WorldWideScience

Sample records for trade compliance system

  1. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in

  2. Trade and compliance cost model in the international supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsyida, Tuty; van Delft, Selma; Rukanova, B.D.; Tan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Trade costs for international supply chain are huge, even in the absence of formal barriers. It is necessary for all the stakeholders, both private and public organizations, to support an effective and efficient border compliance process. Very little trade cost model research has been done at the

  3. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  4. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  5. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  6. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  7. ICF's Plant Compliance Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Government and private industrial facilities must manage wastes that are both radioactive and (chemically) hazardous. Until recently, these mixed wastes have been managed under rules established under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Low-Level Waste Policy At, and rules that derive from environmental legislation have not been applied. Both sets of rules now apply to mixed wastes, creating situations in which significant changes to waste steams must be made in order to bring them into compliance with environmental regulations. The first step in bringing waste streams into compliance is to determine their status with respect to the newly-applicable regulations. This process of compliance assessment is difficult because requirements to minimize human exposure to radiation can conflict with requirements of environmental regulations, many regulations are potentially applicable, the regulations are changing rapidly, and because waste streams designed to operate under AEA rules frequently cannot be easily modified to incorporate the additional regulations. Modern personal computer (PC) tools are being developed to help regulatory analysts manage the large amounts of information required to asses the compliance status of complex process plants. This paper presents the Plant Compliance Assessment System (PCAS), which performs this function by relating a database containing references to regulatory requirements to databases created to describe relevant aspects of the facility to be assessed

  8. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  9. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  10. Visa Compliance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A new secure web-based system that tracks the approval process of the DS-2019 applications and participant information. The Office of Education uses VCS to track the...

  11. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  12. Emission trading schemes: potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jeff; Owen, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The case for the imposition of carbon (emission) taxes or tradable carbon permits in important tax jurisdictions is arguably strong, based upon the polluter pays principle first proposed by Pigou almost a century ago. This paper briefly reviews the arguments for and against these market-based instruments, and discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages in a practical context. In the case of Australia, the revenue effect of the proposed tradable carbon permits scheme is estimated to be A$11.5 billion in 2010-11. For comparison, this is roughly equivalent to a quarter of the revenue from the Goods and Services Tax. The paper focuses on three neglected aspects of climate change taxation discussion to date: how much tax revenue is likely to be raised, and the administrative and compliance costs of an emissions trading scheme, with particular reference to Australia. In discussing these issues, the paper draws upon selected and relevant international experience, particularly the European Union emissions trading scheme. The challenges of an emissions trading scheme, including integration with the existing tax system, particularly in an Australian context, are also discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising the key challenges and issues facing this 'ultimate externality' debate, particularly from a taxation policy perspective.

  13. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry's SO 2 emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO 2 emitted during a given year, and meet NO x reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO 2 allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements

  14. EnviroTRADE information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, C.; Harrington, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange (EnviroTRADE) is a graphical/textual information management system being developed for the cleanup program of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Complex. Its principal purpose is to provide a single, powerful, interactive database that addresses environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and the technologies currently under development or already available to resolve them. Because the volume and complexity of the information is so large, a sophisticated Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is employed in EnviroTRADE. EnviroTRADE will be a multi-purpose, multi-user system capable of addressing a broad range of environmental assessment and cleanup issues. An early focus for the Beta version of EnviroTRADE has been to find matches between specific environmental problems at particular sites (e.g., in terms of waste composition and form) and available and new technologies suited to solve problems. The current prototype EnviroTRADE database includes both U.S. and foreign problems and technologies. A Beta version was developed and demonstrated during FY92 and was expanded in FY93. This system was delivered to EM-523 as a stand-alone resident system for demonstration and feedback purposes. The resident system demonstrates the feasibility of this kind of multi-purpose system and also provides a test bed for refining the system architecture. As the architecture and database grow, an increasing range of possible applications is envisioned. The ability to import very large quantities of graphical, textual, and numerical information into the database is of particular importance. Since a great deal of appropriate data already exists in various electronic formats, a rapid expansion into EnviroTRADE-accessible data is possible without relying on manual entry methods

  15. International greenhouse gas emissions trading. Who should be held liable for the non-compliance by sellers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. This article discusses a variety of the rules for accountability under international GHG emissions trading. It indicates that a 'buyer beware' liability is effective only to the extent that it puts additional pressure on sellers to comply with their commitments because after all sellers exercise great, if not complete, control over whether or not they comply with their commitments. Because putting such a pressure on sellers to develop effective compliance systems is not without costs to buyers, a 'buyer beware' liability should thus be imposed only in the case where non-compliance of sellers is virtually certain to occur. Moreover, in determining the optimal combination of these not-mutually-exclusive rules for accountability that are discussed in the article, the marginal benefits of adding one rule needs to be weighted against the increased costs of doing so. 12 refs

  16. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  17. Consolidated Audit And Compliance System (CACS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Consolidated Audit and Compliance System: is an audit findings management and reporting system. CACS is an implementation of the Agency Secure Image and Storage...

  18. Customs Service Modernization: Impact of New Trade Compliance Strategy Needs to Be Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Mod Act fundamentally altered the relationship between importers and Customs by shifting from Customs to the importer the legal responsibility...New Trade Compliance Strategy B-280470 • account management : Customs ’ approach to managing its work through accounts (importing companies) rather...assessment, account management , and Customs ’ responses to noncompliant importers have been implemented but have not yet reached many of the intended

  19. What Prospects for the World Trading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments and dramatic changes are under way in the world trading system. This paper aims to take stock of the latest and most relevant developments and highlight the prospects for global trade governance. The focus is on three major issues, i.e. : (1 the outcome of the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference in December 2013 in Bali (Indonesia and especially its significance for enhancing the multilateral trading system; (2 the accelerated pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs and their wider impact; and (3 the positive results of continued unilateral trade liberalization efforts, in contrast with the pervasiveness of crisis-related protectionist measures. The paper concludes that, despite improved prospects for multilateral trade liberalization following the last WTO Ministerial Conference, the world trading system is becoming more fragmented and less coherent, and also more uncertain, being increasingly driven by RTAs and a variable geometry approach to WTO trade agreements.

  20. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  1. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  2. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  3. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  4. Management information systems for environmental compliance activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-23

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is subject to Federal and state laws designed to protect against threats to public health and the environment. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department had developed adequate information systems for tracking and reporting on the status of its compliance with these laws. Systems used for prioritizing and budgeting for environmental activities are being addressed in a separate review.

  5. Czech experience with market maker trading system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2004), s. 177-191 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : trading systems * informed trading * emerging markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  7. Systems for carbon trading. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselknippe, Henrik

    2003-12-01

    This paper focuses on the increasing number of regional, national and international systems for trading and transfer of greenhouse gas emission allowances and emission reduction credits. The paper will serve as a platform for further discussions on the development of the international carbon trading market. The analysis builds on the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) Trading Schemes Database, which has been developed by Point Carbon, covering all known trading schemes and programs. A full overview of all existing trading schemes and proposals is presented, showing inter alia the outreach and judicial nature of the systems, the range and nature of emission reduction or credit purchase targets, allocation methods used, links to external systems, and possibilities for the use of project-based credits. A comparative assessment is performed on a number of design criteria, allowing for conclusions to be drawn on the level of harmonisation of these systems, and the identification of convergence or divergence of important operational features. The systems covered in the analysis display considerable variation when it comes to key design criteria and functionality. A rapid integration of many of the planned and active systems seems likely following the agreement on the EU emissions trading scheme, and will be further accelerated if the Kyoto Protocol is ratified

  8. Systemic trade risk of critical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Obersteiner, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the role of strongly interconnected markets in causing systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. We show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of nonfuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the worldwide trade networks spanned by these resources. At the global level, we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. At the regional level, we find that, to some extent, region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade risk indicators are often those that are produced as by-products of major metals. We identify significant strategic shortcomings in the management of systemic trade risk, in particular in the European Union.

  9. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in paragraph...

  10. Restricted linking of emissions trading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Lambert; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Asselt, van Harro

    2017-01-01

    With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and

  11. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  12. Microsoft System Center 2012 R2 compliance management cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, Andreas; Roesner, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Whether you are an IT manager, an administrator, or security professional who wants to learn how Microsoft Security Compliance Manager and Microsoft System Center can help fulfil compliance and security requirements, this is the book for you. Prior knowledge of Microsoft System Center is required.

  13. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    , at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry...

  14. Challenges of Sanitary Compliance Related to Trade in Products of Animal Origin in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Songabe, Tembile; Dziva, Francis

    2015-06-30

    Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i) failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii) lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ; and iii) a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  15. Challenges of sanitary compliance related to trade in products of animal origin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; and iii a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  16. New compliance management system of the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Irmscher, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of Corporate Governance is all values and principles guiding or regulating good and responsible business management. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for managing compliance, risks and checks is the prerequisite for the latter. For that reason, a compliance management system was set up at the University Hospital Frankfurt in 2015.

  17. Abatement Costs vs. Compliance Costs in Multi-Period Emissions Trading - The Firms' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission trading has become more and more important in the context of climate change. Recently, a discussion on trading on entity (i.e. company) level has started. Emitters likely to be obliged to participate have argued for an initial allocation of the emission rights free of charge. I analyse the implication of such an allocation based on historical emissions and on benchmarks in multi-period emission trading. Different allocation rules for successive periods are applied, nam...

  18. Report: ECHO Data Quality Audit – Phase I Results: The Integrated Compliance Information System Needs Security Controls to Protect Significant Non-Compliance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-P-0226, August 31, 2009. End users of the Permit Compliance System and Integrated Compliance Information System National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System can override the Significant Non-Compliance data field without more access controls.

  19. Improving compliance in remote healthcare systems through smartphone battery optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurafa, Nabil; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Nyamathi, Suneil; Liu, Jason J; Xu, Wenyao; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Remote health monitoring (RHM) has emerged as a solution to help reduce the cost burden of unhealthy lifestyles and aging populations. Enhancing compliance to prescribed medical regimens is an essential challenge to many systems, even those using smartphone technology. In this paper, we provide a technique to improve smartphone battery consumption and examine the effects of smartphone battery lifetime on compliance, in an attempt to enhance users' adherence to remote monitoring systems. We deploy WANDA-CVD, an RHM system for patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a wearable smartphone for detection of physical activity. We tested the battery optimization technique in an in-lab pilot study and validated its effects on compliance in the Women's Heart Health Study. The battery optimization technique enhanced the battery lifetime by 192% on average, resulting in a 53% increase in compliance in the study. A system like WANDA-CVD can help increase smartphone battery lifetime for RHM systems monitoring physical activity.

  20. Challenges to the Multilateral Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sutherland

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the GATT was established in 1948, the growth in international trade and economic growth has been remarkable. The traditional mercantilism of trade relations is less and less appropriate for the global economy. Bilateral trade deals make the business environment more complex and unpredictable. Preferential trading agreements erode the principle of non-discrimination. They distort trade away from the underlying comparative advantage; create rents which are appropriated by special pro...

  1. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Government Procurement. (2) Whether Canada or Mexico has failed to comply with its telecommunications... the United States: The World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General Agreement on Trade in Services; The... telecommunications products and services. For the current review, the USTR seeks comments on: (1) Whether any WTO...

  2. The Impact Of The Introduction of The Automated Trading System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact Of The Introduction of The Automated Trading System On The Nigerian Stock Market. ... Journal of Business Research. Journal Home · ABOUT ... strong form. Keywords: Event Studies, Electronic Trading, Information Technology.

  3. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  4. Exploration Medical System Trade Study Tools Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Myers, J.; Latorella, K.; Cerro, J.; Hanson, A.; Hailey, M.; Middour, C.

    2018-01-01

    ExMC is creating an ecosystem of tools to enable well-informed medical system trade studies. The suite of tools address important system implementation aspects of the space medical capabilities trade space and are being built using knowledge from the medical community regarding the unique aspects of space flight. Two integrating models, a systems engineering model and a medical risk analysis model, tie the tools together to produce an integrated assessment of the medical system and its ability to achieve medical system target requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of the various tools that are a part of the tool ecosystem. Initially, the presentation's focus will address the tools that supply the foundational information to the ecosystem. Specifically, the talk will describe how information that describes how medicine will be practiced is captured and categorized for efficient utilization in the tool suite. For example, the talk will include capturing what conditions will be planned for in-mission treatment, planned medical activities (e.g., periodic physical exam), required medical capabilities (e.g., provide imaging), and options to implement the capabilities (e.g., an ultrasound device). Database storage and configuration management will also be discussed. The presentation will include an overview of how these information tools will be tied to parameters in a Systems Modeling Language (SysML) model, allowing traceability to system behavioral, structural, and requirements content. The discussion will also describe an HRP-led enhanced risk assessment model developed to provide quantitative insight into each capability's contribution to mission success. Key outputs from these various tools, to be shared with the space medical and exploration mission development communities, will be assessments of medical system implementation option satisfaction of requirements and per-capability contributions toward achieving requirements.

  5. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  6. Enforcement and Environmental Quality in a Decentralized Emission Trading System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, Alessio (Univ. of Rome, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy)); Valentini, Edilio (Univ. G. D' Annunzio di Chieti-Pescara, DEST, Fac. di Economia, Pescara (Italy))

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether the powers of monitoring compliance and allocating allowances under emissions trading within an economic union should be centralized or delegated to single states. To this end, we develop a two stage game played by two governments choosing allowances and monitoring effort to achieve full compliance, and their respective polluting industries. We show that cost advantage in favor of national states is not sufficient to justify decentralization. Nevertheless, cost differential in monitoring violations can imply lower emissions and greater welfare under a decentralized institutional setting than under a centralized one

  7. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  8. Implications of the New Regional Trade Agreements for the World Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 witnessed an outstanding rise in the pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs. While RTAs are not a new phenomenon, current negotiations involve multiple parties and/or major trading countries that have a significant combined economic weight, i.e. mega-RTAs. This paper looks at the recent surge in trade regionalism and addresses some of the key issues related to the potential impact of mega-RTAs upon the world trading system and global trade patterns. It examines the peculiarities of the new mega-RTAs and the factors underlying their proliferation, and discusses the main concerns raised by their foreseeable impact on excluded countries and the wider trading system. The paper finds that, if successfully concluded, mega-RTAs are likely to have far-reaching implications for the world trading regime, affecting its transparency and coherence. Nevertheless, the adverse effects could be cushioned through a revival of trading nations’ interest in the multilateral Doha Round talks.

  9. Quotum for CO2. Trading system in preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Weijden, C.; Dingenen, S.

    2002-01-01

    CO2 emission rights trading is one of the most promising tools for limiting the release of CO2 in the short term. While development of a trading system continues at the European Union level, the Netherlands is working on a system of its own, which will differ from its European counterpart in various critical respects. Although the Netherlands is likely to be one of the main beneficiaries of emission trading, the nation nevertheless has an obligation to pursue technical innovation [nl

  10. THE PLACE OF CHINA IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FINANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    China, one of the oldest states of world history, adopted the open economy in 1978 and, thus, proceeded from an economy, characterized with autocracy and centralized planning, to an economy, open to international trade and foreign capital. In integration of China to the global trade system, its being a member of World Trade organization in 2001 played important role. As a result of all these developments, and the continuous and effective reforms it applied, China, nowadays, is pointed out as ...

  11. Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System after Doha

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. N.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agree...

  12. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  13. The Specification of an Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Bhatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An Expert System is a computer program that simulates the human intelligence and behaviour in specific and limited domains. It is used to solve problems with tricks, shortcuts and heuristics i.e. rules of thumb. Checking a Plan (Map to verify its compliance with building bylaws is a complex task mainly due to various rules and the exceptions to those rules. Humans are prone to make errors in such situations. Due to the problems faced by Building Control Department, HDA ( Hyderabad Development Authority there is a strong need to develop a computerized system. In this research we have developed a prototype named as ESBBC (Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance for HDA that can help in their building plan checking system. The proposed solution is merging three frameworks, i.e. Java an OOP (Object Oriented Programming language, Prolog- a rule based language and MS Access- for database. The solution is fulfilling the three main requirements of the HDA, i.e. Determination of whether a particular plan is in compliance with predefined building bylaws or not. (2 Offering search facility. (3 Maintaining records of plans which are entered for compliance checking. We have checked plans of 20 properties according to HDA building regulations using ESBBC and presented their results. The results show that ESBBC has capability to identify errors made by humans.

  14. Recommended Guidelines for NERC CIP Compliance for Synchrophasor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mix, Scott R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Silverstein, Alison [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-14

    Compliance with the NERC requirements for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) for synchrophasor systems in the Version 5 paradigm seems to be a matter of some uncertainty for those in the synchrophasor user community. This report aims to provide clarification and guidance in the form of case studies based on methods seen in the industry

  15. A cooperative power trading system based on satisfaction space technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Maruo, T.; Mori, N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a new power trading system model designed to ensure customer cooperation with power suppliers. Designed as an Internet application, the cooperative power trading system modelled power markets using a satisfaction space technology A network model of electric power trading systems was developed to create a communication network system that consisted of suppliers, customers, and auctioneers. When demand exceeded supply, the auctioneer in the trading system requested power reductions from customers. Rewards were paid to maintain the degree of satisfaction of the customers. The supplier's evaluation function was defined as a function of market price and power supply. A power reducing method was developed using a combinatorial optimization technique. Suppliers and customers submitted bids for initial power trading quantities, while the auctioneer decided a market price based on bidding values. After receiving the market price, suppliers and customers submitted a second set of bids for expected power trading quantities. A power reduction plan was then developed by the auctioneer to balance the amount of power supply and demand. The system can be applied to customers whose evaluation functions cannot be estimated beforehand, as the auctioneer was able to choose the most efficient power reduction point selected by consumers using a maximum steep slope method. Simulations conducted to validate the trading system demonstrated that the system is capable of choosing efficient energy reduction plans. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  17. The emission trading E U system: Assessment and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golini, G.

