WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade securing supply

  1. The development of renewable energies and supply security: A trade-off analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röpke, Luise

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the green transformation on the German electricity sector with respect to the energy-political triangle. It focuses on how the development of renewable energies will affect security of electricity supply. In a cost–benefit analysis, the value of supply security is compared with its costs of provision. More specifically, the benefits of maintaining the present quality of electricity supply are the avoided social damages from electricity outages and are compared with the respective investment costs in the low- and medium-voltage distribution grid. It is shown that the transformation process towards a green and decentralized production structure will be costly for society, even though the costs can be reduced by different measures. - Highlights: • The effects of the transformation on the German electricity sector are analyzed. • The paper focuses on the trade-off between green energies and supply security. • The benefits of maintaining supply quality are compared with the investment costs. • The costs of maintaining supply quality by far exceed the induced welfare gains. • A strong focus on renewable energies endangers different energy-political goals

  2. Self-Sufficiency versus Security: How Trade Protectionism Challenges the Sustainability of the Food Supply in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii Erokhin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is increasingly influenced by multilateral trade systems and foreign trade policies implemented by national governments. Many of them are now concerned about the sustainability of food supply and the vulnerability of domestic food markets to price volatility, and seek to support domestic producers and protect themselves from increasing food imports. Such restrictions improve food self-sufficiency, but decrease food security. It is important to understand any changes that may have occurred in the food consumption pattern due to trade protectionism and to observe any nutritional implications of these changes. This paper employs the rational food security (RFS assessment approach, which differentiates sources of food supply on the domestic market, assesses the influence of agricultural and trade frameworks on food consumption patterns, and complies consumption with the appropriate food intake threshold. In the case of Russia, the study demonstrates that the conventional consumption approach to self-sufficiency (FSCA underestimates the food insecurity level by not accounting for nutrition factors. In addition, the gap between the FSCA and the RFS increases in times of protectionist trade policy and decreases when the agricultural and trade policy framework turns to liberalization. The paper concludes that trade protectionism challenges the sustainability of food supply by decreasing food availability and quality of food products, causes dietary changes, and threatens the food security of the country.

  3. Supply Chain Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection has Enhanced its Partnership with Import Trade Sectors by Challenges Remain in Verifying Security Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Stephen L; Fossett, Christine A; Conrad, Christopher; Berbsteub, Amy; Berry, Fredrick; Camarillo, Yecenia; Cook, Frances; David, Katherine; Dye, Wendy; Gibson, Nkenge

    2008-01-01

    .... For example, between March 2005 and November 2007, CBP established requirements for C-TPAT members in nine trade sectors to meet minimum security criteria for their specific trade sector, including...

  4. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  5. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... at 1901, 1903, October 13, 2006) which require the development of a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain, including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade following...

  6. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  7. Securing global trade through secure freight transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    Given the increased probability of disruptions to global supply chains, and the significant impact these have on national and global economies, the problem is how to secure global trade. The concept of a global trade chain-of-custody has been develop...

  8. Fuel supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Planning security for supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies von Buellesheim.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of the hardcoal mining industry is still difficult, however better than last year. Due to better economic trends in the steel industry, though on a lower level, sales in 1994 have stabilised. Stocks are being significantly reduced. As to the production, we have nearly reached a level which has been politically agreed upon in the long run. Due to the determined action of the coalmining companies, a joint action of management and labour, the strong pressure has been mitigated. On the energy policy sector essential targets have been achieved: First of all the ECSC decision on state aid which will be in force up to the year 2002 and which will contribute to accomplish the results of the 1991 Coal Round. Furthermore, the 1994 Act on ensuring combustion of hardcoal in electricity production up to the year 2005. The hardcoal mining industry is grateful to all political decision makers for the achievements. The industry demands, however, that all questions still left open, including the procurement of financial means after 1996, should be settled soon on the basis of the new act and in accordance with the 1991 Coal Round and the energy concept of the Federal Government. German hardcoal is an indispensable factor within a balanced energy mix which guarantees the security of our energy supply, the security of the price structure and the respect of the environment. (orig.) [de

  10. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  11. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long

  12. Security management of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present operational problems concerning the safety of the water supply and the procedures for risk management systems functioning public water supply (CWSS and including methods of hazard identification and risk assessment. Developed a problem analysis and risk assessment, including procedures called. WSP, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as a tool for comprehensive security management of water supply from source to consumer. Water safety plan is a key element of the strategy for prevention of adverse events in CWSS.

  13. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  14. Gas markets and security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibot, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the natural gas business, some European states and companies seem to be concerned by security of supply. Security of supply for a governmental organisation is discussed, to share the author's conception and experience. The targets of a security of supply policy and the measures that can be set are described. The possible changes in implementing this policy are considered, according to recent developments in the field of gas security. The specificity of European gas markets justify the concern in security of supply, as concluded the Commission and the IEA. The integration of national gas markets in Europe will give new opportunities for managing this security of supply. (R.P.)

  15. Reserves and Trade Jointly Determine Exposure to Food Supply Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Zak, Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  16. Trade credit and the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, D.; Klapper, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies supply chain financing. We investigate why a firm extends trade credit to its customers and how this decision relates to its own financing. We use a novel firm-level database with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms, and

  17. Storage and security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the relationship between energy security and the consumption, supply and storage of natural gas, as agreed between the IEA Member countries. Additional supplies of natural gas should be obtained from as diverse sources as possible with emphasis on indigenous OECD sources. Instruments for coping with supply disruptions, such as underground storage of gas, interruptible gas sales, and dual-fired capabilities should be strengthened. These instruments, however, in combination with contractual swing factors, are also used to cope with fluctuations in demand for natural gas. The future demand and supply of natural gas in OECD Europe and North America is discussed. In OECD Europe the growth in residential and commercial demand is expected to be sustained, and, in both OECD Europe and North America, there is a further potential demand for gas for electricity generation. As residential and commercial demand (which is very temperature-dependent) grows, the need for storage facilities, interruptible sales contracts, dual-fired capabilities and swing factors in contracts will increase in order to balance the load. An expansion of gas demand for baseload electricity generation could, however, increase the load factor. Figures for the size of the storage capacity in 1987 and plans for future increases show that storage capacity is increasing. It is concluded that new underground storage represents an important contribution to the strengthening of each country's ability both to balance loads and to deal with supply disruptions. The IEA countries rely on the gas utilities to provide storage and other instruments for both purposes. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  19. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  20. Security of supply in Ireland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazilian, Morgan; O'Leary, Fergal; O Gallachoir, Brian; Howley, Martin

    2006-12-01

    This is the second annual report on the title theme from SEI. Since SEI's initial security of supply publication there has been considerable attention paid to the security of supply aspects of energy policy worldwide. This reports updates and refines the metrics used to consider security of supply in Ireland. It also presents new analysis in three areas; the development of a supply/demand index, use of mean variance portfolio analysis for the electricity sector and a high oil price energy forecast scenario

  1. Secure Supply Chains : Design Restrictions & Organizational Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in the design of secure supply chains is the understanding of the relation between supply chains and the organizational responsibility of specific parts of these supply chains. Organizational boundaries change over time by means of vertical and/or horizontal (des)-integration and

  2. Energy exchange increases supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Since October 5, 2004, Endex is an official futures market for energy. All the energy businesses and large-scale consumers in the Netherlands can trade electricity, and in the future also gas, anonymously [nl

  3. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  4. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  5. Capacity Credit and Security of Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    electricity systems are planned, and how renewable energies fit in these systems. The second part of the article assesses the actual contribution that variable renewable energies can make to security of supply, firstly from a qualitative point of view and secondly in measurable terms. The study is based......This paper addresses the question of how renewable energies can contribute to security of supply. In order to analyse this subject, the paper has two differentiated parts. In the first part, the concept of security of supply is reviewed. This provides the baseline to understand how current...... demand for electricity is highest, the study focuses on the capacity credit of future Danish scenarios including high penetrations of offshore wind, onshore wind, wave and solar PV. The results of this project can ultimately lead towards the improvement of existing rules and methods in system planning...

  6. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ford, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  7. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs - that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades - that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  8. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  9. Security Modeling on the Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep the price down, a purchaser sends out the request for quotation to a group of suppliers in a supply chain network. The purchaser will then choose a supplier with the best combination of price and quality. A potential supplier will try to collect the related information about other suppliers so he/she can offer the best bid to the purchaser. Therefore, confidentiality becomes an important consideration for the design of a supply chain network. Chen et al. have proposed the application of the Bell-LaPadula model in the design of a secured supply chain network. In the Bell-LaPadula model, a subject can be in one of different security clearances and an object can be in one of various security classifications. All the possible combinations of (Security Clearance, Classification pair in the Bell-LaPadula model can be thought as different states in the Markov Chain model. This paper extends the work done by Chen et al., provides more details on the Markov Chain model and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transition in the supply chain network.

  10. Trends in International Security and Trade (Trade Experts’ Roundtable, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sloan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With so many trouble spots in the world, it can be difficult for Canadian businesses to know where to trade successfully and with some assurance of security. Canadian government organizations affiliated with Global Affairs Canada (GAC need to take a broader view of international security, rather than assessing states in isolation, if businesses are to have the vital information they need. Multinational firms typically have their own risk-management strategies, but smaller enterprises need outside help to get information on the safety and viability of potential export markets. However, none of these GAC-affiliated organizations examines the security risks inherent in the interactions between countries. While GAC focuses mainly on economics, tariffs, language barriers and other factors, the Crown corporation Export Development Canada (EDC does risk assessments of various countries to determine what level of political risk insurance it should offer to Canadian companies. The Business Development Bank, best known for its domestic work with Canadian businesses, has branched out into the foreign realm too, but only in terms of industry and market research on export assessments. Based on long-term GDP projections, some interesting forecasts have been made that will affect how and where Canadian businesses trade internationally. They will need accurate information on risk and security in order to do so. By 2030, the four largest world economies will be those of the U.S., China, India and Japan. For now, the best bets for Canadian businesses in the short to medium term include China, India and some Southeast Asian countries, although there are some accompanying dangers in these areas. Pakistan, Nigeria and Egypt have the potential to be good markets for Canadian exports, but the current risk from terrorist activity precludes foreign commercial interests. The unstable relationships between countries in the world’s hotspots need continuing assessment and

  11. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  12. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  13. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  14. Trade and compliance cost model in the international supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsyida, Tuty; van Delft, Selma; Rukanova, B.D.; Tan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Trade costs for international supply chain are huge, even in the absence of formal barriers. It is necessary for all the stakeholders, both private and public organizations, to support an effective and efficient border compliance process. Very little trade cost model research has been done at the

  15. Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlje, Aad; Linde, Coby van der

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets. Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and economic blocks, competing for resources and markets via political, economic and military power. It is shown that these storylines have a significant impact on the development of the energy market, on the way in which energy supply may be secured and on the effect and applicability of the several types of instruments available. The current EU is geared towards enlargement and a deepening of economic integration, based on the tenets of the post-1945 multilateral world system. The present world tends towards Regions and Empires and suggests that the EU may have to reorient its energy security policy. Energy policy must become an integral part of EU external trade and foreign relations and security policy. The EU should develop its own strategy, actively investing in dialogues with producer countries in the Persian Gulf and Africa and with Russia. Sustainable prosperity and governance in these regions will support EU energy security

  16. Security of energy supply: Account of the security of supply in Denmark; Energiforsyningssikkerhed. Redegoerelse om forsyningssikkerheden i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    A secure and stable energy supply is a prerequisite for a society like the Danish. Through many years of active energy policy we in Denmark have developed an efficient energy system with a very high security of supply. In coming decades it is necessary to implement a major transformation of our energy supplies to more renewable energy and phase out fossil fuels. The Government's vision is that we must have a Denmark that is independent of fossil fuels. With such a fundamental transformation of our energy supply and energy system it becomes a challenge to maintain the high security of supply, as we know it today. Conversely, it is not a long term solution to continue to allow society to be dependent on fossil fuels. And it is against this background, the Danish Minister for Climate and Energy submit this account on security of energy supplies in Denmark. The account shows that we in Denmark have a high security of supply. There is still access to sufficient energy resources, we have a well-functioning infrastructure, and we have good access to the exchange of energy within the EU and other countries. This places Denmark in a good situation. Today, Denmark has a significant import of especially petroleum and coal and export of petroleum and gas. The future declining production of oil and gas in the North Sea means an increasing need for imported fuels from fewer and fewer countries and regions, and at the same time there will be an increased international demand for the same fuels. This brings Denmark in the same situation as the other EU countries. Thus we have the basis for reducing consumption of fossil fuels and instead accommodate increasing amounts of renewable energy in our energy supply, but it requires a further development of the system to be possible to store energy and manage energy consumption. It will be necessary if the growing parts of our energy must come from fluctuating sources like wind and solar energy. Efficiency in energy supply has

  17. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  18. Maritime supply chain security: Navigating through a sea of compliance requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Maspero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As a direct result of the 9-11 New York attack all modes of freight and passengertransportation were scrutinised for vulnerabilities. Over 90% of international trade takes place via sea transport for at least some part of the supply chain and as a result there has been a drive to better secure maritime transportation. This paper outlines the background to and the rationale behind the most important of the new security measures for maritime transportation and provides an overview of the likely implications for supply chain role-players. In addition the paper endeavours to create awareness of the importance of maritime supply chain security.

  19. A simulation approach for analysis of short-term security of natural gas supply in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Juan; Olaya, Yris

    2013-01-01

    Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. Devising a strategy for securing gas supply is not straightforward because gas supply depends on complex interactions of production, demand and infrastructure, and it is exposed to economic, regulatory, political, environmental and technical risks. To address this complexity, we propose a simulation approach that replicates the structure of the gas supply chain, including transportation constraints and demand fluctuations. We build and calibrate a computer model for the Colombian gas sector, and run the model to assess the impact of expanding transportation capacity and increasing market flexibility on the security of supply. Our analysis focuses on the operation and planned and proposed expansions of the transportation infrastructure because adequate regulation and development of this infrastructure can contribute to increase the security of supply in the gas sector. We find that proposed import facilities, specifically LNG import terminals at Buenaventura, increase system's security under the current market structure. - Highlights: ► We build a simulation model for analyzing natural gas trade in Colombia. ► The model captures the structure of the gas network and on market rules. ► We simulate investment decisions to increase short-term security of supply. ► Securing supply would need LNG imports and expansion of pipeline capacity.

  20. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. PETROBRAS Northeast gas security of supply study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Heil, Luciana; Saker, Leonardo; Vieira, Flavia; Risi, Francisco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Joaquim; Alvarenga, Tobias; Mussel, Patricia [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study developed jointly by PETROBRAS Gas and Power Department and Det Norske Veritas (Brazil and United Kingdom office). The study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the security of supply 2009 PETROBRAS Northeast gas network. This network provides gas to thermo plants, to vehicles and to industrial and residential consumers. The occurrence of contract shortfalls implies on heavy fines for the suppliers. To provide best in class analysis, state of the art software was used in order to count on powerful tools to model the gas supply system and to quantify the availability and the efficiency of the overall network and of its individual components. It also provides the prioritization of investment, based on cost benefit analysis, and as a by-product, contingency plans that were developed, considering the identified failure scenarios. (author)

  2. Review of Drug Quality and Security Act of 2013: The Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Gjini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA signed into law in November 27, 2013 by president Obama creates a uniform national standard for tracing drug products through the supply chain. The goal of DQSA is to enhance FDA’s ability to help protect consumers by detecting and removing potential dangerous products from the pharmaceutics distribution supply chain. A new electronic, interoperable system will identify and trace only prescription drugs in the finished form for human use while distributed in the United States. The purpose of this review was to shed light on a complex and complicated process that it will require cooperation between FDA and drug manufactures, wholesale drug distributors, repackagers and dispensers. The implementation of the DSCSA is based on several law requirements and FDA has developed a schedule with time frames for each of them to be executed over a 10-year period. From this review, FDA recommendations are provided through the FDA Guidance on Identifying Suspect Product document to help trading partners and provide information about the risk of suspect drugs entering the supply chain. Moreover, FDA organized on April 5-6, 2016 in Silver Spring, MD a public workshop to gather valuable feedback from stakeholders who shared their input about the implementation of the new electronic system and its requirements. By the end of 2023, a unified system will provide easier data exchange and less errors, and will increase the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain.   Type: Student Project

  3. The relationship between security of supply and its drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between security of supply of natural gas in the UK and three possible drivers were considered. The drivers discussed are (1) supply margin, (2) reliability of supply and (3) diversity of supply. The department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's gas security of supply model may be applied to estimate 'expected energy unserved (EEU)' according to a range of conditions of supply and demand. Supply margin and mix can be varied in the model, as can the reliability of supply sources. The paper describes work exploring the impact on the EEU of changes in these three drivers

  4. Energy trading and pricing in microgrids with uncertain energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Shubing; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profi....... In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.......This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit...

  5. Supply chain security orientation in the pharmaceutical industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supply chain security orientation is an abstract phenomenon, which, up to now, has received little research attention. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the supply chain security orientation of firms participating in the South African pharmaceutical supply chain with the aim of identifying specific risks and of ...

  6. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    President George H.W. Bush sought means to influence the policies of Latin American states more effectively. Mexico , particularly in the post-Cold War era...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy, and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s... President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement facilitate U.S. enduring national

  7. The Features of Formation of Supply Chains of Retail Trade Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Kochubei Dmytro V.; Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2017-01-01

    The article explores the features of functioning of retail trade enterprises in supply chains; boundaries and dimensions of the supply chain of retail trade enterprise have been defined; a differentiation of methods for managing and assessing the efficiency of supply chain of retail trade enterprise has been proposed. The leading role of the logistic service of retail trade enterprises in generating service flows in terms of supply chain has been defined. The concept of supply chain driven by...

  8. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  10. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Alexander, J. S.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Brenya, A.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management. PMID:27632169

  11. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  12. Securing cooperation from persons supplying statistical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUBENQUE, M J; BLAIKLEY, R M; HARRIS, F F; LAL, R B; NEURDENBURG, M G; DE SHELLY HERNANDEZ, R

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary.Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary.Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made.Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements.The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information.Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and Neurdenburg

  13. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification and Amendment AGENCY... cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not already submitted an application are...

  14. LEGAL SECURITY ON CELLPHONE TRADING THROUGH ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Aswari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of technology development brings impact on human life related to its utilization. This article analyzes legal security through several components in a cellphone trading through electronic media. This study is a conceptual idea and shows that the implementation of legal security in several components should provide solution to any potential conflicts. A good intention component should be applied to form an ideal legal relation from the beginning to the end and realization in performing its obligation reflect the concrete aspect. Warranty provides protection security for related parties with some governing regulations during transaction. However, some other supporting components have not been effectively contribute to balance the utilization of technology in trading. Keywords: legal security, trading, cellphone, electronic media

  15. 78 FR 59706 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...] Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Federal Register of August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51192). The document announced the start of the Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program (SSCPP). The document was published with an incorrect email address for the SSCPP...

  16. Demand and supply of wood fuels in the emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Laitila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emission trade according to the EU directive on greenhouse gas emission allowance started at the beginning of the year 2005. This will boost the demand for wood fuels because of the addition-al value of CO 2 neutrality compared to fossil fuels. This bulletin covers the development of the demand and supply of wood fuels from 2002 to 2010 both at a national and a provincial level. The demand and supply balance of wood fuels will be evaluated both without the effect of emission trade and when the emission trade price level is 20 euro/ton- CO 2 for emission rights in 2010. The evaluations of fuel consumption for individual boilers were made with the help of the databases of Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd. The demand for wood fuels was estimated to double by the year 2010, being almost 50 TWh. The share of forest chips of the demand was one third, i.e. 17 TWh. The supply potential was divided into forest chips and solid by-products from forest industry. Forest chip sources included small diameter wood from young forests and logging residues and stumps from re-generation felling sites. The supply potential calculations of logging residues and stump biomass were based on databases of regeneration felling stands. The biomass potential from small diamreter wood was evaluated on the basis of field measurements of NFI 8 and 9 at a provincial level and multi-source data at a municipal level. In 2010, the supply potential of by-products was estimated to be 28 TWh of which 11 TWh was marketable out-side of the internal use of forest industry. Correspondingly, the theoretical potential of forest chips was estimated to be 51 TWh and the techno-economical potential 24 TWh. As a result of the regional optimization model, the energy use of wood fuels was 29 TWh, which was 59 % of the potential demand. In emission trade the demand was 33 TWh, which was 68 % of the potential demand. Regionally, the potential demand for wood fuels for energy use was higher than the supply in all provinces

  17. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Infrastructure, Attitude and Weather: Today’s Threats to Supply Chain Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economy can be viewed today as a myriad of border-crossing supply chain networks of production, supply, distribution and marketing systems. Given the enormous value embodied in these systems, and an environment increasingly characterized by uncertainty and vulnerability, it is not surprising that concern about supply chain security has intensified. Concern takes many forms. For example, how supply chains might be used as vehicles for criminal activity (smuggling, trafficking of narcotics and importing counterfeit goods or acts of terrorism (radio-active materials, bombs, even nukes in containers. Technology-based threats to supply chains, such as cybercrimes, data breaches and IT failures, now appear more frequently in the literature on supply chain security. These threats could result in substantial disruption to supply chains and damage to companies and their customers.Clima But larger storms are brewing, whose menace to supply chain security is greater still – and where actions to protect supply chains move more slowly. These include the continued deterioration of transportation infrastructure, a new posture on trade which views supply chains as threats to jobs and wages, and the impact of climate change. These threats do not lie off in the distant future; they are threats of today and tomorrow.

  19. Government's role in power supply security. A working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The working group was to analyse the Government's role in terms of improving the security of supply of the electricity market in exceptionally difficult capacity situations and to make propositions for the ways of arranging a tendering procedure concerning security of supply and capacity control, so as to meet the requirements of the EC Energy Internal Market Directives after 1 July 2004. The Working Group considers that there is no need at this stage to introduce a separate new system intended as a supplement to technical reserves in Finland. Such a system would not bring new capacity for the use of the power system, and in the case of existing capacity, production would only be transferred from one market to another. However, the situation may change from this, if there occur such factors on the market that aim to raise the market price of electricity or if it turned out that reserve power plants would be decommissioned on a large scale. The working group proposes that such a provision be added to the Electricity Market Act that would oblige the electricity supplier to notify the Energy Market Authority of a planned service outage of a power plant of at least 100 MVA producing electricity separately, which would fall within the time period 1 December - 28 February. The Energy Market Authority would be vested with the powers to postpone the outage due to a tight output situation, if there are not technical or safety- bound obstacles to this. It is important for the sufficiency of the power need of the Internal Market that the price signals of the market are reflected to both producers and consumers of electricity. The working group further proposes that the Ministry of Trade and Industry would look into development of the meter-reading requirements, so that they would, for their part, create the conditions for price flexibility in power consumption and for new sales products of electricity. In addition, tightening of the hourly metering requirement related to the

  20. Secure information sharing in digital supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhargava, B.; Ranchal, R.; Ben Othmane, L.; Kalra, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern organizations interact with their partners through digital supply chain business processes for producing and delivering products and services to consumers. A partner in this supply chain can be a sub-contractor to whom work is outsourced. Each partner in a supply chain uses data, generates

  1. Steam coal trade: demand, supply and prices to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report on the international seaborne steam coal market was prepared using an electricity generation model developed for each coal-importing country, with the aid of WEFA Energy's power station database. The report contains chapters on: import demand forecasting methodology; orimulsion (environmental considerations and market potential); Scandinavia; North West Europe; British Isles; South West Europe; Eastern Europe; Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa; Asia; Latin America; North America; world steam coal demand summary; trade and price forecasting methodology; base case forecast; shipping rates; import demand; export supply and foreign exchange rates.

  2. Multi-perspective analysis of China's energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    China's energy supply security has faced many challenges such as the drastic change of the international energy environment and the domestic energy situation and so on. This paper constructs a multi-dimensional indicator system for the main risks deriving from four aspects to evaluate the situation of China's energy supply security and analyze its evolution characteristics from 1994 to 2011. The results indicate that the situation of China's energy supply security generally presented a downtrend during 1994–2008, as a result of increasing international energy market monopoly and high volatility of international crude oil prices. After 2008, the overall level of China's energy supply security has improved to the level of 2003, which is attributed to the relatively stable international energy environment as well as the effective implementation of energy policies. - Highlights: • A multi-dimensional index system for energy supply security is constructed. • The dynamic influences of external and internal risks are analyzed. • China's energy supply security presents a downward trend during 1994–2008. • The level of China's energy supply security has improved since 2009

  3. LEGAL SECURITY ON CELLPHONE TRADING THROUGH ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aan Aswari

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of technology development brings impact on human life related to its utilization. This article analyzes legal security through several components in a cellphone trading through electronic media. This study is a conceptual idea and shows that the implementation of legal security in several components should provide solution to any potential conflicts. A good intention component should be applied to form an ideal legal relation from the beginning to the end and realization in p...

  4. Legal Security on Cellphone Trading Through Electronic Media in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aswari, Aan; Pasamai, Syamsudin; Qomar, Nurul; Abbas, Ilham

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of technology development brings impact on human life related to its utilization. This article analyzes legal security through several components in a cellphone trading through electronic media. This study is a conceptual idea and shows that the implementation of legal security in several components should provide solution to any potential conflicts. A good intention component should be applied to form an ideal legal relation from the beginning to the end and realization in p...

  5. 17 CFR 41.23 - Listing of security futures products for trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... security futures products for trading, a designated contract market or registered derivatives transaction... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listing of security futures products for trading. 41.23 Section 41.23 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING...

  6. Evaluating the Security of the Global Containerized Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Henry H; Ortiz, David S

    2004-01-01

    .... However, heightened awareness of terrorism has redefined supply-chain security-the consequences of an attack on or via a critical global port could be a tremendous loss of life and a crippling of the U.S...

  7. Security of supply in the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The incentive schemes in the liberalized energy markets do not ensure short-term security of supply. The paper analyzes the regulatory measures suitable to tackle the issue, and evaluates their effects on market power [it

  8. Supply-chain trade and labor market outcomes : The case of the 2004 European Union enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Lennart C.; Kohl, Tristan; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    The structure of international trade is increasingly characterized by fragmentation of production processes and trade policy. Yet, how trade policy affects supply-chain trade is largely unexplored territory. This paper shows how the accession of 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to

  9. Securing the Containerized Supply Chain: Analysis of Government Incentives for Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bakshi; Noah Gans

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the threat that terrorists smuggle weapons of mass destruction into the United States through maritime containers, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspects containers upon entry to domestic ports. Inspection-driven congestion is costly, and CBP provides incentives to firms to improve security upstream in the supply chain, thereby reducing the inspection burden at U.S. ports. We perform an economic analysis of this incentive program, called Customs-Trade Part...

  10. Delivering a secure electricity supply on a low carbon pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The energy system can only be considered sustainable in the long term if it is low carbon, affordable and secure. These three create a complex trilemma for all stakeholders in the energy business who have to strike a careful balance without neglecting any one aspect. This discussion paper examines the issues surrounding security of supply of the power system which has received less attention than the other aspects. It looks at how threats and mitigation measures can be classified in terms of where they act on the supply chain and the timescale over which they act. Only by considering the full range of timescales from seconds to decades can the full picture emerge of the effects of new technologies on security of supply. An examination of blackouts over the past 40 years sheds light on the causes of failure to supply and the most vulnerable aspects of the supply chain. - Highlights: ► Energy systems are only sustainable if they are low carbon, affordable and secure. ► Threats to security can be classified by timescale and position in the supply chain. ► The impact of new technologies on security must be considered across all timescales. ► Recent blackouts show the network is most vulnerable and weather the leading cause

  11. Security of supply and regulation of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the security of energy supplies has re-emerged as a central issue in the energy policy arena in the UK and elsewhere. This re-emergence takes place against a backdrop of increased liberalisation of the energy markets, so that security of supply needs to be revisited within this context. Security of supply is multifaceted, but is often discussed in terms of physical availability of energy sources and their commodity price risk. This paper discusses the relationship between security of supply and network regulation - that is, how the energy networks, and appropriate regulation of them, can contribute to security of supply in liberalised energy sectors. Energy networks are predominantly natural monopolies and as a result are generally subject to regulatory oversight. We discuss a range of issues and trends that pose challenges and opportunities to network regulation and which call for new and innovative measures. The paper identifies a number of areas where network regulation can play a significant role in increasing the security of supply of future energy systems. (author)

  12. A New EU Gas Security of Supply Architecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, The Hague (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M.; Ahner, N. [European University Institute EUI, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M.; Tagliapietra, S. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    A series of workshops has been organized in order to take stock and discuss a possible new architecture for EU gas security. Discussions and reflections reported from the workshops held under this project have developed into the concluding ideas and recommendations for a new EU gas security of supply architecture, which are reflected in this article.

  13. Supply chain security orientation in the pharmaceutical industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    related partnerships and business process backups are the most neglected aspects of supply chain ..... order to manage possible supply chain security issues. ... of the moral and ethical obligations placed on organisations as a result of such ...... Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. 2014. Business Research Methods. 12 ed.

  14. Market Design and Supply Security in Imperfect Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies oncapacity markets...... increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market...

