade intensity suggesting that the new European Union countries will better satisfy the Optimum Currency Area criteria after the adoption of the euro.

  12. Emissions trading and the climate change levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connett, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the flexible mechanisms established in the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework on Climate Change focussing on the mechanism whereby countries achieving their target for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases can trade their excess to countries having difficulty achieving their target. UK measures to meet their commitment, the UK government's proposed climate change levy on the use of energy, negotiated agreements, emissions trading, and the nature, supply and trading of permits are examined. Compatibility with international agreements and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive, monitoring, and penalties are considered

  13. Highlights of the meeting of the Hydrology Section Executive Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencala, Ken

    The meetings of Hydrology Section Executive Committee report on the details of the processes of the Section's activities and provide a forum for discussion of issues in the development of the hydrologic sciences.The most visible Section activities occur at the Fall and Spring Meetings. The Hydrology Section continues to grow in participation at the Fall Meeting. At the 1996 Fall Meeting, approximately 800 Hydrology Section abstracts were presented. As the Fall Meeting continues to grow overall for the Union, members can anticipate a growing percentage of posters. The Spring Meeting is a well-attended activity of the Section. Unfortunately, participation in the Spring Meeting by certain sections of the AGU is quite low. The Union's Meetings Committee is actively seeking to maintain the ail-Union character of the Spring Meeting.

  14. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  15. Uncovering the illegal wildlife trade : Inside the world of poachers, smugglers and traders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on four years of PhD research on the illegal trade in wildlife by the criminologist Daan van Uhm. In this study the author explores the nature of the illegal wildlife trade. Wildlife confiscations over a ten-year period in the European Union were analysed and presented by graphics

  16. The distinct politics of the European Union’s 'fair trade' linkage to labour standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2009-01-01

    European Union (EU) social actors, governments and EU level representatives have been divided over fair trade linkage, where trade access is made conditional upon protection of labour standards. This division is partly an artefact of sharp disagreement and confusion over the nature of such linkage:

  17. Trade Blocs and the Future of Global Marketing | Ewah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a review of trade blocs in global marketing. These blocs are in the form of trade groups, associations, union, etc, that are formed based on regional as well as continental background to protect their various interest in the world market. Their major objective is to remove all forms of barriers and tariffs that hinder ...

  18. WTO judicial Politics and EU Trade Policy: Business Associations as Vessels of Special Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poletti, A.; De Bièvre, D.; Hanegraaff, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of the WTO’s quasi-judicial system of dispute resolution on the politics of trade policy making in the European Union (EU). We argue that this institutional innovation had a systematic transformative effect on EU trade politics, creating pressures for

  19. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  20. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    (UNCTAD), “Trade and transport facilitation … addresses a wide agenda in economic development and trade that may include improving transport infrastructure and services, reducing customs tariffs, and removing non-tariff trade barriers including administrative and regulatory barriers.”24. The definition of trade facilitation ...