    2008-01-01

    The system of emission trading is a cap and trade mechanism aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in an economically efficient way. It draws on Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol and was established by directive 2003/87/CE amended by Directive 2004/101/EC. [it

  18. Implementation of blockchain-based energy trading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Chang Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The centralized processes of today’s power trading systems are complex and pose a risk of price tampering and hacking. The decentralized and unmodifiable nature of the blockchain technology that has recently been highlighted offers the potential to improve this power trading process. The purpose of this study is to implement a system to apply the blockchain technology to the problem of power trading. Design/methodology/approach - The authors modeled the power trading problem as the interaction between admin, producer and consumer nodes. And a power trading scenario has been created for this model using a blockchain platform called Multichain which is both fast and highly scalable. To verify this scenario, they implemented a trading system using Savoir, a Python-based JsonRPC module. Findings - Experimental results show that all processes, such as blockchain creation, node connectivity, asset issuance and exchange transactions have been correctly handled according to the scenario. Originality/value - In this study, the authors have proposed and implemented a power trading method that determines price according to the pure market principle and cannot be manipulated or hacked. It is based on the nature of blockchain technology that is decentralized and cannot be tampered.

  19. Space rescue system definition (system performance analysis and trades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housten, Sam; Elsner, Tim; Redler, Ken; Svendsen, Hal; Wenzel, Sheri

    This paper addresses key technical issues involved in the system definition of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). The perspective on these issues is that of a prospective ACRV contractor, performing system analysis and trade studies. The objective of these analyses and trade studies is to develop the recovery vehicle system concept and top level requirements. The starting point for this work is the definition of the set of design missions for the ACRV. This set of missions encompasses three classes of contingency/emergency (crew illness/injury, space station catastrophe/failure, transportation element catastrophe/failure). The need is to provide a system to return Space Station crew to Earth quickly (less than 24 hours) in response to randomly occurring contingency events over an extended period of time (30 years of planned Space Station life). The main topics addressed and characterized in this paper include the following: Key Recovery (Rescue) Site Access Considerations; Rescue Site Locations and Distribution; Vehicle Cross Range vs Site Access; On-orbit Loiter Capability and Vehicle Design; and Water vs. Land Recovery.

  20. Low compliance with a validated system for emergency department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthea; Jensen, Nanna Martin; Maaløe, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Bispebjerg Hospital has introduced a triage system at the Emergency Department (ED) based on "primary criteria" and a physiological scoring system named the Bispebjerg Early Warning Score (BEWS). A BEWS is calculated on the basis of five vital signs which are accessible bedside. Patients who have...... a "primary criterion" or a BEWS = 5 are presumed to be critically ill or severely injured and should be received by a multidisciplinary team, termed the Emergency Call (EC) and Trauma Call (TC), respectively. The aim of this study was to examine compliance with this triage system at Bispebjerg Hospital....

  1. 75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System AGENCY: Office of Energy... following means: 1. Compliance and Certification Management System (CCMS)--via the Web portal: http... certification reports to the Department of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and...

  2. System аnalysis concession maritime trade ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Shmatock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the significance of maritime commercial ports as strategic for the country. The urgency of port concessions to improve transport infrastructure. The definition of ports in terms of system analysis and determination of management port. Outlined the sequence of system analysis concessions maritime trade ports in the table. Selection of qualified managers is based on the concession tender under prescribed conditions. These criteria should be considered when determining the concessionaire. These stages of the concession tender. Meeting the needs of the economy, international trade, public inquiries into transportation of goods is not possible without the efficient operation of maritime trade ports. Only complex technological modernization of maritime trade ports will enable them to take leadership positions. Tree depicted objectives effectively manage commercial sea port. Therefore, initiation of concessions needs to implement measures to achieve the talented and skillful result.

  3. Operational management system for warehouse logistics of metal trading companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics is an effective tool in business management. Metal trading business is a part of metal promotion chain from producer to consumer. It's designed to serve as a link connecting the interests of steel producers and end users. We should account for the specifics warehousing trading. The specificity of warehouse metal trading consists primarily in the fact that the purchase is made in large lots, and the sale - in medium and small parties. Loading and unloading of cars and trucks is produced by overhead cranes. Some part of the purchased goods are shipped in relatively large lots without presales preparation. Another part of the goods undergoes presale preparation. Indoor and outdoor warehouses are used with the address storage system. In the process of prolonged storage the metal rusts. Some part of the goods is subjected to final completion (cutting, welding, coloration in service centers and small factories, usually located at the warehouse. The quantity of simultaneously shipped cars, and the quantity of the loader workers brigade can reach few dozens. So it is necessary to control the loading workers, to coordinate and monitor the performance of loading and unloading operations, to make the daily analysis of their work, to evaluate the warehouse operations as a whole. There is a need to manage and control movement of cars and trucks on the warehouse territory to reduce storage and transport costs and improve customer service. ERP-systems and WMS-systems, which are widely used, do not cover fully the functions and processes of the warehouse trading, and do not effectively manage all logistics processes. In this paper the specialized software is proposed. The software is intended for operational logistics management in warehouse metal products trading. The basic functions and processes of metal warehouse trading are described. The effectiveness indices for logistics processes and key effective indicators of warehouse trading are proposed

  4. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  5. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  6. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  7. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  8. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  9. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  10. Multi-megawatt power system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Glen R.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Parks, Benjamin T.

    2002-01-01

    A concept study was undertaken to evaluate potential multi-megawatt power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. The nominal electric power requirement was set at 15 MWe with an assumed mission profile of 120 days at full power, 60 days in hot standby, and another 120 days of full power, repeated several times for 7 years of service. Two configurations examined were (1) a gas-cooled reactor based on the NERVA Derivative design, operating a closed cycle Brayton power conversion system; and (2) a molten metal-cooled reactor based on SP-100 technology, driving a boiling potassium Rankine power conversion system. This study considered the relative merits of these two systems, seeking to optimize the specific mass. Conclusions were that either concept appeared capable of reaching the specific mass goal of 3-5 kg/kWe estimated to be needed for this class of mission, though neither could be realized without substantial development in reactor fuels technology, thermal radiator mass and volume efficiency, and power conversion and distribution electronics and systems capable of operating at high temperatures. The gas-Brayton system showed a specific mass advantage (3.17 vs 6.43 kg/kWe for the baseline cases) under the set of assumptions used and eliminated the need to deal with two-phase working fluid flows in the microgravity environment of space. .

  11. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  12. Trading Freshness for Performance in Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    C. Hsieh, Deborah A. Wallach, Mike Burrows , Tushar Chandra, Andrew Fikes, and Robert E. Gruber. BigTable: A distributed storage system for structured... Larry Brilliant. Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature, pages 1012–1014, February 2009. 3.2 Goetz Graefe. Write

  13. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  14. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system

  15. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Propulsion System Trade Study described in this summary report was to investigate various propulsion options available for incorporation on the RRS and to select the option best suited for RRS application. The design requirements for the RRS propulsion system were driven by the total impulse requirements necessary to operate within the performance envelope specified in the RRS System Requirements Documents. These requirements were incorporated within the Design Reference Missions (DRM's) identified for use in this and other subsystem trade studies. This study investigated the following propulsion systems: solid rocket, monopropellant, bipropellant (monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or MMH/NTO), dual-mode bipropellant (hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or N2H4/NTO), liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2), and an advanced design propulsion system using SDI-developed components. A liquid monopropellant blowdown propulsion system was found to be best suited for meeting the RRS requirements and is recommended as the baseline system. This system was chosen because it is the simplest of all investigated, has the fewest components, and is the most cost effective. The monopropellant system meets all RRS performance requirements and has the capability to provide a very accurate deorbit burn which minimizes reentry dispersions. In addition, no new hardware qualification is required for a monopropellant system. Although the bipropellant systems offered some weight savings capability for missions requiring large deorbit velocities, the advantage of a lower mass system only applies if the total vehicle design can be reduced to allow a cheaper launch vehicle to be used. At the time of this trade study, the overall RRS weight budget and launch vehicle selection were not being driven by the propulsion system selection. Thus, the added cost and complexity of more advanced systems did not warrant application.

  16. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  17. Development Risk Methodology for Whole Systems Trade Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    WSTAT). In the early stages of the V&V for development risk, it was discovered that the original risk rating and methodology did not actually...4932 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT ...WSTA has opened trade space exploration by allowing the tool to evaluate trillions of potential system configurations to then return a handful of

  18. 17 CFR 242.302 - Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative trading systems. 242.302 Section 242.302 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.302 Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems. To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(8) of § 242.301, an...

  19. 17 CFR 242.303 - Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.303 Section 242.303 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.303 Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(9) of...

  20. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  1. 78 FR 18083 - Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... begin the process of exploring the establishment of (1) standards for determining capacity levels for... volume traded in the United States; or (iv) with respect to corporate debt securities, 20 percent or more... between automated execution programs and algorithmic trading strategies can quickly erode liquidity and...

  2. Final report of Shield System Trade Study. Volume II. WANL support activities for shielding trade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-07-01

    Based on the trades made within this study BATH (mixture of B 4 C, aluminum and TiH 1 . 8 ) was selected as the internal shield material. Borated titanium hydride can also meet the criteria with a competitive weight but was rejected because of schedular constraints. A baseline internal shield design was accomplished. This design resulted in a single internal shield weighing about 3300 lb for both manned and unmanned missions. WANL checks on ANSC calculations are generally in agreement, but with some difference in the prediction of the effectiveness of the Boral liner. All of the alternate NSS concepts in the system weight reduction program were rejected. While some did save shield weight, they complicated the NSS design to an unacceptable degree. Studies were made of the feasibility of manual maintenance of NSS components outside of the pressure vessel. The requirements of the NSS components located forward of the internal shield were considered from a thermal and radiation damage standpoint. (auth)

  3. Effect of a system-oriented intervention on compliance problems in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarsholm, Hanne; Støvring, Henrik; Nielsen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Background. Numerous studies have been conducted with a view to developing strategies for improvement of medical compliance in patients with schizophrenia. All of the studies conducted so far have had an individual approach to compliance based on the assumption that noncompliance is determined...... individually due to inappropriate behavior in the patient. We conducted a pragmatic controlled trial with a system-oriented approach, to provide a new perspective on compliance and test the efficacy of a multifactorial intervention at the system level in a routine clinical setting, an approach that has...... not previously been used for the improvement of compliance. Methods. 30 patients were allocated to the system-oriented therapy and 40 patients were allocated to the reference intervention, which consisted of individually based compliance therapy. The follow-up period was six months. Primary endpoint...

  4. 75 FR 70654 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., 2001, and August 16, 2007, that create and amend the System Cap Trading (SCT) Program at Title 30 of... of the SCT program because the program lacks several necessary components for emissions trading... submitted by the State of Texas on May 1, 2001, and August 16, 2007, specific to the System Cap Trading (SCT...

  5. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Orsini, Chief, Foreign Trade Division... 0607-AA50 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments... approval of new information collection requirements. [[Page 67928

  6. World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience in Dispute Settlement System: The First Five Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... of multilateral trade rules. In addition, the Uruguay Round agreements established a new dispute settlement system, replacing that under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the predecessor to the WTO...

  7. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  8. Process improvement program evolves into compliance program at an integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyk, R C; Hylton, P G

    1998-09-01

    An integrated delivery system discovered questionable practices when it undertook a process-improvement initiative for its revenue-to-cash cycle. These discoveries served as a wake-up call to the organization that it needed to develop a comprehensive corporate compliance program. The organization engaged legal counsel to help it establish such a program. A corporate compliance officer was hired, and a compliance committee was set up. They worked with counsel to develop the structure and substance of the program and establish a corporate code of conduct that became a part of the organization's policies and procedures. Teams were formed in various areas of the organization to review compliance-related activities and suggest improvements. Clinical and nonclinical staff attended mandatory educational sessions about the program. By approaching compliance systematically, the organization has put itself in an excellent position to avoid fraudulent and abusive activities- and the government scrutiny they invite.

  9. Digital Trade Infrastructures: A Framework for Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Boriana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In global supply chains, information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The lack of reliable, accurate and complete information makes it hard to detect risks (such as safety, security, compliance and commercial risks and at the same time makes international trade inefficient. The introduction of digital infrastructures that transcend organizational and system domains is driven by the prospect of reducing the fragmentation of information, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in the trading process. This article develops a digital trade infrastructure framework through an empirically grounded analysis of four digital infrastructures in the trade domain, using the conceptual lens of digital infrastructure.

  10. Reference system architecture for trade promotion management: leveraging business intelligence technologies and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balmus, Andra Bianca; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Busschbach, Murk

    Working towards gaining competitive advantage and establishing stable relationships with their supply chain intermediaries, fast moving consumer goods companies are currently focusing their attention on intelligent, goal-based funds investment. Traditional trade promotion management systems (TPMS),

  11. An Alternative to EPA Method 9 -- Field Validation of the Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasmussen, Steve L; Stone, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) software translates images from a commercial digital camera into visual plume opacity measurements, and is proposed as an alternate reporting method to EPA Method 9...

  12. Trade across frontiers: an overview of International trade before the advent of modern economic system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyade Sunday Ariyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El área ahora designadaNigeria tiene una larga historia de las comunidades de comercio a través de las fronteras con las tierras vecinas y distantes mucho antes de la llegada de los europeos y la introducción de los modernos sistema de comercio internacional. Las diversas organizaciones políticas que surgieron y que controlan diferentes partes de la zona participa-ron y se beneficiaron de manera efectiva del comercio de larga distancia, lo que les dio la oportunidad de intercambiar sus excedentes por lo que les faltaba, pero que estaba disponible en otros lugares, lejos o cerca. Con referencia a la naturaleza del medio ambiente de Nigeria, la especialización regional, las relaciones de comercio exterior y la capacidad de la economía tradicional, este trabajo examina el comercio internacional de la Nigeria precolonial y su im-pacto en la economía. Se concluye que la distorsión del comercio interregional y de la estructura de la economía nigeriana precolonial comenzó con la penetración gradual de los euro-peos en el interior del país para llevar a cabo la compra directa de palma a los productores después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos.     Palabras clave: Comercio, Comercio internacional, el comercio a larga distancia, el comercio exterior, la economía nigeriana.  _____________________ Abstract: The area now designated Nigeria has a long history of communities trading across frontiers with neighbours and distant lands long be-fore the arrival of the Europeans and the introduction of modern international trading system. The various polities that emerged and con-trolled different parts of the area participated effectively and benefited from long distance trade, which afforded them the opportunity to exchange their abundance for what they lacked but which was available elsewhere whether far or near. With reference to the nature of the Nigerian environment, regional specialisation, external trade relations and the capacity

  13. An alternative approach to continuous compliance monitoring and turbine plant optimization using a PEMS (predictive emission monitoring system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, B.G.; Lawrence, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviewed the use of a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) at 3 different gas turbine facilities in the United States and highlighted the costs and benefits of using a PEMS for documenting emissions of priority pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). The PEMS interfaces directly to the turbine control system and represents a lower cost alternative to the traditional continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS). The PEMS can track combustion efficiency through modeling of the turbine's operation and emissions. Excess emissions can be tracked and the causes of pollution can be determined and mitigated. The PEMS installed at the 3 turbine plants must meet rigorous performance specification criteria and the sites perform ongoing quality assurance tasks such as periodic audits with portable analyzers. The PEMS is much less expensive to install, operate, and maintain compared to the standard CEMS gas analyzer. Empirical PEMS achieves very high accuracy levels and has demonstrated superior reliability over CEMS for various types of continuous process applications under existing air compliance regulations in the United States. Annual accuracy testing at the gas turbine sites have shown that the PEMS predictions are usually within 5 per cent of the reference method. PEMS can be certified as an alternative to gas analyzer based CEMS for nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide compliance and for GHG trading purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  14. An automated hand hygiene training system improves hand hygiene technique but not compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Callard, Michelle; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-08-01

    The hand hygiene technique that the World Health Organization recommends for cleansing hands with soap and water or alcohol-based handrub consists of 7 poses. We used an automated training system to improve clinicians' hand hygiene technique and test whether this affected hospitalwide hand hygiene compliance. Seven hundred eighty-nine medical and nursing staff volunteered to participate in a self-directed training session using the automated training system. The proportion of successful first attempts was reported for each of the 7 poses. Hand hygiene compliance was collected according to the national requirement and rates for 2011-2014 were used to determine the effect of the training system on compliance. The highest pass rate was for pose 1 (palm to palm) at 77% (606 out of 789), whereas pose 6 (clean thumbs) had the lowest pass rate at 27% (216 out of 789). One hundred volunteers provided feedback to 8 items related to satisfaction with the automated training system and most (86%) expressed a high degree of satisfaction and all reported that this method was time-efficient. There was no significant change in compliance rates after the introduction of the automated training system. Observed compliance during the posttraining period declined but increased to 82% in response to other strategies. Technology for training clinicians in the 7 poses played an important education role but did not affect compliance rates. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  16. An automated hand hygiene compliance system is associated with improved monitoring of hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Saungi; Reilly, Maggie; Thomas, Rowena; McSpedon-Rai, Dawn

    2017-05-01

    Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson χ 2 tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates. During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared with human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). Although decreases in multidrug-resistant organisms, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were observed, they represented nonsignificant differences. Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  18. Is It Possible To Use Intelligent Systems To Design A Profitable Foreign Exchange Trading Agent?