  15. Liberalisation and the security of gas supply in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper contests the view held by the current UK government and its industry regulator, OFGEM, that liberalisation is good for security of supply. Focusing on the downstream aspects of the security of UK gas supply, on system security, it considers the impact of the different aspects of liberalisation: of legal governance, supply competition, de-integration, market simulation, regulation and the interaction of liberalised gas and electricity markets. Categorising these impacts in terms of security threats and threats to security response, it finds that individually and as a complex collectivity they have increased the risks of supply failure, either potential or already realised, in a variety of ways: from creating increased uncertainty and failing to signal adequate or appropriate investment, to legal ambiguity which divorces responsibility from liability and renders legal liability indeterminate ex ante. Moreover, one of the UK government's responses to these increased dangers, which it does appear to perceive, is revealed as itself paralysed by the liberalisation paradigm: the government can only intervene pre-emptively with information in attempt to persuade the market to behave as it thinks it should. Meanwhile, however, the government has also had to recognise its default responsibility for security of supply and make preparations to intervene in an emergency situation: liberalisation can only be challenged when it is already too late

  16. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  17. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-13

    general election. Key observers have also pointed to decisions by Parti-Islam sa- Malaysia (PAS), Parti Keadilan Rakyat , and the Democratic Action Party...Sultan fulfills this function. Each state has a state legislature. The lower house of Malaysia’s Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat , has 193 members elected...Order Code RL33878 Malaysia : Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered February 13, 2007 Bruce Vaughn, Coordinator Specialist in

  18. Approach to securing of stable nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Kunihisa; Imamura, Isao; Noda, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    With the dual objectives of not only ensuring stable electric power supplies but also preventing global warming, the construction of new nuclear power plants is being planned in many countries throughout the world. Toshiba and Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC), a member of the Toshiba Group, are capable of supplying both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants to satisfy a broad range of customer requirements. Furthermore, to meet the growing demand for the securing of nuclear fuel supplies, Toshiba and WEC have been promoting the strengthening and further expansion of supply chains in the fields of uranium production, uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion, uranium enrichment, and fuel fabrication. (author)

  19. Long-term security in energy supplies - the contribution of coal; Dlugofalowe bezpieczenstwo w dostawach energii - udzial wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents the case for coal as an important pillar in a wide and balanced mix of energy sources. Both domestic lignite and hard coal can be made available at relatively low cost. With coal powering power plants it is possible to achieve all energy policy goals of economic efficiency, security of supply and environmental compatibility. The paper includes much information on the global coal trade, particularly seaborne trade. 4 refs., 26 figs.

  20. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  1. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region. (author)

  2. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  3. Security of Energy Supply - Indicators for Measuring Vulnerability and Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, C.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, secure and affordable energy supplies are an essential requirement for economies to work, much less develop and grow in the long term. The present study, Energy security of supply - indicators for measuring vulnerability and risk, develops a broad methodical assessment concept to raise awareness among policy makers and the public regarding the vulnerability of energy supplies to potential energy crises. It explores the different aspects of vulnerability, from the primary energy level to energy infrastructure (storage, networks, power plant parks) to the efficiency and cost of energy consumption for end users. The individual characteristics of the formal concept were quantitatively evaluated for several OECD regions (Germany, UK, Sweden, Poland, Italy, France and the US) using a comprehensive empirical database and reduced to a single indicator for assessing energy supply vulnerability. Part of the database comprises historical observations for the period between 1978 and 2007.(author).

  4. The security of supply and the international political problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of security of supply of electronuclear programs, especially under their political aspects. After a brief summary of the main historical events related to the subject: post-war position, Non Proliferation Treaty signature, London guidelines etc., the author underlines the fact that up to now, four countries only have been completely independent for their supplies. The elements of such independence are recalled as well as the special viewpoints of developing countries on the one hand, industrialized countries on the other hand. The final part analyses the means of reestablishing or reinforcing this security of supply. The classical commercial aspects such as preference for domestic producers, diversification of supplies and stockpiling are dealt with as well as with aspects more specific to nuclear energy, a technical one such as the possibility of developing breeders, and political ones, such as freedom to reexport, freedom to use imported materials in the frame of peaceful uses. (AF)

  5. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershen, Drew L

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking consumer energy efficiency with security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, J.P.; Scharpf, E.W.; Carrington, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Most modern energy policies seek to achieve systematic ongoing incremental increases in consumer energy efficiency, since this contributes to improved security of supply, favourable environmental outcomes and increased economic efficiency. Yet realised levels of efficiency are typically well below the most cost-effective equilibrium due to variety of behavioural and organisational barriers, which are often linked to information constraints. In addition efficient users are normally unrewarded for collective benefits to system security and to the environment, thus reducing the incentives for energy consumers to invest in efficiency improvements. This paper examines the dichotomies and symmetries between supply- and demand-side solutions to energy security concerns and reviews opportunities to overcome barriers to improved consumer efficiency. A security market is identified as a mechanism to promote both demand- and supply-side investments that support electricity system security. Such a market would assist in setting the optimal quantity of reserves while achieving an efficient balance between supply- and demand-side initiatives. It would also help to smooth overall investment throughout the energy system by encouraging incremental approaches, such as distributed generation and demand-side alternatives where they provide competitive value. Although the discussion is applicable to energy systems in general, it focuses primarily on electricity in New Zealand

  7. Securing of supply in short and longer term of wood and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Gert

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark - as well as in the rest of Europe - the importance of biomass as energy source has developed during the last two decades. In the Nordic countries we have seen a rise in utilisation of wood, straw and biogas. Concurrently with this development the trade of biomass has grown and a market has been build up while prices for biofuels has declined by up to 40% in real term prices. The trade of biofuels is expected to increase in the future in order to meet the overall goal and fulfil the international agreements of climate change and reduction of CO 2 . Basically the object of securing supply of biomass for energy production is the same as for all types of fuel or other commodities: to make supply and demand meet at prices the market are able and willing to pay. Price and security of supply are of vital importance for users of biomass - such as Energi E2. Based on these criteria biomass would never have been a fuel for electricity production. The market and supply of biomass is small compared to fossil fuels and the price is 2-3 times the price of coal calculated on an energy basis. But legislation, financial support and tax on fossil fuels have made biomass a competitive fuel for production of electricity and heat. (au)

  8. Nuclear Option for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.; Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Present energy policy is required to ensure a balance between security of supply, competitiveness and environmental requirements. Recent changes involved by deregulation and liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets even strengthen such a policy. However, dependency on external energy sources carries risks that have to be managed since a large proportion of both oil and gas reserves are found in politically unstable regions. Electrical energy is a fundamental prerequisite for a civilized life and an essential commodity, but it cannot be stored and this restricts the extent to which there can be a real free market for electricity. Therefore, relying on imports of electricity to a large extent may prove unsecure because this requires a true, completely open market in which the opportunities for cross-border trade are effective and balanced and transport connections are adequate. This is equally applied to the countries in the South-Eastern Europe, despite very good prospects for development of the regional electricity market there. In this regard, the use of nuclear energy has not any risk associated with external dependency because there are abundant quantities of uranium available world-wide from many diverse sources. The inherent mitigation of supply risk associated with the use of uranium should act as an incentive to the further use of nuclear energy. In addition, already very large stocks of fuel assemblies and fuel-making materials available, especially when these are measured in terms of power generating capacity per year at current production rates. It is, therefore, very important for any country to recognize such strategic aspect of nuclear energy when addressing the issue of security of power supply. Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due

  9. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  10. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  11. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  12. Energy supply security and geopolitics : A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A; van der Linde, C

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets, Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and

  13. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  14. Market design and supply security in imperfect power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies on capacity markets increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market instead of the energy market. - Highlights: • I model two power generating firms who compete to serve stochastic demand in a multiunit uniform price auction. • In equilibrium, blackout probabilities can arise through capacity withholding. • Capacity mechanisms decrease capacity withholding and the expected energy price. • With dominant firms, capacity mechanisms are only effective if capacity prices are non-competitive and include a mark-up for leaving the energy-only market optimum

  15. EU Security of Gas Supplies: Solidarity Runs Through the Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Rutten, Daan

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing efforts to lessen the European Union's (EU) vulnerability to gas shortages by adopting internal measures were triggered by the Ukrainian gas disputes of 2006 and 2009. The latter deprived several EU Member States of 20% of their gas supplies (30% of imports) for 14 days in the middle of winter due to tensions with Russia. This prompted Member States in 2010 to adopt a Regulation for the Security of Gas Supply, replacing the skeletal 2004 Directive. Since 2014, tensions have increased significantly between the EU and Russia, the block's main gas supplier. Although this has not led to any gas supply disruptions in Europe, and this time Ukraine has been able to revert to reverse flows, national production and storage withdrawals to replace the Russian gas flows, there remains a perceived elevated risk of gas supply disruptions to the EU, especially by certain Member States. This led the European Commission (EC) to publish its first-ever European Energy Security Strategy in May 2014, which was followed by the Gas Stress Tests of October 2014. In February 2015, the EC published its Energy Union Strategy Framework, which was strongly motivated by energy security concerns. In that context, the EC announced a series of proposals for its gas and electricity markets in 2016 and 2017, among which was the 'Sustainable Energy Security Package' (hereafter: Package). This Package, published in February 2016, consists of four proposals. Two of them have a legislative nature, namely a Regulation for Security of Gas Supply and a Decision on Intergovernmental Agreements on energy. The two non-legislative proposals are strategy papers dealing respectively with LNG and Gas Storage, and Heating and Cooling. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the proposed Regulation and to offer considerations on some of its provisions, in particular on the move from the national to the regional level of cooperation and on the legislative formalization of solidarity. (author)

  16. 17 CFR 41.27 - Prohibition of dual trading in security futures products by floor brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading in a security futures product on a designated contract market or registered derivatives...) Registered derivatives transaction execution facilities. Prior to listing a security futures product for... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of dual trading in...

  17. Identifying hubs and spokes in global supply chains using redirected trade in value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of global supply chains has prompted the use of analytical tools based on trade in value added - instead of traditional measures in gross value. We use this analytical framework to develop indicators that identify production hubs and supply spokes in global supply chains.

  18. Study on the Coordination of Supply Chain Based on Carbon Emissions Trading Considering the Retailers’ Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the coordination of supply chain in the context of carbon emissions trading mechanism, which considering the competition between retailers. Centralized and decentralized supply chain models were constructed to discuss the price of product, to avoid the losses of profit from the decentralized decision-making, the revenue-sharing contract was introduced to coordinate the supply chain. Research shows that the carbon emissions trading reduce emissions effectively, but the higher price of carbon emissions trading cut down the total profit of supply chain; The competition between retailers upgrades the supply chain members’ profit; Coordination was achieved by introducing the revenue-sharing contract. Finally, numerical example was given to illustrate the validity of the revenue-sharing contract, and the sensitivity analysis of parameters such as the price of the emissions trading and the retailers’ competition were presented.

  19. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  20. Modeling Turkey’s future LNG supply security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efe Biresselioglu, Mehmet; Hakan Demir, Muhittin; Kandemir, Cansu

    2012-01-01

    Turkey was among those countries which decided to increase its natural gas consumption in the 1990s, due to its relative low cost and lack of impact on the environment. However, a heavy dependence on imports, from Algeria, Qatar and Nigeria, respectively, creates a threat to energy security, both in terms of source and supply diversity. Accordingly, we follow an analytical approach to identify the accuracy of our assumption, considering the current economic, political and security risk. To this end, we formulate and solve a mixed integer programming model that determines the optimal sourcing strategy for Turkey’s increasing LNG demand. This model demonstrates a number of alternative policy options for LNG supply. Furthermore, we consider that increasing the proportion of LNG in the overall gas supply will contribute to the aim of improving Turkey’s level of energy security. - Highlights: ► Turkey’s best policy option is to increase the share of LNG. ► Turkey’s main suppliers of LNG will be Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. ► Norway, Libya, and Oman contribute to the supply with rather smaller shares. ► With high risk scenario Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria and Libya will not be suppliers. ► Oman and Qatar will cover; even though they are high-cost suppliers.

  1. Strategic gas reserves and EU security-of-supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The author attempts to distinguish a country's ''normal'' dependence on imports of a commodity from sensitivity and vulnerability dependence. We will then discuss how the risk for disruptions in supplies may be viewed as an externality in imports and, thus, consumption of gas. The model presented demonstrates how environmental externalities as a result of increased domestic production can be evaluated together with the security-of-supply problem. Finally, it is discussed how gas reserves can be used as a means in an emergency situation

  2. Security of supply of uranium as nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Gomez-Selles, L.

    2011-01-01

    When we talk about Sustainability related to nuclear fuel, the first concern that comes to our mind is about the possibility of having guarantees on the uranium supply for a sufficient period of time. In this paper we are going to analyze the last Reserves data published by the OCD's Red Book and also how the Reserve concept in fully linked to the uranium price. Additionally, it is demonstrated how the uranium Security of supply is guaranteed for, at least, the next 100 years. finally, some comments are made regarding other sources of nuclear fuel as it is the uranium coming from the phosphates or the thorium. (Author)

  3. Report to Congress on the Global Supply and Trade of Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report assembles available information on the global supply and trade of mercury, including both primary mercury mining as well as mercury that has been recovered from a wide variety of sources and redistilled to a high level of purity.

  4. Transparency and monitoring of security and adequacy of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, D.; Von der Fehr, N.H.; Van Damme, E.

    2003-08-01

    The long-run performance of the electricity market relies on the behaviour of individual market participants, including investors (incumbents as well as entrants), consumers, traders and the financial community. In order for these market participants to make rational economic decisions they should have access to reliable information on the fundamental drivers for the market and how these evolve. Improving access to information is particularly important for decisions that involve long-term commitments, such as investment in new generation facilities. The Market Surveillance Committee (MSC) has been asked to advise on how market transparency can be increased in order to improve supply security and adequacy. In this report we discuss the need for transparency from the point of view of the market participants. We also present which information is made public in other electricity markets. We point out that, in addition to increasing transparency for market participants, there is also a need for adequate market monitoring by authorities. It may be necessary to change current rules and regulations to ensure that information is made available to both the relevant authorities and the market. From an economic efficiency point of view, security of supply is optimised if, at the margin, the costs of reducing forced rationing are balanced against the benefits of such reductions (including lowering of social costs associated with major interruptions to power supplies). Adequacy of supply is optimised if the costs of capacity expansions are aligned with the willingness to pay for the associated increases in supply capacity. To assess optimal supply security and adequacy, one would therefore need to monitor: the value of supply security to consumers, or inversely, the cost of forced rationing, e.g. as 'value of lost load' estimates; the frequency with which involuntary load-shedding is expected to occur on the basis of system characteristics, including statistical data and

  5. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  6. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  7. Security of energy supply. Facts and possibilities for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, Juergen-Friedrich; Rath-Nagel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The energy infrastructure of a country has a decisive influence on the standard of living there, the competitiveness of its economy and its inner political stability. In the debate about the energy transition in Germany attention is primarily being focused on the future energy mix and how it might change, but in particular on the technical challenges involved as well as the costs of the transition as a whole. Given the growing instability that will arise in the electricity networks in the process of transition, as well as the problems that could occur with the supply of natural gas as a result of the Ukraine crisis, the issue of security of energy supply in Germany (as well as Europe) needs to be addressed anew: Is the energy supply at risk? What sources are available at home and abroad, and what leeway is there for changing the procurement mix?

  8. Supply Chain Coordination under Trade Credit and Quantity Discount with Sales Effort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of trade credit and quantity discount in supply chain coordination when the sales effort effect on market demand is considered. In this paper, we consider a two-echelon supply chain consisting of a single retailer ordering a single product from a single manufacturer. Market demand is stochastic and is influenced by retailer sales effort. We formulate an analytical model based on a single trade credit and find that the single trade credit cannot achieve the perfect coordination of the supply chain. Then, we develop a hybrid quantitative analytical model for supply chain coordination by coherently integrating incentives of trade credit and quantity discount with sales effort effects. The results demonstrate that, providing that the discount rate satisfies certain conditions, the proposed hybrid model combining trade credit and quantity discount will be able to effectively coordinate the supply chain by motivating retailers to exert their sales effort and increase product order quantity. Furthermore, the hybrid quantitative analytical model can provide great flexibility in coordinating the supply chain to achieve an optimal situation through the adjustment of relevant parameters to resolve conflict of interests from different supply chain members. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid model.

  9. The Regulation of Nuclear Trade: Non-Proliferation-Supply-safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Volume II of the study on the regulation of nuclear trade deals with the national legislation of OECD countries with significant nuclear programmes and regulations in that field and, in essence, covers two aspects. The first concerns political and administrative controls over imports and exports of sensitive products, namely fissile materials and large nuclear equipment as well as technology transfers. In most cases, this description of the provisions applicable is completed with the list of nuclear items whose export is restricted. The second aspect concerns the licensing system governing trade in as well as the import and export of nuclear material to protect users and the public against the hazards created by its radioactive properties. This volume also contains information on regulations concerning physical protection, industrial property and transport, as well as on multilateral and bilateral agreements involving nuclear trade. (NEA) [fr

  10. Assessing energy supply security: Outage costs in private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron J.; Hähnel, Alexander; Erdmann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the topic of energy supply security by proposing a Monte Carlo-based and a survey based model to analyze the costs of power interruptions. Outage cost estimations are particularly important when deciding on investments to improve supply security (e.g. additional transmission lines) in order to compare costs to benefits. But also other policy decisions on measures that have direct or indirect consequences for the supply security (e.g. a phasing out of nuclear energy) need to be based on results from outage cost estimations. The main focus of this paper lies with residential consumers, but the model is applied to commercial, industrial and governmental consumers as well. There are limited studies that have approached the problem of evaluating outage cost. When comparing the results of these studies, they often display a high degree of diversification. As consumers have different needs and dependencies towards the supply of electricity because of varying circumstances and preferences, a great diversity in outage cost is a logical consequence. To take the high degree of uncertainties into account, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study for the case of private households in Germany. - Highlights: ► A macroeconomic model to assess outage cost is proposed. ► Possibilities for substitution are considered by analyzing individual preferences for the time-use. ► Uncertainties are taken into account by using a Monte Carlo simulation. ► This study reveals the distribution of outage costs to different electricity consumers. ► Implications for energy policy decisions are discussed.

  11. Security of supply in Competitive Electricity Markets. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    A stable and reliable electricity supply is a fundamental factor in our modern economy and many people think that the deregulated market is a threat to this - or at least, they think that there is a need for a new type of regulation. Others believe that the threat to security of supply comes from short sighted politicians rather than from competitive markets. Regulation in order to increase security of supply is a threat to well functioning competitive markets - not the other way around. To give an overview of different regulatory models and to discuss each model's particular pros and cons, ELFORSK (Swedish Electrical Utilities RandD Company) on behalf of the Swedish electricity industry, the national grid company Svenska Kraftnaet and the Regulating Authority has arranged this two-day Conference. This conference once again gathers people from many different parts of the world to exchange ideas and experiences from their respective area of operations. Our belief is that people from the industry, the governments as well as from the academic world will find these two days a useful opportunity to build new relationships and gain new insights into the topics covered. There are three main topics for the Conference: Experiences from Different Markets; The Value of Security of Supply; Ongoing research projects. The members of the Conference Committee are impressed by the quality of the papers presented at this Conference and we believe that this is a source of knowledge that will influence decisions makers in many countries. (11 papers presented at the conference have been indexed separately. Powerpoint presentations have not been indexed but are available from the Market Design homrpage)

  12. The modern way of trading with options such derivative securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants in the financial markets today are faced with a number of financial risks. This raises the question, what measures and instruments should be used, to minimize the risks to the lowest extent possible. One form of protection options are. Options are derivative securities, namely financial derivatives, which can be used to protect against the risks associated with trading. The reason for the earnings at risk. It is usually used to hedge price risk, which is the word of possession and the right to sell the right to purchase certain assets at a predetermined fixed price that applies to a specific date in the future. In this way a protection against adverse price changes in the future. As their name implies, is a selection of options, where the owner decides whether the option will be exercised or not. That choice is not free, because in case of insurance premiums paid by commission from potential financial risk. Many of the securities issued by the company include the option.

  13. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Christoph W. E-mail: christoph.frei@weforum.org

    2004-07-01

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against energy poverty their first priority in order to achieve their overall goals.

  14. The Kyoto protocol - a victim of supply security? or: if Maslow were in energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph W.

    2004-01-01

    History suggests that energy policy priorities can be stratified, similar to the way Maslow structured his famous pyramid of human needs. The essay below claims that access to energy, supply security, energy costs, environmental issues and social acceptance are not subject to trade-off, but to a hierarchy that underlies the importance of satisfying lower-order needs before addressing the higher-order needs. The essay demonstrates the hierarchy with an 'energy policy needs pyramid' based on historical evidence. The pyramid is used to analyze the viability of current items of the energy policy agenda. Conclusions indicate that the Kyoto protocol might be a victim of supply insecurity, that OPEC is good for the environment and that environmentalists should make the fight against energy poverty their first priority in order to achieve their overall goals

  15. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  16. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The security zone encompasses all navigable waters within 100 feet of the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center...

  17. Privacy and security perceptions of european citizens: A test of the trade-off model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedewald, M.; Lieshout, M. van; Rung, S.; Ooms, M.; Ypma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional “trade-off” paradigm that argues that citizens might be willing to sacrifice some privacy for more security. Academics have long argued against the trade-off paradigm, but these arguments have

  18. 75 FR 7546 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 [Docket Number: 090422707-91445-02] RIN 0607-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification... Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an...

  19. Supply Chain Coordination with Carbon Trading Price and Consumers’ Environmental Awareness Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions reduction in supply chain is an effective method to reduce the greenhouse effect. The paper investigates the impacts of carbon trading price and consumers’ environmental awareness on carbon emissions in supply chain under the cap-and-trade system. Firstly, it analyzes the centralized decision structure and obtains the requirements to coordinate carbon emissions reduction and order quantity in supply chain. Secondly, it proposes the supply chain coordination mechanism with revenue-sharing contract based on quantity discount policy, and the requirements that the contract parameters need to satisfy are also given. Thirdly, assuming the market demand is affected by consumer’s environmental awareness in addition form, the paper proposes the methods to determine the optimal order quantity and the optimal level of carbon emissions through model optimization. Finally, it investigates the impacts of carbon trading price on carbon emissions in supply chain. The results show that clean manufacturer’s optimal per-unit carbon emissions increase as the carbon trading price increases, while nongreen manufacturer’s optimal per-unit carbon emissions decrease as the carbon trading price increases. For the middle emissions manufacturer, the optimal per-unit carbon emissions depend on the relationship between the carbon trading price and the carbon reduction coefficient.

  20. Security of electricity supply at the generation level: Problem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the restructuring process, back in 1982 in Chile, the ability of an electricity market to provide the system with the required level of security of supply has been put into question. The mistrust on the ability of the market, left to its own devices, to provide sufficient generation availability when needed, is more and more leading to the implementation of additional regulatory mechanisms. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators’ agendas. In this paper, we revisit this discussion under the light of thirty years of electricity market experience. We analyze the different reasons why, although ideally the market is supposed to provide itself an adequate security of supply at the generation level, this result is still far from being achieved in practice. - Highlights: ► Discussion on the need for capacity mechanisms is revisited. ► Reasons behind adequacy problem are analyzed. ► Regulator’s intervention to guarantee supply is most of the times justified.

  1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  2. Trade credit supply, market power and the matching of trade credit terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, D.; Klapper, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the decision of firms to extend trade credit to customers and its relation with their financing decisions. We use a novel firm-level database with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms and payment history of trade credit

  3. Trading Relationship Performance and Market Power in Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon

    The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation...... and livelihood. The overall objective of this PhD study was to investigate the intermediaries’ power over farmers and its effects on trading relationship performance between them. Two farms survey were conducted, the first one was carried out in the Adana region in Turkey and had an explorative focus aiming......), investigate how intermediaries’ power affects farmers-intermediaries trading relationship performance (paper 3) and analyse the determinants of contract farming and its effects on post-harvest losses (paper 4). The first paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin related...

  4. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  5. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  6. Security of Supply Monitoring Report 2008-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The export potential for Dutch electricity is set to grow over the next few years as a number of plans for new power stations are implemented. Even if only some of these plans come to fruition, there will be more than enough capacity to meet domestic demand for electricity. These are the main conclusions of the Security of Supply Monitoring Report, an annual overview compiled by TenneT, the Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO) at the request of the Minister of Economic Affairs. The report also reveals that the effects of the current economic downturn on the construction plans are unclear. The Security of Supply Monitoring Report 2007-2024 is based on a wide range of data, including information supplied by energy producers, and provides insight into the expected development of the demand for and supply of electricity in the Netherlands. The export potential for Dutch electricity is set to grow over the next few years. After many years of dependence on imports, the Netherlands is now self-sufficient in electricity and will see its export potential increase even further in the near future. TenneT has facilitated this development by investing in high-quality infrastructure (interconnections with other countries and new connections). In the period after 2009 we can see a further increase in the planned realisation of new large-scale production capacity. Approx. 2.3 gigawatt (GW) of capacity is to be realised in 2010, followed by 8.3 GW in the 2011-2013 period and 7.7 GW in the 2014-2016 period. This brings the total amount of planned new capacity to approx. 18.5 GW over the surveyed period from 2009 to 2016.

  7. Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply. During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies. Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies. Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern. IEA Ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to ''keep the lights on'' while reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  8. Public assessment of new surveillance-oriented security technologies: Beyond the trade-off between privacy and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Esposti, Sara Degli

    2012-07-01

    As surveillance-oriented security technologies (SOSTs) are considered security enhancing but also privacy infringing, citizens are expected to trade part of their privacy for higher security. Drawing from the PRISE project, this study casts some light on how citizens actually assess SOSTs through a combined analysis of focus groups and survey data. First, the outcomes suggest that people did not assess SOSTs in abstract terms but in relation to the specific institutional and social context of implementation. Second, from this embedded viewpoint, citizens either expressed concern about government's surveillance intentions and considered SOSTs mainly as privacy infringing, or trusted political institutions and believed that SOSTs effectively enhanced their security. None of them, however, seemed to trade privacy for security because concerned citizens saw their privacy being infringed without having their security enhanced, whilst trusting citizens saw their security being increased without their privacy being affected.

  9. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  10. 12 CFR 551.150 - How do my officers and employees file reports of personal securities trading transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of personal securities trading transactions? 551.150 Section 551.150 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... TRANSACTIONS Securities Trading Policies and Procedures § 551.150 How do my officers and employees file reports of personal securities trading transactions? An officer or employee described in § 551.140(d) must...

  11. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. 17 CFR 240.3a12-7 - Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a national securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-7 Section 240.3a12-7... Miscellaneous Exemptions § 240.3a12-7 Exemption for certain derivative securities traded otherwise than on a...

  13. A Stochastic Model for Improving Information Security in Supply Chain Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Al Kattan; Ahmed Al Nunu; Kassem Saleh

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a probabilistic security model for supply chain management systems (SCM) in which the basic goals of security (including confidentiality, integrity, availability and accountability, CIAA) are modeled and analyzed. Consequently, the weak points in system security are identified. A stochastic model using measurable values to describe the information system security of a SCM is introduced. Information security is a crucial and integral part of the network of supply chains. ...

  14. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables. Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored. In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade’s potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  15. Oil supply security: the emergency response potential of IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the oil supply security and more particularly with the emergency response potential of International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. The first part describes the changing pattern of IEA emergency response requirements. It begins with the experience from the past, then gives the energy outlook to 2010 and ends with the emergency response policy issues for the future. The second part is an overview on the IEA emergency response potential which includes the organisation, the emergency reserves, the demand restraint and the other response mechanisms. The third part gives the response potential of individual IEA countries. The last part deals with IEA emergency response in practice and more particularly with the gulf crisis of 1990-1991. It includes the initial problems raised by the gulf crisis, the adjustment and preparation and the onset of military action with the IEA response.(O.L.). 7 figs., 85 tabs

  16. Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

  17. Maritime supply chain security: navigating through a sea of compliance requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maspero, EL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available MTSA Maritime Transportation Security Act RFID Radio Frequency Identification SAFE Security and Accountability For Every port SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea SST Smart and Secure Tradelane UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development... for increased security within maritime shipping and so the SOLAS (the Safety of Lives at Sea) Convention Chapter 11 was amended to provide for the inclusion of the International Ships and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code), which was internationally...

  18. A report on anti-earthquake countermeasures of the switchyard etc. with a view to securing reliability of offsite power supply for Nuclear Power Stations etc. (Attachment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Submission of a report on anti-earthquake countermeasures of the switchyard etc. with a view to securing reliability of offsite power supply for Nuclear Power Stations etc. to Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

  19. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A.; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C.

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch ( n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections ( n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  20. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-04-01

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  1. Politics, markets and EU gas supply security. Case studies of the UK and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sandu-Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. Sandu-Daniel Kopp investigates whether carbon reduction targets are compatible with market-driven competition in gas (and power) industries, and whether security of supply is compatible with competitive markets. He examines the policy trade-offs which need to be made between the three different elements, and whether these policy judgements should be economically or politically based. The analysis shows the need for a complex set of politically determined options to protect (competitive) markets from price risks and emergency events and demonstrates that this has thus far failed the policy test. Overall, the author argues that the three major elements of EU energy policy are incompatible in important respects and thereby challenges much of the conventional wisdom of EU and Member State policies of the past decade.

  2. Politics, markets and EU gas supply security. Case studies of the UK and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Sandu-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. Sandu-Daniel Kopp investigates whether carbon reduction targets are compatible with market-driven competition in gas (and power) industries, and whether security of supply is compatible with competitive markets. He examines the policy trade-offs which need to be made between the three different elements, and whether these policy judgements should be economically or politically based. The analysis shows the need for a complex set of politically determined options to protect (competitive) markets from price risks and emergency events and demonstrates that this has thus far failed the policy test. Overall, the author argues that the three major elements of EU energy policy are incompatible in important respects and thereby challenges much of the conventional wisdom of EU and Member State policies of the past decade.

  3. Assessment of Political Vulnerabilities on Security of Energy Supply in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česnakas Giedrius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that despite the evident link between political environment and security of energy supply, political elements are not sufficiently represented in contemporary scientific literature, namely in indexes that are designed for the assessment of security of energy supply. In an attempt to fill this gap, the article presents an innovative methodology for quantitative assessment of the political vulnerabilities on security of energy supply and applies it to the analysis of the Baltic States.