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Pomfret-Pudelsky

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a trading agent is developed using a basket of intelligent systems with the goal of trading the GBPUSD currency pair profitably in the Foreign Exchange market. The basket of intelligent system consists of two regression models: a radial basis neural network and a TSK-fuzzy inference system; and three classification models: k-nearest neighbour, support vector machine and a decision tree. The trading strategy combines the predictions of each model using a Kalman-type filter to...

  19. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    PAN, Chengrong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system, discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  20. International outsourcing as a challenge for the world trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sivacheva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available From the strategic management point of view, the twenty-first century is being widely recognized as the century for outsourcing in the global economy. In the meantime international outsourcing is one of the most dynamic, innovation-driven and complicated processes in modern world. The present paper concentrates on the essence of international outsourcing (tracing its roots in the international division of labour and world economic relations theoretical approaches, reviews its explicit and implicit challenges and finally presents opportunities for regulating international outsourcing. Attention is focused on the following key questions: to what extent does international outsourcing represent a challenge for the world trade system? what contribution does international outsourcing make to economic «strength» in the modern world?

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment System Army National Guard (ECAS- ARNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Piopory A PucaI Officer (USP&Ro) (6) Stele Sary Odffiar (7) Suace Ahkuteaece MaMnagr (SW!O (9) Comad Lopam Officer (CLO) (00) 0ampoicnai Heaft Nuame...Tment PIM Operators (15) P A O O (20) Hetallmon Respone Teen ( BIO (OSQ (21) Sure Judge Avomw (SIA) (29) S•ate Aviation Officer 2 - 107 COMPLIANCE...eliminate damage to the environment and bio - sphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man (42 USC 4321). Under NEPA, the continuing policy of the

  2. A task management system for compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.J.; O'Gorman, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) has developed a new computer system to help it comply with health, safety, and environmental (HS and E) regulations. It is a task management system that functions at the detailed inventory level. It schedules work, instructs operations, and records compliance status. This article discusses design and development of the system

  3. Work performance and tax compliance in flat and progressive tax systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantya, Jozsef; Kovacs, Judit; Kogler, C.; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Different tax systems, and their impact on work motivation and tax compliance are significant issues in contemporary political and economic debates. The proportional feature of a flat tax system is assumed to lead to higher performance, while the fairness of the redistributive progressive tax system

  4. Increasing compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist-A regional health system's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelis, Matthew E; Kaczynski, Adelaide; Shear, Torin; Deshur, Mark; Beig, Mohammad; Sefa, Meredith; Silverstein, Jonathan; Ujiki, Michael

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, NorthShore University HealthSystem adapted the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) at each of its 4 hospitals. Despite evidence that SSC reduces intraoperative mistakes and increase patient safety, compliance was found to be low with the paper form. In November 2013, NorthShore integrated the SSC into the electronic health record (EHR). The aim was to increase communication between operating room (OR) personnel and to encourage best practices during the natural workflow of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an electronic SSC on compliance and patient safety. An anonymous OR observer selected cases at random and evaluated the compliance rate before the rollout of the electronic SSC. In June 2014, an electronic audit was performed to assess the compliance rate. Random OR observations were also performed throughout the summer in 2014. Perioperative risk events, such as consent issues, incorrect counts, wrong site, and wrong procedure were compared before and after the electronic SSC rollout. A perception survey was also administered to NorthShore OR personnel. Compliance increased from 48% (n = 167) to 92% (n = 1,037; P World Health Organization SSC is a validated tool to increase patient safety and reduce intraoperative complications. The electronic SSC has demonstrated an increased compliance rate, a reduced number of risk events, and most OR personnel believe it will have a positive impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  6. Research of negotiation in network trade system based on multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Guozheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    A construction and implementation technology of network trade based on multi-agent is described in this paper. First, we researched the technology of multi-agent, then we discussed the consumer's behaviors and the negotiation between purchaser and bargainer which emerges in the traditional business mode and analysed the key technology to implement the network trade system. Finally, we implement the system.

  7. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  8. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-01-01

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues

  9. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  10. 9 CFR 205.214 - Litigation as to whether a system is operating in compliance with the Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as to whether a system is operating in compliance with the Section. (a) The requirements for a system... certification, is operating in compliance, thus whether it is a “central filing system” as defined, could be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litigation as to whether a system is...

  11. Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Huei-Chu; Lee, Yi-Huey; Suen, Yu-Bo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses daily Brent crude prices to investigate the employment of electronic trading on the returns conditional volatility in the oil futures market. After a suitable GARCH model is established, the conditional volatility series are found. The Bai and Perron model is then used to find two significant structural breaks for these conditional volatility series around two implementation dates of electronic trading. This result indicates that the change in the trading system has significant impacts on the returns volatility since our estimated second break date is very close to the all-electronic trade implementation date. Moreover, the conditional volatility in the all-electronic trading period is found to be more dominated by the temporal persistence rather than the volatility clustering effect. All these evidence can shed some light for explaining the high relationship between more volatile world oil price and the more popular electronic trade. (author)

  12. 300 Area dangerous waste tank management system: Compliance plan approach. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In its Dec. 5, 1989 letter to DOE-Richland (DOE-RL) Operations, the Washington State Dept. of Ecology requested that DOE-RL prepare ''a plant evaluating alternatives for storage and/or treatment of hazardous waste in the 300 Area...''. This document, prepared in response to that letter, presents the proposed approach to compliance of the 300 Area with the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Washington State's Chapter 173-303 WAC, Dangerous Waste Regulations. It also contains 10 appendices which were developed as bases for preparing the compliance plan approach. It refers to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System facilities and to the radioactive mixed waste

  13. Corporate Average Fuel Economy Compliance and Effects Modeling System Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) of the United States Department of Transportation's Research and Innovative Technology Administration has developed a modeling system to assist the National Highway Traffic Safety Admini...

  14. SPEED COMPLIANCE IN FREEWAY VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT SYSTEM – CASE STUDY OF THE PRAGUE CITY RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MATOWICKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have confirmed the strong relationship between speed compliance and the frequency and severity of traffic accidents. Variable speed limit (VSL system as a measure to improve traffic safety enables the freeway system to change its posted speed limit based on various traffic and environmental conditions. Such system helps drivers to recognize the upcoming events, to adjust their driving style and in such way to address speed variation of the traffic flow. This is called speed harmonization. Although many studies researching the effect of VSL system on the traffic stream can be found, there are only few addressing its influence on the drivers behavior, particularly focusing on their tolerance limit and compliance, which has crucial meaning for future design of controlling algorithms. This study was prepared to inspect this grey area by studying the data from the VSL system at Prague city ring, describing the influence of the highway management system and its influence on drivers.

  15. Obedience to compliance programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2009 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's 2009 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. Its content can be summarized as follows: 1 - system operator independence serving consumers: Non-discriminatory access to networks is essential for the development of competitive markets, System operator compliance programs and independence act as a guarantee of nondiscrimination, The legal context in which these issues are addressed is set to change in the near future; 2 - A high level of obedience to compliance programs: The continued efforts of system operators prevent discrimination, CR E has assessed distribution system operators by means of a mystery

  16. Bureau of radiological health compliance testing procedures for cabinet S-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.A.; Sprau, D.

    1976-01-01

    A manual has been developed by the Bureau of Radiological Health of the Food and Drug Administration to establish procedures for the routine field testing of cabinet x-ray systems to determine compliance with the Federal Performance Standard for Cabinet X-Ray Systems, 21 CFR 1020.40. The manual provides specific instructions for testing each model of cabinet x-ray system. Results from the inspection are recorded on a data from which is designed to permit automatic data processing

  17. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems. 240.17a-23 Section 240.17a-23 Commodity and Securities... relating to broker-dealer trading systems. (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any registered broker or dealer that acts as the sponsor of a broker-dealer trading system. (b) Definitions. For...

  18. Climate Change and the Trading System: After Doha and Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ciuriak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The international trade dispute over Ontario’s “green energy” policies is a harbinger of similar problems to come; an early example of the emerging conflict between industry rules aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and existing trade deals between national governments. We live in a world without formalized and sweeping multilateral climate change treaties between major economies, but one with many sweeping trade treaties between them. That discrepancy is setting up the conditions for more trade disputes in the future. Governments have every incentive to position climate change policies, as Ontario has, as support for new growth industries and the creation of local “green jobs.” But they also have every incentive to want to prevent the leakage of those envisioned economic benefits to outside parties, at the very least when those outside parties come from places that do not share the burden of climate change mitigation. The current trade-law framework has lent itself to the interpretation, by arbitration panels, that “free riders” — that is, industries and countries that bear little to no responsibility for shouldering the costs of climate change policies — are nevertheless entitled to share in the commercial benefits that may be created by climate policies in jurisdictions that do make efforts to reduce carbon emissions. In short, if a corporation or state-owned enterprise from a country lacking climate change policies wants to take advantage of the economic benefits of Ontario’s feed-in-tariff program, it would seem there is little Ontario can do to stop it, without running afoul of trade agreements. The result is a worst-case scenario. The problem of climate change continues to worsen, while governments — national and sub-national — face disincentives for implementing regulations and subsidies that might help mitigate the problem. This is because they cannot be sure that they will not be left to shoulder the

  19. Air Force IT System Security Compliance with Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    monetary burden on 3 system owners as there is “…a significant cost benefit to building in IA during the development phase” 4 of a system. Current...16 Option 4 : Cloud Computing to Eliminate Policy and Methodology Requirements ....17 Option 4 : Application...Assurance ( IA ) (data integrity) to support mission assurance. To ensure IA and to support the mission, changes need to be made to Air Force IT

  20. INCREASE OF QUEUING SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADING ENTERPRISE BY MEANS OF NUMERICAL STATISTICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazheva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The market economy causes need of development of the economic analysis first of all at microlevel, that is at the level of the separate enterprises as the enterprises are basis for market economy. Therefore improvement of the queuing system trading enterprise is an important economic problem. Analytical solutions of problems of the mass servicing are in described the theory, don’t correspond to real operating conditions of the queuing systems. Therefore in this article optimization of customer service process and improvement of settlement and cash service system trading enterprise are made by means of numerical statistical simulation of the queuing system trading enterprise. The article describe integrated statistical numerical simulation model of queuing systems trading enterprise working in nonstationary conditions with reference to different distribution laws of customers input stream. This model takes account of various behavior customers output stream, includes checkout service model which takes account of cashier rate of working, also this model includes staff motivation model, profit earning and profit optimization models that take into account possible revenue and costs. The created statistical numerical simulation model of queuing systems trading enterprise, at its realization in the suitable software environment, allows to perform optimization of the most important parameters of system. And when developing the convenient user interface, this model can be a component of support decision-making system for rationalization of organizational structure and for management optimization by trading enterprise.

  1. Integrated control centre: Trading system for operation in a deregulated power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyland, S.; Reinertsen, T.; Gunnestad, J.; Botnan, G.O.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a trade system for operation in a deregulated power market. The trade system (ICC-Trade) is one of the application programs in the Integrated Control Centre (ICC). The Norwegian deregulated power market is briefly described in order to discuss the consequences of the new power market for the power utilities. The paper will also deal with the interconnection to other ICC application programs and how to make use of the communication with SCADA systems for support of managing market activities. Finally some future developments are presented. The trade system is developed in cooperation between a research institute, vendors of control centres, and power utilities, and is planned to be a commercial product during the spring of 1995. Before release the product will be tested in real life by a pilot customer. 4 figs

  2. Knowledge management and safety compliance in a high-risk distributed organizational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressgård, Leif Jarle

    2014-06-01

    In a safety perspective, efficient knowledge management is important for learning purposes and thus to prevent errors from occurring repeatedly. The relationship between knowledge exchange among employees and safety behavior may be of particular importance in distributed organizational systems where similar high-risk activities take place at several locations. This study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship between knowledge exchange systems usage, knowledge exchange in the organizational system, and safety compliance. The operational context of the study is petroleum drilling and well operations involving distributed high-risk activities. The hypotheses are tested by use of survey data collected from a large petroleum operator company and eight of its main contractors. The results show that safety compliance is influenced by use of knowledge exchange systems and degree of knowledge exchange in the organizational system, both within and between units. System usage is the most important predictor, and safety compliance seems to be more strongly related to knowledge exchange within units than knowledge exchange between units. Overall, the study shows that knowledge management is central for safety behavior.

  3. Applying systems thinking to inform studies of wildlife trade in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Le, Minh D; Thạch, Hoàng M; Panariello, Anna; Vũ, Ngọc B; Birchette, Mark G; Sethi, Gautam; Sterling, Eleanor J

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework. We discuss how we constructed our framework, which follows a social-ecological system framework, to design an ongoing study of local, regional, and international slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) trade in Vietnam. We outline the process of iterative variable exploration and selection via this framework to inform study design. Our framework, guided by systems thinking, enables recognition of complexity in study design, from which the results can inform more holistic, site-appropriate, and effective trade management practices. We place our framework in the context of other approaches to studying wildlife trade and discuss options to address foreseeable challenges to implementing this new framework. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Trade study plan for Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-07-01

    This TA 1 document describes the trade study plan (with support from TA 2) that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The analysis uses information derived in the TA 2 study as identified within the study plan. In view of this, for convenience, the TA 2 study plan is included as an appendix to this document.

  5. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  6. Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules specified in the Danish Quality Assurance system (KIK) and Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Dahl, J; Lindegaard, L L; Pedersen, J R

    2017-01-01

    One source for Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans could be consumption of broiler meat. Transmission of Campylobacter into broiler houses/flocks occurs via many routes. A number of biosecurity rules is specified in the Quality Assurance System in Danish Chicken Production (KIK) - for which the broiler producers annually are audited for compliance with, by bureau Veritas. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigated the association between Compliance/non-compliance with biosecurity rules and Campylobacter-positive flocks - on KIK data from 2012 and 2013. Month and before after audit period were also included in the models. KIK rules important to comply with were: no vegetation around houses, closed systems for feed storage and distribution, and division between clean and unclean zones within broiler houses. A Campylobacter-reducing effect was observed of audit visits (in itself), indicating that there is more focus on compliance with KIK at the time of an audit visit, and that adequate daily biosecurity behavior is important. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Principle of accrual and compliance of income and expenses in accounting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Travin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of international accounting and financial reporting standards requires the deeper implementation of accounting principles, in particular, the principle of accrual and compliance costs. The current research has shown that its implementation helps to streamline the accounting process by reducing the need to verify the chosen methodology for compliance with other regulatory documents that regulate the peculiarities of accounting in various areas. The categories of «a system», «income» and «expenses» in the accounting system are investigated and their system characteristics are showed. The approach to realization of the principle of accrual and compliance of income and expenses in the accounting system is described and proposed. It involves the possibility of capitalizing costs in the value of stocks, non-current assets, in the form of receivables, or in the form of future periods. The capitalization of costs in value occurs when the costs are not considered as such, and are considered only as an increase in the asset, as an integral part of these or other values. The study takes into account the peculiarities of its influence on the methodology of accounting for financial results of the enterprise.

  8. Project W-420 Ventilation Stack Monitoring System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a limited assessment of Year 2000 compliance for Project W-420. Additional information is provided as a road map to project documents and other references that may be used to verify Year 2000 compliance. This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K Compliance for Project W-420, Ventilation Stack Monitoring Systems Upgrades. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. The project work scope includes upgrades to ventilation stacks and generic effluent monitoring systems (GEMS) at the 244-A Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT), the 244-BX DCRT, the 244-CR Vault, tanks 241-C-105 and 241-C-106, the 244-S DCRT, and the 244-TX DCRT. A detailed description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions can not be described since the project is in the definitive design phase, This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems

  9. Social absorption capability, systems of innovation and manufactured export response to preferential trade incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-Allah, Abdelrasaq; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    In many extant analyses of non-reciprocal system of trade preferences, it is typical to focus on the details of market access value of tarrif concessions as explanation for why export beneficiaries may or may not respond to include very often the role that supply related factors can, and do play...... & Opportunity Act apparel trade incentive is used as a classical illustration of this proposition. It is shown that the comparative efficiency of Lesetho, despite emerging from a relatively weak trade performance potential background, in recording the highest level of export success among beneficiaries...

  10. Trade-FDI Linkages in a System of Gravity Equations for German Regional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard

    We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...... substitutive links between trade flows and outward FDI in line with earlier empirical evidence for Germany. Building upon German state level data we are also able to analyse the sensitivity of the results for regional sub-samples. The latter disaggregation hints at structural differences among the trade...

  11. 76 FR 42674 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...; Smuggling, Interdiction, and Trade Compliance Program; Smuggling Form AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... intention to initiate an information collection to support our smuggling, interdiction, and trade compliance... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the smuggling, interdiction, and trade...

  12. After Doha: Evolution or Revolution in the Trading System?

    OpenAIRE

    Hufbauer, Gary; Pischedda, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    We forecast a six-month extension of the Trade Promotion Authority, until December 2007, so that the Doha Development Round can be brought to a conclusion. With an extension of TPA, we expect shallow results will be achieved in the DDR during the rest of 2007, with many of the negative consequences described in our first scenario. To keep the WTO in the game and to keep hope alive, we predict that, at the end of DDR negotiations, WTO ministers will announce a series of plurilateral talks for ...