  4. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  5. Supply Chain Model with Stochastic Lead Time, Trade-Credit Financing, and Transportation Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This model extends a two-echelon supply chain model by considering the trade-credit policy, transportations discount to make a coordination mechanism between transportation discounts, trade-credit financing, number of shipments, quality improvement of products, and reduced setup cost in such a way that the total cost of the whole system can be reduced, where the supplier offers trade-credit-period to the buyer. For buyer, the backorder rate is considered as variable. There are two investments to reduce setup cost and to improve quality of products. The model assumes lead time-dependent backorder rate, where the lead time is stochastic in nature. By using the trade-credit policy, the model gives how the credit-period would be determined to achieve the win-win outcome. An iterative algorithm is designed to obtain the global optimum results. Numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to illustrate the model.

  6. Securing co-operation from persons supplying statistical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubenque, M. J.; Blaikley, R. M.; Harris, F. Fraser; Lal, R. B.; Neurdenburg, M. G.; Hernández, R. de Shelly

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary. Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary. Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made. Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements. The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information. Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and

  7. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses key aspects of the U.S.-Malaysia relationship, including economics and trade, counterterrorism cooperation, defense ties, and Malaysia's external posture as it affects Amen can interests...

  8. LNG, Competition and Security of Supply: the Role of Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Mazzei, L.; Pontoni, F.; Sileo, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the main concerns of European Union in the energetic field has been that of facilitating the safeguard of raw materials' security of supply, especially that of natural gas. Import through LNG chain, that is, through the employment of LNG tankers for gas transportation, has been identified by the European Council as one of the instruments to achieve these goals. In fact, import via LNG does not require, for the importer, such investments as to determine an indissoluble physical tie between producer and buyer, as happens for transport via pipeline (Chernyavska et al., 2002). In other words, investments in pipelines are very specific. Moreover, as they are made in order to support specific transactions, contracts usually take the form of long-term agreements with minimum off take requirements (take or pay clauses): such contracts definitely contribute to the cartelization of the market, hindering competition. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity: in fact, even though the construction of a re gasification plant is generally tied to the stipulation of a long-term agreement (with take or pay clause), LNG chain costs have significantly decreased over time (until a few years ago) and, moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of plant capacity is made available for spot transactions. What's more, once the contract is expired and the investment is sunk, the importer may satisfy his gas supply needs on the basis of his relative gains. As far as LNG import contractual practices are concerned, significant changes have started to take places in the last few years, both in terms of agreements' length average duration has significantly decreased and in terms of price indexation in the most developed markets LNG price is tied to gas spot price (IEA, 2006). One of the many possible advantages of transport via LNG is that liquefied gas enables European importers to widen their gas

  9. Security of supply and investments in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Today, security of supply in electricity can be expressed in new terms, given the development of competition beyond national borders, particularly after the blackouts that occurred in Italy and New-York in 2003. Three causes are put forward to explain the difficulties encountered: the excessive market power of generators; market design that failed to acknowledge the electricity's specific attributes and incoherent government policy at national levels or between neighboring countries. Revisiting these debates, we try to develop the following conjectures: - If there are no regulatory or political barriers to siting, and if the market includes industrial players integrated from generation to marketing, market power is limited and controllable; - It is crucial to take into account the specific attributes of electricity in the design of power markets; - analysis of recent crises reveals them to be related to incoherent, unstable government policy and market design. Herein lies what are no doubt the most important and difficult questions to which economists and experts should devote further structured analyses. (author)

  10. Supply security and short-run capacity markets for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The creation of electricity markets has raised the fundamental question as to whether markets create the right incentives for the provision of the reserves needed to maintain supply security in the short-run, or whether some form of regulation is required. In some states in the US, electricity distributors have been made responsible for providing such reserves by contracting capacity in excess of their forecasted peak demand. The so-called Installed Capacity Markets provide one means of contracting reserves, and are the subject of this paper. Under monopoly as well as under perfect competition, we identify firms' short-run opportunity costs of committing resources in the capacity market and the costs of inducing full capacity commitment. The long-run investment problem is not considered. From a welfare viewpoint, we also compare the desirability of providing reserves either through capacity markets or through the demand side (i.e. power curtailments). At the optimum, capacity obligations equal peak demand (plus expected outages) and the capacity deficiency rate (which serves as a price cap) is set at firms' opportunity costs of providing full capacity commitment. (Author)

  11. Nuclear fuel supply continues to be cheap and secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, U.; Dibbert, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel supply for German nuclear power stations has been secured in the long term in all the individual circuit stages. There are problems because of existing overcapacity worldwide on the suppliers' side. The worldwide throttling of natural uranium production has proved to be a possible way of supporting uranium prices. Because of the stagnant market for longterm contracts, there is still worry among uranium producer regarding further development of the market. The 1984 turnover on the spot market for natural uranium has nearly trebled compared with the previous year. The excess uranium conversion capacity in this sector caused low capacity utilisation and led to offers with considerable reductions. Turbulence with its epicentre in the USA has a feature of the separation work market. The centrifuge enrichers are better placed regarding production costs than the gas diffusion enrichers even with low capacity utilisation and use this advantage. The gas diffusion plants were only at half load, which led to new contract offers from DOE and to competitive prices with long term guaranteed discounts offered by COGEMA. The laser enrichment process was great interest to all energy producing countries. The use of recovered uranium and plutonium is still in the experimental stage. In view of the growing quantities of plutonium, the use of MOX in thermal reactors is growing in importance. (orig./HP) [de

  12. A Goal Oriented Approach for Modeling and Analyzing Security Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Golnaz; Yu, Eric

    In designing software systems, security is typically only one design objective among many. It may compete with other objectives such as functionality, usability, and performance. Too often, security mechanisms such as firewalls, access control, or encryption are adopted without explicit recognition of competing design objectives and their origins in stakeholder interests. Recently, there is increasing acknowledgement that security is ultimately about trade-offs. One can only aim for "good enough" security, given the competing demands from many parties. In this paper, we examine how conceptual modeling can provide explicit and systematic support for analyzing security trade-offs. After considering the desirable criteria for conceptual modeling methods, we examine several existing approaches for dealing with security trade-offs. From analyzing the limitations of existing methods, we propose an extension to the i* framework for security trade-off analysis, taking advantage of its multi-agent and goal orientation. The method was applied to several case studies used to exemplify existing approaches.

  13. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. Two retailer-supplier supply chain models with default risk under trade credit policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to formulate two uncooperative replenishment models with demand and default risk which are the functions of the trade credit period, i.e., a Nash equilibrium model and a supplier-Stackelberg model. Firstly, we present the optimal results of decentralized decision and centralized decision without trade credit. Secondly, we derive the existence and uniqueness conditions of the optimal solutions under the two games, respectively. Moreover, we present a set of theorems and corollary to determine the optimal solutions. Finally, we provide an example and sensitivity analysis to illustrate the proposed strategy and optimal solutions. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the total profits of supply chain under the two games both are better than the results under the centralized decision only if the optimal trade credit period isn't too short. It also reveals that the size of trade credit period, demand, retailer's profit and supplier's profit have strong relationship with the increasing demand coefficient, wholesale price, default risk coefficient and production cost. The major contribution of the paper is that we comprehensively compare between the results of decentralized decision and centralized decision without trade credit, Nash equilibrium and supplier-Stackelberg models with trade credit, and obtain some interesting managerial insights and practical implications.

  15. Two echelon partial trade credit financing in a supply chain derived algebraically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggi Chandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade credit financing has become a powerful tool to improve sales & profit in an industry. In general, a supplier/retailer frequently offers trade credit to its credit risk downstream member in order to stimulate their respective sales. This trade credit may either be full or partial depending upon the past profile of the downstream member. Partial trade credit may be offered by the supplier/retailer to their credit risk downstream member who must pay a portion of the purchase amount at the time of placing an order and then receives a permissible delay on the rest of the outstanding amount to avoid non-payment risks. The present study investigates the retailer’s inventory problem under partial trade credit financing for two echelon supply chain where the supplier, as well as the retailer, offers partial trade credit to the subsequent downstream member. An algebraic approach has been applied for finding the retailer’s optimal ordering policy under minimizing the annual total relevant cost. Results have been validated with the help of examples followed by comprehensive sensitivity analysis.

  16. Improving the security of electricity supply - report by a rapporteur ad int

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.; Lehtonen, M.

    2002-07-01

    The storms 'Pyry' and 'Janika', which swept over Finland in October-November 2001, caused serious damages to the operability of electric systems and led to long-term and extensive interruptions in electricity supply especially in Pirkanmaa, Central Home, Poijat-Hame and in the Uusimaa region. Although the security of electricity supply in Finland has in general been on a high level, the needs of customers concerning the quality of electrical power are constantly growing, and the operational reliability of the distribution networks will thereby have to be developed. The Rapporteur ad int. appointed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry on 21 November 2001 considers that such a scheme complementing the price reduction under the Electricity Market Act should be set up that would require a fixed compensation from the distribution network operators in the case of non deliverance of electricity. The fixed compensation should be paid automatically for e.g. interruptions lasting over 12 hours. The sum would depend on the length of the interruption and on the customer's annual rate of the network service fee. The Rapporteur also gives a number of other recommendations for improving the situation. Each distribution network operator is to choose the means of improvement on a technical-economical basis. The required level in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of an electrical network should guarantee that the interruptions in electricity supply would not exceed six hours even in exceptional circumstances. Ensuring electrical safety is of prime importance in disturbance situations. Shortening the interruption times and improving the quality of electricity call for sustained investment planning and activities. The distribution network operators should draw up a ten-year action plan. including measures aiming to reduce interruptions and the related timetables. To be able to keep the interruption times short in extensive cases of disturbance, the distribution

  17. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  18. The Effect of Information Security Management on Organizational Processes Integration in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi; Ahmad Jafarian; Azam Jalili Bolhasani

    2012-01-01

    : The major purpose of this article was that how information security management has effect on supply chain integration and the effect of implementing "information security management system" on enhancing supplies chain integration. In this respect, current research was seeking a combination overview to these tow approaches (Information Security Management and Organizational Processes Integration by Enterprise Resources Planning System) and after that determined factors of these two import...

  19. Does Social Security Affect Retirement and Labor Supply? Using the Chilean Experience as an Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of the social security system over retirement and labor supply decision of individuals aged 55 to 65 in Chile. We use the 1998 CASEN survey elaborated by the Chilean government. Due to regulations established by the current social security law, two social security systems coexist on 1998: the .Pay-as-you-go. and the individual account system. This property of the dataset, allows us to disentangle the effects of those two systems over retirement and labor supply....

  20. SECURITY BREACH IN TRADING SYSTEM-COUNTERMEASURE USING IPTRACEBACK

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. Rajakumar; V. Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, economic scenario is often facing security breach that has heavy impact on the financial soundness of a company particularly, stock prices on firms. The utmost consequence being the whole business comes to a standstill. From the estimates attributed by the financial sector, it has been inferred that the loss incurred on virus and worms attack is said to have the greatest impact that hampers the prosperity of a business entity. Thus, security strategies attempt on revolving around th...

  1. What is security of supply in the open market and how to achieve it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, Goran; Majstrovic, Matisla; Majstrovic, Goran; Zeljko, Mladen; Pesut, Damir; Bosnjak, Robert; Karan, Marko; Jelavic, Branka

    2010-09-15

    In the open market conditions the security of supply is limited. When a large number of players are introduced in to the system, each of them pursuing only partial and limited goals and tasks, the totality of care about security becomes vague. The analysis of the supply security in the responsibility chain, from producers to buyers, shows that open market model carries inherent risks because final security instance is lacking. The proposal is to introduce the State as the final instance that should be responsible for security and clear defining of the responsibilities of all entities included in the responsibility chain.

  2. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stores and industrial supplies. (a) General. The OCS facility owner or operator must ensure that security...). These additional security measures may include: (1) Intensifying inspection of the stores or industrial... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for delivery of...

  3. Evaluation of security of supplies for the Danish energy system up to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.; Daub, J.; Dietrich, O.W.; Laut, P.

    1979-03-01

    Security of energy supplies is one of the criteria which ought to enter into the future extension possibilities for the Danish energy system. But security of supply is a difficult concept to quantify involving as it does both technical and political aspects. The report attempts to encircle the problems relating to security of supply, partly by describing and evaluating the supply structure and the amount of the resource which could be thought of as entering into the future Danish pattern of energy supply, and partly by analyzing the consequences for the Danish consumer of a break in the supply of a specific fuel. It is noted that a supply breakdown in the electric system is not treated in the report except insofar as the fuel entering into the electric system is covered in the study. (author)

  4. Contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad: a Sharīʿah and legal appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Suhaida Kasri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the practice of contra trading in Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. Through a critical examination of the practice, it aims to discuss the issues from the angles of Sharīʿah and Malaysian common law. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a qualitative research methodology. The information on the practice of contra trading is obtained through the Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad’s website and literature as well as series of meetings and discussions held with Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad. In comprehending and dissecting the Sharīʿah and legal issues, classical along with contemporary Sharīʿah literature including local and international Sharīʿah advisory bodies’ resolutions and standards have been referred to. The Sharīʿah analysis of these issues is further supported by reference to the statute and by-laws of Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad as well as other related legal literature. Findings - This paper finds that contra trading involves a real sale and purchase of shares; the shares are not taken into the possession of the contra trader, neither physically nor constructively; the liability of shares is not transferred to the contra trader; though the practice of profiting in contra trading may contradict the prohibition on profiting without bearing liability, the permissibility of contra trading could still be argued from the contextual approach of public interest (maṣlaḥah and needs (hājah; and contra trading is not gambling. Research limitations/implications - This paper is limited in its analysis to only Sharīʿah and legal perspectives. It does not cover a thorough empirical and quantitative investigation that would measure the extent of the public needs for contra trading and the real benefits that contra trading brings about to the society in the long run. Such studies will further demonstrate whether contra trading deserves a relaxation from the strict Shar

  5. Ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario: is demand-side management the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuddy, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues relating to ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario. In particular, it focuses on demand-side management as a means of achieving these objectives. The solution involves both conservation and supply. It is therefore critical that there be investment in new supply with multiple buyers/sellers. regulatory environment and pricing could encourage conservation

  6. The Effect of Information Security Management on Organizational Processes Integration in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available : The major purpose of this article was that how information security management has effect on supply chain integration and the effect of implementing "information security management system" on enhancing supplies chain integration. In this respect, current research was seeking a combination overview to these tow approaches (Information Security Management and Organizational Processes Integration by Enterprise Resources Planning System and after that determined factors of these two important issue by factor analysis. Researchers using a series of comments in the automotive experts (production planning and management and supply chain experts and caregivers car makers and suppliers in the first level and second level supply chain industry. In this way, it has been done that impact on how information security management processes enterprise supply chain integration with the help of statistical correlation analysis. The results of this investigation indicated effect of "information security management system" various dimensions that were coordination of information, prevent human errors and hardware, the accuracy of information and education for users on two dimensions of internal and external integration of business processes, supply chain and finally, it can increased integration of business processes in supply chain. At the end owing to quite these results, deployment of "information security management system" increased the integration of organizational processes in supply chain. It could be demonstrate with the consideration of relation of organizational integration processes whit the level of coordination of information, prevent errors and accuracy of information throughout the supply chain.

  7. Demand, supply, and trade analysis for the fifth ECE/FAO European timber trends study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, A.

    1996-01-01

    For this study, supply is explained using prices and costs; separate supply models are estimated for export supply, and supply to domestic markets. Using this approach, elasticities can vary by market (for supply equations) and by source of supply (for demand equations). In addition, substitution behaviour in both consumption and production can be examined. For the 9 countries that are smaller markets for forest products in Europe, a model of total demand (apparent consumption) was estimated using gross domestic product and price as explanatory factors. For these countries, a time-series, cross-section approach was used to estimate elasticities; countries were grouped by per capita income. For all countries, estimated elasticities are generally consistent with those reported in previous TTS, and those reported in the scientific literature. Because trade is modeled, additional information is available regarding the outlook for European forest products consumption, and demand on European forests. Where complete data sets were available, results generally indicate that there is substitution in consumption between imports and domestic production, for most products, in most countries. In addition, import elasticities often are higher than elasticities estimated for consumption from domestic sources. Substitution between exports and domestic markets is also evident in export supply equations. 10 refs, 21 tabs

  8. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  9. Volatilities, Traded Volumes, and Price Increments in Derivative Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Soo Yong; Scalas, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the statistics of the Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. For our case, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to the inherent higher-order correlation not detected by applying directly the DFA to logarithmic increments of the KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of futures prices and to generate the geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It is really shown from comparing the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments makes the volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes may be supported the hypothesis of price changes.

  10. The green paper 'towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.; Tillerson, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Green Paper, 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply' was adopted by the European Commission on the 20. of November, 2000 (COM(2000)769 final). At this occasion, the Commission launched a public debate on this strategic document. On the 21. of June 2001, a Public Hearing on Security of energy supply in Europe, on the basis of the Green Paper, was organised by the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy of the European Parliament. Bernard Laponche was among the six experts participating to the Hearing and presented the following paper, prepared with Kenya Tillerson. This presentation is organised in three chapters: I - Comments on the Green Paper; II - Energy efficiency potentials; III - Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter I shows that under the heading of the security of supply, the Green paper elaborates and proposes a global energy strategy taking into account environmental and internal market issues and constraints. This leads to recommendations for a common energy policy for Europe based, as first priority, on a demand policy, i.e. energy efficiency on the demand side. If the necessity of such a policy is clearly stated, the Green paper remains weak on the quantitative objectives, due to the lack of contrasted energy forecast scenarios, as well as on the means of a vigorous energy efficiency policy at European Level. The issue of energy efficiency potentials at European Union level is examined in Chapter II, in the light of the poor information which can be extracted from the energy scenarios presented by the European Commission in various publications. A comparison of energy consumption indicators in France and the European Union leads to a rough estimate of a potential for energy demand efficiency by 2020 of the order of 280 Mtoe on final energy consumption, for the European Union. Chapter III underlines the merits of the Green Paper which are a clear-sighted analysis and a well defined main recommendation

  11. National security and the constitutional right to join military trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unionisation of the South African Military Forces has tested both lawyers and the South African legal system. However, there is very little academic commentary on this important subject. In this article, the policy, which allowed the unionisation of the South African military, the influence of the policy on national security, ...

  12. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    market , accounting for $24.9 billion in exports . An estimated 800,000 U.S. jobs are tied to trade with China .6 President Nixon’s 1972 goal of bringing...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United...framework to facilitate better cooperation with their powerful southern neighbor.9 Reagan’s North American Accord with Mexico took longer to evolve

  13. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph; Niedrig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  14. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  15. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  16. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  17. Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to

  18. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arturo Orjuela Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC. This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  19. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Javier Arturo Orjuela; Jaimes, Wilson Adarme

    2017-07-01

    Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC). This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  20. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Javier Arturo Orjuela; Jaimes, Wilson Adarme

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC). This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  1. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The term...

  2. Security of gas supply in open markets. LNG and power at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since the 'IEA Study on Security of Gas Supply' was published in 1995, many member countries have started to open their gas and electricity markets to competition. Governments progressively withdrew from directly managing the gas sector; they concentrate now on setting objectives and the framework for competition. With the continued growth of gas demand and the decline of domestic reserves, most IEA countries have to import more gas, mainly for power generation. This requires access to gas reserves at competitive conditions, as well as timely investment in new infrastructure to ensure a reliable gas supply. Reform has led to open markets, where supply and demand are balanced by the market. In the gas sector, supply is capacity-bound and large parts of the demand side are inelastic. The study looks at how governments and other stakeholders in IEA countries respond to the need to create a framework that enables the players to deliver secure and reliable gas supply at the border and all the way down to the final customer. This book analyses the most recent developments in security of gas supply and reliability in all IEA regions in the context of open markets and in view of the new demand and supply trends. A CD-Rom featuring the positions of the main stakeholders (governments, regulators, industry, customers and other organisations) is included with the publication. 'Security of Gas Supply in Open Markets' is a follow-up of 'Flexibility in Natural Gas Supply and Demand' in the IEA series on energy market reforms

  3. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  4. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Investment priorities ... 2010, together with a review of some developments in western Africa and insights from parts of Asia and Latin America. ...... and the Global Water Partnership (Ania Grobicki and Aurelie.

  5. European Gas Market Liberalisation. Competition versus security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, N.

    2009-01-01

    of regulatory regime on performance indicators reflecting economic and political regulatory goals such as natural gas prices, tariffs, efficiency and investment in natural gas infrastructure. In doing so, we are effectively investigating the effect of layer 3 on layer 4 in Williamson's model. The third part comprises the qualitative case studies with which we aim to move from a static to a more dynamic perspective of the regulatory process. In two case studies, we investigate whether the distribution of energy policy priorities in a multi-authority structure does influence the regulatory outcome (hypothesis 3). Next, in chapter 10, the focus switches to the revision of incentive regulation in the Netherlands, which had the aim of reducing transmission tariffs. The case study seeks to explain the shift from a revenue-cap regulation to rate-of-return regulation taking place in 2007. In chapter 11, we examine the decision by UK regulatory authorities in 2006-07 not to compel the gas industry to provide additional gas storage, which would have reduced price volatility and enhanced security of gas supply. In the concluding chapter, we summarise our main findings and answer our research questions. To facilitate this we revisit our theoretical approach and evaluate the opportunities and limitations of New Institutional Economics in general and, more specifically, Williamson's transaction cost approach in the form of the four-layer model. Following this, the empirical results of the quantitative and qualitative analyses are discussed.

  6. Evaluating the Security of the Global Containerized Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Henry H; Ortiz, David S

    2004-01-01

    The global supply chain is the network of suppliers, manufacturing centers, warehouses, distribution centers, and retail outlets that transforms raw materials into finished products and delivers them to consumers...

  7. Ecology, Economy and security of supply of the Dutch Electricity Supply System. A scenario based future analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch electricity sector has been transformed into a liberalized international energy market. Market players are free to choose from various electricity generation options when replacing or expanding production capacity. However, choices that are made now will influence emissions (ecology), integral costs (economy) and availability (security of supply) for the next 25 - 40 years. This thesis shows if and how, based on the current electricity supply system, an optimal balance of ecology, economy and security of supply can be achieved. First, the current electricity supply system is described to create a frame of reference. Then, future technological developments are described for electricity production options. Four potential scenarios are constructed featuring various uncertainties: the globalising versus the local economy; priority versus subordination for the environment; and the security/insecurity of the fuel supply. These four scenarios are worked out with a specially developed techno-economic simulation model; the results are analysed in terms of ecology, economy and security of supply. The findings indicate that it is impossible to arrive at an optimal balance for the defined scenarios. Scenarios with a low environmental impact lead to high integral costs and vice versa. However, by applying a smart combination of various modern generation technologies, CO2 capture and storage, the deployment of biomass and the re-use of residual heat it is possible to reach an optimal balance whereby the additional integral costs can be kept under control compared with the lowest-cost scenarios. To achieve this, clear growth and incentive guidelines need to be established for the various production options. This thesis will form a good starting point for that exercise

  8. Conference on the security of electricity supply: France-Germany crossed views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Antoine; Kaelble, Laure; Maurer, Christoph; Veyrenc, Thomas; Roques, Fabien; Jacquemart, Yannick; John, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR), in cooperation with the French transmission system operator - RTE, organised a conference on security of electricity supply in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 160 participants exchanged their views on the following topics: the regulatory framework and the legal instruments for ensuring the security of supply, the role of energy transmission system operators, the role of renewable energies in the electricity market and their impact on the security of supplies. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Security of supply and electricity markets (Antoine Caron); 2 - White Paper on electricity Market Design (Laure Kaelble); 3 - Security of Supply - Concept and Definition: On the Way to a Common Understanding? (Christoph Maurer); 4 - The French capacity market: lessons learnt and way forward (Thomas Veyrenc); 5 - electricity market evolutions: divergencies and compatibilities between French and German models? (Fabien Roques); 6 - Infrastructures and European coordination: action of the French transmission system operator - RTE (Yannick Jacquemart); 7 - Interconnection and Security of Supply - experiences of the German TSO Amprion at the French-German Border (Oliver John)

  9. The international trade of nuclear power plants: the supply side - 5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, F.

    2015-01-01

    The international trade of nuclear power plants is usually studied from a demand perspective. Which new countries are willing to access to this technology? How the Fukushima Daiichi catastrophe has changed the market forecasts? What risks of proliferation new entrants entail? This paper takes an opposite direction. It looks at the structure and the organising of the supply side. Which countries are the major exporters? How their ranking has changed? Is the nuclear export industry becoming a global industry? Part 1 provides a short description of the worldwide market. Surprisingly, its size is modest and the US only plays a minor role. This part also provides a view on the relationship between domestic and export markets. Part 2 discusses the industrial organization of the nuclear industry. It compares the nuclear industry with the armament industry and the oil and gas supplies and services. Part 3 concludes in analysing the conditions nuclear industry could become a global industry. (author)

  10. Supply chain model with price- and trade credit-sensitive demand under two-level permissible delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B. C.; Maiti, T.

    2013-05-01

    This article develops a single-manufacturer and single-retailer supply chain model under two-level permissible delay in payments when the manufacturer follows a lot-for-lot policy in response to the retailer's demand. The manufacturer offers a trade credit period to the retailer with the contract that the retailer must share a fraction of the profit earned during the trade credit period. On the other hand, the retailer provides his customer a partial trade credit which is less than that of the manufacturer. The demand at the retailer is assumed to be dependent on the selling price and the trade credit period offered to the customers. The average net profit of the supply chain is derived and an algorithm for finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the coordination policy of the supply chain and examine the sensitivity of key model-parameters.

  11. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  12. Developing a Comprehensive Approach Could Help DOD Better Manage National Security Risks in the Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    supply chains for rare earths.20 According to Industrial Analysis Center officials, only 10 percent of surveys sent to prime contractors for 79...the Supply Chain Report to Congressional Committees February 2016 GAO-16-161 United States Government Accountability Office United...Developing a Comprehensive Approach Could Help DOD Better Manage National Security Risks in the Supply Chain Why GAO Did This Study DOD depends on

  13. Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade. Evaluating the impact of sustainability criteria and policy on past and future bioenergy supply and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Within a single decade, bioenergy has shifted from a largely local energy source with marginal trade volumes to a globally traded item. The primary objective of this thesis is to evaluate the links between national renewable energy support and trade policies and market forces on past global

  14. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  15. VGB-congress power plants 2013. Security of supply - from challenges to solutions. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2013' took place in Masstricht/NL from September 25 to 27, 2013 under the motto 'Security of Supply - From Challenges to Solutions'. Experts from 31 countries attended the largest European congress for power and heat generation to discuss and inform about current issues. The congress comprised the sections 'Security of Supply: A Common European Challenge', 'Technical Solutions for our Future Electricity Generation', 'Operational Experience as Key Competence' and 'Thinking Ahead: Projects and Visions 2020+' where participants and lecturers dealt with the future challenges of European power supply. (orig.)

  16. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  17. Can Slovakia secure reliable electricity supply without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pnacek, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with structure of electricity production in the Slovak republic in 2006 and perspectives of electricity supply up to 2020 year. Decommissioning of Unit 1 and Unit 2 of the Bohunice NPP and completion of Unit 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP are discussed

  18. Securing innovation through a differentiated supply system : The fashion industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, Dirk-Jan F.; Steller, Daan; Kaminishi, K; Duysters, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a Situation where next to very innovative goods with short life cycles and volatile demand, rather commodity type goods are carried with more stable demand. A 'Two Lane Strategy' is described, with two different configurations of actors in the company's supply system. In each of

  19. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koech, H K [Program Manager CBP/DHS Office Number 363-6109 Cell Number 0722-774-912, Office Location: Ground Floor U.S. Embassy Nairobi (Kenya)

    2010-07-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  20. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koech, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  1. The security of gas supply-a critical issue for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Hellmuth

    2007-01-01

    Gas is competing with oil for being the dominant energy source. In electricity generation gas is to play as pivotal a role as oil in transportation. The security equation of gas and electricity become unseparably interrelated. Energy disruptions have considerable influence on the national accounts far beyond the direct cost of market participants (asymmetry). The present gas supply to the EU depends dangerously on too few sources and venues. There is a decided lack of optionality. The EU directly or through its members needs a clear proactive policy on 'Security of Gas Supply' with a strong multilateral direction. The measures developed for the oil industry over the last 30 years can at least serve as a starting point for a constructive debate. When discussing security of supply dependence it is useful to clearly define the various risks one wishes to protect against. Free riders relying on alternative fuels without participating in their security systems are not permissible

  2. 17 CFR 249.820 - Form 19b-4(e) for the listing and trading of new derivative securities products by self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and trading of new derivative securities products by self-regulatory organizations that are not deemed... listing and trading of new derivative securities products by self-regulatory organizations that are not... self-regulatory organization's listing and trading of a new derivative securities product that is not...