  13. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance. ...

  14. Trade restrictions as a means of enforcing compliance with international environmental law. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, W.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution reviews primarily Art. 4 of the Montreal Protocol and its efficiency for enforcing compliance with obligations under international environmental law and discusses aspects of possible conflicts with GATT law. (CB)

  15. Ontario's intertie capacity and electricity trade in the interconnected system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, S.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro One's capacity of existing interconnections were described. The Ontario utility is within reach of about 320 GW electricity markets in neighbouring Quebec, New York, Michigan, Minnesota, and Manitoba. It is also within reach of 50 million customers, and 30 per cent of total U.S. energy consumption. The author emphasized the need for expanded interties and new interconnections. The status of new interconnections was described along with the rules regarding electric power import, export and wheeling. It was noted that compared to the United States, Canada has a higher proportion of clean hydro and nuclear power plants in its mix of power generation. Markets across North America are adopting electricity restructuring and open competition. However, the transmission grids were not designed to support market-driven electricity trading. Most transmission grids were built when utilities were tightly regulated and provided service only within their assigned regions. The current energy infrastructure is not equipped for large-scale swapping of power in competitive markets. It was also noted that growth in US power flows is outpacing transmission investment. This paper addressed the issue of license requirements, transmitter proposals for regulated investments, and non-rate base transmitter investments. It was concluded that while market rules are flexible enough to encourage inter-jurisdictional trade, the rules have to facilitate and encourage transmission investment. 8 figs

  16. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Lewandoski, I.

    2004-07-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  17. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, I.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  18. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-64-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, submitted a...

  19. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  20. Monitoring Student Immunization, Screening, and Training Records for Clinical Compliance: An Innovative Use of the Institutional Learning Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elting, Julie Kientz

    2017-12-13

    Clinical compliance for nursing students is a complex process mandating them to meet facility employee occupational health requirements for immunization, screening, and training prior to patient contact. Nursing programs monitor clinical compliance with in-house management of student records, either paper or electronic, or by contracting with a vendor specializing in online record tracking. Regardless of method, the nursing program remains fully accountable for student preparation and bears the consequences of errors. This article describes how the institution's own learning management system can be used as an accurate, cost-neutral, user-friendly, and Federal Educational Rights Protection Act-compliant clinical compliance system.

  1. A Stock Trading Recommender System Based on Temporal Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy B. Nair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems capable of discovering patterns in stock price movements and generating stock recommendations based on the patterns thus discovered can significantly supplement the decision-making process of a stock trader. Such recommender systems are of great significance to a layperson who wishes to profit by stock trading even while not possessing the skill or expertise of a seasoned trader. A genetic algorithm optimized Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX–Apriori based stock trading recommender system, which can mine temporal association rules from the stock price data set to generate stock trading recommendations, is presented in this article. The proposed system is validated on 12 different data sets. The results indicate that the proposed system significantly outperforms the passive buy-and-hold strategy, offering scope for a layperson to successfully invest in capital markets.

  2. Software Architecture Coupling Metric for Assessing Operational Responsiveness of Trading Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical observation that motivates our research relies on the difficulty to assess the performance of a trading architecture beyond a few synthetic indicators like response time, system latency, availability or volume capacity. Trading systems involve complex software architectures of distributed resources. However, in the context of a large brokerage firm, which offers a global coverage from both, market and client perspectives, the term distributed gains a critical significance indeed. Offering a low latency ordering system by nowadays standards is relatively easily achievable, but integrating it in a flexible manner within the broader information system architecture of a broker/dealer requires operational aspects to be factored in. We propose a metric for measuring the coupling level within software architecture, and employ it to identify architectural designs that can offer a higher level of operational responsiveness, which ultimately would raise the overall real-world performance of a trading system.

  3. A multi-level model-driven regime for value-added tax compliance in ERP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Zegers, A.T.M.; Smits, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    As the economy becomes global and ICT-reliant, approaches practiced in enterprise software product development and enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementation must cope with increasingly complex situations induced by contemporary supply chain and regulations. Compliance with regulations

  4. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Key Navy Programs' Compliance with DOD's Federated Business Enterprise Architecture Needs to be Adequately Demonstrated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hite, Randolph C; Lakhmani, Neela; Barkakati, Nabajyoti; Doherty, Neil; Glover, Nancy; Longcore, Emily; Holland, Michael; Le, Anh; Leiling, Josh; McCracken, Lee; Srikanth, Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    .... In particular, the programs BEA compliance assessments did not: * Include all relevant architecture products, such as products that specify the technical standards needed to promote interoperability among related systems...

  5. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  6. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix

  7. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  8. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers' Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-12

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO₂, NO x , HC, and CO emissions. CO₂ was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  9. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-01

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. PMID:29329214

  10. IAEA preparations for the year 2000 compliance of safeguards equipment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Barnes, B.; Lewis, W.; Hsiung, Sue

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Safeguards, IAEA, has used equipment systems for acquiring relevant data to support safeguards evaluation and verification activities. Typically an equipment system consists of EPROM (embedded system), a connecting personal computer with instrument software for data acquisition, and may include data evaluation software. Complementing the equipment systems is a collection of general evaluation software systems (application software) which support the analysis of the acquired data. In preparing for the year 2000 compliance of all safeguards systems, SGTS (Safeguards Division of Technical Services) in IAEA, must ascertain the equipment systems and the evaluation software authorised for inspection use can properly operate through the passage of year 2000. We present the year 2000 challenge for these systems, the approach we use to tackle the problem, and the status of our year 2000 project. (author)

  11. Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.; Roybal, S.; Bertino, P.; Gherman, C.; Hosteny, B.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today's business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The Laboratory also realizes potential growth opportunities for developing ESH as a strength in providing new or improved services to its customers. Overall, the Laboratory desires to establish and build upon an ESH management system which ensures continuous improvement in protecting public health and safety and the environment and which fosters a working relationship with stakeholders. A team of process experts from the LANL Environmental Management (EM) Program Office, worked with management system consultants, and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an ESH management systems process to compare current LANL ESH management Systems and programs against leading industry standards. The process enabled the Laboratory to gauge its performance in each of the following areas: Planning and Policy Setting; Systems and Procedures; Implementation and Education; and Monitoring and Reporting. The information gathered on ESH management systems enabled LANL to pinpoint and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the provision of ESH services throughout the Laboratory and ultimately overall ESH compliance

  12. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  13. Effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system on healthcare workers' compliance to guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salman, J M; Hani, S; de Marcellis-Warin, N; Isa, Sister Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a growing concern among populations and is a crucial element in ensuring patient safety in a healthcare environment. Numerous management efforts have been conducted in that regard, including education, awareness and observations. To better evaluate the possible impact of technology on a healthcare setting, we observed the impact of a particular niche technology developed as an answer to the growing hand hygiene concerns. A study was conducted at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) in Bahrain on a total of 16 Coronary Care Unit (CCU) beds where the system was installed, and the hand hygiene activity of healthcare workers (HCWs) in this area was monitored for a total period of 28 days. Comments, remarks and suggestions were noted, and improvements were made to the technology during the course of the trial. While resistance to change was significant, overall results were satisfactory. Compliance with hand hygiene techniques went from 38-42% to 60% at the beginning of the trial and then increased to an average of 75% at the end of the 28-day trial. In some cases, compliance peaked at 85% or even at 100%. Our case study demonstrates that technology can be used effectively in promoting and improving hand hygiene compliance in hospitals, which is one way to prevent cross-infections, especially in critical care areas. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The fundamentals of the future international emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankeviciute, Loreta; Kitous, Alban; Criqui, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the sectoral marginal abatements cost curves for a number of EU countries as well as to examine the efficiency aspects and the economic impacts for the major sectors of the ETS under different carbon market configurations in 2010 and 2020. To produce a consistent and realistic assessment, we employ sources such as GHG National Inventories, NAPs and POLES world energy model to constitute the sectoral base year and 2010, 2020 emission levels in different countries and regions. We then use the market analysis tool ASPEN, which enables to derive supply and demand from sectoral MACCs produced with the POLES model, and to evaluate the economic impacts on the carbon market participants. The paper shows that, in compliance with the Kyoto targets, the benefits of an enlarged carbon market are significant, since more than 50% of the abatement in the short term have to be achieved in ETS sectors, which may indeed use CDM or JI credits. A second major conclusion is that in 2020 the new flexibility margins provided by the adjustment of investments in new capacities compensate for the increase in pressure towards stronger emission reductions. This reduces the relative importance of the enlarged carbon market

  15. Monitoring, Accounting and Enforcement in Emissions Trading Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring, accounting and enforcement have been addressed in quite a number of presentations, papers and discussions in the past four CATEP workshops. Besides drawing conclusions from the experiences with existing trading regimes, different aspects of compliance have been analysed in more detail and finally there has been a special focus on standardised accounting systems. This paper tries to summarise the diverse findings to get a comprehensive picture of what is needed to assure high compliance in emissions trading regimes and identify any specific problems. The first section focuses on real trading regimes that are all local or at most national. It describes the monitoring, accounting and enforcement systems in existing and planned trading regimes to get an idea of what such systems include and to draw conclusions from experience. One focus is on enforcement mechanisms, as different from monitoring and accounting, which are basically a question of regulation and technology, penalties and compliance are a question of choices by participants and can be analysed with analytic tools. Section 3 deals with specific monitoring, accounting and enforcement problems in international emissions trading. It describes the development of internationally standardised systems and discusses the commitment period reserve as one instrument to avoid overselling of permits in international emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol. Section 5 provides a summary and conclusion

  16. Techniques for reactive system design: the tools in TRADE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Jansen, D.N.; Dittrich, K.R.; Geppert, A.; Norrie, M.C.

    Reactive systems are systems whose purpose is to maintain a certain desirable state of affairs in their environment, and include information systems, groupware, workflow systems, and control software. The current generation of information system design methods cannot cope with the high demands that

  17. A Duopoly Manufacturers’ Game Model Considering Green Technology Investment under a Cap-and-Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the duopoly manufacturers’ decision-making considering green technology investment and under a cap-and-trade system. It was assumed there were two manufacturers producing products which were substitutable for one another. On the basis of this assumption, the optimal production capacity, price, and green technology investment of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system were obtained. The increase or decrease of the optimal production quantity of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system was decided by their green technology level. The increase of the optimal price as well as the increase or decrease of the maximum expected profits were decided by the initial carbon emission quota granted by the government. Our research indicates that the carbon emission of unit product is inversely proportional to the market share of an enterprise and becomes an important index to measure the core competitiveness of an enterprise.

  18. Using the Tools in TRADE I: A Decision Support System for Traffic Light maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, S.F.M.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1997-01-01

    In this report we develop a specification of requirements and conceptual design of a decision support system for maintenance of the lamps in traffic regulation systems. Requirements and design are both specified using semi-formal techniques in TRADE (Toolkit for Requirements and Design Engineering).

  19. 76 FR 41855 - Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 13, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... Systems (GIS) Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June 30, 2008. The...

  20. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  1. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  2. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is demonst......This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...

  3. The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Slemrod; Nikki Sorum

    1984-01-01

    This paper uses evidence from a survey of Minnesota taxpayers to estimate the magnitude and demographic patterns of the compliance cost of filing federal and state income tax returns. It concludes that in 1982 this cost was between $17 and $27 billion, or from five to seven percent of the revenue raised by the federal and state income tax systems combined. About two billion hours of taxpayer time were spent on filing tax returns, and about $3 billion was spent on professional tax assistance.

  4. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  5. Project W-211 initial tank retrieval systems year 2000 compliance assessment project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a limited assessment of Year 2000 compliance for Project W-211. Additional information is provided as a road map to project documents and other references that may be used to verify Year 2000 compliance

  6. Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a limited assessment of Year 2000 compliance for Project W-151. Additional information is provided as a road map to project documents and other references that may be used to verify Year 2000 compliance

  7. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Environmental Management System in Compliance with ISO 14001:2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusar, A.; Kavsek, D.

    2010-01-01

    Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) pays special attention to environmental protection and practices environmental safety in all plant processes and management. In 2008, Krsko NPP introduced the Environmental Management System in compliance with ISO 14001:2004 standard. The plant management announced the Environmental policy which is a part of the business strategy of Krsko NPP which is an eco-friendly company. The Policy is a commitment of the plant management and all staff to act in compliance with requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The standard served as a basis for developing some new documentation such as Environmental Management System Quality Manual, Environmental planning procedures identifying legal and other requirements, Register of environmental aspects, Register of legal and other requirements etc. When establishing the Register of environmental aspects, all possible environmental impacts of the plant were carefully reviewed and estimated. Following the introduction and certification audit in October and December 2008 of Bureau Veritas Certification, Krsko NPP was awarded certificate ISO 14001:2004 attesting conformity of its Environmental Management System with this standard. The Environmental Certificate means that Krsko NPP will promote a positive environmental culture and maintain a safe, healthy and environmentally-sound workplace for all its employees, contractors and visitors.(author).

  9. Project W-420 Ventilation Stack Monitoring System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K Compliance for Project W-420, Ventilation Stack Monitoring Systems Upgrades. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. The project work scope includes upgrades to ventilation stacks and generic effluent monitoring systems (GEMS) at the 244-A Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT), the 244-BX DCRT, the 244-CR Vault, tanks 241-C-105 and 241-C-106, the 244-S DCRT, and the 244-TX DCRT. A detailed description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions can not be described since the project is in the definitive design phase, This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems

  10. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  11. Power system restructuring and deregulation: trading, performance and information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loi Lei Lai

    2001-09-01

    Representatives from several countries have contributed to a book addressing the deregulation and restructuring of the electric power industry. Articles covered include guidance on asset management, transmission balancing and meter management systems, tools for studying competitive power markets, environmental impacts, costs and benefits, and the new strategies and technology available for power generation, transmission and distribution. The book should be of interest to power systems engineers, system operators, managers, planners and policy makers in the electric power business

  12. On the quality of compliance mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nentjes, Andries; Klaassen, Ger

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the compliance mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol as agreed at the seventh Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Marrakech. We differ from the literature since we concentrate on the complete set of compliance rules agreed in Marrakech and, as a new element, we systematically discuss these compliance incentives in conjunction with the implicit compliance incentives: reputation protection, emission trading and banking. We conclude that effectiveness and efficiency go hand in hand for all explicit and implicit compliance incentives except one--emission trading. Trading improves efficiency but this can also occur at the cost of increasing non-compliance

  13. China and the world trading system : will 'in and up' be replaced by 'down and out'?

    OpenAIRE

    WINTERS, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of China into the world trading system, focusing on the size and nature of the shocks that this implied for the world economy and the reactions to those shocks proposed by policy makers and academics. While the WTO has acted as a forum in which many of the adjustment pressures created by China’s rapid growth were dealt with fairly constructively, the recent shift by the United States and the EU to mega-regional trade deals, notably the Tran-Pacific Partners...

  14. U.S.-China trade growth and America’s transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The growth in U.S.- China trade over the last two decades has impacted the U.S. transportation system by increasing traffic at air cargo hubs and seaports. The highway and rail infrastructure that supports the movement of cargo to and from these faci...

  15. An Examination of Electronic Links between the Book Trade and Library Acquisitions Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Sharon C.

    Based on interviews and correspondence conducted during 1981, this report describes British library and book trade plans for expansion of their internal order processing systems to include the eventual exchange of data through the use of telecommunications. Comparisons are made between the situation in England and the United States. The report…

  16. Wideband vs. Multiband Trade-offs for a Scalable Multifunction RF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for a scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) system that allows the RF functionality (radar, electronic warfare and communications) to be easily extended and the RF performance to be scaled to the requirements of different missions and platforms. A trade-off analysis is

  17. Trade Secret Law and Information Systems: Can Your Students Keep a Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Lorrie; Ford, Janet C.; White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property (IP) law on information systems (IS) professionals in business cannot be overstated. The IS 2010 model curriculum guidelines for undergraduate IS programs stress the importance of information security and knowledge about IP. While copyright and patents are the most well-known types of IP, another, trade secrets,…

  18. 76 FR 19739 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... the System Cap Trading (SCT) Program at Title 30 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 101--General Air... 101.385. We proposed disapproval because the SCT Program lacks several necessary components for... Quality (TCEQ) stating that the May 1, 2001, and August 16, 2007, SCT Program SIP submissions have been...

  19. Fight or freeze? Individual differences in investors’ motivational systems and trading in experimental asset markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlfeld, K.S.; Weitzel, G.U.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze investors’ trading behavior, particularly their coping with fundamental shocks in asset value, depending on individual differences in the sensitivity of two basic neurophysiological systems—the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), the ‘driving force’ of human behavior, and the Behavioral

  20. Fight or freeze? Individual differences in investors' motivational systems and trading in experimental asset markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühlfeld, K.; Weitzel, U.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze investors’ trading behavior, particularly their coping with fundamental shocks in asset value, depending on individual differences in the sensitivity of two basic neurophysiological systems—the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), the ‘driving force’ of human behavior, and the Behavioral

  1. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  2. Human System Risk Management - Tools of our Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The risk of infectious disease to select individuals has historically been difficult to predict in either spaceflight or on Earth with health care efforts relying on broad-based prevention and post-infection treatment. Over the past 10 years, quantitative microbial risk assessment evaluations have evolved to formalize the assessment process and quantify the risk. This process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization has been applied by the water and food safety industries to address the public health impacts associated with the occurrence of and human exposure to pathogens in water and food for the development of preventive strategies for microbial disease. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using these techniques to better understand the risks to astronauts and refine their microbiological requirements. To assess these techniques, NASA began an evaluation of the potable water system on the International Space Station to determine how the microbial risk from water consumption during flight differed from terrestrial sources, such as municipal water systems. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize microbial requirements which would minimize unnecessary cargo and use of crew time, while still protecting the health of the crew. Successful demonstration of this risk assessment framework with the water system holds the potential to maximize the use of available resources during spaceflight missions and facilitate investigations into the evaluation of other routes of infection, such as through the spaceflight foods system.

  3. 17 CFR 249.821 - Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this... Associations § 249.821 Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this chapter. This form shall be used by all self-regulatory...

  4. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  5. 15 CFR 700.7 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 700.7 Section 700.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE...

  6. 15 CFR 700.75 - Compliance conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance conflicts. 700.75 Section 700.75 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  7. 15 CFR 711.3 - Compliance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance review. 711.3 Section 711.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION...

  8. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  9. EnviroTRADE: An International Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Harrington, M.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; Rehorn, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has collected, and will continue to collect, large amounts of information on its environmental waste sites and associated technology development efforts. This information is being gathered in a variety of formats for various purposes. Integration and delivery of this information WW benefit decision makers, waste site managers, technology developers, regulators, and the private sector. No computer system currently exists that acts as an easy-to-use computer umbrella over all of the DOE's environmental information. The EnviroTRADE Information System, currently under development for the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's (EM's) Office of Technology Development, provides access to a wide variety of information within a single architecture. Ongoing system development is expected to result in an extensive, networked interface to EM's diverse data benefiting a variety of users. This paper discusses the present status of the EnviroTRADE Information System as well as current and future development activities

  10. State regulatory issues in acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Brick, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a US EPA workshop for state regulators and commission staff on acid rain compliance concerns. The topics of the article include the results of market-based emissions control, how emissions trading is expected to reduce emissions, public utility commissions approval of compliance plans, the purposes of the workshop, market information, accounting issues, regulatory process and utility planning, multi-state compliance planning, and relationship to other compliance issues

  11. Diversity-Multiplexing-Nulling Trade-Off Analysis of Multiuser MIMO System for Intercell Interference Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental performance trade-off of multicell multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO systems is explored for achieving intercell and intracell interference-free conditions. In particular, we analyze the three-dimensional diversity-multiplexing-nulling trade-off (DMNT among the diversity order (i.e., the slope of the error performance curve, multiplexing order (i.e., the number of users that are simultaneously served by MU-MIMO, and nulling order (i.e., the number of users with zero interference in a victim cell. This trade-off quantifies the performance of MU-MIMO in terms of its diversity and multiplexing order, while nulling the intercell interference toward the victim cell in the neighbor. First, we design a precoding matrix to mitigate both intercell and intracell interference for a linear precoding-based MU-MIMO system. Then, the trade-off relationship is obtained by analyzing the distribution of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the user terminals. Furthermore, we demonstrate how DMNT can be applied to estimate the long-term throughput for each mobile station, which allows for determining the optimal number of multiplexing order and throughput loss due to the interference nulling.

  12. A stochastic conflict resolution model for trading pollutant discharge permits in river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Kerachian, Reza; Amin, Pedram

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient methodology for developing pollutant discharge permit trading in river systems considering the conflict of interests of involving decision-makers and the stakeholders. In this methodology, a trade-off curve between objectives is developed using a powerful and recently developed multi-objective genetic algorithm technique known as the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The best non-dominated solution on the trade-off curve is defined using the Young conflict resolution theory, which considers the utility functions of decision makers and stakeholders of the system. These utility functions are related to the total treatment cost and a fuzzy risk of violating the water quality standards. The fuzzy risk is evaluated using the Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, an optimization model provides the trading discharge permit policies. The practical utility of the proposed methodology in decision-making is illustrated through a realistic example of the Zarjub River in the northern part of Iran.

  13. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  14. Place of Budget Management in the General System of Trade Enterprise Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchenko Olena S.; Brahina Olha S.

    2014-01-01

    The article grounds urgency of identification of the place of budget management in the general system of trade enterprise management. It analyses points of view of economists with respect to definitions of the “budgeting” and “budget management” terms. It considers main functions of budget management. It identifies the place of budget management in the general system of enterprise management. Pursuant to definition of the budget management as a managerial technology, which should meet a numbe...

  15. Methods of Information Subjects and Objects Interaction Rules Formalization in the Electronic Trading Platform System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Emanuilova Yandybaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of information subjects and objects interaction rules formalization in the electronic trading platform system has been developed. They are based on mathematical model of mandatory role-based access control. As a result of the work we have defined set of user roles and constructed roles hierarchy. For the roles hierarchy restrictions have been imposed to ensure the safety of the information system.

  16. Quantitative estimation of compliance of human systemic veins by occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Gotoh, Kohshi; Suzuki, Takahiko; Ohsumi, Yukio; Yagi, Yasuo; Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Terashima, Yasushi; Nagashima, Kenshi; Hirakawa, Senri

    1989-01-01

    Volume-pressure relationship and compliance of human systemic veins were estimated quantitatively and noninvasively using radionuclide. The effect of nitroglycerin (NTG) on these parameters was examined. Plethysmography with radionuclide (RN) was performed using the occlusion method on the forearm in 56 patients with various cardiac diseases after RN angiocardiography with 99m Tc-RBC. The RN counts-venous pressure curve was constructed from (1) the changes in radioactivity from region of interest on the forearm that were considered to reflect the changes in the blood volume of the forearm, and (2) the changes in the pressure of the forearm vein (fv) due to venous occlusion. The specific compliance of the forearm veins (Csp.fv; (1/V)·(ΔV/ΔP)) was obtained graphically from this curve at each patient's venous pressure (Pv). Csp.fv was 0.044±0.012 mmHg -1 in class I (mean±SD; n=13), 0.033±0.007 mmHg -1 in class II (n=30), and 0.019±0.007 mmHg -1 in class III (n=13), of the previous NYHA classification of work tolerance. There were significant differences in Csp.fv among the three classes. The systemic venous blood volume (Vsv) was determined by subtracting the central blood volume, measured by RN-angiocardiography, from total blood volume, measured by the indicator dilution method utilizing 131 I-human serum albumin. Systemic venous compliance (Csv) was calculated from Csv=Csp.fv·Vsv. The Csv was 127.2±24.8 ml·mmHg -1 (mean±SD) in class I, 101.1±24.1 ml·mmHg -1 in class II and 62.2±28.1 ml·mmHg -1 in class III. There were significant differences in Csv among the three classes. The class I Csv value was calculated to be 127.2±24.8 ml·mmHg -1 and the Csv/body weight was calculated to be 2.3±0.7 ml·mmHg -1 ·kg -1 of body weight. The administration of NTG increased Csv significantly in all cases. (J.P.N.)

  17. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  18. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  19. The Governance of Fair Trade System: Evidence from Small Honey Producers in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Fair Trade [FT] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from RS to meet these criteria. A new trading system such as FT has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. The method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by Paul (2005 to analyse FT as development projects. This study is three-fold: first to characterise the FT system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as FLO-CERT and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with FT, such as export and organisation capacity. Our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the FT system. The certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.

  20. Does Disconformity in State Corporate Income Tax Systems Affect Compliance Cost Burdens?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjay; Mills, Lillian F.

    2003-01-01

    Prior multistate tax research on differences in state tax rules, while investigating the effects on revenue, investment, and tax burden, is silent regarding the effect on compliance costs. We investigate factors that explain state income tax compliance costs for large firms. We find that state compliance costs increase in the number of filing states and entities (or in the number of state tax returns), firm size, and variables proxying for state tax complexity. Our evidence that multistate di...

  1. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooyman, J.H.; Robinson, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The agreement ensures that environmental impacts resulting from operations at the Oak Ridge Reservation are investigated and remediated to protect the public health, welfare, and environment

  2. Long-term spatio-temporal changes in a West African bushmeat trade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J; Kusimi, J M; Rowcliffe, J M; Cowlishaw, G; Brenyah, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-10-01

    Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest levels may

  3. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  4. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Best (and Worst) of GHG Emission Trading Systems: Comparing the EU ETS with Its Followers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, Simone; Montini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs) for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap-and-trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardize the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  6. The Best (and Worst) of GHG Emission Trading Systems: Comparing the EU ETS with Its Followers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, Simone, E-mail: simone.borghesi@unisi.it; Montini, Massimiliano [University of Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2016-07-29

    The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs) for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap-and-trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardize the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  7. Analysis of the Kinematics and Compliance of a Passive Suspension System using Adams Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ikhsan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental approach is usually used as the way to develop or modify a suspension system to obtain maximum ride comfort and handling characteristics. This approach is a time-consuming process, costly, and may not guarantee the optimum solution. Thus, to avoid this, a virtual vehicle suspension system is necessary. In this paper, a half-car body of an actual suspension system based on the PROTON WRM 44 P0-34 was modeled and simulated. In total, 10 components comprised each front McPherson strut and rear multilink suspension consisting of different joint types and a number of degrees of freedom. The model was developed by defining the location of the hard point or coordinate before specifying the component characteristics and joint type. The completed suspension model was simulated using the vertical parallel and vertical oppose movement test, the same tests conducted with the actual experimental parameter setup. The kinematics and compliance (K&C of the simulation is compared with the experimental data to verify the suspension model. The outcome from the simulation showed a verified virtual suspension system model with a very minimum percentage of error and different characteristics of the static performance of the suspension system when subjected to the test as explained further in the paper.

  8. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooyman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The objective of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment, leak detection capability, and LLLW source control are maintained until final remedial action. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service, and that active tank systems be doubly contained, cathodically protected, and have leak detection capability. LLLW tank systems that do not meet requirements are to be either upgraded or replaced, but can remain in service if they do not leak in the interim

  9. World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience in Dispute Settlement System: The First Five Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Established in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations, the WTO administers rules for international trade and provides a forum for conducting trade negotiations...

  10. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  11. The trade experiment: Shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K. W.; Carta, M.; Casalini, L.; Kadi, Y.; Monti, S.; Nava, E.; Palomba, M.; Petrovich, C.; Picardi, L.; Rubbia, C.; Troiani, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS-the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket-are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial-in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues-for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits. (authors)

  12. Muscle trade-offs in a power-amplified prey capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M Mendoza; Patek, S N

    2014-05-01

    Should animals operating at great speeds and accelerations use fast or slow muscles? The answer hinges on a fundamental trade-off: muscles can be maximally fast or forceful, but not both. Direct lever systems offer a straightforward manifestation of this trade-off, yet the fastest organisms use power amplification, not direct lever action. Power-amplified systems typically use slow, forceful muscles to preload springs, which then rapidly release elastic potential energy to generate high speeds and accelerations. However, a fast response to a stimulus may necessitate fast spring-loading. Across 22 mantis shrimp species (Stomatopoda), this study examined how muscle anatomy correlates with spring mechanics and appendage type. We found that muscle force is maximized through physiological cross-sectional area, but not through sarcomere length. Sit-and-wait predators (spearers) had the shortest sarcomere lengths (fastest contractions) and the slowest strike speeds. The species that crush shells (smashers) had the fastest speeds, most forceful springs, and longest sarcomeres. The origin of the smasher clade yielded dazzlingly high accelerations, perhaps due to the release from fast spring-loading for evasive prey capture. This study offers a new window into the dynamics of force-speed trade-offs in muscles in the biomechanical, comparative evolutionary framework of power-amplified systems. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  15. Agent-based model with asymmetric trading and herding for complex financial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Tan, Lei

    2013-01-01

    For complex financial systems, the negative and positive return-volatility correlations, i.e., the so-called leverage and anti-leverage effects, are particularly important for the understanding of the price dynamics. However, the microscopic origination of the leverage and anti-leverage effects is still not understood, and how to produce these effects in agent-based modeling remains open. On the other hand, in constructing microscopic models, it is a promising conception to determine model parameters from empirical data rather than from statistical fitting of the results. To study the microscopic origination of the return-volatility correlation in financial systems, we take into account the individual and collective behaviors of investors in real markets, and construct an agent-based model. The agents are linked with each other and trade in groups, and particularly, two novel microscopic mechanisms, i.e., investors' asymmetric trading and herding in bull and bear markets, are introduced. Further, we propose effective methods to determine the key parameters in our model from historical market data. With the model parameters determined for six representative stock-market indices in the world, respectively, we obtain the corresponding leverage or anti-leverage effect from the simulation, and the effect is in agreement with the empirical one on amplitude and duration. At the same time, our model produces other features of the real markets, such as the fat-tail distribution of returns and the long-term correlation of volatilities. We reveal that for the leverage and anti-leverage effects, both the investors' asymmetric trading and herding are essential generation mechanisms. Among the six markets, however, the investors' trading is approximately symmetric for the five markets which exhibit the leverage effect, thus contributing very little. These two microscopic mechanisms and the methods for the determination of the key parameters can be applied to other complex

  16. Agent-based model with asymmetric trading and herding for complex financial systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For complex financial systems, the negative and positive return-volatility correlations, i.e., the so-called leverage and anti-leverage effects, are particularly important for the understanding of the price dynamics. However, the microscopic origination of the leverage and anti-leverage effects is still not understood, and how to produce these effects in agent-based modeling remains open. On the other hand, in constructing microscopic models, it is a promising conception to determine model parameters from empirical data rather than from statistical fitting of the results. METHODS: To study the microscopic origination of the return-volatility correlation in financial systems, we take into account the individual and collective behaviors of investors in real markets, and construct an agent-based model. The agents are linked with each other and trade in groups, and particularly, two novel microscopic mechanisms, i.e., investors' asymmetric trading and herding in bull and bear markets, are introduced. Further, we propose effective methods to determine the key parameters in our model from historical market data. RESULTS: With the model parameters determined for six representative stock-market indices in the world, respectively, we obtain the corresponding leverage or anti-leverage effect from the simulation, and the effect is in agreement with the empirical one on amplitude and duration. At the same time, our model produces other features of the real markets, such as the fat-tail distribution of returns and the long-term correlation of volatilities. CONCLUSIONS: We reveal that for the leverage and anti-leverage effects, both the investors' asymmetric trading and herding are essential generation mechanisms. Among the six markets, however, the investors' trading is approximately symmetric for the five markets which exhibit the leverage effect, thus contributing very little. These two microscopic mechanisms and the methods for the

  17. Trade winds turn on the lights - wind home systems in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, A.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a micro wind turbine designed for domestic use in a house in the Enriquillo village in the Dominican Republic which is in the path of the trade winds. The use of wind home systems for rural electrification, installation of similar systems in the north of the country following the success of the Enriquillo system, the shipping of the windpower kits minus the towers which are to be built locally, and the micro-financing of the project are discussed

  18. The Usage of CRM-Systems in the Activities of Franchising Retail Trade Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kochubei Dmytro V.; Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the main aspects of the CRM-systems usage in the management of relationships in franchise retail trade networks (FRTN). The essence of concepts of «CRM-strategy» and «CRM-system» has been disclosed, their differences have been defined. The basic directions of implementing the CRM-strategy of management of interaction of franchisor and franchisees, and also components of information support of CRM-systems have been defined. A methodology of introduction of CRM-strategy in...

  19. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  20. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  1. Compliance monitoring system using screen printing technology based on conductive ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kenji; Kawakami, Junko; Aoki, Sorama; Hamada, Kouji; Sato, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We developed a compliance monitoring system that electrically detects which drug among the multiple prescribed drugs a patient has taken and the date of drug-taking by a patient to prevent the patient from missing doses and taking drugs incorrectly at home. A conductive pattern is screen printed using conductive ink (silver paste) on the surface of a calendar-type pill organizer containing medications for as long as 1 week (4 times per day × 7 days, 28 doses) to create a sensor for detecting the opening of a pill organizer. Whenever the patient opens the pill organizer and removes a dose of the drug (pill), information about which of the 28 locations is opened and the date of opening are recorded in nonvolatile memory. This system is applicable to patients who take multiple drugs, for whom recording of drug-taking behavior is reportedly difficult. Specific benefits are that the user needs no additional manipulation to use the system: the user can take the drug from the pill organizer according to usual procedures.