  3. Peak-load management, the security of supply warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Even if France owns an efficient power generation park, largely exporting and clean (90% with no CO 2 emission), it encounters some difficulties during peak-load periods. The successive peak power demand records which are recorded each year represent as many alerts about a possible collapse of the power system. In order to warrant the electricity supply, the present day regulatory framework must be changed to allow the industrial players to carry out the necessary investments

  4. System Dynamics of Polysilicon for Solar Photovoltaics: A Framework for Investigating the Energy Security of Renewable Energy Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Sandor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy, produced with widely available low-cost energy resources, is often included as a component of national strategies to address energy security and sustainability. Market and political forces cannot disrupt the sun or wind, unlike oil and gas supplies. However, the cost of renewable energy is highly dependent on technologies manufactured through global supply chains in leading manufacturing countries. The countries that contribute to the global supply chains may take actions that, directly or indirectly, influence global access to materials and components. For example, high-purity polysilicon, a key material in solar photovoltaics, has experienced significant price fluctuations, affecting the manufacturing capacity and cost of both polysilicon and solar panels. This study developed and validated an initial system dynamics framework to gain insights into global trade in polysilicon. The model represents an initial framework for exploration. Three regions were modeled—China, the United States, and the rest of the world—for a range of trade scenarios to understand the impacts of import duties and non-price drivers on the relative volumes of imports and domestic supply. The model was validated with the historical case of China imposing an import duty on polysilicon from the United States, the European Union, and South Korea, which altered the regional flows of polysilicon—in terms of imports, exports, and domestic production—to varying degrees. As expected, the model tracked how regional demand shares and influx volumes decrease as a duty on a region increases. Using 2016 as a reference point, in the scenarios examined for U.S. exports to China, each 10% increase in the import duty results in a 40% decrease in import volume. The model also indicates that, under the scenarios investigated, once a duty has been imposed on a region, the demand share from that region declines and does not achieve pre-duty levels, even as global

  5. The nature of the derivative market transactions traded in the Johannesburg securities exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankiso Moloi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to assess and understand the nature of derivative products traded in the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE by analysing daily transactions consisting of deals and contracts concluded, as well as notional values of derivatives traded in the review period. Analysed data found that the South African derivative market continues to grow and evolve with the consistent introduction of new derivative products such as the “can do” derivatives, IDX derivatives that are now being traded at the JSE. The evolvement and growth is confirmed by the fact that the total derivative deals in the JSE has also grown by 16.6% (CAGR from 2006. The study further found that the equity index remains the largest derivative for both options and futures

  6. Resource power and resource security: the politics of nonfuel minerals trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    The developed producers, Canada, Australia, and South Africa, and not the developing producers, are the power wielders and major tracers in nonfuel minerals. Specific circumstances allow producers to obtain compliant behavior from consumers. These include: exporter's market share, importer's degree of dependence, the material's being critical to importer's economy, and the trading system's condoning nonmarket goals. These (and other) criteria comprise an analytical device, the strategic trading relationship, which is used to demonstrate developed producer commodity power and developed consumer vulnerability. Consuming country governments rely on the private sector to deal with national enmeshment in strategic trading relationships. Japan excepted, OECD members fail either to address their continued access to nonfuel minerals, or their ability to survive supply disruption with minimum dislocation. Producer power is exemplified by Canada's threat and use of embargo to make her uranium customers tighten their nonproliferation policies. Structural power deters South Africa's ability to head off wholehearted economic pressure is the classic case

  7. 75 FR 15440 - Guidance for Industry on Standards for Securing the Drug Supply Chain-Standardized Numerical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Standards for Securing the Drug Supply Chain--Standardized Numerical... industry entitled ``Standards for Securing the Drug Supply Chain-Standardized Numerical Identification for... the Drug Supply Chain-Standardized Numerical Identification for Prescription Drug Packages.'' In the...

  8. The Role of Information Security Management Systems in Supply Chain Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Taghva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the researchers have emphasized on positive effect of information system on supply chain performance such as organizational processes integration, information sharing, information technology, etc. In other hand, information security management system is one of the subjects that researches considered its effects on increase accuracy and effective information exchange, access to accurate and timely information and reduce errors of information system. Since, any research has not been done on this ground (the importance of ISMS on supply chain performance. Therefore, it was felt that a research should have done on these approaches on supply chain. In this respect, current research was seeking that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance in automotive industry and this was the innovative aspect of this paper. So first of all, after the review of the information security management system literature, supply chain performance was considered by the balanced scorecard approach then the most important factors of these two subjects was extracted by correlation analysis. In this way, it was considered that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance by correlation analysis. The results showed that different dimensions of ISMS (information uniformity, prevent the human and machine mistake, information be accuracy, and rectitude and instruction for users had impact on four dimensions of supply chain performance (customers, financial, internal processes and learning and growth in three levels (strategic, technical, and operational in supply chain. At the end, it was showed that ISMS lays the ground for increase supply chain performance.

  9. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services supply and trade-offs in European wood-pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems (SES), which are the product of long-term interaction between society and its surrounding landscape. Traditionally characterized by multifunctional low-intensity management that enhanced a wide range of ecosystem services (ES), current farm management has shifted toward more intensive farm models. This study assesses the supply of ES in four study areas dominated by managed wood-pastures in Spain, Sweden, and Romania. On the basis of 144 farm surveys and the use of multivariate techniques, we characterize farm management and structure in the study areas and identify the trade-offs in ES supply associated with this management. We link these trade-offs to multiple factors that characterize the landholding: economic, social, environmental, technological, and governance. Finally, we analyze how landholders’ values and perspectives have an effect on management decisions. Results show a differentiated pattern of ES supply in the four study areas. We identified four types of trade-offs in ES supply that appear depending on what is being promoted by the farm management and that are associated with different dimensions of wood-pasture management: productivity-related trade-offs, crop production–related trade-offs, multifunctionality-related trade-offs, and farm accessibility–related trade-offs. These trade-offs are influenced by complex interactions between the properties of the SES, which have a direct influence on landholders’ perspectives and motivations. The findings of this paper advance the understanding of the dynamics between agroecosystems and society and can inform system-based agricultural and conservation policies. PMID:29732404

  10. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  11. Portland Energy Centre: Securing supply and clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    The rationale for, and benefits derivable from the proposed Portland natural gas-fired cogeneration plant, to be located beside the former Hearn power station near the Leslie Street Spit in Toronto, are discussed. The justification for and the single most important benefit promised by the proposed plant is that it could help Ontario achieve its coal phase-out target by displacing 100 per cent of the annual output of the Lakeview coal--fired power plant in Mississauga, as well as six per cent of the annual output of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant, in total supplying about 10 per cent of Toronto's electricity needs and providing steam to heat several office towers in downtown Toronto. Other benefits discussed include substantially improved air quality, reduced incidence of asthma and heart attacks, a more reliable power supply for Toronto, some 500 new jobs during construction, and 25 to 35 permanent jobs to operate the plant. The Fact Sheet also offers suggestions on how to generate political support for this project in particular and for renewable power sources in general

  12. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  13. China’s oil security from the supply chain perspective: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The development phase of China’s oil industry is detailed. • Risk to oil industry in China is identified along the supply chain. • Policy aimed at improving oil security is examined. - Abstract: Oil security has become a major issue in China. This paper analyzes China’s oil security from the supply chain perspective, as the country faces challenges from an increasing reliance on imported oil, a fast-growing economy, the Malacca dilemma, and volatile international oil prices. To clarify the issue of oil security, we first review the development phase of China’s oil industry and previous research related to its energy security. Then a framework from the supply chain perspective is constructed to identify the current risk from three aspects: energy flow, financial and environmental. Finally, policies aimed at improving the country’s energy security are examined and potential problems presented. From this analysis, we conclude that the potential risk arising from China’s oil system is inherently interconnected. There is still great potential for the country to improve oil security by strengthening its strategic oil reserves, improving energy efficiency, and developing its domestic oil tanker fleet

  14. Walk the Talk: Progress in Building a Supply Chain Security Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to “go beyond compliance” for over a decade in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods, technology, and information along their supply chains. From conducting this work, PNNL identified indicators that a company can adopt as part of its commitment to nonproliferation ideals with a focus on supply chain security.

  15. Impact of market forces on security of supply; Markedsgoerelse af forsyningssikkerhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jakobsen, H.; Kromann, M.T.; Hoermann, M. (and others)

    2010-05-15

    Marketisation of security of supply can result in efficiency in the overall energy system and cost savings for end users. The analyses show that savings may be gained, particularly in connection with the part of security of supply which is about sufficiency. With modern metering and communication equipment, it is realistic that all consumers have the opportunity to express an upper limit on the price of electricity. In the near future, selected consumption may be turned off at extremely high prices. Those parts of the security of supply, that relates to local networks and that are of the nature of a collective benefit, may be more difficult to make market-oriented. There is, however, already some marketisation, as firms with particularly critical use of electricity invest in backup power plants. The report describes methods for the regulation of grid companies, including cost control, which gives them an incentive to balance the investment in improvements to the security of supply against the cost. Marketisation of security of supply can be done in several steps. Here the following steps are analyzed: a) Cost visibility and reduction; b) Establishment of level of security of supply based on consumer preferences (cost of losses); c) Security of supply varying between consumers, duration and timing; d) Individual level of security of supply. It is at present generally difficult to judge how many of these steps it is appropriate to take. 3 simplistic cases are made of power reserves, transmission and distribution, which indicate how the costs of security of supply can be weighed against advantages. In all three cases it is concluded that supply element has costs for the consumers, but in a magnitude which might well be justified in relation to the benefits. The level of detail in the cases does not, however, justify actual conclusions about the relationship between costs and benefits. It is confirmed in this project through model analysis that savings can be achieved

  16. Walk the Talk: Progress in Building a Supply Chain Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to ''go beyond compliance'' for over a decade in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods, technology, and information along their supply chains. From conducting this work, PNNL identified indicators that a company can adopt as part of its commitment to nonproliferation ideals with a focus on supply chain security.

  17. The significance of interconnector counter-trading in a security constrained electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.; Li, K.; Devlin, J.; Foley, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union there is an increasing amount of wind generation being dispatched-down due to the binding of power system operating constraints from high levels of wind generation. This paper examines the impact a system non-synchronous penetration limit has on the dispatch-down of wind and quantifies the significance of interconnector counter-trading to the priority dispatching of wind power. A fully coupled economic dispatch and security constrained unit commitment model of the Single Electricity Market of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangement was used in this study. The key finding was interconnector counter-trading reduces the impact the system non-synchronous penetration limit has on the dispatch-down of wind. The capability to counter-trade on the interconnectors and an increase in system non-synchronous penetration limit from 50% to 55% reduces the dispatch-down of wind by 311 GW h and decreases total electricity payments to the consumer by €1.72/MW h. In terms of the European Union electricity market integration, the results show the importance of developing individual electricity markets that allow system operators to counter-trade on interconnectors to ensure the priority dispatch of the increasing levels of wind generation. - Highlights: • Interconnector counter-trading reduces the system marginal price in the SEM. • Dispatch-down of wind power is reduced due to interconnector counter-trading. • A 5% increase in the SNSP limit can reduce wind power dispatched-down by 50%. • An increase in the SNSP limit and installed wind capacity reduces the SMP.

  18. TRANSPETRO gas security of supply program; Programa de confiabilidade de suprimento de gas natural da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Gas Security of Supply Program that is being implemented at TRANSPETRO since 2002. It includes the application of the state of the art techniques and models related to reliability engineering. The main objective of the program is to evaluate and optimize overall gas network performance and to provide gas to different consumers (industrial, residential, thermo-plants and vehicles) in compliance with stated reliability levels. Heavy fines will be applied to PETROBRAS in case of occurrence of shortfalls. We hope that this paper can contribute to a wider discussion about this subject of performance indicators involving security of supply, safety and environment preservation. (author)

  19. INTERDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF A SMALL COUNTRY: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juozaitis, R.; Bacauskas, A.

    2007-07-01

    In the report there are described the circumstances of operation of Lithuanian power system. A common plan of the Baltic power companies to build a new nuclear power plant is discussed. The report elaborates on the plans of necessary interconnections for integration of the Baltic power systems into the EU electricity market, ensuring security of supply in the Baltic region and availability to install efficient bigger capacity generation units in power stations. The experience of Lithuania demonstrates that interdependence in power sector is an advantage in maintaining security of electricity supply. (auth)

  20. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  1. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  2. Effects of renewables penetration on the security of Portuguese electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, João Pedro; Dias, Luís; Martins, Inês; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the importance of the electricity sector in energy security in Portugal. • We compare energy security indicators for 2004 and 2011. • Strong wind penetration has an important role on the country energy security. • Infrastructure is the weaker component in electricity sector supply chain. - Abstract: The increase of renewables in power sector, together with the increase of their electricity share in final energy consumption, is changing our perception about energy security with diverse and contradictory statements. The Portuguese security of electricity supply is analyzed in this study by comparing selected indicators for 2 years before and after the high increase of onshore wind since 2005. Our goal is to find how the security of electricity supply was impacted by the penetration of renewables, taking a supply chain approach. Our analysis highlights that the penetration of renewables has decreased the energy dependence of the power sector by more than 20% between 2004 and 2011, while risks related to the concentration of natural gas suppliers and to the still-high share of fossil fuels suffering from price volatility are discussed. We observed a significant improvement in power interconnections with Spain, as well as an increase of the de-rated generation capacity margin, allowing proper management of renewable power intermittency if necessary, thereby improving power security. Although the share of intermittent renewables almost quadrupled in total installed capacity between those years, the indicators reveal an improvement in the quality of transport and distribution when delivering electricity to end-users. Although electricity prices increased, mainly due to taxes, the lack of energy efficiency is an aspect deserving improvement to alleviate the pressure on electricity security, mainly at high peak demands

  3. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in

  4. Value of Lost Load: An Efficient Economic Indicator for Power Supply Security? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Thomas, E-mail: t.schroeder@fz-juelich.de; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-24

    Security of electricity supply has become a fundamental requirement for well-functioning modern societies. Because of its central position in all sections of society, the present paper considers the economic consequences of a power supply interruption. The value of lost load (VoLL) is a monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply. This paper reviews different methods for calculating VoLL, provides an overview of recently published studies, and presents suggestions to increase the explanatory power and international comparability of VoLL.

  5. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  6. Security of Supply in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Sebastian

    2005-06-01

    This paper discusses the experience with an energy-only market in Australia, focusing on investment and price outcomes since market commencement. Looking back at the changes in the market since it commenced in 1998, it is fair to say that the energy-only market design has been a success so far. Demand has increased steadily, but this has been matched with new investment in generation and networks. The availability and efficiency of existing plant has also increased substantially. As a result of these gains, prices have come down and are less volatile, and the reliability and security of the market has been consolidated. Compared with 1989-90, the industry delivered more electricity (an increase of 45 per cent), to more customers (an increase of 26 per cent), and with less than half the number of employees. Industrial and residential energy users have enjoyed decreased prices, thanks to a combination of increased generation and network investment, and greater competition. Despite these successes, there is scope for further reform of the NEM to aid further improvements in the market's performance. We have seen how successful the energy-only market has been in signalling new investment in peaking generation, but there is still a question as to the effectiveness of the market in signalling baseload investment. In any case, future challenges will involve ensuring that market arrangements are conducive to new investment. Indeed, following recent reviews of the Australian energy market by Australian statutory bodies, there is a consensus view that the further reform is required to improve investment signals. The 2002 Review of Australian Energy Markets recommended structural reform of the New South Wales electricity industry and the removal of ETEF. In February this year, the Productivity Commission recommended disaggregation of the generation sector in New South Wales, and took the further step of recommending that the New South Wales government should consider

  7. A trade-based method for modelling supply markets in consequential LCA exemplified with Portland cement and bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a method based on the analysis of trade networks over time for modelling the marginal supply of products in consequential life cycle assessment (LCA). It aims at increasing the geographical granularity of markets, accuracy of transport distances and modes and material losses d...

  8. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, Chloe [SITE, Stockholm School of Economics, P.O. Box 6501, Stockholm 11383 (Sweden); Paltseva, Elena [Department of Economics, Copenhagen University, Oester Farimagsgade 5, Building 26, 1353 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  9. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States' levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy. (author)

  10. Legal basis and administrative departments for securing and guaranteeing the energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besslich, W.

    1979-01-01

    The headline is no game with the words. It distinguishes between the securing of the supply in times of peace and the guarantee in times of defense during war which is a popular topic again and follows a linguistic term by the Bundesrat of 1915 which was kept alive up to day. (orig.) [de

  11. Security concerns in the Middle East for oil supply: Problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Samil [Istanbul Univ., Dept. of Geology, Istanbul (Turkey); Babali, Tuncay [Houston Univ., Dept. of Political Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Comprising 65-70% of the world's oil reserves, the Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Qatar) are key countries for the solutions to the energy supply matters of the world. Free flow of oil to the world markets from Gulf region is an indispensable part of the major security issues. The Middle East has had mainly security related problems such as Arab-Israeli wars and conflicts, Arab-Iranian war and conflicts, Arab-Arab war and conflicts, US-Gulf wars and conflicts and more recently radicalism and terrorist attacks. Energy supply security requires the enhancement of the peace and cooperation between countries instead of competition. Preventive policy approaches are more suitable to address energy supply matters. Preventive strategy might be possible with the active participation of NATO within the 'out of area' type operations to the Middle East and quite possibly indirectly to the Asia-Pacific regions. Religious and ethnic radicalism and terrorist attacks has also direct effects over oil supply security matters. (Author)

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.507-3 - Purchase of security equipment from Federal Supply Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase of security... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.507-3 Purchase of...

  13. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop

  14. Security of supply during the energy transition : The role of capacity mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhagwat, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    The push for clean energy has caused a rapid growth of renewables in the electricity supply mix of the EU. Although one would assume that the impact of these technologies is entirely positive, recent research and experience indicate that there is reason for concern namely regarding the security of

  15. Security concerns in the Middle East for oil supply: Problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Samil; Babali, Tuncay

    2007-01-01

    Comprising 65-70% of the world's oil reserves, the Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Qatar) are key countries for the solutions to the energy supply matters of the world. Free flow of oil to the world markets from Gulf region is an indispensable part of the major security issues. The Middle East has had mainly security related problems such as Arab-Israeli wars and conflicts, Arab-Iranian war and conflicts, Arab-Arab war and conflicts, US-Gulf wars and conflicts and more recently radicalism and terrorist attacks. Energy supply security requires the enhancement of the peace and cooperation between countries instead of competition. Preventive policy approaches are more suitable to address energy supply matters. Preventive strategy might be possible with the active participation of NATO within the 'out of area' type operations to the Middle East and quite possibly indirectly to the Asia-Pacific regions. Religious and ethnic radicalism and terrorist attacks has also direct effects over oil supply security matters

  16. Security of Gas Supply in the Countries of the Visegrád Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tarnawski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of efforts on the part of the European Union to promote renewable sources of energy, conventional resources such as oil, natural gas and coal still dominate in individual EU energy mixes. With the rising costs of resources, their uneven distribution and limited supply, each state is busy trying to ensure its energy security. Secure and stable supply of energy resources has becoming the main preoccupation, especially in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Over the recent years, the Visegrád Group states have made particularly intensive efforts to ensure their supply of natural gas. The unstable political situation in the east of Europe as well as changes in natural gas markets (shale gas revolution in the USA, increased importance of LNG gave rise to new challenges when it comes to ensuring gas security, but also new opportunities to become independent of eastern imports. It is precisely the fact of being dependent on natural gas imported from Russia that determines the situation of Visegrád Group states. The present paper tries to analyse the situation in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary in terms of security of their natural gas supply.

  17. Addressing the supply security of the nuclear fuel cycle: a US merchant generator risk acceptance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R. P.; Benavides, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    With the current rising markets across the nuclear fuel supply spectrum, understanding and managing nuclear fuel cycle supply security risk becomes an increasingly important consideration. In addressing this area, Constellation Energy is implementing an integrated multifaceted approach as consistent with a comprehensive risk profile covering the nuclear fuel supply industry. This approach is founded on use of a utility traditional procurement strategy, as dependent on the qualitative parameters of supply origination diversification, geopolitical stability, contracting duration and individual supplier financial bases. However, Constellation also adds an additional consideration into development of this nuclear fuel supply risk profile. To do such, qualitative assessments covering specific supplier risks, as based on the parameters of supplier management and organizational structure, design capacities (applicable to fabrication and enrichment only), operational history as applicable to forward-looking performance, regulatory or legal history and financial performance are also considered. Constellation overlays the risks of future availabilities, catastrophic occurrences and prices for each nuclear fuel material and service component onto a quantitative set of results. The overall focus of these assessments is the creation of a risk management perspective directed towards determining the potential loss or delay of nuclear fuel supply for our operating reactors. The conclusion of this effort is an integrated assessment of the nuclear fuel supply security as applicable to the Constellation-specific structured risk profile. Use of this assessment allows Constellation to target appropriate suppliers of interest in the marketplace and form the fundamental bases for the Constellation procurement strategy while managing risks associated with nuclear fuel cycle supply security. (authors)

  18. Technology scale and supply chains in a secure, affordable and low carbon energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy systems need to decarbonise, provide security and remain affordable. • There is uncertainty over which technologies will best enable this to happen. • A strategy to deal with uncertainty is to assess a technologies ability to show resilience, flexibility and adaptability. • Scale is important and smaller scale technologies are like to display the above characteristics. • Smaller scale technologies are therefore more likely to enable a sustainable, secure, and affordable energy transition. - Abstract: This research explores the relationship between technology scale, energy security and decarbonisation within the UK energy system. There is considerable uncertainty about how best to deliver on these goals for energy policy, but a focus on supply chains and their resilience can provide useful insights into the problems uncertainty causes. Technology scale is central to this, and through an analysis of the supply chains of nuclear power and solar photovoltaics, it is suggested that smaller scale technologies are more likely to support and enable a secure, low carbon energy transition. This is because their supply chains are less complex, show more flexibility and adaptability, and can quickly respond to changes within an energy system, and as such they are more resilient than large scale technologies. These characteristics are likely to become increasingly important in a rapidly changing energy system, and prioritising those technologies that demonstrate resilience, flexibility and adaptability will better enable a transition that is rapid, sustainable, secure and affordable

  19. Probabilistic modelling of security of supply in gas networks and evaluation of new infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praks, Pavel; Kopustinskas, Vytis; Masera, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a probabilistic model to study security of supply in a gas network. The model is based on Monte-Carlo simulations with graph theory, and is implemented in the software tool ProGasNet. The software allows studying gas networks in various aspects including identification of weakest links and nodes, vulnerability analysis, bottleneck analysis, evaluation of new infrastructure etc. In this paper ProGasNet is applied to a benchmark network based on a real EU gas transmission network of several countries with the purpose of evaluating the security of supply effects of new infrastructure, either under construction, recently completed or under planning. The probabilistic model enables quantitative evaluations by comparing the reliability of gas supply in each consuming node of the network. - Highlights: • A Monte-Carlo algorithm for stochastic flow networks is presented. • Network elements can fail according to a given probabilistic model. • Priority supply pattern of gas transmission networks is assumed. • A real-world EU gas transmission network is presented and analyzed. • A risk ratio is used for security of supply quantification of a new infrastructure.

  20. Security of Supply of Hydrocarbonates and Differences in Approach to the Issue Definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.

    2006-01-01

    Security of Supply became an issue during the First World War when First Lord of Admiralty, W. Churchill, decided to modernize the Navy by replacing coal with oil as a propelling fuel for ships. Crude oil that arrived from the then Persia opened up the question of Security. First Lord of Admiralty defined it in the following way: S afety and certainty in oil lie in variety and variety alone... . This concept of diversification of supply became topical again during the oil crises in 1973. It is topical even today as the world faces disruptions in supply caused by war intervention in Iraq, Al-Qaeda terrorist threats, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico or difficulties in natural gas supply caused by disputes between Russia and Ukraine. The important element of security of supply is the own oil and gas production from domestic fields or foreign concessions. The countries that have their own oil industry regard highly the strategic importance of their own reserves. Private ownership of shares in oil companies or sources of capital does not diminish this strategic importance. Participation of renewable energy sources is important not only for environmental protection but for mitigating dependence on energy imports. Croatian energy strategy should be adjusted to new challenges and conditions on the energy market, taking also into account the relevant EU regulations.(author)

  1. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility; Sicherheit der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Das Spannungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  2. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  3. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbrial, T. de [Areva, Paris (France); Moore, P. [Greenspirit Strategies Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Cambell, N. [Greenpeace (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming.

  4. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, T. de; Moore, P.; Cambell, N.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming

  5. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  6. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  7. Cartel law as an instrument for ensuring security of energy supply; Kartellrecht als Instrument der sicheren Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Internationales Privatrecht und Rechtsvergleichung

    2007-07-01

    The title of this paper - cartel law as an instrument for ensuring security of supply - may seem surprising to some. After all, the concepts of security of supply and cartel law are generally viewed as conflicting with one another, as when prohibitive or interdictive norms of cartel law are restricted or suspended in the name of ensuring security of supply. The title implies that there is also another perspective on this relationship, namely that cartel is geared to the goal of maintaining a viable competitive environment. To the extent that competition serves the purpose of ensuring consumers' greatest possible security of supply, even though this may not be its only purpose, any economic system that is driven by competition will also work towards ensuring the security of the energy supply. Seen from this perspective the paper's title is aptly worded, speaking of security of supply through competition rather than through its (justified) restriction. The creation of a European internal energy market in which energy resources are offered and demanded across borders will contribute to ensuring the security of the energy supply. To the extent that cartel law acts towards keeping markets open and safeguarding competition it will also serve the purpose of ensuring security of supply. This applies in particular in cases where contractual bonds act as a repellent, preventing other suppliers from entering the market and thus also counteracting the diversification of buying sources.

  8. Land management influences trade-offs and the total supply of ecosystem services in alpine grassland in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junxi; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Chengqun; Luo, Liming; Pan, Ying

    2017-05-15

    Developing sustainable use patterns for alpine grassland in Tibet is the primary challenge related to conserving these vulnerable ecosystems of the 'world's third pole' and guaranteeing the well-being of local inhabitants. This challenge requires researchers to think beyond the methods of most current studies that are limited to a single aspect of conservation or productivity, and focus on balancing various needs. An analysis of trade-offs involving ecosystem services provides a framework that can be used to quantify the type of balancing needed. In this study, we measured variations in four types of ecosystem services under five types of grassland management including grazing exclusion, sowing, combined plowing and grazing exclusion, combined plowing and sowing, and natural grassland, from 2013 to 2015. In addition, we accessed the existence and changing patterns of ecosystem service trade-offs using Spearman coefficients and a trade-off index. The results revealed the existence of trade-offs among provisioning and regulating services. Plowing and sowing could convert the trade-off relationships into synergies immediately. Grazing exclusion reduced the level of trade-offs gradually over time. Thus, the combined plowing and sowing treatment promoted the total supply of multiple ecosystem services when compared with natural grassland. We argue that the variations in dry matter allocation to above- and belowground serve as one cause of the variation in trade-off relationships. Another cause for variation in trade-offs is the varied species competition between selection effects and niche complementarity. Our study provides empirical evidence that the effects of trade-offs among ecosystem services could be reduced and even converted into synergies by optimizing management techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal trade-offs between energy efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    the improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, little attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables share) are unbalanced. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate...... international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along with a review of tools adopted for the analyses. The models are categorized...... trade-off between renewables and energy efficiency measures in energy-systems under different objectives....

  10. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.abada@polytechnique.edu [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); EDF Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris Ouest (France); Massol, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.massol@ifpen.fr [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: > We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. > Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. > Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. > Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. > Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization reasons.

  11. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: → We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. → Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. → Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. → Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. → Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization

  12. Effects of cross-border power trade between Laos and Thailand: Energy security and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of hydropower development in Laos and power trade between Laos and Thailand on economy wide, energy resource mix, power generation capacity mix, energy system cost, environment, as well as, energy security. A MARKAL-based model for an integrated energy system of Laos and Thailand was developed to assess the effects of energy resource development and trade to meet the national energy demands of the two countries. Two national MARKAL-based energy system models of Laos and Thailand were formulated for the study. The results show that 80% exploitation of water resource in Laos would induce power trade between the countries. The integrated energy system cost is found to decrease marginally but it would mitigate the CO 2 emission by 2% when compared with the base case. Thailand is expected to gain benefit from the increased level of power imported from Laos in terms of the lower energy system cost, better environmental quality and, greater diversification of energy sources. As compared to the base case, Laos would become the net energy exporter, earn significant export revenue, and improve the increase in revenue of energy export per increase in total energy system cost from the maximum exploitation of hydropower resource.

  13. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  14. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  15. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  16. Walk the Talk: How PNNL is developing a Supply Chain Security Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Center for Global Security

    2015-09-30

    For the past decade, a team at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to “go beyond compliance” in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices in order to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods and information along their supply chains. As a result, PNNL has identified seven indicators that a company can adopt as part of their commitment to nonproliferation ideals.

  17. Walk the Talk: How PNNL is developing a Supply Chain Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    For the past decade, a team at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has engaged industry to ''go beyond compliance'' in controlling and securing their supply chains to ensure their goods are not diverted to nuclear weapons programs. This work has focused on dual-use industries that manufacture products that can be used in both commercial applications and in the development of a nuclear weapon. The team encourages industry to self-regulate to reduce proliferation risks. As part of that work, PNNL interviewed numerous companies about their compliance practices in order to understand their business and to build awareness around best practices to ensure security of goods and information along their supply chains. As a result, PNNL has identified seven indicators that a company can adopt as part of their commitment to nonproliferation ideals.

  18. How to Secure UPS Operation And Supply of Safety Critical Load During Abnormal Conditions in Upstream Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Gert; Kissling, Silvan; Laaser, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    UPS system design margins are usually given by manufacturer, but the events in Forsmark showed that these margins are not sufficient to protect UPS equipment and secure supply to critical loads. To withstand such events, it is not enough just to define margins for particular equipment. The overall plant design including environmental influences must be taken into consideration. For extreme environmental conditions, a UPS must include protection which design is matching to the upstream plant equipment. Immunity against abnormal conditions can not be finally guaranteed by higher margins. A limitation that excludes such influences must be implemented into the design. This presentation discusses possibilities to specify design margins, for rectifiers and inverters based on GUTOR thyristor and IGBT technology. It shows protection features to resist and solutions to limit overvoltages. (authors)

  19. The Anatomy of Digital Trade Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukanova, Boriana; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In global supply chains information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The introduction of digital trade infrastructures (DTI) that transcend organizational and systems domains is driven by the prospect of reducing this information fragmentation......, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in trade process. To understand the problem at hand and build cumulative knowledge about its resolution a way to conceptualize the different digital trade infrastructure initiatives is needed. This paper develops the Digital Trade Infrastructure Framework...