  2. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  3. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  4. Adoption of Farm Management Systems for Cross Compliance - An empirical case in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Ulrike; Amjath-Babu, T S; Knierim, Andrea

    2018-08-15

    In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS. In particular, the objectives are i) to reveal how and with what success the introduction of FMS has been realised in Germany and ii) to analyse and discuss the FMS' adoption in the federal state of Brandenburg. For the first part of the study, we elaborate a situational analysis of the policy implementation through a desk study and expert interviews. In the second part, selected results from a farmers' survey in Brandenburg are presented and a switching regression model is developed to assess the factors responsible for the uptake of FMS and to understand the role of FMS in improving the confidence in complying with Cross Compliance regulations. We found a high degree of diversity among FMS developed in the different federal states. FMS adoption rates varied, but were generally low. Institutional environment seems to have a significant influence as the same FMS had very different adoption rates among federal states. For Brandenburg, our findings show that farmers' confidence to face CC check was increased by the adoption of FMS. However, counterfactual scenario analysis proved that especially farmers who did not adopt FMS would have benefitted most if they had adopted the tool. Our study shows that there is a need for systems supporting farmers in dealing with bureaucratic requirements. Future FMS should be easy to understand, adaptable to individual farmers' needs and be

  5. On the use of exchange rates as trading rules in a bilateral system of transferable discharge permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, F.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a system of transferable discharge permits to control the harmful effects of non-uniformly mixed pollutants requires the application of trading rules in order to prevent permit trading among sources from violating environmental standards. The elements and properties of bilateral trading rules can be analyzed more easily once formulated as exchange rates, which would convert, in a cost-effective way, the emission right potentially given up by the seller into an offsetting emission right acquired by the buyer. In this article, a new expression for such exchange rates is proposed and then analyzed to infer some unexplored properties of the system. 8 refs

  6. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  7. SELLING, DELIVERY AND TRADE MARKETING – AN OPERATIONAL TRIDENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the way in which a distribution system can be made operational in FMCG, starting from the interaction between three components of the system: selling, delivery and trade marketing. On this basis, I have categorized the improvement opportunities of each component, using the appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs of the system objectives. The optimal configuration of instruments and successful interaction of these components, improve the distribution system contribution to company performance. A specific system, defined for solving marketing problems, must be designed according to this purpose, and in this regard, all the significant elements and relationships must be subordinate to the objective by which it will achieve the desired solution. Business objectives achievement can be measured as effectiveness - the degree to which objectives were achieved, or as efficiency - the degree to which objectives have been achieved in the available resources. For evaluating the effectiveness with which an operative marketing system turns its sources into necessary results to solve a problem, it requires certain criteria to measure performance. These three elements: selling, delivery and trade marketing, are a trident of distribution which can lead to an optimal approach of market opportunities.

  8. Second-generation mobile satellite system. A conceptual design and trade-off study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the mobile satellite (MSAT) system, a satellite-based communications system capable of providing integrated voice and data services to a large number of users. To explore the potential of a commercial mobile satellite system (MSS) beyond the horizon of the first generation, using technologies of the 1990's and to assist MSAT-X in directing its efforts, a conceptual design has been performed for a second-generation system to be launched around the mid-1990's. The design goal is to maximize the number of satellite channels and/or minimize the overall life-cycle cost, subject to the constraint of utilizing a commercial satellite bus with minimum modifications. To provide an optimal design, a series of trade-offs are performed, including antenna sizing, feed configurations, and interference analysis. Interference is a serious problem for MSAT and often an overlapping feed design is required to reduce interbeam interference. The trade-off studies will show that a simple non-overlapping feed is sufficient for the second-generation system, thus avoiding the need for the complicated beam-forming network that is associated with the overlapping feed designs. In addition, a system that operates at L-band, an alternative frequency band that is being considered by some for possible MSAT applications, is also presented.

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Legacy System Clean Air Act Data Set (ZIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) data sets have been compiled for access to larger sets of national data to ensure that ECHO meets your data...

  10. UAS Integration Into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Johnson, Walter

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.

  11. Monitoring soil carbon will prepare growers for a carbon trading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Suddick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available California growers could reap financial benefits from the low-carbon economy and cap-and-trade system envisioned by the state's AB 32 law, which seeks to lower greenhouse gas emissions statewide. Growers could gain carbon credits by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon through reduced tillage and increased biomass residue incorporation. First, however, baseline stocks of soil carbon need to be assessed for various cropping systems and management practices. We designed and set up a pilot soil carbon and land-use monitoring network at several perennial cropping systems in Northern California. We compared soil carbon content in two vineyards and two orchards (walnut and almond, looking at conventional and conservation management practices, as well as in native grassland and oak woodland. We then calculated baseline estimates of the total carbon in almond, wine grape and walnut acreages statewide. The organic walnut orchard had the highest total soil carbon, and no-till vineyards had 27% more carbon in the surface soil than tilled vineyards. We estimated wine grape vineyards are storing significantly more soil carbon per acre than almond and walnut orchards. The data can be used to provide accurate information about soil carbon stocks in perennial cropping systems for a future carbon trading system.

  12. Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta-Langarika, I.

    2010-01-01

    Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM - QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT TRADE ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial and accounting information systems, today, no longer are the traditional ones, they are subject to the normalisation and harmonisation, in the idea of globalization, and as a natural consequence of this situation, the users of accounting information require more and more diverse information from these systems. The economic entities in general, and those in the trade, in particular, performance management, management of the current situation, with multiple phenomena of crisis, require substantiation of decisions on the basis of a system of real information, pertinent, relevant and provided in a timely manner (Radu, 2011 [7]. Apart from users and goals of information provided by entities of the accounting information system of trade entities, they must have certain qualitative characteristics that facilitate the process of interpretation and use of accounting information. At the same time they are needed because their accounting information through its better goal, to represent the support base for the elaboration of certain decisions by those interested. In this article I propose to introduce qualitative characteristics of accounting information provided by IASB (International Accounting Standards Board, which, incidentally, have been taken up initially by the Romanian accounting regulations, with their subsequent amendments and additions, so far, because, in the end, as a conclusion, I consider that I should be noted that these qualities cannot be effective unlessin turn, the users themselves have the quality to have the knowledge required to understand the information that is intended for them.

  14. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  15. MECHANISM OF INTRODUCTION SOCIALLY-RESPONSIBLE MARKETING IN SYSTEM MANAGEMENTS BY TRADE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gladkaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mechanism of introduction of the socially-responsible marketing is offered in control system. At his description an author the specific of activity of trade enterprises is taken into account; the best home and foreign works are investigational in the field of the social marketing; the requirement of relatively compatible approach is observed; possibility of further improvement is taken into account, estimations of quality of every stage of mechanism of introduction and on the whole through establishment of key indicators of quality.

  16. Mapping cattle trade routes in southern Somalia: a method for mobile livestock keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Braidotti, F; Aden, H H; Abdulle, M H; Costagli, R; Otieno, F T

    2010-12-01

    The Somali economy is the only one in the world in which more than half the population is dependent on nomadic pastoralism. Trade typically involves drovers trekking animals over long distances to markets. A pilot approach for mapping trade routes was undertaken, using the Afmadow to Garissa routes in southern Somalia. The methodology included conducting a workshop with traders to gather preliminary information about the most-used routes and general husbandry practices and training selected drovers to collect data about key features along the routes, using hand-held global positioning system (GPS) devices, radio collar GPS and pictorial data forms. Collected data were then integrated into geographic information systems for analysis. The resultant spatial maps describe the Afmadow to Garissa routes, the speed of livestock movement along these routes and relevant environmental and social features affecting this speed. These data are useful for identifying critical control points for health screening along the routes, which may enable the establishment of a livestock certification system in nomadic pastoral environments.

  17. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  18. REDUCING COSTS OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND INVESTMENTS IN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF DIGITAL BOOKKEEPING – SPED – IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Sampaio de Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Public System of Digital Bookkeeping – SPED was developed with the intention of further integration between the tax administrations themselves, then between them and the taxpayers, through the use of technology and, consequently, socioeconomic data standard, in a single environment, raising the tax collection efficiency and reducing the costs of administration and compliance. This article intends to contribute to the analysis of public investments directed to the establishment and maintenance of the project, effectively resulted in a reduction in the costs of tax compliance, temporary and permanent. Survey method was used as a non-random mechanism for data collection, with a developed questionnaire containing 22 questions based on the prediction model regulatory impact developed and applied by the Australian Taxation Office – ATO in your country, adapted to identify cost reduction compliance related to three specific organizational aspects: People, Technology and Procurement of Consulting Services. The questionnaire was emailed to 20 people with executive position or managers directly involved in the project in SPED size businesses and distinct segment. Responded to the survey 20 of the 20 companies. The data collected were analyzed through descriptive and exploratory, in the latter case using the cluster analysis. The survey approach has met both the qualitative and the quantitative research. The results indicate that the SPED caused an increase in compliance costs temporary and permanent, mainly due to the implementation strategy defined and applied solely by the public administration. The analysis also allowed evidence that even if public investments directed to the implementation and maintenance of SPED are not comparatively similar to private investments directed to the same end, it shows a tendency to shift costs of administration for compliance costs for taxpayers.

  19. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  20. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  1. REDUCING COSTS OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND INVESTMENTS IN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF DIGITAL BOOKKEEPING – SPED – IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Sampaio de Lima; Napoleão Verardi Galegale; Carlos Hideo Arima; Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2016-01-01

    The Public System of Digital Bookkeeping – SPED was developed with the intention of further integration between the tax administrations themselves, then between them and the taxpayers, through the use of technology and, consequently, socioeconomic data standard, in a single environment, raising the tax collection efficiency and reducing the costs of administration and compliance. This article intends to contribute to the analysis of public investments directed to the establishment and mainten...

  2. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  3. Using automated environmental management information systems to enable compliance: Ten questions to answer before selecting a software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    As technology invades the arena of environmental information management, hundreds of software packages have become available in the marketplace. How does the already overwhelmed environmental manager or IT professional decide what's right for the organization? Is there a software package that meets the needs of the organization, and is there a successful way to implement the system? Does this require abandoning existing systems with which users are comfortable? Can the system really save time and/or money? This paper discusses three topics: What drives the need for a system; Ten questions to aid in selecting a system that is right for your organization; and enabling technology and software systems available today, and the future application of technology to environmental data management. Motivating factors for EMIS include regulatory, business and IT drivers. Because of the ever-increasing regulatory burden, the need to demonstrate compliance often is the strongest driver. But they cannot ignore business and IT drivers from the discussion, especially with issues such as Enterprise Resource Planning and The Year 2000 impacting many systems projects. Before selecting a system, the organization should address, at a minimum, the following ten issues: (1) Organization objectives; (2) Organization readiness; (3) High-level processes to be automated; (4) Integration and interfaces; (5) User community and needs; (6) Technical requirements; (7) Degree of customization; (8) Project timing; (9) Implementation resource needs; and (10) System justification. Today, there are hundreds of EH and S software packages available too help automate daily business processes. Only a few are multimedia packages, and all require significant implementation efforts. The EMIS market is still evolving, and software vendors continue to enhance product features and usability.

  4. The Russian Trade-Remedy System : peculiarities and future prospects / Sherzod Shadikhodjaev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shadikhodjaev, Sherzod

    2010-01-01

    Venemaa kaubanduse parandusmeetmete süsteemi iseärasused võrreldes WTO reeglitega. Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994, Marrakesh Agreement). Russian Trade-Remedy Law (2003)

  5. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  6. 75 FR 44760 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs requirements; insurance and financing; trade show exhibitions; organizational development; management and labor strategies...

  7. Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping

    In supermarkets, control strategies determine both the energy consumption of refrigeration systems and the quality loss of refrigerated foodstuffs. The question is, what can be done to optimize the balance between quality loss and energy consumption? This thesis tries to answer this question...... by applying two main optimization strategies to traditional refrigeration systems. The first strategy is a new defrost-on-demand scheme, which based on an objective function between quality loss and energy consumption, continuously seeks an optimal time interval for defrosting in dynamic situation. The second...... strategy is through utilization of the thermal mass of the refrigerated foodstuffs, the day-night temperature variation and the capacity control of the compressor, to realize a trade-off between system energy consumption and food quality loss....

  8. Efficient Architectures for Low Latency and High Throughput Trading Systems on the JVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru LIXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for our research starts from the common belief that the Java platform is not suitable for implementing ultra-high performance applications. Java is one of the most widely used software development platform in the world, and it provides the means for rapid development of robust and complex applications that are easy to extend, ensuring short time-to-market of initial deliveries and throughout the lifetime of the system. The Java runtime environment, and especially the Java Virtual Machine, on top of which applications are executed, is the principal source of concerns in regards to its suitability in the electronic trading environment, mainly because of its implicit memory management. In this paper, we intend to identify some of the most common measures that can be taken, both at the Java runtime environment level and at the application architecture level, which can help Java applications achieve ultra-high performance. We also propose two efficient architectures for exchange trading systems that allow for ultra-low latencies and high throughput.

  9. Portfolio of automated trading systems: complexity and learning set size issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we consider using profit/loss histories of multiple automated trading systems (ATSs) as N input variables in portfolio management. By means of multivariate statistical analysis and simulation studies, we analyze the influences of sample size (L) and input dimensionality on the accuracy of determining the portfolio weights. We find that degradation in portfolio performance due to inexact estimation of N means and N(N - 1)/2 correlations is proportional to N/L; however, estimation of N variances does not worsen the result. To reduce unhelpful sample size/dimensionality effects, we perform a clustering of N time series and split them into a small number of blocks. Each block is composed of mutually correlated ATSs. It generates an expert trading agent based on a nontrainable 1/N portfolio rule. To increase the diversity of the expert agents, we use training sets of different lengths for clustering. In the output of the portfolio management system, the regularized mean-variance framework-based fusion agent is developed in each walk-forward step of an out-of-sample portfolio validation experiment. Experiments with the real financial data (2003-2012) confirm the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  10. Closed Loop Guidance Trade Study for Space Launch System Block-1B Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The design of the next evolution of SLS, Block-1B, is well underway. The Block-1B vehicle is more capable overall than Block-1; however, the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) presents a challenge to the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm used by Block-1. To handle the long burn durations (on the order of 1000 seconds) of EUS missions, two algorithms were examined. An alternative algorithm, OPGUID, was introduced, while modifications were made to PEG. A trade study was conducted to select the guidance algorithm for future SLS vehicles. The chosen algorithm needs to support a wide variety of mission operations: ascent burns to LEO, apogee raise burns, trans-lunar injection burns, hyperbolic Earth departure burns, and contingency disposal burns using the Reaction Control System (RCS). Additionally, the algorithm must be able to respond to a single engine failure scenario. Each algorithm was scored based on pre-selected criteria, including insertion accuracy, algorithmic complexity and robustness, extensibility for potential future missions, and flight heritage. Monte Carlo analysis was used to select the final algorithm. This paper covers the design criteria, approach, and results of this trade study, showing impacts and considerations when adapting launch vehicle guidance algorithms to a broader breadth of in-space operations.

  11. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  12. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  13. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  14. Determination of respiratory system compliance during pressure support ventilation by small variations of pressure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Tobias; Schädler, Dirk; Rostalski, Philipp; Zick, Günther; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert

    2017-09-22

    In mechanically ventilated patients, measurement of respiratory system compliance (C rs ) is of high clinical interest. Spontaneous breathing activity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) can impede the correct assessment of C rs and also alter the true C rs by inducing lung recruitment. We describe a method for determination of C rs during PSV and assess its accuracy in a study on 20 mechanically ventilated patients. To assess C rs during pressure support ventilation (C rs,PSV ), we performed repeated changes in pressure support level by ± 2 cmH 2 O. C rs,PSV was calculated from the volume change induced by these changes in pressure support level, taking into account the inspiration time and the expiratory time constant. As reference methods, we used C rs , measured during volume controlled ventilation (C rs,VCV ). In a post-hoc analysis, we assessed C rs during the last 20% of the volume-controlled inflation (C rs,VCV20 ). Values were compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman methods comparison. Comparing C rs,PSV to the reference value C rs,VCV , we found a coefficient of determination (r 2 ) of 0.90, but a relatively high bias of - 7 ml/cm H 2 O (95% limits of agreement - 16.7 to + 2.7 ml/cmH 2 O). Comparison with C rs,VCV20 resulted in a negligible bias (- 1.3 ml/cmH 2 O, 95% limits of agreement - 13.9 to + 11.3) and r 2 of 0.81. We conclude that the novel method provides an estimate of end-inspiratory C rs during PSV. Despite its limited accuracy, it might be useful for non-invasive monitoring of C rs in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation.

  15. Beyond compliance using environmental, health and safety management information systems (EMISs) to provide quantified competitive advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.V.; Mayer, G.

    1999-07-01

    In the last 20 years, federal, state and local regulations have provided regulatory incentives for industry to better manage environmental, health and safety (EHS) practices. In order for voluntary EHS management practices to move beyond compliance and continue improving, specific, quantifiable benefits must result. That is, companies must achieve some competitive advantage from implementing EHS improvements that are considered voluntary. Recently, many private companies and public agencies have been giving significant consideration toward the implementation of an EHS management information system (EMIS). Currently considered voluntary, the automation of EHS data collection, storage, retrieval and reporting is subject to the same benefit expectations that other EHS improvements are subject to. The benefits resulting from an EMIS typically result from a reduction in either direct or indirect costs. Direct costs, consisting primarily of labor hours, permit fees, disposal costs, etc., are definable and easily to quantify. Indirect costs, which are comprised of reduced risks and liabilities, are less easily quantifiable. In fact, many have abandoned hope of ever quantifying expected benefits from indirect costs, and simply lump all indirect benefits into a qualitative, catch-all category called intangible benefits. However, by statistically analyzing individual risk events over an expected project life, anticipated benefits can be objectively and accurately quantified. Through the use of a case study, this paper will describe the process of quantifying direct and indirect benefits resulting from the implementation of an EMIS. The paper will describe the application of a statistical model to estimate indirect benefits and will demonstrate how the results of the benefit quantification can be used to make sound, business based decisions based on a required rate of return/return on investment.