  20. Trade-offs between wood supply and caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McKenney

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou habitat management in northwestern Ontario is a complex spatial problem. The Strategic Forest Management Model (SFMM, a linear programming PC-based planning tool being developed in Ontario, was used to examine the impacts of alternative management strategies on caribou habitat. The management alternatives investigated included the cessation of timber management and maximising the present value of wood production without any explicit concern (in the model for caribou. Three major findings are worth noting: 1 trying to maintain prime caribou habitat within active Forest Management Units will come at a cost to wood supply but the cost will depend on the absolute amount of area affected and the spatial configuration of that land in relation to mills. The cost of maintaining caribou habitat in one management unit at a level about 25 000 hectares is roughly $324 000 per year (about 3 cents for each Ontario resident. The imposition of an even-flow constraint on wood production is in fact potentially more costly; 2 Given the region is heavily dominated by spruce aged 90 years and over, forest succession and fire disturbance will likely cause large declines in prime caribou habitat in the near to medium term (20 to 40 years even if no timber harvesting occurs; 3 The complexities of the trade-offs in this resource management problem highlight the limitations of any single modelling tool to satisfactorily address all issues. Planners need to take advantage of a wide range of analytical techniques to quantify the issues and formulate integrated policies.

  1. Proceedings of the 1999 natural gas lookout and strategies forum : Price and supply outlook, trading and purchasing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 17 papers were presented at this conference, all of them devoted to a discussion of marketing strategies and price and supply outlook within the natural gas industry in North America. The presentations provided a practical and analytical look at where natural gas prices were heading. They also described winning trading and purchasing strategies. The challenges posed by the deregulation and the expected competition in the natural gas industry in North America also received much attention. tabs., figs

  2. Security of supply on the electricity market. Report of a working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The shift from a regulated electricity market to open competitive electricity markets has been fast in Finland. Finland together with Sweden, Norway and partly also Denmark form a common market area where the internal trade in electricity has markedly increased. Partly as a result of this, the share of net import in our electricity consumption has increased. The low price level on the Nordic market has contributed to an increased import of electricity to Finland. The generally clearly increased production of hydroelectric power together with the functioning principles of the Nordic electricity exchange have lead to a situation where the competitive position of indigenous electricity, especially that from condensing power, has become more difficult. In Finland, several condensing power plants have, accordingly, been closed and the trend seems to continue. Similar development has taken place also in Sweden and Denmark. In the current market situation, the decisions upon investment in the construction of new power plants have further been postponed until later. Because the economic interest of the market players in maintaining slow reserve capacity has been reduced in the current market situation, there is concern whether the market is able to guarantee the security of electricity supply in all circumstances with varying demand taking also account of possible long-term malfunction of power plants or disturbances in the import of electricity or gas. Sweden and Norway are besides Finland net importers of electricity in normal hydrological years. Of the Nordic countries, only Denmark is able to balance the Nordic demand for electricity in case of a poor hydrological year. The price level on the electricity market is expected to remain low still for years. Building new capacity during the coming few years seems unlikely in all Nordic countries. The increased consumption of electricity as a result of economic growth and the reduction in capacity will however lead to a

  3. Composite indicators for security of energy supply using ordered weighted averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costescu Badea, Anca; Rocco S, Claudio M.; Tarantola, Stefano; Bolado, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use an aggregation rule derived from the Group Decision Theory, and based on the ranks of a set of individual indicators, for building a family of composite indicators for the security of energy supply. This family of composite indicators depends on a parameter associated with the risk-averse level of the decision maker, which can hence vary continuously from risk-prone to risk-averse. It represents a valuable and objective instrument to evaluate the degree of security of energy supply of different countries without entering into controversial matters related to the choice of the weights. This methodology can be used to aggregate either ranks or normalized values of the individual indicators. We apply it to a set of individual indicators, accounting for different dimensions of the security of supply and derived from the outputs of an energy system model. We study the evolution in time of the countries' performances, as well as the propagation of the uncertainties associated with the individual indicators to the composite. We also studied the robustness of such composite indicators with respect to the risk-averse level.

  4. Energy planning and security of supply in Spain and their compliance with the European legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolader, J.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity and gas markets in Spain were liberalized by the 1997 Electricity Act and the 1998 Hydrocarbons Act, respectively. The final step of the liberalization process was completed in January 2003 with the full eligibility of Spanish electricity and gas consumers. The liberalization Acts include in addition a two-way long-term energy planning process within a ten-year time scope. On the one hand the planning process involves binding planning concerning the so called 'basic infrastructures' (which include the electricity and gas transmission networks plus the total re-gasification capacity), and on the other hand, an indicative energy planning aimed at facilitating the decision making of administrations and agents by forecasting energy demand, and analyzing its coverage under the premises of security of supply. The present paper describes the current energy planning system in Spain, the provisions to ensure the security of supply and their compliance with the new European legislation - both the proposed and the existent one - regarding the security of supply in the EU.(author)

  5. A critical assessment of the different approaches aimed to secure electricity generation supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, C.; Rodilla, P. [Technological Research Institute, Pontifical University of Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism. (author)

  6. A critical assessment of the different approaches aimed to secure electricity generation supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, C.; Rodilla, P.

    2010-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism.

  7. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  8. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  9. [Design and implementation of supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines supply in national essential medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang

    2017-11-01

    The supply of Chinese patent medicine is influenced by the price of raw materials (Chinese herbal medicines) and the stock of resources. On the one hand, raw material prices show cyclical volatility or even irreversible soaring, making the price of Chinese patent medicine is not stable or even the highest cost of hanging upside down. On the other hand, due to lack of resources or disable some of the proprietary Chinese medicine was forced to stop production. Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment, the supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines in national essential medicines has realized the dynamic monitoring and intelligence warning of herbs and Chinese patent medicine by connecting and integrating the database of Chinese medicine resources, the dynamic monitoring system of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the basic medicine database of Chinese patent medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Households' willingness to pay for safeguarding security of natural gas supply in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damigos, D.; Tourkolias, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a major issue for all EU Member States due to Europe's increasing dependence on imported fossil-fuel sources and the continuous rise in energy demand. The latter is of particular importance in electricity sector given the continuously increasing use of gas for electricity generation. In order to properly tackle with the problem, concerted actions are required by the EU Member States in several levels, i.e. legislative, political, etc. Nevertheless, these actions will come at an additional cost paid by the society either through increased electricity bills or through public financing for energy security investments. Thus, such policies should be justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis. Towards this direction, it may be necessary to take into account non-market costs and benefits, i.e. the value that consumers place on interruptions avoided. In order to explore households' perceptions and willingness to pay for securing gas supply for electricity production, an empirical study was conducted by means of the contingent valuation method. The results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium on their electricity bills in order to internalize the external costs of electricity production, in terms of energy security, which are caused from imported fuels. (author)

  11. Present state and problems of the measures for securing stable supply of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumishige

    1982-01-01

    The long-term stable supply of uranium resources must be secured in order to accelerate the development and utilization of nuclear power in Japan. All uranium required in Japan is imported from foreign countries, and depends on small number of suppliers. On the use of uranium, various restrictions have been imposed by bilateral agreements from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation policy. At present, the demand-supply relation in uranium market is not stringent, but in the latter half of 1980s, it is feared that it will be stringent. The prospect of the demand and supply of uranium resources, the state of securing uranium resources, the present policy on uranium resources, the necessity of establishing the new policy, and the active promotion of uranium resource measures are described. The measures to be taken are the promotion of exploration and development of mines, the participation in the management of such foreign projects, the promotion of diversifying the supply sources, the establishment of the structure to accept uranium resources, the promotion of the storage of uranium, and the rearrangement of general coordination and promotion functions for uranium resource procurement. (Kako, I.)

  12. Measuring energy security: Trends in the diversification of oil and natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gail; Joutz, Frederick; Loungani, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence on one facet of energy security in OECD economies-the extent of diversification in sources of oil and natural gas supplies. Viewed from the perspective of the energy-importing countries as a whole, there has not been much change in diversification in oil supplies over the last decade, but diversification in sources of natural gas supplies has increased steadily. We document the considerable cross-country heterogeneity in the extent of diversification. We also show how the extent of diversification changes if account is taken of the political risk attached to suppliers; the size of the importing country; and transportation risk. - Highlights: → Global diversification is constant but large differences exist among countries. → Political risk and distance have large impacts on diversity measures. → Size has little impact on diversity measures. → France, US, and UK show low vulnerability for both fuels. → Smaller European countries show high vulnerability for both fuels.

  13. Security of energy supply. Facts and possibilities for action; Energiesicherheit. Fakten und Handlungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Juergen-Friedrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEK), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE); Rath-Nagel, Stefan

    2015-04-15

    The energy infrastructure of a country has a decisive influence on the standard of living there, the competitiveness of its economy and its inner political stability. In the debate about the energy transition in Germany attention is primarily being focused on the future energy mix and how it might change, but in particular on the technical challenges involved as well as the costs of the transition as a whole. Given the growing instability that will arise in the electricity networks in the process of transition, as well as the problems that could occur with the supply of natural gas as a result of the Ukraine crisis, the issue of security of energy supply in Germany (as well as Europe) needs to be addressed anew: Is the energy supply at risk? What sources are available at home and abroad, and what leeway is there for changing the procurement mix?.

  14. Standard for supply security. A minimum standard to guarantee the balance between electricity demand and supply for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Van Werven, M.J.N.; Seebregts, A.J.; Poort, J.P.; De Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.E.

    2004-05-01

    The development and use of a minimum reliability standard in the Dutch electricity market to guarantee an adequate balance between electricity demand and supply in the longer term are discussed. This standard can be based on the duration of a power outage and the related costs for society relative to the costs to prevent the power outage. The reliability standard can be translated in an adequacy standard when the reliability of foreign electricity supply to the Dutch market is taken into account. With a theoretical analysis and an assessment of the use of standards in foreign electricity markets and other sectors this study provides a survey of the use of standards in securing public interests. In electricity markets reliability standards can be used obligatory or only to inform market participants of the adequacy of supply preferred by consumers. If no standard is used, the market should rely on the economic incentives provided by contracts and liability. This study proposes to use a reliability standard for calculating the required generation capacity in an ex-ante market analysis using different future scenarios. On the basis of several market indicators, expected market developments can be monitored. Assessment of the market developments relative to the required generation capacity will give a signal to market participants with respect to the expected adequacy in the longer term (7 to 10 years). The assessment and the resulting signal should help to improve market transparency and assist producers, suppliers and consumers in their decisions towards an effective and efficient response on long-term market developments. Market monitoring results can be used by the government to take specific action, if necessary, to reduce barriers to invest. However, more general policy measures should not be linked to the monitoring results since this could provoke strategic behaviour [nl

  15. Security of supply in liberated electricity markets - key issues and experiences in OECD countries (work in progress)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridbaek, Ulrik

    2005-06-01

    Security of supply of electricity could in principle refer to any parts of the value chain from fuel input to delivery of electricity to the final costumer with the expected quality. Concerns about security of supply are usually focused on three aspects: Timely and adequate supply of the input fuel for electricity generation is a prerequisite - security of energy supply. There has to be timely and adequate infrastructure in place to transform the input fuel into electricity and transport it to the final costumer - adequacy of generation and transmission capacity. Finally, it is an operational challenge to make the electricity system work and deliver at the expected quality - secure operation of the electricity system. Security of supply becomes relevant in a policy context from concerns about market failures in any parts of the value chain or, indeed, from the perspective that policy will set the framework for markets to serve as an instrument to secure the supply. This paper discusses some of the experiences with security of supply concerns and market failures in these three basic segments of the value chain; fuel input, adequate generation and transmission capacity and secure operation of the system, with an emphasis on the role of the market to serve as an efficient instrument. In the aftermath of the large black outs of electricity systems in North America, Italy and Sweden/Denmark IEA initiated a project on 'Transmission Reliability and Power System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets'. The results of this work will be published towards the end of 2005. After a decade with liberalised electricity markets in some pioneer regions, IEA now also finds it timely to analyse some of the lessons in a forthcoming publication. Recent and ongoing IEA-work thereby covers all the main aspects of security of supply. This paper summarises the key findings and messages, with a focus on the work in progress on lessons from liberalisation

  16. Biomass Supply and Trade Opportunities of Preprocessed Biomass for Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Junginger, M.; Klemm, M.; Schipfer, F.; Thrän, D.

    2016-01-01

    International trade of solid biomass is expected to increase significantly given the global distribution of biomass resources and anticipated expansion of bioenergy deployment in key global power markets. Given the unique characteristics of biomass, its long-distance trade requires optimized

  17. An analysis of security price risk and return among publicly traded pharmacy corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Adrienne M; Skrepnek, Grant H

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been subject to intense and increasing competition in the past several decades. To determine the security price risk and rate of return of publicly traded pharmacy corporations present on the major U.S. stock exchanges from 1930 to 2009. The Center of Research in Security Prices (CRSP) database was used to examine monthly security-level stock market prices in this observational retrospective study. The primary outcome of interest was the equity risk premium, with analyses focusing upon financial metrics associated with risk and return based upon modern portfolio theory (MPT) including: abnormal returns (i.e., alpha), volatility (i.e., beta), and percentage of returns explained (i.e., adjusted R(2)). Three equilibrium models were estimated using random-effects generalized least squares (GLS): 1) the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM); 2) Fama-French Three-Factor Model; and 3) Carhart Four-Factor Model. Seventy-five companies were examined from 1930 to 2009, with overall adjusted R(2) values ranging from 0.13 with the CAPM to 0.16 with the Four-Factor model. Alpha was not significant within any of the equilibrium models across the entire 80-year time period, though was found from 1999 to 2009 in the Three- and Four-Factor models to be associated with a large, significant, and negative risk-adjusted abnormal returns of -33.84%. Volatility varied across specific time periods based upon the financial model employed. This investigation of risk and return within publicly listed pharmacy corporations from 1930 to 2009 found that substantial losses were incurred particularly from 1999 to 2009, with risk-adjusted security valuations decreasing by one-third. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing U.S. National Security: The Case for Hemispheric Free Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    and trade and relations with the hemisphere. Part III takes a closer look at the President’s free trade proposal, examining the pros and cons . In Part...objectives? We turn to this question next. FREE TRADE AREAS: PROS AND CONS A free trade area (FTA) can be said to expand economic well- being if it...Riahts Concerns Those who oppose hemispheric free trade on human rights grounds argue that free trade will engender sweatshop conditions in the lower

  19. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Eddy, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  20. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  1. The Y-12 National Security Complex Foreign Research Reactor Uranium Supply Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T. [Nuclear Technology and Nonproliferation Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Keller, A.P. [Disposition and Supply Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) HEU Disposition, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR), and the United States (U.S.) FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Programs. The FRR Supply Program supports the important U.S. government nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel under the RERTR Program. The NNSA Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign government agencies for the supply of LEU for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. In addition to uranium metal feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 can produce LEU in different forms to support new fuel development or target fabrication for medical isotope production. With production improvements and efficient delivery preparations, Y-12 continues to successfully support the global research reactor community. (author)

  2. Security of supply in competitive electricity markets: The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in the absence of a complete set of markets or under conditions of monopoly and imperfect competition, optimal provision of quality can not be taken for granted. Market set in the restructured electricity markets is not complete, physical networks per definition are natural monopolies, market-power issues are yet to be resolved, not all the services supplied through the restructured frameworks are private goods and risk of government intervention is high during the times when market prices signal shortages. Sole reliance on the energy-only markets for optimal provision of security of supply under such conditions is mistaken. On the other hand, centralization of decisions for provision of reserve capacity, such as the gas-reserve capacity proposal in the Norwegian system is not an efficient substitute for missing or imperfect markets. The solution lies in the design of permanent market-mechanisms that enhance the ability of energy-only markets to handle the medium and long-term security of supply. A carefully designed reserve energy certificates mechanism is a viable alternative in this context. (Author)

  3. Electricity and long term supply security. Search for power market respectful legal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Pignon, V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, also published in 'ISMEA Economie et Societe' Journal (Energy series 2006, no.10), deals with theoretical aspects of long term electricity supply security. Market prices and contractual arrangements on the physical and financial electricity markets do not allow to create sufficient incentives to invest in adequate capacity for guaranteeing the appropriate level of supply in every circumstance. The long term security of supply by capacity adequacy must be conceptualized as a collective good. Alternative solutions to reach capacity adequacy which have been adopted in different markets are successively considered: public procurement of strategic reserves, capacity payment, capacity obligation with exchangeable rights. Each one presents theoretical limits and practical drawbacks when implemented in complex markets. That brings out the interest of mechanism of centralized auctions for forward capacity contracts (or reliability options); it combines controls by quantity and by price while stabilizing investment in peak power plants and is compatible with energy and reserves markets, that is not the case of the three other instruments. (authors)

  4. Development and Validation of Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument for Sustainable Job Security in Yobe State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Gishua Garba; Dawha, Josphine Musa; Kamar, Tiamiyu Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument (METSAI) is aimed at determining the extent to which students have acquired practical skills before graduation that will enable them get employment for sustainable job security in Yobe state. The study employed instrumentation research design. The populations of the study were 23 mechanical…

  5. Enhancing Efficiency of Water Supply – Product Market Competition versus Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Reto Foellmi; Urs Meister

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares potential efficiency gains induced by the introduction of product market competition and cross boarder trade in the piped water market. We argue that due to the specific circumstances in the water sector product market competition, i.e. competition by common carriage is not expected to be very intensive. The connection of networks could alternatively be used for cross boarder trade between neighboured water utilities. We show that competition by common carriag...

  6. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  7. Rationales for capacity remuneration mechanisms: Security of supply externalities and asymmetric investment incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst

    2017-01-01

    Economics so far provides little conceptual guidance on capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRM) in deregulated electricity markets. Ubiquitous in real-world electricity markets, CRMs are introduced country by country in an ad hoc manner, lacking the theoretical legitimacy and the conceptual coherence enabling comparability and coordination. They are eyed with suspicion by a profession wedded to a theoretical benchmark model that argues that competitive energy-only markets with VOLL pricing provide adequate levels of capacity. While the benchmark model is a consistent starting point for discussions about electricity market design, it ignores the two market failures that make CRMs the practically appropriate and theoretically justified policy response to capacity issues. First, energy-only markets fail to internalize security-of-supply externalities as involuntary curbs on demand under scarcity pricing generate social costs beyond the private non-consumption of electricity. Second, when demand is inelastic and the potential capacity additions are discretely sized, investors face asymmetric incentives and will underinvest at the margin rather than overinvest. After presenting the key features of the theoretical benchmark model, this paper conceptualizes security of supply externalities and asymmetric investment incentives and concludes with some consideration regarding design of CRMs. - Highlights: • Capacity remuneration mechanisms are ubiquitous in real-world electricity markets. • Theory claims that energy-only markets can provide optimal capacity on their own. • However theory fails to account for two types of market failures. • Involuntary demand curbs under VOLL-pricing create security-of-supply externalities. • With inelastic demand, discretely sized capacity options lead to underinvestment.

  8. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  9. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  10. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  11. Russian gas export strategy and security of supply concerns in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite great publicity given to security of supply problems associated with Russian gas exports to Europe, these problems seem to be manageable. While the risk of short term technical breakdown exists, we are more likely to see a significant increase in Russian gas exports to Europe, than a significant fall. Increases could be achieved in the short term by moving more gas through the existing infrastructure. The restructuring of sales and transit relationships between Russia and other former Soviet republics (especially the Ukraine) as well as former CMEA member states in Central/Eastern Europe will be very important if export relationships are to be maintained and expanded. 7 refs., 1 tab

  12. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  13. The COMURHEX 2 project. Investing in UF6 long-term security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon, Pierre; Lacombe, Philippe; Durante, Pierre; Teyssier, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The front-end nuclear fuel supply chain for LWRs encompasses four major industrial stages that are mining and concentration, conversion, enrichment, and eventually fuel fabrication. The different stages involve uranium in different chemical and physical forms. Enrichment of the 235-U fissile isotope requires gaseous UF6. As the standard output of mine is U3O8, referred to as ''yellow cake'', a purely chemical stage is therefore needed to fluorinate U3O8 and turn it into UFe: this is the conversion stage. U3O8 inventories management is thus performed at the conversion sites.Purification of the mining concentrates is also needed prior to actual conversion into UFe. This step is important because the front-end supply chain facilities have strict specifications concerning impurities. The conversion stage may involve intermediary products, namely UO3 and/or UF4, depending on the industrial scheme implemented. With the Comurhex 2 project, AREVA is not only shaping the future of conversion market and contributing to the security of supply of its customers, but it is also developing innovative techniques and reorganizing the conversion process steps. Providing such guaranteed and valuable conversion supply with a brand new plant is our strong commitment to a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. And AREVA is the first that has launched such a project, looking further ahead. The three main axes of sustainable development, economical, social, and environmental, are truly taken into account in the development of the new project.

  14. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  15. Trade-offs between Energy Efficiency improvements and additional Renewable Energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, less attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures in energy systems modeling, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables’ share) are unbalanced and cost......-savings opportunities are missed. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along......-makers, informations useful for identify a suitable analysis for investigate on the optimal trade-off between renewables and energy efficiency measures in energy-systems under different objectives....

  16. The integrated North American electricity market : assuring an adequate supply of electricity through cross-border cooperation and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to support cooperation and discussion of the long-term sufficiency of the electricity trading system between Canada and the United States. It discusses the integrated electricity market including details on exports and imports of electricity, major transmission interconnections, the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market and electricity generation statistics by fuel source. The paper also discusses several areas of cooperation and presents several recommendations including: greater dialogue on regional supply requirements; mandatory reliability standards; coordinated regulatory approaches to new cross-border transmission; the role of emerging generation and transmission technologies; opportunities to exchange experience and learning on demand-side measures; coordinated strategies to manage greenhouse gas and other air pollutants; and, critical infrastructure protection. The paper concludes that the integration between Canada and the United States will only increase as energy demand and trade continue to grow, making close cooperation between the two countries a necessity. 6 figs

  17. Intermodal Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maslarić, Marinko; Brnjac, Nikolina; Bago, Drago

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and secure global supply chains contribute to the Improvement of the competitiveness of the products traded on international markets by reducing their costs and delivery time while increasing the reliability and security. Global supply chains are unthinkable without transport integration, which is usually accomplished through the form of intermodal transport systems. Intermodal transport systems are much more complex than the unimodal ones due to the number of stakeholders, included...

  18. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market. Some model-based insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980's to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. (authors)

  19. Generation of predictive price and trading volume patterns in a model of dynamically evolving free market supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I present a model of stock market price fluctuations incorporating effects of share supply as a history-dependent function of previous purchases and share demand as a function of price deviation from moving averages. Price charts generated show intervals of oscillations switching amplitude and frequency suddenly in time, forming price and trading volume patterns well-known in market technical analysis. Ultimate price trends agree with traditional predictions for specific patterns. The consideration of dynamically evolving supply and demand in this model resolves the apparent contradiction with the Efficient Market Hypothesis: perceptions of imprecise equity values by a world of investors evolve over non-negligible periods of time, with dependence on price history.

  20. Three stage trade credit policy in a three-layer supply chain-a production-inventory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal replenishment lot size of supplier and optimal production rate of manufacturer under three levels of trade credit policy for supplier-manufacturer-retailer supply chain. The supplier provides a fixed credit period to settle the accounts to the manufacturer, while the manufacturer gives a fixed credit period to settle the account to the retailer and the retailer, in turn, also offers a credit period to each of its customers to settle the accounts. We assume that the supplier supplies the raw material to the manufacturer and sends back the defective raw materials to the outside supplier after completion of inspection at one lot with a sales price. The system always produces good items in the model. Also, we consider the idle times of supplier and manufacturer. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the behaviour and application of the model with graphical simulation.

  1. Korean public's preference for supply security of oil and gas and the impact of protest bidders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihyo; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The Korean governmental support for supply security of oil and gas via overseas exploration and production (E&P) projects are publicly criticized because of some poor projects lacking of economic feasibility, even though it should be expanded from a long-term perspective. Applying the contingent valuation, this study investigates the Korean public's preferences for governmental support for overseas oil and gas E&P projects. The result shows that the governmental support for overseas E&P projects rather decreases public utility. The primary reason behind this utility decrease is that some respondents protested to bid because of their resistance toward tax increase without guaranteeing the efficient government support. This result implies that simple tax increases for expansion of the governmental support may bring about public's strong opposition. In order to overcome this public opposition, this study suggests that it is necessary to arouse public understanding of the necessity of overseas oil and gas E&P projects. - Highlights: • We investigate the Korean public's preferences for an oil and gas supply security. • The respondents are willing to pay USD 0.017 per liter of gasoline or diesel. • Governmental support for overseas E&P projects decreases the public utility. • It is need to increase public understanding of overseas oil and gas E&P projects.

  2. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  3. Reinforcing Buyer Power : Trade Quotas and Supply Diversification in the EU Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikonnikova, S.; Zwart, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a market with concentrated domestic buyers and concentrated foreign sellers and explore the extent to which domestic regulation helps to increase the buyers' countervailing power against the foreign sellers. We use the Shapley value to describe the distribution of the trade surplus and

  4. Energy market and investment - political economy of supply security in the market of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leban, R.

    2005-01-01

    A market structure that appears to be adapted to achieving a supply security purpose in the sectors of oil power and gas, is an organisation where upstream energy markets include industrial players of adequate sizes involved downstream and where futures exchanges prevail at prices translating anticipations on 'basics' since spot markets are more of adjustment markets. Policy weighs hugely on those markets. The extra competition lately instilled in the electrical and gas markets in developed countries results in no decrease, as complicated exchange rules need to be thought up and the market power needs to be monitored. Political intervention is also carried out in the name of environmental policies, in a strong interaction with the operation of the said markets and therefore with a not insignificant risk of disruption. The oil market is a highly political one, since the key to exchanges, i.e. access to primary resources, is played between producing countries and huge oil and gas companies close to consuming countries. There is a strong temptation in the electrical sector, to add security policies in order to prevail over the market. Gas, which is oil upstream and electrical downstream, requires, in consuming countries, a delicate balance of policies to support operators as buyers and to control the same operators as players of the gas- gas competition. The prognosis on the market's ability to provide safe supply efficiently to citizens if security policies are implemented is rather good in areas where demand is moderately growing and networks are developed. It is however not as good in areas where there are high needs for production and transport investments, i.e. in countries that are developing now, and will be...in Europe soon. (author)

  5. Small Farmers and Big Retail: trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, Hope; Reardon, Thomas; Perez, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In Nicaragua and elsewhere in Central America, small-scale farmers are weighing the risks of entering into contracts with supermarket chains. We use unique data on negotiated prices from Nicaraguan farm cooperatives supplying supermarkets to study the impact of supply agreements on producers’ mean output prices and price stability. We find that prices paid by the domestic retail chain approximate the traditional market in mean and variance. In contrast, we find that mean prices paid by Wal-ma...

  6. Digital Trade Infrastructures: A Framework for Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Boriana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In global supply chains, information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The lack of reliable, accurate and complete information makes it hard to detect risks (such as safety, security, compliance and commercial risks and at the same time makes international trade inefficient. The introduction of digital infrastructures that transcend organizational and system domains is driven by the prospect of reducing the fragmentation of information, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in the trading process. This article develops a digital trade infrastructure framework through an empirically grounded analysis of four digital infrastructures in the trade domain, using the conceptual lens of digital infrastructure.

  7. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  8. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  9. The security of energy supply. The European Commission's Green Paper stimulates debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The growing dependence of the European Union (EU) on external supplies of energy is the central focus of a ''Green Paper'' issued in late November 2000 by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels. Entitled ''Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'', the Green Paper is intended to stimulate debate on the EU's energy policies and strategies. European member States are ''interdependent'', the Green Paper states, ''both because of climate change issues and the creation of the internal energy market. Any energy policy decision taken by a Member State will inevitably have repercussions on the functioning of the market in other Member States. Energy policy has assumed a new, Community dimension.'' Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: The EU will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; its enlargement will not change this situation. Based on current forecasts, energy dependence will reach 70% by the year 2030. - The EU has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions; it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector. - The EU presently is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. Featured here is the Executive Summary of the Green Paper

  10. Insecurity of petroleum supplies and external effect: the case of security storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, B.

    1997-01-01

    The public intervention in the domain of security of petroleum supplies is in general justified in the literature by the existence of external effects linked with the phenomenon of insecurity of supplies. This work proposes to analyse in detail the validity of this justification and its implication in terms of energy policy recommendations. The components of the insecurity cost is analyzed in the first part. Two components are retained: the macro-economical effects of insecurity and the monopsony cost. The study of the macro-economical component of insecurity uses a disequilibrium economy-type approach. On the basis of a modeling of the macro-economical effects of insecurity on a conventionalized economy, a relation is evidenced between rupture probability and level of usefulness. This model is applied to 4 European Union countries and the effects of supplies insecurity is measured for each of them. For the monopsony component of supplies insecurity, the additional cost generated by insecurity in relation with the monopsony situation is analyzed. A numerical analysis illustrates this analysis. Then, the relevance of the monopsony concept in the description of the situation of petroleum consuming economies is questioned. The analysis of the US case leads to reject the existence of a petroleum monopsony made of the USA alone and to favour the definition of a monopsony made of the IEA member countries. Then, the analysis of the insecurity cost is made using the external cost notion. This study allows to settle the status of the macro-economical component: there effectively exists a macro-economical cost of insecurity but this cost cannot be considered as external. This result is interesting because many analyses justify the public intervention using the external cost property of the macro-economical effects. On the contrary, the monopsony component can be unambiguously identified as being at the origin of a pecuniary external cost. The insecurity of supplies can be

  11. Securities Operations: Update on Actions Taken to Address Day Trading Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In particular there was concern that broker-dealers promoting day trading as a strategy (day trading firms) sometimes used questionable advertising to attract customers without fully disclosing or by downplaying the risks involved...