  16. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  17. Emergency lighting system for compliance with the IS-30 and further than the foundations of design events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda Sanchez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomy and vulnerability to fire requirements of the emergency lighting systems, established in CSN instruction IS-30, and in commitments to deal with the consequences of events more beyond the bases of design, the design of a new lighting system required of emergency in the Almaraz Nuclear power plant. The design process consists of three phases: study of needs, definition of detailed design and requirements. During these phases is defined distribution and models luminaire lighting studies and specifications. Through the adaptation of the system to the needs of each area of the plant is It achieves compliance with the objectives defined by the CSN. (Author)

  18. Theory of Compliance: Indicator Checklist Statistical Model and Instrument Based Program Monitoring Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.; Woods, Lawrence

    Two unanswered questions about child care are: (1) Does compliance with state child care regulations have a positive impact on children? and (2) Have predictors of program quality been identified? This paper explores a research study and related model that have had some success in answering these questions. Section I, a general introduction,…

  19. Place of Budget Management in the General System of Trade Enterprise Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Olena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds urgency of identification of the place of budget management in the general system of trade enterprise management. It analyses points of view of economists with respect to definitions of the “budgeting” and “budget management” terms. It considers main functions of budget management. It identifies the place of budget management in the general system of enterprise management. Pursuant to definition of the budget management as a managerial technology, which should meet a number of requirements, which would be determined by specific features of enterprise practical activity, the article identifies its main principles. It groups principles of budget management in accordance with the functions it performs.

  20. Compliance Determination for Inactivation Requirements of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations when a Public Water Systems Uses Dichlor and Trichlor for Primary Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum has been developed to assist SDWA primacy agencies (EPA Regions, states and territories) when considering inactivation/disinfection compliance requirements for those water systems that choose to use Dichlor or Trichlor.

  1. MARKET-MAKING STRATEGY IN THE SYSTEM OF ALGORITHMIC HIGH-FREQUENCY TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toropov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Market maker is the most important participant of modern exchange trading, it provides the increase of market liquidity and reduces the difference between bid and ask (spread. The paper presents automatic market-making strategy for quoting of options and other kinds of financial instruments on electronic markets. Quotes are based on theoretical pricing which is a resource-intensive task. Presented algorithmic optimizations, in particular quotes caching and smoothing of underlying asset price oscillation, give the possibility up to four times boost for quote modify scenario on real market data. Mechanism of quotes caching precalculates quotes in certain diapason around current underlying price. If underlying price changes within the diapason, algorithm sends already filled message for quote modification, instead of new complex computation. Smoothing of underlying asset price oscillation prevents permanent moving of the diapason and reacts only on significant market moving. A size of caching diapason which provides optimal correlation between speed of quotes modification and resource consumption has been defined experimentally (40 elements. In case of quoting 36 options on Eurex Exchange an average delay between underlying price change and quote modification is 277 usec. The measurements were carried out on the Sun X4170 M3: CPU(s: 2xXeon 2.9GHz RAM: 128 GB server under Solaris 10 operating system. Obtained results correspond to modern market-making requirements. The developed strategy is used by big European banks and trading firms.

  2. 78 FR 49787 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ..., standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement, trade... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... with its WTO commitments. SUMMARY: The interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) will convene a...

  3. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  4. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  5. Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

  6. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    Full Text Available The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real

  7. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  8. The Usage of CRM-Systems in the Activities of Franchising Retail Trade Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochubei Dmytro V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main aspects of the CRM-systems usage in the management of relationships in franchise retail trade networks (FRTN. The essence of concepts of «CRM-strategy» and «CRM-system» has been disclosed, their differences have been defined. The basic directions of implementing the CRM-strategy of management of interaction of franchisor and franchisees, and also components of information support of CRM-systems have been defined. A methodology of introduction of CRM-strategy in activity of FRTN has been suggested; a model of management of FRTN on the basis of CRM-system has been developed; the main advantages and disadvantages of the CRM-systems usage in the activities of FRTN have been defined. The scientific and practical benefit of the suggested management model provides franchisor to carefully analyze all business processes, make managerial decisions in order to improve cooperation and support of franchisees, increase sales volumes, increase profitability, maintain franchisee loyalty, and create competitive advantages for the entire franchise network.

  9. Potential Trade Effects of Adding Vietnam to the Generalized System of Preferences Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    .... The GSP statute provides the President with the authority to designate any country a beneficiary developing country, provided the country complies with various trade policy and labor conditions...

  10. 340 Facility compliance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This study provides an environmental compliance evaluation of the RLWS and the RPS systems of the 340 Facility. The emphasis of the evaluation centers on compliance with WAC requirements for hazardous and mixed waste facilities, federal regulations, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements pertinent to the operation of the 340 Facility. The 340 Facility is not covered under either an interim status Part A permit or a RCRA Part B permit. The detailed discussion of compliance deficiencies are summarized in Section 2.0. This includes items of significance that require action to ensure facility compliance with WAC, federal regulations, and WHC requirements. Outstanding issues exist for radioactive airborne effluent sampling and monitoring, radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, non-radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, less than 90 day waste storage tanks, and requirements for a permitted facility

  11. Introduction of an electronic monitoring system for monitoring compliance with Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jasper FW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MedSense is an electronic hand hygiene compliance monitoring system that provides Infection Control Practitioners with continuous access to hand hygiene compliance information by monitoring Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" guidelines. Unlike previous electronic monitoring systems, MedSense operates in open cubicles with multiple beds and does not disrupt existing workflows. Methods This study was conducted in a 6-bed neurosurgical intensive care unit with technical development and evaluation phases. Healthcare workers (HCWs wore an electronic device in the style of an identity badge to detect hand hygiene opportunities and compliance. We compared the compliance determined by the system and an infection control nurse. At the same time, the system assessed compliance by time of day, day of week, work shift, professional category of HCWs, and individual subject, while the workload of HCWs was monitored by measuring the amount of time they spent in patient zones. Results During the three-month evaluation phase, the system identified 13,694 hand hygiene opportunities from 17 nurses, 3 physiotherapists, and 1 healthcare assistant, resulting in an overall compliance of 35.1% for the unit. The per-indication compliance for Moment 1, 4, and simultaneous 1 and 4 were 21.3% (95%CI: 19.0, 23.6, 39.6% (95%CI: 37.3, 41.9, and 49.2% (95%CI: 46.6, 51.8, respectively, and were all statistically significantly different (p Conclusion MedSense provides an unobtrusive and objective measurement of hand hygiene compliance. The information is important for staff training by the infection control team and allocation of manpower by hospital administration.

  12. Introduction of an electronic monitoring system for monitoring compliance with Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Sara K Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Hung, Kwan Ngai; Ho, Pak Leung; Yuen, Kwok Yung

    2011-05-26

    MedSense is an electronic hand hygiene compliance monitoring system that provides Infection Control Practitioners with continuous access to hand hygiene compliance information by monitoring Moments 1 and 4 of the WHO "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" guidelines. Unlike previous electronic monitoring systems, MedSense operates in open cubicles with multiple beds and does not disrupt existing workflows. This study was conducted in a 6-bed neurosurgical intensive care unit with technical development and evaluation phases. Healthcare workers (HCWs) wore an electronic device in the style of an identity badge to detect hand hygiene opportunities and compliance. We compared the compliance determined by the system and an infection control nurse. At the same time, the system assessed compliance by time of day, day of week, work shift, professional category of HCWs, and individual subject, while the workload of HCWs was monitored by measuring the amount of time they spent in patient zones. During the three-month evaluation phase, the system identified 13,694 hand hygiene opportunities from 17 nurses, 3 physiotherapists, and 1 healthcare assistant, resulting in an overall compliance of 35.1% for the unit. The per-indication compliance for Moment 1, 4, and simultaneous 1 and 4 were 21.3% (95%CI: 19.0, 23.6), 39.6% (95%CI: 37.3, 41.9), and 49.2% (95%CI: 46.6, 51.8), respectively, and were all statistically significantly different (p monitored concurrently by the system and infection control nurse, the compliance were 88.9% and 95.6% respectively (p = 0.34), and the activity indices were 11.1 and 12.9 opportunities per hour, respectively. The hours from 12:00 to 14:00 had a notably lower compliance (21.3%, 95%CI: 17.2, 25.3) than nearly three quarters of the other periods of the day (p < 0.001). Nurses who used shared badges had significantly (p < 0.01) lower compliance (23.7%, 95%CI: 17.8, 29.6) than both the registered nurses (36.1%, 95%CI: 34.2, 37.9) and nursing officers (34

  13. A quality improvement project to improve the Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sepsis bundle compliance rate in a large healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Robert A; Groves, Robert H; Khurana, Hargobind S; Nikhanj, Nidhi; Utter, Ethel; Hartling, Didi; Stoffer, Brenda; Nunn, Kristina; Tryon, Shona; Bruner, Michelle; Calleja, Maria; Curry, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in hospitalised patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) mandated that US hospitals report sepsis bundle compliance rate as a quality process measure in October 2015. The specific aim of our study was to improve the CMS sepsis bundle compliance rate from 30% to 40% across 20 acute care hospitals in our healthcare system within 1 year. The study included all adult inpatients with sepsis sampled according to CMS specifications from October 2015 to September 2016. The CMS sepsis bundle compliance rate was tracked monthly using statistical process control charting. A baseline rate of 28.5% with 99% control limits was established. We implemented multiple interventions including computerised decision support systems (CDSSs) to increase compliance with the most commonly missing bundle elements. Compliance reached 42% (99% statistical process control limits 18.4%-38.6%) as CDSS was implemented system-wide, but this improvement was not sustained after CMS changed specifications of the outcome measure. Difficulties encountered elucidate shortcomings of our study methodology and of the CMS sepsis bundle compliance rate as a quality process measure.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  15. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  16. Problems about the analysis of technical requirements compliance in NPPPCI systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, M.

    1978-01-01

    The display of the problems that the analysis of the technical requirements compliance bring along is presented. In the project of nuclear power plants, above all, the influence of national and international standards in the analysis of the adjustment of requirements established by the governments of nuclear safety of the different countries. In the oral presentation greater emphasis is made on the difficulties that the PSAR evaluation brings when the lack of technical standards in the owner country makes necessary the use of other countries rules. (author)

  17. Critiquing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) : Systemic Consequences for Global Governance and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for the architecture of global (economic) governance, including the international rule of law, the article addresses some of the most pertinent systemic consequences TTIP is likely to produce, based on the

  18. Sustainability of pasture-based livestock farming systems in the European Mediterranean context: Synergies and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernués, A.; Ruiz, R.; Olaizola, A.; Villalba, D.; Casasús, I.

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of livestock farming systems (LFS) in relation to global concerns about climate change, population dynamics and the quality of the agro-ecosystem services that are provided to society and their trade-offs has become a fundamental issue for public and scientific debate. However,

  19. Implementing greenhouse gas trading in Europe. Lessons from economic literature and international experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemare, Catherine; Quirion, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The European Commission (document COM (2001) 581) has recently presented a directive proposal to the European Parliament and Council in order to implement a greenhouse gas emission trading scheme. If this proposal survives the policy process, it will create the most ambitious trading system ever implemented. However, the legislative process is an opportunity for various interest groups to amend environmental policies, which as a result generally deviate further from what economic literature proposes. A close look at implemented emission trading schemes, stressing their discrepancies with economic literature requests, is thus useful to increase the chances of forthcoming emission trading schemes to go through the political process. We thus review ten emission trading systems, which are either implemented or at an advanced stage of the policy process. We draw attention to major points to be aware of when designing an emission trading system: sectoral and spatial coverage, permits allocation, temporal flexibility, trading organisation, monitoring, enforcement, compliance, and the harmonisation vs. subsidiarity issue. The aim is to evaluate how far experiences in emission trading move away from theory and why. We then provide some lessons and recommendations on how to implement a greenhouse gas emission trading program in Europe. We identify some pros of the Commission proposal (spatial and sectoral coverage, temporal flexibility, trading organisation, compliance rules), some potential drawbacks (allocation rules, monitoring and enforcement) and items on which further guidance is needed (monitoring and allocation rules). Lastly, the European Commission should devote prominent attention to the US NO X Ozone Transport Commission budget program, as the only example of integration between the federal and state levels

  20. Design of a radioactive gas sampling system for NESHAP compliance measurements of 41Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Hoover, M.D.; Barr, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    United States Department of Energy facilities are required to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR, part 61, subpart H. Compliance generally requires confirmatory measurements of emitted radionuclides. Although a number of standard procedures exist for extractive sampling of particle-associated radionuclides, sampling approaches for radioactive gases are less defined. Real-time, flow-through sampling of radioactive gases can be done when concentrations are high compared to interferences from background radiation. Cold traps can be used to collect and concentrate condensible effluents in applications where cryogenic conditions can be established and maintained. Commercially available gas-sampling cylinders can be used to capture grab samples of contaminated air under ambient or compressed conditions, if suitable sampling and control hardware are added to the cylinders. The purpose of the current study was to develop an efficient and compact set of sampling and control hardware for use with commercially available gas-sampling cylinders, and to demonstrate its use in NESHAP compliance testing of 41 Ar at two experimental research reactors

  1. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-15

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language.

  2. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-01

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language

  3. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    The Government has instructed the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to put forward a proposal for how the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) should be developed after 2012, subject to the overall objective of continuing to reduce emissions with the aim of achieving the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change. In its Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) the EU has interpreted the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change as aiming to achieve emission reductions of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. According to Council Conclusions (13435/05), the EU has also decided that the Emissions Trading Scheme should continue after 2012. The starting point for this report is that, after 2012, the Scheme will be a key instrument in achieving cost-efficient emission reductions, not only within the EU but also globally, and regardless of whether, with effect from 2013, the Scheme has become a part of an international climate regime, or is serving as a transition to some future new international climate regime. The purpose of this report is to provide a proposal for how the Emissions Trading Scheme should be developed after 2012. The aim is to construct a system that helps to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases (maintaining climate integrity), that assists measures being taken where they are cheapest (cost efficiency), that is accepted by parties concerned and by the general public (confidence inspiring), and which does not adversely affect the competitiveness of business or industry (competition-neutral). The Agencies recommend that Sweden should adopt the following standpoints concerning development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme after 2012. (Recommended changes to the system presuppose a harmonised implementation throughout the EU.): In connection with international negotiations, Sweden should press for the Emissions Trading Scheme to be developed in such a way as to make it possible to

  4. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  5. Social-environmental trade-offs for Systems of Rice Intensification in S. India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.; Reddy, D. N.; Motkuri, V.; Harriss-White, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems will only be sustainable if social and economic considerations are included in their design. Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been proposed as more sustainable form of rice production due to reported higher yields and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However there is a research gap concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI. We developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, ground water use, fossil/ non-fossil energy use, costs, profits, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded rice production systems. Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data was collected per hectare and per kg of paddy. SRI substantially increased yields (157% of control), reduced ground-water requirements (64% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control) and reduced GHG emissions (72% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control). Costs were substantially lower for SRI systems, on both a hectare and a per kg basis. The high yields and lower costs resulted in a doubling of profits per hectare. However, these benefits are accrued to the farmer potentially at the expense of landless labourers. The role of agricultural employment in developing countries is a controversial issue, but in India, whose substantial economic growth has been largely jobless, agriculture retains a key role in reducing under- and un- employment. SRI labour demand was lower (70% of control ha-1). Simultaneously the ratio of male to female employment increased, from 67% female labour in control to 50% SRI. Thus trade-offs may exist between environmental, economic and social aspects of SRI. Understanding sustainability from a broad perspective facilitates better policy creation.

  6. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  7. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  8. Georgia Compliance Review Self-Study FY 01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Intended for evaluation of local compliance with special education federal and state legal requirements, this compliance review document includes both the compliance requirements and the criteria by which compliance is determined during the onsite compliance review of Georgia local school systems and state-operated programs. Each legal requirement…

  9. A comprehensive summary of the ORNL Groundwater Compliance and Surveillance Sampling Results Software System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffman, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater compliance and surveillance activities are conducted at ORNL to fulfill federal and state requirements for environmental monitoring. Information management is an important aspect of this and encompasses many activities which usually have spcific time frames and schedules. In addition to fulfilling these immediate requirements, the results for the monitoring activities are also used to determine the need for environmental remediation. ORNL performs this groundwater results data management and reporting utilizing a group of SAS reg-sign applications and tools which provide the ability to track samples, capture field measurements, verify and validate result data, manage data, and report results in a variety of ways and in a timely manner. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of these applications and tools

  10. Efficiency of the mexican trucking system within the framework of international trade: the case of the trade of Mexico with Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Ivonne Zamora-Torres

    2017-11-01

    trade and, despite its great national and international commercial operation, there are not any business strategies focused on creating an efficient sector. From the literature review, some variables which may help to increase the economic efficiency of the Mexican trucking system with Canada and the USA have been identified in this research. This research work is based on the hypothesis which states that the efficiency of the Mexican trucking system depends on these variables: Transport Costs, Quality, Logistical Infrastructure, Information Technologies and Safety of the Logistics Chain. With the aim of confirming this, a Granger causality analysis for the period 2004-2013 and an OLS regression analysis for the period 1994-2014 were conducted. According to the results obtained from these tests, the variables with the greatest influence on the sector are the costs and the logistical infrastructure. Another influential variable is the positive behavior of the commercial operations of the Mexican trucking system with Canada and with the USA – especially with the latter, since the signing of the NAFTA agreement.