  12. Trade between the EU and Israeli Settlements: How Technical Arrangements add to Structural Injustice in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Audeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades ago, the EU upgraded its preferential trade with Israel. Many EU member states and European multinational companies violate the European Commission’s mandatory directives on excluding the Israeli settlements’ economy from the preferential treatment of free customs duties. This article argues that the settlements’ economy is correlated to a structural injustice in the supply chain, through the imposition of a coercive environment in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Many European multinational companies trade in Israeli settlements and partially contribute to the structural injustice. The European Commission tackles the structural injustice by a framework of technical arrangements, but such a framework is unsuccessful due to the thoughtlessness and bad faith expressed by those actors linked to enterprises in the settlements, and due to the lack of normative standards and an operational framework of responsibility. This article challenges the longstanding argument in literature that the problem in the EU-Israeli settlements trade is not only a mere territorial and border dispute, using a mixed method of quantitative datasets and discourse analysis.

  13. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, James; Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Gallachóir, Brian Ó

    2014-01-01

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  14. Panorama 2014 - The importance of underground storage in the security of European gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    While European capacity for underground gas storage has increased by 16% over the last three years, levels of stock at the beginning of the 2013/2014 winter, in relation to capacity, are the lowest that have been seen since 2010; they represent only 84% of storage capacity. The suppliers of gas have no incentive to reserve storage capacity, for which the cost is considered too high in relation to the spread, currently very low, between the price of gas in winter and in summer. They also rely on sufficient gas supply thanks to other sources of flexibility available on the market: flexibility of production or imports, spot LNG purchases, purchases in the spot market... or even use of the storage capacities of neighbouring countries via European network interconnections. Yet, the 2013/2014 winter is beginning in a gas supply context in Europe that is more difficult: imports of LNG, which had already dropped sharply in 2012, have continued to contract, faced with increased competition from Asian buyers on the international LNG market. Gas imports from Norway are also declining following production limits in that country. Only Russia has strongly increased its exports to Europe in 2013. However, the dispute between Ukraine and Russia about the price of Russian gas delivered to Ukraine still raises the spectre of a threat to the European supply of Russian gas, nearly 60% of which transits via Ukraine. Under these circumstances, as demonstrated by the gas crises of 2006 and 2009 and the cold conditions of February 2012 and March/April 2013, storage is the most efficient means of securing the supply of gas providing, of course, that the storage sites are filled at the beginning of winter. (author)

  15. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... coordinating and sponsoring an executive-led Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to... on the cyber security, critical infrastructure protection, and emergency management, ports of entry... security, including border protection, civil defense capabilities, and coast guard and maritime...

  16. What scenario studies tell about security of energy supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Jansen, J.C.

    2001-06-01

    A technical fact-finding study on security of energy supply has been performed from the European point of view and from the point of view of the Netherlands. A brief assessment is presented of fossil fuel resources. Based on data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and other literature, the reserves/production ratio of conventional and unconventional oil is estimated at approximately 200 years. Based on the same USGS data, the reserves/production ratio of conventional natural gas is estimated at 190 years. The unconventional gas resources are extremely large. However, environmental damage has to be prevented. The amount of recoverable resources will remain a question mark for the time being. The world's proved recoverable coal reserves amount to a reserves/production ratio of 230 years. All in all, oil remains a strategic fossil fuel, whereas the supply of natural gas seems to be more well-balanced and the supply of coal is more secure than both of oil and gas. The so-called Shared analysis project, performed by a number of research institutes in the EU, gives useful points of departure for energy policy formulation. However, the results of notably the reference scenario and to a lesser extent its variants in terms of primary energy use, CO2 emissions, and the EU's import dependence for fossil fuels have to be regarded carefully. A similar picture arises from IEA's World Energy Outlook 2000. The 'Out-look' gives due attention to OECD Europe's dependence on imported oil and gas. The share of oil imports is due to rise from 32% in 1990 to 80% in 2020. Due to a projected steady growth of gas consumption, import dependence with respect to natural gas is due to rise from 34% in 1997 to about 65% in 2020. In the scenarios developed by CPB, in collaboration with AVV, ECN, and RIVM, in 1997, the share of natural gas in total primary energy demand is projected to increase to 50-55% in all of the scenarios. In the most energy intensive scenarios, natural gas is

  17. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  18. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Kelli K.; Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2012-01-01

    Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in infl...

  19. Critical thinking: assessing the risks to the future security of supply of critical metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Gus

    2015-04-01

    Increasing world population, the spread of prosperity across the globe and the demands of new technologies have led to a revival of concerns about the availability of raw materials needed by society. Despite scare stories about resource depletion, physical exhaustion of minerals is considered to be unlikely. However, we do need to know which materials might be of concern so that we can develop strategies to secure adequate supplies and to mitigate the effects of supply disruption. This requirement has led to renewed interest in criticality, a term that is generally used to refer to metals and minerals of high economic importance that have a relatively high likelihood of supply disruption. The European Union (EU) developed a quantitative methodology for the assessment of criticality which led to the definition of 14 raw materials as critical to the EU economy (EC, 2010). This has succeeded in raising awareness of potential supply issues and in helping to prioritise requirements for new policies and supporting research. The EU has recently assessed a larger number of candidate materials of which 20 are now identified as critical to the EU (EC, 2014). These include metals such as indium, mostly used in flat-screen displays, antimony for flame retardants and cobalt for rechargeable batteries, alloys and a host of other products. Although there is no consensus on the methodology for criticality assessments and broad analyses at this scale are inevitably imperfect, they can, nevertheless, provide early warning of supply problems. However, in order to develop more rigorous and dynamic assessments of future availability detailed analysis of the whole life-cycle of individual metals to identify specific problems and develop appropriate solutions is required. New policies, such as the Raw Materials Initiative (2008) and the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (2013), have been developed by the European Commission (EC) and are aimed at securing sustainable

  20. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the

  1. Teaching supply management by connecting with industry: experiences, trade-offs and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to teaching supply chain management that is very much integrated with local industry. More than half of the time, students were interacting with companies in company visits and small projects. The approach has many challenges but is considered useful by industry,

  2. Study of selected problems of reliability of the supply chain in the trading company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of the reliability of the supply chain as a whole in the dependence on the reliability of its elements. Different variants of reserving of canals (prime and reserve ones and issues connected with their switching are discussed.

  3. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  4. Adapting electricity markets to decarbonisation and security of supply objectives: Toward a hybrid regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Finon, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The policy objectives of decarbonisation of the electricity sector whilst maintaining security of supply have led to a new wave of market reforms in many jurisdictions which liberalised their industry. There is a wide range of models under this new hybrid regime which essentially combine the energy market with planning and long-term risk transfer arrangements. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the issues with the standard historical market model which led to the introduction of additional long term “modules”. We then study the interactions between the existing and new “modules” and identify ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to address inconsistencies with the new modules. We conclude by discussing the conditions under which the various changes in market architectures could converge toward a hybrid regime structured around a “two step competition”, with a “competition for the market” via the auctioning of long-term contracts to support investment, followed by “competition in the market” for short term system optimisation via the energy market. - Highlights: • The policy objectives of decarbonisation of the electricity sector whilst maintaining security of supply have led to a new wave of markets reforms. • Emergence of a hybrid regime combining the energy market with planning and long-term risk transfer arrangements. • Wide diversity of models in hybrid regimes, but some common fundamental features. • Replacement of the coordination function of energy prices for investment by some form of planning followed by long-term contracts. • Discussion of the conditions for possible convergence toward a “two step competition” regime.

  5. Second strategic energy report of the European Union - more security of supply with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On November 13, 2008, the EU Commission presented the Second Strategic Energy Report. The Report was supplemented by one proposed directive each on the security of gas supply and on oil stockpiling, by a multitude of measures to improve energy efficiency, and by 2 communications by the Commission on offshore wind energy and the nuclear program of the EU. The Commission attaches strategic importance in securing energy supply to the domestic energy resources, renewables, coal, and nuclear power. Moreover, the Commission assigns to the use of nuclear power an important role in the transition to an economy causing only a minimum of CO 2 emissions. The updated nuclear program contains these proposals: - The most up-to-date technology is to be employed in the construction of new reactors, and - the highest standards of nuclear safety are to be applied. - The diverse licensing conditions and procedures currently existing in the member states are to be harmonized. A few days earlier, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of OECD had presented the 2008 Nuclear Energy Outlook in which the points raised by the EU Commission are outlined in the same sense for the OECD member countries. Germany clearly continues to be in an isolated position worldwide in opting out of the use of nuclear power. This raises the question when and in what way political majorities may again be found which would prevent the enforcement of laws in the interest of phasing out nuclear power, and get rid of the irrational blockages in spent fuel and nuclear waste management. (orig.)

  6. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, H; Havlík, P; Mosnier, A; Obersteiner, M; Herrero, M; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  7. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  8. Europe's thirst for Russian gas increases fears over security of supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    A new report from Russian Gazprom indicates that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on gas from Russia. In 2013 the volume of Gazprom Group's gas sales to countries beyond the Commonwealth of Independent States amounted to 174.3 billion cubic metres, which accounts for one-third of the total gas consumption in Europe. Europe might normally welcome the increasing free-flow of gas to the continent, but the fact that this rising dependency on Russia comes at a time of even greater political tensions should be a wake-up call to policymakers. Policymakers should focus more on what is practical than what is politically correct. If one nation wants to tilt at windmills and abandon the security of energy supply offered by modern, safe and technological solutions of the future, such as baseload nuclear, it does not mean everyone has to follow suit. Europe's collective political leadership would do well to remember that you do not cast out or effectively demonise tried and tested solutions to keeping nations safe, warm, productive and economically vibrant at a time when very real threats to energy supply loom on the horizon.

  9. Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A and D Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A&D Applications Ezra Hall, Ray Eberhard...use applications. Furthermore, a product roadmap must be comprehended as part of this platform, offering A&D programs a solution to their...existing solutions for adoption to occur. Additionally, a well-developed roadmap to future secure SoCs, leveraging the value add of future advanced

  10. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Biomass Generation Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of forest residue to produce forest biomass energy can mitigate CO2 emissions and generate additional revenue for related eco-enterprises and farmers. In China, however, the benefit of this utilization is still in question because of high costs and CO2 emissions in the entire supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective linear programming model (MLP is employed to analyze the trade-offs between the economic and environmental benefits of all nodes within the forest biomass power generation supply chain. The MLP model is tested in the Mao Wu Su biomass Thermoelectric Company. The optimization results show that (1 the total cost and CO2 emissions are decreased by US$98.4 thousand and 60.6 thousand kg, respectively; 3750 thousand kg of waste-wood products is reduced and 3750 thousand kg of sandy shrub stubble residue is increased; (2 64% of chipped sandy shrub residue is transported directly from the forestland to the power plant, 36% of non-chipped sandy shrub residue is transported from the forestland to the power plant via the chipping plant; (3 transportation and chipping play a significant role in the supply chain; and (4 the results of a sensitivity analysis show that the farmer’s average transportation distance should be 84.13 km and unit chipping cost should be $0.01022 thousand for the optimization supply cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, we suggest the following: (1 develop long-term cooperation with farmers; (2 buy chain-saws for regularly used farmers; (3 build several chipping plants in areas that are rich in sandy shrub.

  11. 31 CFR 357.10 - Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laws governing a Treasury book-entry... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES) § 357.10 Laws governing a Treasury book...

  12. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  13. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  14. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  15. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Agarwala, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  16. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO 2 -certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO 2 -emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO 2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  17. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  18. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Final Report of the Third Mandate of the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2013-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-07-01

    At the request of its member countries, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo)/technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). In April 2009, the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) was created and received an initial, two-year mandate from the NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to examine the causes of supply shortages of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and develop a policy approach to address them. In its first mandate, the HLG-MR conducted a comprehensive economic study of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain, which identified the key areas of vulnerability and major issues to be addressed. The HLG-MR released a policy approach, including six principles (Appendix 1) and supporting recommendations to help resolve the issues in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc market. In the second mandate (2011-2013), the HLG-MR worked to encourage the implementation of the six policy principles and promoted an industry transition away from the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets for 99 Mo production. Projects were undertaken by the NEA that resulted in the publication of documents and reports to assist in implementing the HLG-MR policy approach. The second mandate showed that, while commendable progress had occurred in many areas, there were still major issues in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc market, with some continued government subsidisation, insufficient ORC and inadequate reimbursement for 99 mTc. Potential future periods of supply shortage were identified, particularly concerning the likely loss of significant capacity around 2016. In the third mandate, the HLG-MR continued its efforts to help ensure the global security of supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc through implementation of the six policy principles. The NEA undertook a further self-assessment review of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply chain, focusing again on progress with implementing FCR and paid ORC and

  19. 17 CFR 41.25 - Additional conditions for trading for security futures products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... security outstanding, the designated contract market or registered derivatives transaction execution... securities. (3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, if a derivatives clearing... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional conditions for...

  20. Energy Trading and Pricing in Microgrids with Uncertain Energy Supply: A Three-Stage Hierarchical Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE generation (wind power determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit, and then the consumers determine their energy demands to maximize their payoffs. The hierarchical game is established between the energy provider and the consumers. The energy provider is the leader and the consumers are the followers in the hierarchical game. We consider two types of consumers according to their response to the price, i.e., the price-taking consumers and the price-anticipating consumers. We derive the equilibrium point of the hierarchical game through the backward induction method. Comparing the two types of consumers, we study the influence of the types of consumers on the equilibrium point. In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.

  1. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  2. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  3. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  4. Securities Operations: Update on Actions Taken to Address Day Trading Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, day trading 1 began to receive intense scrutiny from state and federal regulators and the Congress because of concerns that it posed significant investor protection and market integrity issues...

  5. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  6. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  7. 78 FR 26814 - Millington Exchange Traded MAVINS Fund, LLC and Millington Securities, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... size, experience and potentially stronger relationships in the fixed income markets. Purchases of... into, and receive securities from, the series in connection with the purchase and redemption of...

  8. Stochastic Optimization of Supply Chain Risk Measures –a Methodology for Improving Supply Security of Subsidized Fuel Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinda Yuanita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation-based methods for stochastic optimization of risk measures is required to solve complex problems in supply security of subsidized fuel oil in Indonesia. In order to overcome constraints in distribution of subsidized fuel in Indonesia, which has the fourth largest population in the world—more than 250,000,000 people with 66.5% of productive population, and has more than 17,000 islands with its population centered around the nation's capital only—it is necessary to have a measurable and integrated risk analysis with monitoring system for the purpose of supply security of subsidized fuel. In consideration of this complex issue, uncertainty and probability heavily affected this research. Therefore, this research did the Monte Carlo sampling-based stochastic simulation optimization with the state-of-the-art "FIRST" parameter combined with the Sensitivity Analysis to determine the priority of integrated risk mitigation handling so that the implication of the new model design from this research may give faster risk mitigation time. The results of the research identified innovative ideas of risk based audit on supply chain risk management and new FIRST (Fairness, Independence, Reliable, Sustainable, Transparent parameters on risk measures. In addition to that, the integration of risk analysis confirmed the innovative level of priority on sensitivity analysis. Moreover, the findings showed that the new risk mitigation time was 60% faster than the original risk mitigation time.

  9. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  10. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  11. 78 FR 22580 - Millington Securities, Inc. and Millington Exchange Traded MAVINS Fund, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... security for inclusion in the Fund's portfolio to have aggregate investment characteristics, fundamental... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30459; File No. 812-13887... an order under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from...

  12. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  13. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli K. Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in influencing health outcomes and are integral to achieving the One Health, One World vision. International trade, for example, opens markets not only to life-saving products such as vaccines, medicines, and medical equipment, but also to life-threatening products such as tobacco and asbestos. If strengthened and enforced, environmental law can decrease air and water pollution, major causes of death and disability. World hunger has been exacerbated by the global economic crisis and climate change, increasing the urgency for international law to enhance food security. Humanitarian law must similarly be strengthened to protect civilians adequately as the nature of warfare continues to change. Refugee law plays a pivotal role in protecting the health of deeply vulnerable people who lack food, shelter, and social stability. Higher standards and more effective compliance are necessary for international law to realize its full potential to safeguard the world's population.

  14. Stochastic Optimization of Supply Chain Risk Measures –a Methodology for Improving Supply Security of Subsidized Fuel Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Adinda Yuanita; Andi Noorsaman Sommeng; Anondho Wijonarko

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation-based methods for stochastic optimization of risk measures is required to solve complex problems in supply security of subsidized fuel oil in Indonesia. In order to overcome constraints in distribution of subsidized fuel in Indonesia, which has the fourth largest population in the world—more than 250,000,000 people with 66.5% of productive population, and has more than 17,000 islands with its population centered around the nation's capital only—it is necessary to have a...

  15. An industry perspective on the use of seasonal forecasts and weather information for evaluating sensitivities in traded commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeisen, Daniela; Slavov, Georgi

    2015-04-01

    Weather information on seasonal timescales is crucial to various end users, from the level of subsistence farming to the government level. Also the financial industry is ever more aware of and interested in the benefits that early and correctly interpreted forecast information provides. Straight forward and often cited applications include the estimation of rainfall and temperature anomalies for drought - prone agricultural areas producing traded commodities, as well as some of the rather direct impacts of weather on energy production. Governments, weather services, as well as both academia and private companies are working on tailoring climate and weather information to a growing number of customers. However, also other large markets, such as coal, iron ore, and gas, are crucially dependent on seasonal weather information and forecasts, while the needs are again very dependent on the direction of the predicted signal. So far, relatively few providers in climate services address these industries. All of these commodities show a strong seasonal and weather dependence, and an unusual winter or summer can crucially impact their demand and supply. To name a few impacts, gas is crucially driven by heating demand, iron ore excavation is dependent on the available water resources, and coal mining is dependent on winter temperatures and rainfall. This contribution will illustrate and provide an inside view of the type of climate and weather information needed for the various large commodity industries.

  16. The cultivation of information infrastructures for international trade : Stakeholder challenges and engagement reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.J.; Tan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The development of information infrastructures for international trade to improve supply chain visibility and security has gained momentum due to technological advances. An information infrastructure is a shared, open, and evolving assemblage of interlinked information systems providing distinct

  17. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  18. You Outsource the Service but Not the Risk: Supply Chain Risk Management for the Cyber Security of Safety Critical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Chris W.

    2016-01-01

    Companies increasingly form interdependent relationships between contractors and sub-contractors that extend\\ud across national borders and legal jurisdictions. In consequence, supply chain risk management (SCRM) is an\\ud increasing concern for the cyber security of safety-critical systems. The following pages argue that outsourcing\\ud undermines SCRM by eroding technical expertise, which companies need to select and audit their suppliers. They\\ud are still held accountable when the failure o...

  19. A framework for the analysis of the security of supply of utilising carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Eric S; Ng, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in catalysts have enhanced the potential for the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical feedstock. Using the appropriate energy efficient catalyst enables a range of chemical pathways leading to desirable products. In doing so, CO2 provides an economically and environmentally beneficial source of C1 feedstock, while improving the issues relating to security of supply that are associated with fossil-based feedstocks. However, the dependence on catalysts brings other supply chains into consideration, supply chains that may also have security of supply issues. The choice of chemical pathways for specific products will therefore entail an assessment not only of economic factors but also the security of supply issues for the catalysts. This is a multi-criteria decision making problem. In this paper, we present a modified 4A framework based on the framework suggested by the Asian Pacific Energy Research centre for macro-economic applications. The 4A methodology is named after the criteria used to compare alternatives: availability, acceptability, applicability and affordability. We have adapted this framework for the consideration of alternative chemical reaction processes using a micro-economic outlook. Data from a number of sources were collected and used to quantify each of the 4A criteria. A graphical representation of the assessments is used to support the decision maker in comparing alternatives. The framework not only allows for the comparison of processes but also highlights current limitations in the CCU processes. The framework presented can be used by a variety of stakeholders, including regulators, investors, and process industries, with the aim of identifying promising routes within a broader multi-criteria decision making process.

  20. Production inventory model for two-level trade credit financing under the effect of preservation technology and learning in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the inventory model for a retailer under two levels of trade credit to reflect the supply chain management. Supplier offers trade credit period of M to the retailer while in turn retailer provides a trade credit period of N to his/her customers. The supplier is willing to provide the retailer a full trade credit period for payments and the retailer offers the partial trade credit period to his/her customers. Here, selling items are considered as perishable items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, etc. so that its potential worth decreases. It is assumed that decay in potential worth of items can be increased by using preservation technology. The demand is considered as the function of selling price and trade credit. Ordering cost can be reducing due to learning by doing phenomenon. By applying convex fractional programming results, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions of an optimal solution. Some theorems are developed to determine retailer’s optimal ordering policies and numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems. In addition, some managerial insights from the numerical examples are also concluded.

  1. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacher, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.lacher@swp-berlin.org [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik/German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin (Germany); Kumetat, Dennis, E-mail: d.kumetat@lse.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: >Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. >Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. >Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. >Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  2. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacher, Wolfram; Kumetat, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: →Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. →Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. →Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. →Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  3. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  4. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  5. Volatilities, traded volumes, and the hypothesis of price increments in derivative securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Scalas, Enrico; Kim, Kyungsik

    2007-08-01

    A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to the statistics of Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. In this study, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of the long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to a inherent higher-order correlation not detected by with the direct application of the DFA to logarithmic increments of KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of future prices and to generate a geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It was found from a comparison of the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments leads to volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes can be supported by the hypothesis of price changes.

  6. Trade union policy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, D.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; energy policy; the beginning of doubt; SERA's role [SERA = Socialist Environment and Resources Association]; the 1980 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the 1981 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the issues reviewed (supply and demand; safety and employment; security); review of policy trends; conclusions. Appendix: a review of union policy statements. (U.K.)

  7. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  8. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. An Empirical Study on the Driving Path of Optimizing the Resources Allocation of Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Energy Supply-side Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu-cong; Yi, Lu-xia

    2017-11-01

    From the perspective of energy supply-side reform, this paper, by conducting an empirical study on foreign trade enterprises, conducts a research on the cross-role effect of optimizing the resources allocation and enhancing the energy efficiency. Methodologically, this paper creatively introduces the HILE's probabilistic structured property into Granger causality test analysis, forming an HILE-Granger (H-G) model, so as to empirically estimate both the short-term and long-term causal relationship effects between the energy efficiency and resources allocation. Conclusion is drawn that optimization of resources allocation is positively proportional with the energy efficiency enhancement. This paper is to provide a decision-making reference for the supply side reform strategy of foreign trade enterprises under the background of green energy economy.

  10. Optimal replenishment and credit policy in supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit with time- and credit-sensitive demand involving default risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Puspita; Mahata, Gour Chandra; Kumar De, Sujit

    2018-03-01

    Traditional supply chain inventory modes with trade credit usually only assumed that the up-stream suppliers offered the down-stream retailers a fixed credit period. However, in practice the retailers will also provide a credit period to customers to promote the market competition. In this paper, we formulate an optimal supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit policy with default risk consideration. Here, the demand is assumed to be credit-sensitive and increasing function of time. The major objective is to determine the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time such that the total profit per unit time is maximized. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution to the presented model are examined, and an easy method is also shown to find the optimal inventory policies of the considered problem. Finally, numerical examples and sensitive analysis are presented to illustrate the developed model and to provide some managerial insights.

  11. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... and the host cities. In private security alone, Brazil spent over US$ 17 billion in 2008. In... intelligence, as well as an overview of the country's economic and political environment. A networking...-users and partners. Follow-on business meetings in other cities in the region can be set up before or...

  12. Corporate reporting, security regulation and trading on the Kuwaiti stock exchange (KSE – institutional implications for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman A. Algharaballi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of equities trading in Kuwait over the period from 1983 to 2011 is documented in this paper. An eclectic approach has resulted in overlapping responsibilities for the three main regulatory and supervisory bodies. Regulation appears to be responsive to market crises. As a result, regulations have tended to change with market conditions. Kuwaiti accounting and auditing requirements are also reviewed. The institutional setting in Kuwait has a number of implications for capital market-based research. Informational inefficiency precludes research that relies on the assumption that security price reflects firm value. Other features (including the profit requirement, lock-up restrictions and the two auditor rule provide opportunities for capital market research in Kuwait.

  13. A Study of Customer Satisfaction on Online Trading System Application of Securities Company in Indonesia Using Servqual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Hery

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the service  quality of online trading system implemented by PT  KDB  Daewoo  Securities  Indonesia.  The study is  a part of the company  efforts to provide  the best solution  services. The study  is performed   to determine the influence of service quality  factors on the customer satisfaction by means of ServQual  method. The method takes  into account  five  independent  variables,  namely, reliability (X1 ,  responsiveness  (X2 ,  assurance  (X3 , empathy (X4 , and tangibility (X5 . Meanwhile,  the cus- tomer satisfaction is considered as the dependent variable (Y . The population of of the study  is all 67 900 online traders at the company and the sample size is 265 traders. The data are collected via questionnaires and interviews. From the study results, we conclude that the five variables have  significant  influence  on the customer  satisfaction on the online trading system application   at PT KDB Daewoo Securities Indonesia. To  improve  the customer satisfaction, the company  should prioritize the quality- related factors,  and expand  and upgrade  the existing facilities and infrastructures.

  14. Engineering Trade-off Considerations Regarding Design-for-Security, Design-for-Verification, and Design-for-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    The United States government has identified that application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware are at risk from a variety of adversary attacks. This finding affects system security and trust. Consequently, processes are being developed for system mitigation and countermeasure application. The scope of this tutorial pertains to potential vulnerabilities and countermeasures within the ASIC/FPGA design cycle. The presentation demonstrates how design practices can affect the risk for the adversary to: change circuitry, steal intellectual property, and listen to data operations. An important portion of the design cycle is assuring the design is working as specified or as expected. This is accomplished by exhaustive testing of the target design. Alternatively, it has been shown that well established schemes for test coverage enhancement (design-for-verification (DFV) and design-for-test (DFT)) can create conduits for adversary accessibility. As a result, it is essential to perform a trade between robust test coverage versus reliable design implementation. The goal of this tutorial is to explain the evolution of design practices; review adversary accessibility points due to DFV and DFT circuitry insertion (back door circuitry); and to describe common engineering trade-off considerations for test versus adversary threats.

  15. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  16. Secure Ubiquitous Sensor Network based on Elliptic Curve MenezesQu Vanstoneas Status Data Supply of EnvironmentinDisaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Jauhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the many environmental changes, it enables a disaster either natural or man-made objects. One of the efforts made to prevent disasters from happening is to make a system that is able to provide information about the status of the environment that is around. Many developments in the sensor system makes it possible to load a system that will supply real-time on the status of environmental conditions with a good security system. This study created a supply system status data of environmental conditions, especially on bridges by using Ubiquitous Sensor Network. Sensor used to detect vibrations are using an accelerometer. Supply of data between sensors and servers using ZigBee communication protocol wherein the data communication will be done using the Elliptic Curve Integrated security mechanisms Encryption Scheme and on the use of Elliptic Curve key aggrement Menezes-Qu-Vanstone. Test results show the limitation of distance for communication is as far as 55 meters, with the computation time for encryption and decryption with 97 and 42 seconds extra time for key exchange is done at the beginning of communication . Keywords: Ubiquitous Sensor Network, Accelerometer, ZigBee,Elliptic Curve Menezes-Qu-Vanstone

  17. Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Muneer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is inevitable for human life and a secure and accessible supply of energy is crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges: depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise. These problems indicate an unsustainable situation. Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges. Renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass, and wave and tidal energy, are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly. This article provides an overview of the current and projected energy scene. Five countries, that presently have a significant impact on global energy situation, have been studied in this work. These include China, India, Russia, UK and USA. Together the present energy budget of these countries is roughly half that of the globe. Four of the above five countries that are discussed in this work - China, India, UK and USA are all net importers of energy and are heavily dependent on imports of fuel to sustain their energy demands. Their respective local oil reserves will only last 9, 6, 7 and 4 years, respectively. China, the emerging economy in the world, is however making exemplary development in renewable energy - in 2004 renewable energy in China grew by 25% against 7-9% growth in electricity demand. While in the same year, wind energy in China saw a growth of 35%. China is also leading the global solar thermal market as it has already installed solar collectors over 65 million square meters, accounting for more than 40% of the world's total collector area. This article quantifies the period of exhaustion of the current major energy sources, i.e. coal, oil, gas and nuclear fissile material. Projected demand for energy is also presented and a feasibility of switch over to renewable energy is discussed. The article also presents

  18. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  19. Supply Chain Security. Tools, Trends, and Techniques : Toyota and Honda cases

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova, Nadezda; Akimova, Anna

    2011-01-01

      Supply chain management has experienced great changes within the last fifty years. Inevitably, many companies entered the global market with the prime intention to achieve their defined goals. In comparison with the local markets, the global environment requires more efforts and changes in the supply chain operation in order to remain viable in business. Several business models are introduced for achieving the success in the market, suggested by the following researchers: Liker, Choi, Ronal...

  20. False security: the effects of long-term oil supply disruptions in a slack oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kah, M; Kruvant, W J

    1984-01-01

    The authors contention that the US should continue to be concerned about energy emergency preparedness, in the event of a long-term disruption of oil supplies, despite current slack economic conditions on the international market is outlined. One quarter of the world's total supply still comes from politically volatile areas of North Africa and the Middle East, and although oil imports have fallen off, the US is still vulnerable.

  1. Security of supply, energy spillage control and peaking options within a 100% renewable electricity system for New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, issues of security of supply, energy spillage control, and peaking options, within a fully renewable electricity system, are addressed. We show that a generation mix comprising 49% hydro, 23% wind, 13% geothermal, 14% pumped hydro energy storage peaking plant, and 1% biomass-fuelled generation on an installed capacity basis, was capable of ensuring security of supply over an historic 6-year period, which included the driest hydrological year on record in New Zealand since 1931. Hydro spillage was minimised, or eliminated, by curtailing a proportion of geothermal generation. Wind spillage was substantially reduced by utilising surplus generation for peaking purposes, resulting in up to 99.8% utilisation of wind energy. Peaking requirements were satisfied using 1550 MW of pumped hydro energy storage generation, with a capacity factor of 0.76% and an upper reservoir storage equivalent to 8% of existing hydro storage capacity. It is proposed that alternative peaking options, including biomass-fuelled gas turbines and demand-side measures, should be considered. As a transitional policy, the use of fossil-gas–fuelled gas turbines for peaking would result in a 99.8% renewable system on an energy basis. Further research into whether a market-based system is capable of delivering such a renewable electricity system is suggested. - Highlights: • A 100% renewable electricity system was modelled over a 6-year period. • Security of supply was demonstrated, including for the driest year since 1931. • Stored energy spillage was controlled by using flexible base-load generation. • Wind energy utilisation of 99.8% was obtained. • Transitional use of fossil gas for peaking resulted in a 99.8% renewable system

  2. Chances for a long-term securing of the raw material supply to the FRG. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is almost completely dependent on raw material imports. Growing raw material consumption and an imminent increase in supply uncertainties will require intensified research and development work in the field of raw material safeguarding. Initial approaches to possible technical solutions are being indicated in connection with four raw materials (aluminium, copper, phosphate and carbon carriers). The material balances of these raw materials are shown and the technical and economic interrelations illustrated in the light of world-wide trends. It is being demonstrated that two essential objectives are to be pursued for securing raw material supplies: 1) extension of the raw material basis for primary and secondary raw materials, 2) improvement of raw material utilization in all sectors of economy. To provide a solution for the wide spectrum of tasks it will be necessary to establish adequate analytical methods and procedures. (orig.) [de

  3. Revenue management for foodstuff production to secure domestic supply in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisyam, Ibnu

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the application of revenue management in government services to ensure sufficient domestic supply of food in Indonesia. The use of this approach means that the government runs a specific effort to radically be able to solve the core problem. The resources for domestic food production are owned by more than 26 million families of farmers and more than 4 thousands agricultural companies. To achieve the expected quantity of foodstuff supplies, a special effort needs to take into account the profit for producers in allocating the resources at an appropriate level. With revenue management, the price of foodstuff to ensure adequate domestic supply to a certain level of productivity can be known. In this context, the price may be reduced if there is an increase in productivity. For this purpose, the supply curve and the demand-supply equilibrium of foodstuff have been modeled and specific government programs to increase productivity were formulated. One important finding here is that the macroeconomic policy of the government can be integrated to a microeconomic policy of foodstuff producers for one or more certain objectives.

  4. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-09-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  5. Trade and investment rules for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Rules that govern energy trade is an issue that has generated increasing concern everywhere, from the standpoint of both the security of supply for consumers and security of demand for suppliers. This concern reflects the importance of rules that comprehensively address the needs from supply and demand point of view and integrate the international fabric of energy trade. The GATT and the WTO Agreement define trans-border movement of energy but leave many aspects unclear, particularly as efforts accelerate to control carbon emissions. This timely report by a WEC Task Force of experts with legal standing in the energy business identifies the most pressing issues relating to energy trade and suggests actions and measures which, if implemented, would provide clarity and answer many questions. More importantly, these measures would strengthen the WTO and coming rounds of negotiations.

  6. Three protocols for securing the data pipeline of the international supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Van den Berg, J.; Hofman, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the international supply chain system highly efficient in worldwide transportation of goods, its business processes should be supported by high quality information systems that, “24x7”, provide the right data, at the right time, at the right place, to the right person. To do so, the

  7. Expanding electricity capacity in Thailand to meet the twin challenges of supply security and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawiro, Thanawat; Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2008-01-01

    Rapid growth in electricity demand in Thailand is a major challenge for electric utilities trying to ensure adequate supply. Continued reliance on natural gas for power supply makes the supply mix non-diversified and exposes the country to supply risks while a diversification to other fossil fuels imposes additional environmental burdens. To find an acceptable solution to this twin challenge, this paper assesses four scenarios of electricity capacity expansion planning for Thailand for the period between 2011 and 2025 under two different assumptions of fuel prices to reflect the case of international high oil price affecting cost of fuels for power generation in Thailand. It is found that the lowest environmental emissions are obtained from the scenario where power generation is highly dominated by natural gas. In contrast, the least cost electricity generation is achieved from the case if nuclear power plant is added into the Thai power system. Reliance on natural gas for power generation increases the spending on gas purchase as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) - between 2.38% and 3.61% of (GDP). In addition, fuel import dependence, particularly for natural gas and coal, increases exposing the country to possible price volatility. (author)

  8. Analysis of Carbon Emission Reduction in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain with Cap-And-Trade Regulation and Low-Carbon Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reduction of carbon emissions driven by cap-and-trade regulation and consumers’ low-carbon preference in a dual-channel supply chain. Under the low-carbon environment, we also discuss the pricing strategies and the profits for the supply chain members using the Stackelberg game model in two cases. In the first (second case where the initial proportion of consumers who prefer the online direct channel (traditional retail channel is “larger”, the direct sale price of low-carbon products could be set higher than (equal to the wholesale price. And it is shown that in both cases, tighter cap-and-trade regulation and higher low-carbon preference stimulate the manufacturer to cut carbon emissions in its production process. However, improving consumers’ low-carbon preference is more acceptable to the supply chain members. It always benefits the manufacturer and the retailer. In comparison, the firm’s profit increases with carbon price only when the clean production level is relatively high. Our findings can provide useful managerial insights for policy-makers and firms in the development of low-carbon sustainability.

  9. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  10. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  11. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  12. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  13. Can fuel services supply be secured? Building trust in a multi-lateral approach to nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, B. [Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room E40-261, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rodriguez-Vieitez, E. [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, One Brattle Sq., Room 503, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Global climate change and concerns about energy supply security fuelling the nuclear desires of an increasing number of states, there is growing interest within the nonproliferation community to promote the establishment of an international system for the provision of nuclear fuel cycle services that would be 'equitable and accessible to all users of nuclear energy' (Rauf, 2008) while reducing proliferation risks. Although the idea was already voiced on the cradle of civilian use of nuclear energy (Baruch, 1946), the IAEA director's 2003 call for a group of international experts to examine the issue (ElBaradei, 2003) triggered renewed interest that resulted in up to twelve different proposals for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle arrangements (Rauf, 2008; Simpson, 2008). Nonproliferation experts have examined the conditions under which equitable and accessible access to enrichment, reprocessing and spent fuel disposal services can be granted to all users (Rauf, 2008; Braun 2006; Pellaud and al 2005). They suggested putting together multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that could consist in the establishment of mechanisms to assure fuel cycle services, or the shared ownership by recipient and host countries of fuel services facilities through either the creation of new multilateral centers or the conversion of existing national facilities into multinational enterprises. While countries that possess nuclear fuel facilities would benefit from the increased global security and strengthened non-proliferation situation that would result from the establishment of these MNAs, they would also be baited into participating by possible attraction of foreign investments as well as the opportunity to export high value services (Rushkin, 2006). Yet, what incentives would there be for a recipient non-nuclear state to participate in an arrangement that would intrinsically strip it of its sovereign right to ensure its fuel supply security? In addition to the economic

  14. Securing a safer, greener, expandable nuclear fuel cycle supply chain for future power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, Georges

    2009-01-01

    After looking at what is necessary to sustainably ensure the global nuclear power plant fleet expansion, it becomes appearant that advanced reactor design should be accompanied with a greener and more flexible fuel cycle capability. The financial crisis has invaded all the front pages and our thoughts. However it has not rescheduled the growth of world population or reduced the desire of people in emerging economies to achieve a higher level of 'development'; nor has it alleviated climate change issues that demand CO2 constrained power sources. What is the outlook for nuclear power? On a worldwide basis, we have today a significant fleet of nuclear power plants, operating well, upgrading output, extending lifetime, and producing not only a safe reliable flow of electricity but a good flow of cash as well. For the countries hosting significant shares of this fleet, their nuclear power plants are increasingly precious assets, and despite the financial crisis, most of them are considering expansion of their nuclear fleets. For the others, the desire to access such a reliable and ultimately cheap source of energy will last longer than the temporary difficulties to get its financing. In short, the outlook for a massive phase of new nuclear builds remains very likely. Then comes the consequential issue of the nuclear fuel supply chain. From uranium exploration and production to back end solutions, most of the existing facilities were designed and startup decades ago. The question is therefore, does this supply chain offer the requested characteristics to sustain the nuclear power plants fleet for the long run? By requested characteristics, it is meant not only adequate capacity and improvement of quality, but also environmentally friendly new designs and processes. This paper is aimed at recalling the current situation of the supply chain, then at describing the status of major projects, and finally at identifying some gaps and issues

  15. Security of natural gas supply in Central Europe - Case study: Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepac, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Europe's dependence on imported hydrocarbons is increasing. Being the second largest consumer in the world, EU will need of billions of euro over the next 20 years to satisfy the expected energy demand and to replace the ageing infrastructure. Slovakia is the main transport corridor for the Russian gas delivered to the EU countries, 20% of the natural gas consumption in the EU countries is covered by transit through the Slovak territory. Slovakia is also almost 100% dependent on import of the Russian gas. Diversification of the natural gas resources therefore belongs to the key energy security issues in Slovakia.

  16. International symposium concluded that uranium supply for nuclear power is secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that stable uranium supply to fuel nuclear power plants will continue to be available according to the conclusion reached at the International Symposium on the Uranium Production Cycle and the Environment held from 2 to 6 October 2000 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting included specialists from about 40 countries, in addition to the Arab Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS)/Environment Australia, United Nations, Uranium Institute, World Bank, the World Energy Council and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)

  17. Nuclear fuel market: Supplies remaining stable and secured in the mean range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, U.; Dibbert, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Installation of additional power plant will keep the demand for uranium at a level allowing a constant uranium production during the next few years to come, although production will have to be kept lower than demand, as inventories have to be cut in order to achieve a favourable price structure. Prospects on a mean-term basis show that natural uranium supplies are ensured, at favourable purchaser prices. Concluded contracts for new nuclear power plant indicate a better plant capacity utilization in uranium production to be attainable by the 1990s. Conversion capacity, however, is expected to remain as excessive as presently for quite a long period still, although reprocessing produces increasing amounts of recovered uranium to be converted. The capacity for uranium separative work is favourable for the customers. Existing and projected production facilities already today ensure safe supplies beyond the turn of the millenium, under conditions by far better in terms of long-term competing energy sources. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?; Eine sichere Energieversorgung ohne Kohle und Kernenergie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, W. [Office Wolfgang Clement, Bonn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO{sub 2}-free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  19. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  1. Proceedings of SES International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear? Go Nuke Slovakia!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Conference proceedings included 28 papers. The Conference included the following sessions: (I): International views; (II): National views; (III): Industry views. Focused in its objective, the is aimed to send a clear, hard-hitting message to decision-makers. This is that: Slovakia cannot secure future energy supply, if it does not complete its partially built reactors and if it closes its safe and effective ones. Nuclear has to remain an indispensable part of the country's future energy mix. The event was opened with invited presentations by officials at the highest level of organisations such as the IAEA, the IEA, OECD/NEA, the NEI, the WNA and WANO, as well as the European Commission and Parliament. This line-up was followed by a host of speakers from the political and nuclear industrial arenas in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary and the Russian Federation

  2. Transient effects on groundwater chemical compositions from pumping of supply wells at the Nevada National Security Site, 1951-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear testing and support activities at the Nevada National Security Site have required large amounts of water for construction, public consumption, drilling, fire protection, hydraulic and nuclear testing, and dust control. To supply this demand, approximately 20,000 million gallons of water have been pumped from 23 wells completed in 19 boreholes located across the Nevada National Security Site starting as early as the 1950s. As a consequence of more or less continuous pumping from many of these wells for periods as long as 58 years, transient groundwater flow conditions have been created in the aquifers that supplied the water. To evaluate whether long-term pumping caused changes in water compositions over time, available chemical analyses of water samples from these 19 boreholes were compiled, screened, and evaluated for variability including statistically significant temporal trends that can be compared to records of groundwater pumping. Data used in this report have been extracted from a large database (Geochem08, revision 3.0, released in September 2008) containing geochemical and isotopic information created and maintained by primary contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office. Data extracted from this source were compiled for the entire period of record, converted to uniform reporting units, and screened to eliminate analyses of poor or unknown quality, as well as clearly spurious values. The resulting data are included in accompanying spreadsheets that give values for (1) pH and specific conductance, (2) major ion concentrations, (3) trace element concentrations and environmental isotope ratios, and (4) mean, median, and variance estimates for major ion concentrations. The resulting data vary widely in quality and time-series density. An effort has been made to establish reasonable ranges of analytical uncertainty expected for each analyte and eliminate analyses that are obvious outliers

  3. Russian gas price reform and the EU-Russia gas relationship: Incentives, consequences and European security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanjer, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In order to provide a comprehensive picture on the relationship between Russia and the EU, the focus should be on both the external energy relationship as well as Russia's internal organization. This paper sets out to do this by combining both strands of research in order to arrive at recommendations for Europe on the way to adjust its energy policy towards Russia. The emphasis is on whether or not Russia should impose unified gas pricing. Main conclusions are that the perceived advantages of unified Russian gas pricing to Russia as well as Europe are in fact overstated and that EU security of supply might worsen under unified gas prices. Three policy recommendations are that EU policy should (1) more explicitly acknowledge the interdependence between Russia and Europe; (2) not push Russia towards unified gas pricing; and (3) not take for granted any increase in Russian exports flowing to Europe

  4. Design and performance of a clean and economic power supply targeting energy independence and operative security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaha, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Stand alone wind-diesel power systems address the major issues for the supply of remotely located consumers or the provision of enhanced energy independence. The specific configuration considered here comprises a prior wind turbine driven induction generator and a supplementary synchronous generator driven by a combustion engine, the latter caring for frequency control and reactive power balance. An accumulator-bank and a hydrogen storage path consisting of an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage tank are added as short-term and long-term storage devices - respectively - in order to adjust volatile wind generation and varying load demand. The hydrogen re-conversion to electricity is achieved by design of the drive of the synchronous generator as a dual-fuel engine, fed with stored hydrogen primarily, and with diesel oil in case of the rare event of hydrogen storage emptiness. An elementary waste heat recovery from engine cooling water and from exhaust gases makes the system even more energy efficient and environment friendly. For proper sizing of the particular system components under minimization of the life cycle cost - which are composed of the initial installation cost, the replacement cost, the operation and maintenance cost as well as the remaining fuel cost - the meta-heuristic computational method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was applied. The crucial task of intelligently managing the energy storage strategy depending on their actual states of charge and the current excess power under a given load profile was solved by a fuzzy system and a subsequent time scheduler, the latter providing definite set-point steps for definite periods of time to the electrolyzer in order to achieve smooth and conservative operation. The concrete design and performance of the proposed system structure is shown with the two relevant application examples of independent electricity supply of the main hospital in Gaza-Strip, Palestine, and a remotely located dairy farm. For

  5. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?; Strommarkt in Deutschland. Gewaehrleistet das derzeitige Marktdesign Versorgungssicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany); Niedrig, Thomas [Formaet Services GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  6. Dealing with security of supply issues in natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To avoid huge losses in a market where commodity prices can rise dramatically, gas marketers have developed a portfolio of contractual and non-contractual structures to avoid such losses. These structures had the effect of providing a sense of security that have proven to be false, or potentially false pending the outcome of decisions of appeal courts. This paper reviews these structures and examines some of the current issues. Non-contractual strategies employed by gas marketers include corporate warranty, dealing only with financially strong and reputable parties, limiting the dollar amount of exposure, and making short-term deals only. Contractual strategies include dedication of reserves (committing the gas produced from certain specified lands), requiring guarantee from corporate parent, letters of credit, or performance bonds. The concept of 'material adverse change' (MAC) a common method for dealing with the potential need for future security and its consequences, bankruptcies, receivership and set-off are explored and the manner in which the availability of set-off has changed following the recent Blue Range decision. In this decision the Court held that Enron's Master Agreement with Blue Range was not an 'eligible financial contract' because it contemplated the physical delivery of gas. Based on this decision it is possible to argue that set-off is no longer available for contracts intended for the physical delivery of natural gas. The collective consequence of these events and the recent spate of marketing failures require the gas marketing industry to review their forms of agreement and to reconsider their market exposure to any particular purchaser or supplier. The significant losses to companies that resulted from recent bankruptcies and insolvencies provide ample evidence that assuming a safe, closed position based on conventional gas marketing contracts is a risky proposition

  7. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  8. Information security with M/490 and BSI protection profile for ensuring data security and security of supply; Informationssicherheit mit M/490 und BSI-Schutzprofil zur Sicherstellung von Datenschutz und Versorgungssicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Andreas [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The progressive distribution of decentralized energy generation plants as well as the necessary system flexibility result in an increased cross-linking of smart system components. The cross-linking of a critical infrastructure as well as the inclusion of communicative end customers in new market mechanisms and services bring new demands to guarantee data privacy and security of supply. Thus, the data privacy should be ensured already in the system design. It is also crucial to design the end-to-end process reliability in the context of complex component interactions and stakeholder interactions. Concepts in the context of the EU Smart Grid Mandate M/490 as well as the German BSI protection profile are dedicated to ensuring information security and data privacy on top-down and bottom-up approaches which indicate the analogies in the utilization of application clusters as a basis for threat analysis. Based on these concepts, a methodology for profiling of communication standards and security standards based on application descriptions and process descriptions within application case clusters as well as communication analysis and threat assessment with assignment of security levels and data protection classes is described.

  9. The ultimate emergency measures to secure a NPP under an accidental condition with no designed power or water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, K.S., E-mail: ksliang@alum.mit.edu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong-Chuan Road, Shanghai (China); Chiang, S.C. [Department of Nuclear Safety, Taiwan Power Company, 242 Sec. 3, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Y.F.; Young, H.J.; Pei, B.S. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Department of Nuclear Safety, Taiwan Power Company, 242 Sec. 3, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ultimate measure to secure core was developed, if power or water supply cannot be restored in time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ultimate measure was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of this emergency plan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of the required raw water injection rate was performed for NPPS in Taiwan Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactor controlled depressurization within the 1st hour is essential to reduce the required raw water injection rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For PWR, even heat sink can be developed, RCP seal leak might eventually cause core uncover 10 h after seal leak occurs. - Abstract: In the recent nuclear catastrophe which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and a following Tsunami beyond design basis. In Fukushima accident it was observed that sea water was injected into reactors only after hydrogen explosion took place and it was considered a little too late to prevent core from damage. With regard to this fact, the Taiwan power company develops an ultimate measure to prevent reactor from encountering core damage, if either designed AC power or reactor water supply cannot be restored in time. This ultimate measure was named as DIVing plan, abbreviated from system depressurization, water injection and containment venting. Once any designed AC power or reactor water supply is made available, this DIVing plan will be activated to (1) depressurize reactor first, (2) inject any available water into reactor by any available power supply if this critical status cannot be restored in time, and (3) vent the containment if necessary to maintain containment integrity. In this paper the DIVing plan was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of it and also to quantify the required raw water injection rate to prevent core from damage for both

  10. The ultimate emergency measures to secure a NPP under an accidental condition with no designed power or water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, K.S.; Chiang, S.C.; Hsu, Y.F.; Young, H.J.; Pei, B.S.; Wang, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ultimate measure to secure core was developed, if power or water supply cannot be restored in time. ► This ultimate measure was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of this emergency plan. ► Quantification of the required raw water injection rate was performed for NPPS in Taiwan ► Reactor controlled depressurization within the 1st hour is essential to reduce the required raw water injection rate. ► For PWR, even heat sink can be developed, RCP seal leak might eventually cause core uncover 10 h after seal leak occurs. - Abstract: In the recent nuclear catastrophe which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and a following Tsunami beyond design basis. In Fukushima accident it was observed that sea water was injected into reactors only after hydrogen explosion took place and it was considered a little too late to prevent core from damage. With regard to this fact, the Taiwan power company develops an ultimate measure to prevent reactor from encountering core damage, if either designed AC power or reactor water supply cannot be restored in time. This ultimate measure was named as DIVing plan, abbreviated from system depressurization, water injection and containment venting. Once any designed AC power or reactor water supply is made available, this DIVing plan will be activated to (1) depressurize reactor first, (2) inject any available water into reactor by any available power supply if this critical status cannot be restored in time, and (3) vent the containment if necessary to maintain containment integrity. In this paper the DIVing plan was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of it and also to quantify the required raw water injection rate to prevent core from damage for both PWR and BWR plants in Taiwan, after the loss of passive cooling mechanism. Provided the passive cooling mechanism is lost

  11. The fundamental supplier in insolvency. Compatibility of security of supply and satisfaction of creditors; Der Grundversorger in der Insolvenz. Vereinbarkeit von Versorgungssicherheit und Glaeubigerbefriedigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckermann, Alina

    2009-07-01

    Up to the liberalisation of the energy economy, the question of the insolvency of power supply companies was not important due to the monopolistic position. In the case of setting up an insolvency according to the fortune of the basic supplier, the guarantee of security of supply (paragraph paragraph 36, 38 EnWG) and the optimal satisfaction of the creditors (insolvency regulation, InsO) coincide. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the legal questions in connection with this. The main chapters of this contribution are: (a) Contents, range and purpose of the obligation of fundamental and auxiliary supply; (b) Legal relevance of the question concerning to the compatibility of security of supply and the optimal satisfaction of the creditors; (c) Compatibility of the goals in accordance with paragraph paragraph 36, 38 EnWG and InsO.

  12. Integrated energy and climate policy. Securing the supply of natural energy. An investigation of the German and European law; Integrierte Energie- und Klimapolitik. Die Sicherstellung der Erdgasversorgung. Eine Untersuchung deutschen und europaeischen Rechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, Henning

    2012-07-01

    Due to the extreme importance of natural gas as an energy source within an integrated energy policy and climate policy at national and European level, and due to the specific risks associated with the supply of natural gas, the contribution under consideration reports on the security of supply of natural gas. The following aspects are examined: To what extent are regulations on security of the natural gas supply provided in the German and European law. Which actors have the responsibility for the security of supply? What are the weaknesses in the legal arrangement of security of supply? The contribution also reports on the increasing importance of the EU as an actor of guarantee. The contribution of the EU to the security of supply in the supply of natural gas also is analysed.

  13. A survey of energy policy priorities in the United States: Energy supply security, economics, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Dawn K.; Hines, Valerie A.; Jordan, Matthew W.; Stoltz, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    Security, environment, and economic concerns are commonly identified as three major objectives of energy policy. State and federal governments have set aggressive targets for carbon emissions reductions and for alternative fuel use and increased vehicle efficiency to reduce petroleum consumption. Moreover, jobs creation and GDP growth are often cited as key drivers for energy policies. Previous studies on energy policy decision-making have examined the process for developing and evaluating options using multi-criteria decision analysis tools. In addition, energy opinion polls have either elicited preferences between two goals or whether the public supports a specific policy action. In this article, we report results from a survey of 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy across the goals of energy supply security, environment and climate, and economics and job creation. The majority favor policymaking that is balanced across all three. Security and economic concerns increase with age for male respondents, whereas environment is the highest priority for females regardless of age. Unlike previous surveys that target the general public and focus on a particular objective or technology, these results provide an example of eliciting a portfolio allocation across multiple energy policy goals from targeted constituents. - Highlights: • We surveyed 884 members of professional membership organizations on how the U.S. should prioritize energy policy. • The paper addresses direct elicitation of energy policy goal portfolio allocation for a large set of energy stakeholders. • The majority of respondents favor policymaking balanced across multiple goals. • We observed differences in priorities based on age and gender. • Respondents expressed a tension in allocating across goals that are interrelated

  14. Modeling an emissions peak in China around 2030: Synergies or trade-offs between economy, energy and climate security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Min Chai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved a political consensus around the need to transform the path of economic growth toward one that lowers carbon intensity and ultimately leads to reductions in carbon emissions, but there remain different views on pathways that could achieve such a transformation. The essential question is whether radical or incremental reforms are required in the coming decades. This study explores relevant pathways in China beyond 2020, particularly modeling the major target choices of carbon emission peaking in China around 2030 as China-US Joint Announcement by an integrated assessment model for climate change IAMC based on carbon factor theory. Here scenarios DGS-2020, LGS2025, LBS-2030 and DBS-2040 derived from the historical pathways of developed countries are developed to access the comprehensive impacts on the economy, energy and climate security for the greener development in China. The findings suggest that the period of 2025–2030 is the window of opportunity to achieve a peak in carbon emissions at a level below 12 Gt CO2 and 8.5 t per capita by reasonable trade-offs from economy growth, annually −0.2% in average and cumulatively −3% deviation to BAU in 2030. The oil and natural gas import dependence will exceed 70% and 45% respectively while the non-fossil energy and electricity share will rise to above 20% and 45%. Meantime, the electrification level in end use sectors will increase substantially and the electricity energy ratio approaching 50%, the labor and capital productivity should be double in improvements and the carbon intensity drop by 65% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level, and the cumulative emission reductions are estimated to be more than 20 Gt CO2 in 2015–2030.

  15. Untying the Energy Knot of Supply Security, Climate Change, Economic Competitiveness: The Role of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulteel, Paul; Capros, Pantelis

    2007-07-01

    In energy terms, the following decades will be dominated by the challenge of developing a low-carbon, energy-secure and competitive economy. EURELECTRIC launched a study, horizon 2030-2050, to develop a qualified vision about the role of electricity in responding to these challenges. The resulting message is a positive one: with the right policies that include a long-term visibility of carbon pricing to allow integration of climate change impacts in investments and business strategies, it is possible to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions without unreasonable costs to the economy, and at the same time to reduce oil and gas dependency. A focus on demand side energy-efficiency is a prerequisite. The development of renewables, of clean fossil fuel technology with carbon capture and storage, and of nuclear energy can make a low-carbon and largely oil-independent power generation mix a reality. This allows for formidable synergies with energy-efficient electro-technologies at the demand side. Two sectors are especially meaningful in this respect: the heating and cooling and road transport sectors, where heat pumps and plug-in hybrid cars respectively can make energy-efficient, oil-independent and low-carbon homes and cars a reality. Although the analysis is based on European conditions, the authors believe that it has worldwide relevance. (auth)

  16. Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds, which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge.

  17. Supply chain finance and its accounting treatment : reclassification of trade payables and it's implications for the professional field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauke Feenstra; Anne Rikst Engbers; Michiel Steeman

    2017-01-01

    In the modern Supply Chain Finance landscape, Reverse Factoring is one of the most consolidated business model for working capital financing. However, accounting treatment of Reverse Factoring might affect the balance sheet of large corporate, with disruptive consequences for the programme as a

  18. An approach to forming tax regulation of foreign trade activity as a means of financial security assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Yu. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the issue of improving the taxation of foreign trade activity depending on the global market conditions. The author offers an approach to taxation of foreign trade, and suggests the way of improving the taxation in this article’s branch.

  19. Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnworth, C.R.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Thomas, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that

  20. Report: EPA Needs to Assess the Quality of Vulnerability Assessments Related to the Security of the Nation’s Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-M-00013, September 24, 2003. In connection with our ongoing evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) activities to enhance the security of the Nation’s water supply, we noted an issue that requires your immediate attention.

  1. The security of energy supply. The European seminar. The green book of the Commission. The IEA judgment. The strategic oil stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.; Burucoa, X.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Energies et Matieres Premieres journal comprises five articles about the security of energy supplies in Europe and France. The first article is the opening talk given by Christian Pierret at the European seminar on the security of energy supplies (Paris-Bercy, France, Nov. 24 2000). The article gives a broad presentation of the French energy policy in the worldwide economical, political and environmental context of energy. The second article is the concluding talk given by Jean-Michel Charpin at the seminar. The third article reports on some excerpts of the technical summary that was used to elaborate the green book of the European commission about the security of energy supplies. The fourth article is a summary written in collaboration with the IEA about the French policy of security of energy supplies. The last article gives a presentation of the role and management of strategic oil stocks (historical aspects, rules and legal aspects, management of crises, economical impact of the US destocking of September 2000, proposal of the European Commission's green book). (J.S.)

  2. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  3. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  4. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  5. The Importance of Authorized Economic Operator Institution for the Security of Supply Chain in the International Goods Turnover of Polish Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the growth of international exchange of goods also the number of threats increases that potentially may influence the security of functioning international supply chains. Currently, there is a need of developing solutions which aim at facilitating flow of goods, simultaneously ensuring security against the increasing number of threats related to e.g. terrorist attacks, illegal smuggling, thefts and tax frauds. The article presents institution of an authorized operator – Authorized Economic Operator (AEO, introduced on the territory of the European Union in 2008. The discourse demonstrates influence of functioning AEO certificates on security of international supply chains with the particular attention drawn on the importance of AEO institution for Polish operators.

  6. Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply, Trade-Offs and Soical-Ecological Interactions in European Wood-Pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario

    (Östergötland in Sweden, Southern Transylvania in Romania, Llanos de Trujillo in Spain and La Serena in Spain). The thesis provides an understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms interacting in the generation of ecosystem services in European wood-pastures, and the factors that govern this supply. The results...... show that wood-pastures offer a wide range of ecosystem services, which is due to, on the one hand, the high multifunctionality that characterizes them and, on the other hand, the multiple socio-cultural values they host. However, the specific interactions between the social and ecological components...

  7. Security, at what cost? A stated preference approach toward understanding individuals' privacy and civil liberties trade-offs regarding security measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, N.; Potoglou, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the presently heightened security environment there are a number of examples of policy that must strike a delicate balance between strengthening security without jeopardising public liberties and personal privacy. The introduction of national identity cards and biometric passports, the expansion

  8. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  9. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  10. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2004-03-01

    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  11. Streamlining air import operations by trade facilitation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global operations are subject to considerable uncertainties. Due to the Trade Facilitation Agreement that became effective in February 2017, the study of measures to streamline customs controls is urgent. This study aims to assess the impact of trade facilitation measures on import flows. An experimental study was performed in the largest cargo airport in South America through discrete-event simulation and design of experiments. Operation impacts of three trade facilitation measures are assessed on import flow by air. We shed light in the following trade facilitation measures: the use of X-ray equipment for physical inspection; increase of the number of qualified companies in the trade facilitation program; performance targets for customs officials. All trade facilitation measures used indicated potential to provide more predictability, cost savings, time reduction, and increase in security in international supply chain.

  12. Statement of participants at the International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T.; Suchomel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The participants at the Conference called on decision makers both in the European Union (EU) and in Slovakia to provide fair treatment to nuclear power compared with other energy sources, especially with renewable, without prejudice to nuclear safety. This implies ensuring equality in terms of economics, tax, and accounting for externalities. The participants called on the Slovak government to initiate studies that compare the full life-cycle costs, impacts and risks, across the spectrum of energy sources and uses. They should also internalize the external costs. The participants called for a debate on the Slovak energy needs, taking into account the environmental impact of all potential sources of energy and the costs of providing electricity from those sources, and in addition a rational and objective analysis of the security of supply of those sources. It is necessary to have a range of sources for electricity generation that are cost effective and reliable, and respect the environment. The Slovak economy cannot withstand a sudden loss of its guaranteed energy supply. The participants believe that the major government role is setting overall policy for the economy, energy and the environment, with an adequate base in legislation and institutional competence. The Slovak government should have clear strategies for achieving self-sufficient energy-policy goals with reserve power and for meeting climate-change and air-quality goals. The Conference concluded that the nuclear option should remain open in Slovakia, as part of a balanced energy mix, in line with developments abroad and the EU Green Paper from 2000; the alternative is Slovak's failure to secure an affordable energy supply for its citizens. The participants supported the completion of Mochovce 3, 4, complying with enhanced safety requirements, as the most effective option. In Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) privatization, the government should insist on as large an involvement of Slovak firms in the

  13. Government influence on international trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections, entitled; introduction (history of uncertainty in the uranium market, opposition to nuclear power); unsatisfactory features of today's trade conditions (including discussion of restrictions in production, exports and imports); desirable principles governing international trade in uranium, apart from the non-proliferation issue (limitation on governmental intervention for economic purposes, reservation of adequate uranium resources in exporting countries, government export price control); desirable principles for achieving balance between security of supply and non-proliferation (need for consensus, reprocessing and fast breeder reactors, principles guiding government controls established for non-proliferation purposes). (U.K.)

  14. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  15. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  16. Security of Supply: A Pan-European Approach - The Opportunities and Requirements of Greater Cooperation Across European Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulreich, S.

    2015-01-01

    reduce residual load could be realised, then less power plant capacity would have to be reserved. Storage to take in excess energy would be necessary only at a later date, if required. Both of these factors can result in cost reductions. Potential savings would need to be compared with the network expansion and transaction costs associated with collective generation adequacy assessment. Comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits should however also take into consideration any gains in the efficiency of electricity generation arising from improved usage of power plants. The following requirements are necessary to achieve this potential: 1) Cross-border methods of generation adequacy assessment need to be further developed in addition to national approaches; 2) International harmonisation of generation adequacy assessment processes. This also impacts the legal and organisational aspects of ensuring generation adequacy; 3) Reliable cross border capacity to ensure domestic security of supply. Parties responsible for security of supply at a national level need a binding guarantee when securing domestic demand with cross-border capacity; 4) Development of grid infrastructure needed alongside the existing planning (e.g. TYNDP), while giving group effects even more consideration. In doing so, obstacles as well as transformation and transaction costs need to be considered. These can be difficult to quantify, but play an important role in practice. We have arrived at the following recommendations based on the study: 1) Harmonisation of standards and processes: Common definitions of security of supply, a coordinated process of generation adequacy assessment and a guarantee of cross-border generation adequacy can contribute to the realisation of a domestic market design, even if the actual costs savings and required costs are difficult to determine. We recommend that these factors be taken into account in electricity market design. 2) Review of the evaluation of wind power

  17. Security of supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, I.; Dauger, J.M.; Mernier, A.; Rahal, C.M.; Stoppard, M.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    The geopolitical risks, the perspective of a strong growth of the world gas consumption, and the competition between big markets to have access to gas resources lead to a strong pressure on gas prices. What are the lessons learnt from the recent evolutions of energy prices and what are the possible scenarios about the share of gas in tomorrow's energy needs? This round table gathered 5 participants and a journalist who debated this question. (J.S.)

  18. International symposium on uranium production and raw materials for the nuclear fuel cycle - Supply and demand, economics, the environment and energy security. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IAEA periodically organizes nical meetings and international symposia on all areas of the uranium production cycle. This publication contains 160 extended synopses related to the 2005 international symposium on 'Uranium Production and Raw Materials for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Supply and Demand, Economics, the Environment and Energy Security'. They cover all areas of natural uranium resources and production cycle including uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposit; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environment and regulation. Each synopsis was indexed individually.

  19. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  20. Integration of decentralised renewable power supply plants in the grid - security of supply in the residential sector; Integration dezentraler regenerativer Energieversorgungsanlagen in den Netzbetrieb - Versorgungssicherheit im Wohnbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Nestle, D. [Kassel Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Solare Energietechnik e.V. (ISET)

    2007-06-15

    By supplementing the existing technical and legal interface between the public network and the customer with intelligent components and applying the principle of local decision-making on the basis of central and local information BEMI (bidirectional energy management interface) creates a platform through which both suppliers and consumers can contribute substantially to the integration of naturally supply-dependent energy resources in the low-voltage supply network. This article describes a laboratory-scale system which demonstrates the performance capability of BEMI, which is being further improved through test runs.

  1. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  2. Security of supply and line flow following the shut-down of nuclear power plants in Germany. Have shortages to be expected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, Friedrich; Moest, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    This paper, which examines the impacts of phasing out nuclear power in Germany, is the first to include an analysis of energy supply security and critical line flows in both the German and Central European electricity networks. The technical-economic model of the European electricity market, ELMOD, is used to simulate alternative power plant dispatch, imports, exports, and network use for a representative winter day. The results suggest that the shutdown of Germany's nuclear plants will result in higher net imports, especially from the Netherlands, Austria, and Poland, and that electricity generation from fossil fuels will increase slightly in Germany and in Central Europe. We find that no additional imports will come from nuclear plants since they are already fully utilized in the merit order, and that electricity prices will rise on average by a few Euros per MWh. We conclude that closing the seven nuclear power plants within the government's moratorium will cause no significant supply security issues or network constraints and an eventual full phase-out seem to be possible due to the completion of several new conventional power plants now under construction. Finally, we suggest that a nuclear phase-out in Germany within the next 3-7 years will not undermine security of supply and network stability in Germany and Central Europe.

  3. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  4. Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, Selder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO 2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO 2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the country’s environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germany’s energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

  5. Germany without renewables? Electricity costs and security of supply without the supply of renewable energy in 2011-2013. Discussion paper; Deutschland ohne Erneuerbare Energien? Stromkosten und Versorgungssicherheit ohne die Einspeisung Erneuerbarer Energien in den Jahren 2011-2013. Diskussionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillig, Marius; Karl, Juergen

    2014-12-15

    In the years 2010 to 2013, the share of electricity produced from renewable energy of approximately 17 rose to 24%. For this share compared to conventional production results significantly increased electricity costs, which are allocated on the EEG surcharge to the final consumer. In public discussion of these costs, however, often is ignored that the rapid rise of the share of renewable energy lead to an oversupply of power and therefore decreasing electricity costs in total resulted. By the oversupply the trend of a strong increase in the 2000 to 2008 of Electricity prices on the European electricity markets was broken. The aim of this discussion paper is to reconstruct based on historical price data on the spot market of the Leipzig electricity exchange which prices would be set on the electricity market in the years 2011 to 2013 without the power supply from wind and photovoltaic. The analysis shows that electricity prices have increased without wind and sun, for example, for 2013, due to the significantly lower power supply by an average of 5.29 ct / kWh in the ''day-ahead'' trade on the spot market. The cost of the EEG surcharge of approximately EUR 20.4 billion are thus in 2013 savings of conventional electricity of approximately 31.6 billion euros. This saved a total of approximately 11.2 billion euros in 2013 for the German final consumers. About 269 hours of the year, the demand could not be satisfied with the offered maximal power of 2013. This does not automatically mean that in these situations, major faults (''blackouts'') would have been incurred because the consideration Reserve power plants for system services (''control reserve'') are not taken into account and possible additional import electricity. A stable network operation was reliably ensured only by the supply of renewable energy in these situations, however. Due to the massive development of renewable energy is therefore reduced to

  6. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  7. Trade-Off or Convergence? The Role of Food Security in the Evolution of Food Discourse in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…

  8. The Free Trade Area of the Americas: Can Regional Economic Integration Lead to Greater Cooperation on Security?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandoval, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...) and its impact on cooperative security in the Western Hemisphere. Similar to the l990s, when the U.S. government debated the pros and cons of the NAFTA, the United States now faces a debate over passage and implementation of the FTAA...

  9. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?; Quelle est la place des preoccupations de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance energetique dans la politique de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Planning method for integration and expansion of renewable energy sources with special attention to security supply in distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Arias, Jose Luis

    2012-07-01

    Today's structure of power systems with competitive wholesale markets for electricity encourages the introduction of new agents and products, customers with self-generating capacity and the specialization of generators, network operators and power suppliers. Furthermore one has to take into account the variation of the fossil fuel prices in the world market, which even anticipates the closeness of its scarcity, the instability of the fulfilment of contracts, and the existence of import restrictions. In addition the implementation of policies aiming to control CO{sub 2} emissions, and efficient use of energy plus the advent of more efficient technologies have to be incorporated in new network expansion projects. These are forcing utilities and society to seek new forms of electric system expansion without affecting their economic growth. This expresses a challenge to sustain such a growth changing the vision for the power system and the required security of electricity supply, usually based on internal factors of the electric sector, without considering the connection between the current transmission and distribution networks, the uncertainties related to the competition in the electricity market and the effect of distributed generation units. The high penetration of distributed generation resources, based on renewable energy sources, is increasingly observed worldwide and it depends on the cost of the technologies, market design, and subsidies. On that account, it is necessary to find alternatives and offers to develop a sustainable strategic plan for power system expansion. Currently, efforts are oriented to develop planning models which consider the income of power generation based on renewable energy sources founded on these new requirements, bearing in mind the relationship between the competitive markets and the power system planning. In this Thesis a general planning method for the expansion of the power grids is proposed. This planning method should

  11. Canine Supply for Physical Security: An Analysis of the Royal Australian Air Force Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    PHYSICAL SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM by Mark W. Powell March 2016 Thesis...AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark W. Powell 7. PERFORMING...increased demand on its physical security elements. Its military working dog (MWD) workforce is required to meet an inventory of 204 by end of year 2023 as

  12. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  13. Modeling generation expansion in the context of a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. Application to the Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C.; Salazar, J.; Sanchez, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to provide electricity generation investors with appropriate economic incentives so as to maintain quality of supply at socially optimal levels, a growing number of electricity market regulators have opted for implementing a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. In this context, the ability to analyze long-term investment dynamics is a key issue not only for market agents, but also for regulators. This paper describes a model developed to serve this purpose. A general system-dynamics-inspired methodology has been designed to be able to simulate these long-term auction mechanisms in the formats presently in place. A full-scale simulation based on the Colombian system was conducted to illustrate model capabilities. (author)

  14. Modeling generation expansion in the context of a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. Application to the Colombian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C. [Institute for Research in Technology, University Pontificia Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, J. [Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Carrera 58 No. 42-125 Edificio Inteligente, Medellin (Colombia); Sanchez, J.J. [Secretaria de Estado de Cambio Climatico, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Rural y Marino. Plaza San Juan de la Cruz, 28071 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to provide electricity generation investors with appropriate economic incentives so as to maintain quality of supply at socially optimal levels, a growing number of electricity market regulators have opted for implementing a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. In this context, the ability to analyze long-term investment dynamics is a key issue not only for market agents, but also for regulators. This paper describes a model developed to serve this purpose. A general system-dynamics-inspired methodology has been designed to be able to simulate these long-term auction mechanisms in the formats presently in place. A full-scale simulation based on the Colombian system was conducted to illustrate model capabilities. (author)

  15. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document; Livret vert sur la securite de l'approvisionnement en energie, document technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  16. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  17. Power supply - HVDC and facts make it sustainable and secure; Stromversorgung - nachhaltig und sicher mit HGUeund Facts. Grid Access fuer ''gruene Energie''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uecker, Karl; Retzmann, Dietmar [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). HVDC/Facts Sales and Marketing; Schultze, Alberto [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Abt. Grid Access and Industry

    2010-09-06

    Due to the global climate change, the power industry has a lot of changes in store. For reasons of environmental protection, the reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in power generation and loss minimization in power transmission are of particular importance. This means that the share of wind power in a lot of countries, Germany among them, must be as high as possible, for the other ''green'' energy resources, such as hydro or solar power, play only a subordinate part for reasons of their geographical location. Along with sustainability and efficiency of power supply, grid security must be taken into account as well. (orig.)

  18. White paper for a competitive energy offer at the service of an achieved energy transition and of a guaranteed security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    Published by a professional body (AFIEG, Independent French Association of Electricity and Gas)), this white paper first gives an overview and some critics on the French energy policy, and then aims at outlining and discussing three main objectives of an energy policy: security of supply, energy competitiveness, and a realistic and successful energy transition. It proposes measures to reach these objectives while taking regulatory stability, and equal treatment of operators in terms of regulation into account. Recommendations are stated regarding these objectives and requirements

  19. Heat contracting - a contribution to climate protection, security of supply and competition; Waerme-Contracting - ein Beitrag zu Klimaschutz, Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, R.P. [GASAG WaermeService GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Contracting is an important trump card when it comes to containing the climate change and improving the security of supply - and a promising business field besides. This is an option that should be used more widely considering the ambitious energy efficiency improvement targets of the European Union and Germany, which are set at 20% and 50% percent over the year 1990, respectively. It is moreover an option that pays off. German tenancy law is in urgent need of a reform to make heat contracting more popular. Furthermore, the modernisation of heating systems through contracting should be placed on a level with modernisation effected by the landlord.

  20. Infrastructure to support trading strategies against the occurrence of extraordinary events: Secure area of the equipment storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas Gordo, A. de; Asensio Vega, J.; Fernandez Morales, E. J.; Font Hadinger, I.

    2013-01-01

    Compliance with the requirements specified in the Technical Instructions ITC and ITC-1-2, issued by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is conducting exhaustive analyzes on coping in Nuclear Power Plants emergencies due to the occurrence extraordinary events. As part of the necessary infrastructure, a secure area for parking and storage of projects teams involved in the development of various operational strategies. The design of it ensures compliance with all regulatory and practical requirements, ensuring minimization strategies and time functionality in the application of the same.

  1. Trading Justice for Security? UN Anti-Terrorism, Due Process Rights, and the Role of the Judiciary: Lessons for policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this policy paper is to highlight the role\\ud of the judiciary in reconciling counter-terrorism strategies\\ud with human rights standards. Indeed, judicial assent\\ud to the excesses of policy-makers risks deepening the\\ud human rights crisis caused by the fight against apocalyptic\\ud terrorism. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001\\ud terrorist attacks against the United States, the political\\ud climate has been dominated by security concerns. The\\ud United States has invo...

  2. Changes in Spending and Labor Supply in Response to a Social Security Benefit Cut: Evidence from Stated Choice Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline; Rohwedder, Susann

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how individuals in the U.S. expect to adjust their labor force participation and savings if Social Security benefits were cut by 30 percent. Respondents were asked directly what they would do under this scenario. Using the resulting stated choice data we find that respondents would on average reduce spending by 18.2 percent before retirement and 20.4 percent after retirement. About 34.1% of respondents state they would definitely work longer and they would postpone claiming Social Security by 1.1 years. We investigate how working longer and claiming Social Security later would compensate partially for the loss in benefits among the individuals who are currently working, under the assumption that individuals retire and claim at the same time. Individuals would increase their Social Security benefits from the post-reform level due to additional earnings entering the benefit calculation and a smaller early claiming penalty (or higher delayed claiming credit). As a result, the Social Security benefit people would receive would drop on average by 21 rather than 30 percent. Still, the net financial loss, even after accounting for additional earnings, is sizeable for individuals in the lowest wealth tertile.

  3. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  4. Heat supply to low energy dwellings in district heating areas. Analyses of CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity supply security; Varmeforsyning til lavenergiboliger i omraader med fjernvarmekonsesjon. Analyser av CO{sub 2}-utslipp og forsyningssikkerhet for elektrisitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit

    2006-07-01

    Building low energy dwellings in large development projects is a new situation in Norway. The municipalities have to a little extent analyzed the consequences of this new housing standard with respect to the energy supply to such areas, and how this standard may change the plans for new or extended district heat production. In the provision about the mandatory connection to district heating plants, and the appendant provision related to a heating system that can utilize district heat, the district heat supply and the heat demand are not seen in connection. The objective of this dissertation is to provide the municipalities with a basis for decision making in the processing of applications concerning dispensation from the mandatory connection or the heating system requirement for dwellings with low heat demand. This basis for decision making is based on the national aim of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and of improving the electricity supply security. This summary provides an abstract from the discussion of the legislation as an incentive or barrier for building low energy dwellings. An abstract from a survey among construction firms concerning the motivation for building low energy dwellings is also included. In addition, the summary provides a comprehensive abstract of the results from the CO{sub 2} emission calculations, and the basis for these calculations. Introductorily a brief background of the national focus on energy savings and increased use of hydronic heating, including district heat, is given.

  5. Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbrouck, Joel

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact is a positive and concave function of the trade size; large trades cause the spread to widen; trades occurring in ...

  6. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  7. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    counterfeit merchandise smugglers, and remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain. The TSA and CBP continue to seek administrative...been exploited by narcotics, human and counterfeit merchandise smugglers for centuries, remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain... visual depiction of the European Union 3rd country security processes. 96 Official Journal of the

  8. Managing cyber-risk and security in the global supply chain: a systems analysis approach to risk, structure and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto

    -term legal ramifications. As a result, little information about attacks and their consequences is published. Supply chains continue to prepare for cyber-attacks through a mix of traditional risk and resilience frameworks, protecting their networks through patches, firewalls and antiviruses, or financially...

  9. Hybrid Electricity Markets with Long-Term Risk-Sharing Arrangements: Adapting Market Design to Security of Supply and decarbonization Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROQUES, Fabien; FINON, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The re-emergence of policy interventionism in electricity markets raises questions as to how market design can best be adapted to meeting the investment challenge associated with security of supply (SoS) and decarbonization objectives. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the standard historical approach towards competitive markets, in order to analyse the roles and interactions of the initial and additional market 'modules'. We argue that a number of additional modules is required to achieve long-term policy objectives, such as decarbonization and security of supply (SoS). But, in turn, they destabilise the initial modules of the market design, in particular by the entries of renewables. We review the international experience with hybrid market design and draw a number of policy recommendations at to best practices, as well as suggesting ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to prevent inconsistencies with the new modules. The move towards a hybrid market regime, which relies on a combination of planning, long-term risk sharing arrangements and improved markets entrenched in a function of short-term coordination, appears to be unavoidable where decarbonization policies are adopted. (authors)

  10. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply; Livre Vert: vers une strategie europeenne de securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Governmental guarantee responsibility and the provision of security of connection and supply in the energy sector.; Staatliche Gewaehrleistungsverantwortung und die Sicherstellung von Anschluss und Versorgung im Bereich der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Marcus

    2012-07-01

    The present study is confined to an investigation of the regulations of the Energy Economy Law regarding connection and supply. Other possible contractual claims pursuant to Art. 826 of the German Civil Code or the prohibition of monopoly abuse under anti-trust law are only addressed cursorily on account of their low practical relevance to household customers' supply connection and energy supply. The study comes to the conclusion that the provisions of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) on final consumers' supply connection and energy supply sufficiently implement the state's guarantee responsibility in energy supply matters as required by welfare state principles. The author argues that the state's guarantee responsibility primarily obliges it to ensure an energy supply that is available to everyone at an affordable price at any time and any place. These requirements are met by the regulations on supply connection and energy supply contained in Articles 17 f. and 36 ff. EnWG. A coherent regulatory system on connection and supply is established in particular by the provisions of Art. 18 EnWG on the general connection obligation and of Art. 36 EnWG on the basic supply obligation. This system secures the supply of final consumers with grid-bound energy even under the present altered framework conditions, meaning the compulsory separation of connection and supply, and does so to the constitutionally required extent.

  13. ICT security and the progress towards intelligent energy supply systems. Sustained safeguarding of compliance with basic requirements; IKT-Sicherheit und der Weg zu intelligenten Energieversorgungssystemen. Nachhaltige Sicherstellung der Einhaltung grundlegender Anforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honecker, Hans [Bundesamt fuer Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Using the electricity supply system as an example, this contribution tries to show the global correlation between basic requirements regarding the holistic view on energy supply on one hand and considerations regarding ICT-security of sub-infrastructures of the upcoming intelligent energy supply systems on the other hand. This article discusses the key role of fundamental decisions regarding the overall architecture of electricity supply systems. The overall situation regarding ICT-threats can change and get worse quickly, fundamental adaptions of energy supply infrastructures to changing threats take - if possible at all - very long on the time scale. Thus, from the author's point of view, an appropriate integration and coverage of ICT-security within the overall context is mandatory. (orig.)

  14. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Kittinger

    Full Text Available Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1 (mean ± SE of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery, and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change.

  15. Can groundwater secure drinking-water supply and supplementary irrigation in new settlements of North-West Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, Jean Michel; Valois, Rémi; Lun, Sambo; Caron, Delphine; Arnout, Ludovic

    2016-02-01

    Since the end of the Cambodian Civil War in 1998, the population of the Oddar Meanchey province has drastically increased despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, including basic amenities such as drinking-water supply. To improve the access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focussed on drilling shallow boreholes. The use of groundwater for irrigation is also a growing concern to cope with the occasional late arrival of the rainy season or to produce food during the dry season. Since the groundwater resource in the province has not been documented, a 4-year study was undertaken (2011-2014), aiming to estimate the capability of groundwater to supply domestic needs and supplementary irrigation for rice production. Aquifer properties were estimated by combined use of hydrogeological techniques with the geophysical magnetic resonance sounding method. Groundwater storage and recharge were estimated based on new developments in the application of the geophysical method for quantifying specific yield. The median groundwater storage of the targeted sandstone aquifer is 173 mm, the recharge is diffuse and annually ranges from 10 to 70 mm, and the transmissivity is low to medium. Simulations of pumping indicate that the aquifer can easily supply 100 L of drinking water per capita daily, even considering the estimated population in 2030. However, the shallow aquifer can generally not deliver enough water to irrigate paddy fields of several hectares during a 2-month delay in the onset of the monsoon.

  16. Heat supply concept for trade. Vol. 3. Environmentally friendly and energy-saving heat supply for public institutions by private operator models (phase 1). Final report. Vol. 2; Waermelieferungskonzept des Handwerks. Bd. 3. Umweltfreundliche und energiesparende Waermeversorgung oeffentlicher Einrichtungen durch private Betreibermodelle (Phase 1). Abschlussbericht. Berichtsband 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, J [ed.; Biermann, J; Locke, R; Meyer, K

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of this report indicates two goals: (3): Development and implementation of concrete heat supply models for public facilities in Berlin; (4): Development of models for cooperation between the heat utility and Berlin trade enterprises. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Berichtsband 2 weist 2 Teilziele auf: Teilziel 3: Erarbeitung und Gestaltung konkreter Waermelieferungsmodelle fuer oeffenliche Einrichtungen in Berlin; Teilziel 4: Gestaltung von Kooperationsmoeglichkeiten zwischen Waermeversorgungsgesellschaft und Handwerksbetrieben in Berlin. (HW)

  17. Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of nonconventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

  18. 76 FR 33803 - Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Order of Suspension of Trading June 7, 2011... trading in the securities of the above-listed companies. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  19. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  20. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  1. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Policy Options for Ensuring Long-term Supply Security of Molybdenum-99 and/or Technetium-99m Produced Without Highly Enriched Uranium Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, Chad; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Following the shortages of the key medical radioisotopes, molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its daughter technetium-99m (' 99m Tc), the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) created the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). Since 2009, this group has identified the reasons for the isotope shortages and developed a policy approach to address the challenges to a long-term secure supply of these important medical isotopes. On top of the ongoing concerns related to long-term reliability, all current long-term major 99 Mo-producing nations have agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for the production of 99 Mo. This decision was made based on important nonproliferation reasons; however, the conversion will have potential impacts on the global supply chain - both in terms of costs and available capacity. Recognising that conversion is important and will occur, and also recognising the need to ensure a long-term secure supply of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc, the NEA, along with stakeholders, examined potential policy options that could be used by to ensure a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without highly enriched uranium (HEU), consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. This discussion paper provides the various policy options available to governments to encourage a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without HEU. The examination of these options was done through the lens of ensuring a reliable supply, consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. The options described in this document are meant to meet this objective by taking one of three general actions: - Making the option of purchasing or producing non-HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc more attractive. - Making the option of purchasing or producing HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc less attractive. - Limiting access to HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc. This paper presents the options in each category and provides some views

  2. 电子商务安全体系结构%Security Architecture for Electronic Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 秦志光; 刘锦德; 张险峰

    2002-01-01

    Electronic commerce operates relying on the open Internet. Security architecture for e-commerce becomes the key point to its use prosperously. A finite automation of typical e-commerce model is presented in this paper. The finite automation simulates typical trade system, describes its states transition and supplies a theory basis for designing security architecture for e-commerce. Then security threats and corresponding solutions to the model are discussed. Finally, the security architecture for e-commerce is given. All of them are used as basis for further e-commerce security research.

  3. 77 FR 56697 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67802; File No. 4-652] Technology and Trading... Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss ways to promote stability in markets that... Trading and Markets, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-7010. By...

  4. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  5. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  6. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  7. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  8. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  9. Increasing security of supply: The search for stable models of financing for new nuclear build in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael James

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This research assesses models for financing of new nuclear build in European Union (EU) member states to find the most stable form. The countries examined in this study are France, the United Kingdom, Finland and Romania. The results attest that due to various historical, political, competition, and electricity market structural conditions Romania has emerged with the most secure and stable model for financing of new nuclear projects. This paper begins with an assessment of the effects on the nuclear sector from energy, environment and competition legislation in the EU. Then the political and economic climate of the afore mentioned EU member states is completed. Following this an overview of the market structure of the electricity sector in those respective countries is conducted. Then the key research on the models of financing of new nuclear build is explored, contrasted and analysed. The research concludes that there are four main models for financing new nuclear projects in Europe. Each model has transcended from different political and economic forces, and consequently each model has met with varied levels of success. Electricity market structures while operating to the same legal requirements, have been dissimilar in their evolution. The combination of the above factors has led to different models for financing new nuclear build. Upon further analysis it is concluded and demonstrated that the Romanian financing model is the most suitable and provides an example for any new nuclear build aspiring nations in the EU and beyond. (author)

  10. Hungary-Ukraine energy cooperation and its contribution to the security of supply in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, P.

    2007-07-01

    The European Union (EU) will be increasingly dependant upon non-EU primary energy resources as domestic resources are depleted. Ukraine can play a pivotal role in future supply to the EU through its neighbor Hungary. Ukraine is the largest country in the world by volume of gas transit. Through its pipeline, the transit gas deliveries amount annually to 140 billion m{sup 3}, including 120 billion m{sup 3} to countries of Central and Western Europe. The country also has an under-utilized 750 kV electricity transmission line that reaches into Hungary. These assets make Eastern Hungary a key location for a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT). A plant of this type would be able to provide electricity generation for the Central Eastern Europe (CEE) region. The heat generated by the plant could also be used in local industrial and agricultural production, thereby providing an additional impetus for regional development initiatives. Hungary is open for foreign investment from the West, but also from investors in the Ukraine and Russia. The construction of the CCGT plant and the related regional development is a great opportunity to strengthen the cooperation of Ukraine, the EU and Hungary for the common benefit of the entire region. (auth)

  11. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  12. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  13. 17 CFR 240.12f-3 - Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-3 Section 240.12f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-3 Termination or suspension of unlisted trading privileges. (a) The issuer of any security for which unlisted trading privileges...

  14. Critical Factors of Attracting Supply Chain Network Members to Electronic Marketplaces: The Case of Sunbooks Ltd. and the Hungarian Book Trade

    OpenAIRE

    György Drótos; Péter Móricz

    2006-01-01

    Vertical electronic marketplaces often suffer from the low level of liquidity. Attracting members is critical, however, not even a sound and efficient IT and logistic background is enough to convince both the supplier and the customer side. In this paper the authors present the case study of Sunbooks Ltd. This venture has started to transform the Hungarian book trade market that suffers from serious deficiencies in field of information and material flow. Despite the vast investments and that ...

  15. Data quality assurance in international supply chains : An application of the value cycle approach to customs reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuxin; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    With increasing international trade and growing emphasis on security and efficiency, enhanced information and data-sharing between different stakeholders in global supply chains is required. Currently, data quality is not only problematic for traders, but also for various government agencies that

  16. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  17. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  18. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler

    2008-09-01

    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

  19. Yet Another Trading Simulation: The nonimmediacy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyasreedharan, Nagaratnam

    2007-01-01

    Market participants who want to trade “quickly” demand transactional liquidity. Market participants who demand to trade “immediately” demand transactional immediacy. Traders supply immediacy when the trading returns are high and demand immediacy when the trading returns are low. Traders supply immediacy by being non-immediate and traders demand immediacy by being immediate. As these time-based expectations are functions of the underlying distributions of the clearing prices, one is able to de...

  20. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.