  11. Reduction of greenhouse gas in power industry by emission trading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Myung; Lee, Kee Hoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The rules governing their implementation and operation for implementing the Kyoto Protocol including emissions permit trading, project-based credit trading and the Clean Development Mechanism are to be decided at future talks. How these policies are eventually designed will determine the effectiveness of the Protocol. However, it has been passive and insufficient to deal with the Kyoto Protocol since there is no obligation on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the issues on emissions permit trading are analyzed and the strategies for utilizing the Kyoto mechanism effectively are presented through reviewing the existing negotiation strategies. Moreover, how to use emissions permit trading in the power industry, the largest greenhouse gas emissions industry, is examined by dividing into two sections, domestic and abroad. (author). 62 refs., 2 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Cost, Emissions, and Customer Service Trade-Off Analysis In Pickup and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This research offers a novel formulation for including emissions into fleet assignment and vehicle routing, and for the : trade-offs faced by fleet operators between cost, emissions, and service quality. This approach enables evaluation of : the impa...

  13. Preference Evaluation System for Construction Products Using QFD-TOPSIS Logic by Considering Trade-Off Technical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of quality function deployment, technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (QFD-TOPSIS in presenting user preferences for multiple alternatives, such as construction technologies, products, systems, and design solutions, with trade-off technical characteristics (TC. The original QFD as house of quality (HOQ defines the requirements and features as subjective matrix relations, which cause interpretations to vary across users and limit its industrial applications. QFD-TOPSIS is a new model that combines the benefits of QFD with those of TOPSIS, maintains the subjectivity and objectivity evaluation of the technical characteristics (TC, and rates the preferences by considering users’ individual propensity for requirements. In addition, QFD-TOPSIS rates the preferences through the reciprocal compensation effects of trade-off TC and filters unsuitable alternatives with predefined restrictive conditions. Trade-off refers to conflicts and/or contradictions between attributes, often arising in multicriteria decision-making. Users or project stakeholder groups define the priorities of trade-off TC that directly influence product preferences and decision-making. In the present study, we have developed a Web system based on the QFD-TOPSIS logic and tested its operation to verify its industrial applicability and viability for automatic quality evaluation.

  14. Market integration of pastoral systems in the south of Chad : case of the milk trade in Moundu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duteurtre

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, livestock husbandry has steadily increased in the south of Chad, particularly because of transhumant herd moves from the center to the south of the country. Supplying cities and villages with dairy products is an important trade for the breeders. This trade was the foundation for pastoral breeders to settle down around the city of Moundu. Can such a livestock system respond in a sustainable way to the quickly growing demand of the population? Does it change as a result of integrating the market? Suburban dairy producers, dairy processors, salespersons and consumers were surveyed to better understand the organization of this subsector. Results show that the traditional dairy product trade is dynamic. More than 5000 liters originating from suburban Fulani settlements reach city markets every day. The livestock system is also adapting itself well to the new trade environment, while keeping its intrinsic mobility, even on short distances. In addition, urban dairy processors (cheesemakers and dairy bars boost this subsector. Finally, there is not much competition with imports due to the area being enclosed and consumers’ preference for traditional products. However, Fulani pastoralist settlements generate some conflicts on land use. This study shows the need to initiate more talks between livestock breeders and cotton producers, to reorganize the cotton oilseed cake market, and to develop small dairy-processing units.

  15. Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbrouck, Joel

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact is a positive and concave function of the trade size; large trades cause the spread to widen; trades occurring in ...

  16. Cooperation through Competition?Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By app...

  17. Handbook of Carbon Offset Programs. Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford (SEI-US (United States)); LeFranc, Maurice (US EPA (United States))

    2010-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, through technology development and transfer. They can also develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge is to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. This handbook provides a systematic and comprehensive review of existing offset programs. It looks are what offsets are, how offset mechanisms function, and the successes and pitfalls they have encountered. Coverage includes offset programs across the full swath of applications including mandatory and voluntary systems, government regulated and private markets, carbon offset funds, and accounting and reporting protocols such as the WBCSD/WRI GHG Protocol and ISO 14064. Learning from the successes and failures of these programs will be essential to crafting effective climate policy. A reference for regulators, policy makers, business leaders and NGOs concerned with the design and operation of GHG offset programs world-wide

  18. Emissions Trading and behaviour of firms: the contribution of the Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito De Falco, S.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of the influence exerted on the firms behaviour from the introduction of the mechanisms of regulation of the Emissions Trading (E T) is the heart of this work. In fact, following the approach of the new-institutionalist school of Powell and Di Maggio, we wanted to test how much the business can be influenced by both the action of public and private institutions and the interaction with the socio-economical environment where it acts. In this context we tried to analyse the consequences induced by the dictates of the Kyoto Protocol on the strategic choices of the companies, with reference, above all, to the tendencies to change and innovation. The hypothesis of search is that mechanisms of regulation of the E T may change the competitive behaviour of the companies, for the advantage to pay the emissions permits rather than innovate the technological processes. To sustain such an hypothesis we developed a Decision Support System able to simulate the businesses behaviour after the share allotment. The work ends with a simulation carried out on the energy manufacturing equipment from which it is possible to make some considerations about the limited effectiveness of the mechanisms of regulation of the E T to stimulate virtuous businesses behaviours oriented to innovation. [it

  19. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance. (paper)

  20. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  1. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  2. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  3. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  4. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  5. Accelerator system model (ASM): A unique tool in exploring accelerator driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) system trade space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.J.; Favale, A.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Burger, E.C.; Paulson, C.C.; Peacock, M.A.; Piaszczyk, C.M.; Piechowiak, E.M.; Rathke, J.W. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center

    1997-09-01

    To aid in the development and optimization of emerging Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts, the Northrop Grumman Corporation, working together with G.H. Gillespie Associates and Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a computational tool which combines both accelerator physics layout/analysis capabilities with engineering analysis capabilities to create a standardized platform to compare and contrast accelerator system configurations. In this context, the accelerator system configuration includes not only the accelerating structures, but also the major support systems such as the vacuum, thermal control, RF power, and cryogenic subsystem (if superconducting accelerator operation is investigated) as well as estimates of the costs for enclosures (accelerating tunnel and RF halls). This paper presents an overview of the Accelerator System Model (ASM) code flow, as well as a discussion of the data and analysis upon which it is based. Also presented is material which addresses the development of the evaluation criteria employed by this code including a presentation of the economic analysis methods, and a discussion of the cost database employed. The paper concludes with examples depicting completed and planned trade studies for both normal and superconducting accelerator applications. 8 figs.

  6. Introducing the emissions trading system to China’s electricity sector: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Wang, Xin; Zhiqiang, LV

    2014-01-01

    We examine the challenges and opportunities to introduce emissions trading (ETS) in China’s electricity sector, in which the interaction between ETS and electricity market reform plays a major role. China’s electricity sector is currently in a slow progress towards a more competitive and market-based system. Both equal share dispatching policy and regulated wholesale and retail pricing policies pose significant challenges for implementation of ETS in China’s electricity sector. One of the important points of ETS is to give a price for carbon emissions and establish a cost pass-through mechanism (reminded that the essential of carbon pricing is to put a price on carbon emissions that is equal to discounted value of the external damages). It should be regarded as a part of broader policy package for energy and resources price reform. This will require that any low-carbon power policy should be considered as a part of whole policy package aiming at further liberalizing the electricity sector in China. Three policy options are identified to incorporate ETS with electricity reform under different circumstances. A combination of those three options is also proposed to break the lock and reinforce the positive interaction between ETS and the transition towards a competitive electricity system, in link with current pilot ETS designs. A roadmap to introduce ETS in a stepwise manner is suggested. - Highlights: • We assess the institutional barriers of electricity market to ETS in China. • Major challenges to ETS come from equal share dispatching an regulated pricing policies. • Several options are examined to reconcile the ETS and electricity market in China

  7. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  8. The effect of a consumption-based accounting method in national GHG inventories: a trilateral trade system application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBastianoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact of countries in the climate change and their responsibility in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we apply a new theoretical framework that allocates the emissions embodied in international trade and computes the consequent carbon transferred across countries, according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a average national emissions coefficient.. We analyze a trilateral trade system composed by Sweden, Italy and Poland during the period 2000-2008. We find that, with respect to the conventional greenhouse gas national inventory schemes, consumption-based accounting implies an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and a decrease of Polish one by 2.81%. We also assess the relevance of this framework at the sectoral level by hypothesizing a shift of Italian imports of Machinery and Transport Equipment from Poland to Sweden. We deduce that, through appropriate policies, importer nations could be encouraged to find producers with the best environmental performances while exporter nations could be induced to reduce their carbon intensity to stimulate the international demand for their goods. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  9. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  10. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  11. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  12. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink

    1997-01-01

    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  13. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  14. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  15. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

  16. The Effect of a Consumption-Based Accounting Method in National GHG Inventories: A Trilateral Trade System Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone, E-mail: bastianoni@unisi.it; Caro, Dario [Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Borghesi, Simone [Department of Political and International Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international trade according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of the goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a coefficient of national efficiency. To provide an example of application of the proposed methodology and assess its difference with respect to the current producer-based GHG accounting, we analyze a trilateral trade system composed by three countries (Sweden, Italy, and Poland) with large differences in terms of carbon intensity (low, medium, and high carbon intensity, respectively). From the analysis of the data during the period 2000–2008, it emerges that the proposed consumption-based accounting would imply an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4 and 11.8%, respectively, with respect to the conventional GHG accounting, and a decrease of the Polish responsibility by 2.81%. To assess the possible consequences deriving from the application of this new methodology, we also consider the effects of a shift of the Italian imports from Poland to Sweden of Machinery and Transport Equipments, a crucial sector in the trade relations among the three countries, which accounts for about 45% of total exports from Poland and Sweden to Italy. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting, devoting particular attention to the results emerging from its hypothetical adoption in the EU-27. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the adoption of a consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  17. The Effect of a Consumption-Based Accounting Method in National GHG Inventories: A Trilateral Trade System Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Caro, Dario; Borghesi, Simone; Pulselli, Federico Maria

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international trade according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of the goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a coefficient of national efficiency. To provide an example of application of the proposed methodology and assess its difference with respect to the current producer-based GHG accounting, we analyze a trilateral trade system composed by three countries (Sweden, Italy, and Poland) with large differences in terms of carbon intensity (low, medium, and high carbon intensity, respectively). From the analysis of the data during the period 2000–2008, it emerges that the proposed consumption-based accounting would imply an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4 and 11.8%, respectively, with respect to the conventional GHG accounting, and a decrease of the Polish responsibility by 2.81%. To assess the possible consequences deriving from the application of this new methodology, we also consider the effects of a shift of the Italian imports from Poland to Sweden of Machinery and Transport Equipments, a crucial sector in the trade relations among the three countries, which accounts for about 45% of total exports from Poland and Sweden to Italy. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting, devoting particular attention to the results emerging from its hypothetical adoption in the EU-27. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the adoption of a consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  18. Benchmark-based emission allocation in a cap-and-trade system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Blok, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of the important bottlenecks for the introduction of emission trading is how allowances should be distributed among the participants in a trading scheme. Both grandfathering on the basis of historic emissions and auctioning have important drawbacks. In this paper, we propose an allowance distribution rule based on bench-marking of production processes: each company's share in the total allowance is determined by its production level and a reference emission level per product. The scheme shows some important advantages compared to other schemes

  19. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0 2 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  20. Compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction, exercise and control of systemic hypertension in hypertensive patients at abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Waqas, A.; Khaliq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factor but its control is still a challenge for physicians all around the world. Control of blood pressure can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so the compliance to antihypertensive drugs and life style modification play an important role for the control of hypertension. This analytical (cross-sectional) study was conducted to assess prevalence of control of hypertension among hypertensive patients and to assess the relationship of control of hypertension with factors like compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction and exercise among the hypertensive patients. This study was conducted at outpatient clinic of medicine at Shahina Jamil Hospital Abbottabad from April 2007 to September 2007. Eighty-nine patients seen in the outpatient clinic of medicine were enrolled in the study. All the patients with age 15 years or above, diagnosed as a case of systemic hypertension were included. Among eighty nine patients, 67 were female and 22 were male with mean age of 55.8+-13.4 years, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 160+-28.6 and 97.8+-14.1 mm Hg respectively, and pulse rate of 85.9+-11.4 per minutes. Out of 89 patients, 25.8% were having controlled hypertension, 48.3% were compliant and 51.7% were not compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 55.1% were having salt restriction and 44.9% were having no salt restriction and 23.6% were used to do physical activity while 76.4% were not used to do physical activity. In group A consisted of patients with controlled hypertension, 95.7% patients were compliant to antihypertensive patients, 95.7% were having salt restriction and 43.5% were used to do physical activity. In group B consisted of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, only 31.8% were compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 40.9% were having salt restriction, 16.7% were used to do physical activity. Hypertension can be controlled if the hypertensive patients have good compliance

  1. Nitrogen use in the global food system: past trends and future trajectories of agronomic performance, pollution, trade, and dietary demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Bouwman, Lex; Velazquez, Eduardo; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Gerber, James S.

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits crop and grass production, and it is an essential component of dietary proteins. However, N is mobile in the soil-plant system and can be lost to the environment. Estimates of N flows provide a critical tool for understanding and improving the sustainability and equity of the global food system. This letter describes an integrated analysis of changes in N in human diets, N use efficiency (NUE) of cropping and livestock systems, N pollution and N in traded food and feed products for 12 world regions for the period 1960-2050. The largest absolute change in consumption of animal proteins during the period 1960-2009 is seen in China, while the largest share of animal protein per capita is currently observed in North America, Europe and Oceania. Due to the substantial growth of the livestock sector, about three quarters of contemporary global crop production (expressed in protein and including fodder crops and bioenergy byproducts) is allocated to livestock. Trends and levels of NUE and N surpluses in crop production are also diverse, as some regions show soil N depletion (developing regions, e.g. Africa), improving efficiency (industrialized regions, e.g. USA and Europe) and excessive N use (e.g. China, India). Global trade between the 12 regions has increased by a factor of 7.5 for vegetable proteins and by a factor of 10 for animal proteins. The scenarios for 2050 demonstrate that it would be possible to feed the global population in 2050 with moderate animal protein consumption but with much less N pollution, and less international trade than today. In such a scenario, optimal allocation of N inputs among regions to maximize NUE would further decrease pollution, but would require increased levels of N trade comparable to those in a BAU scenario.

  2. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  3. Assessment of a volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance in ALI/ARDS by pooling breathing cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Möller, Knut; Guttmann, Josef

    2012-01-01

    New methods were developed to calculate the volume-dependent dynamic respiratory system compliance (C rs ) in mechanically ventilated patients. Due to noise in respiratory signals and different characteristics of the methods, their results can considerably differ. The aim of the study was to establish a practical procedure to validate the estimation of intratidal dynamic C rs . A total of 28 patients from intensive care units of eight German university hospitals with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were studied retrospectively. Dynamic volume-dependent C rs was determined during ongoing mechanical ventilation with the SLICE method, dynostatic algorithm and adaptive slice method. Conventional two-point compliance C 2P was calculated for comparison. A number of consecutive breathing cycles were pooled to reduce noise in the respiratory signals. C rs -volume curves produced with different methods converged when the number of pooling cycles increased (n ≥ 7). The mean volume-dependent C rs of 20 breaths was highly correlated with mean C 2P (C 2P,mean = 0.945 × C rs,mean − 0.053, r 2 = 0.968, p < 0.0001). The Bland–Altman analysis indicated that C 2P,mean was lower than C rs,mean (−2.4 ± 6.4 ml cm −1 H 2 O, mean bias ± 2 SD), but not significant according to the paired t-test (p > 0.05). Methods for analyzing dynamic respiratory mechanics are sensitive to noise and will converge to a unique solution when the number of pooled cycles increases. Under steady-state conditions, assessment of the volume-dependent C rs in ALI/ARDS patients can be validated by pooling respiratory data of consecutive breaths regardless of which method is applied. Confidence in dynamic C rs determination may be increased with the proposed pooling. (note)

  4. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Baker, G Ross; Gardam, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Hawthorne effect, or behaviour change due to awareness of being observed, is assumed to inflate hand hygiene compliance rates as measured by direct observation but there are limited data to support this. To determine whether the presence of hand hygiene auditors was associated with an increase in hand hygiene events as measured by a real-time location system (RTLS). The RTLS recorded all uses of alcohol-based hand rub and soap for 8 months in two units in an academic acute care hospital. The RTLS also tracked the movement of hospital hand hygiene auditors. Rates of hand hygiene events per dispenser per hour as measured by the RTLS were compared for dispensers within sight of auditors and those not exposed to auditors. The hand hygiene event rate in dispensers visible to auditors (3.75/dispenser/h) was significantly higher than in dispensers not visible to the auditors at the same time (1.48; p=0.001) and in the same dispensers during the week prior (1.07; pHand hygiene event rates were approximately threefold higher in hallways within eyesight of an auditor compared with when no auditor was visible and the increase occurred after the auditors' arrival. This is consistent with the existence of a Hawthorne effect localised to areas where the auditor is visible and calls into question the accuracy of publicly reported hospital hand hygiene compliance rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System: A Second Look After Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Marsha; Slemrod, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to answer whether or not TRA'86 simplified or complicated taxes by comparing data from surveys of compliance costs conducted in 1982 and 1989. Concludes that tax reform did not reverse the growth in compliance costs in the 1980's.

  6. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G.; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01). Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households. PMID:29387687

  7. Efficiency of Working Capital Management in the System of Financial Safety of Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of managing the financial security of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine, summarizes the scientific approaches to assessing enterprise financial security. There justified the influence of the level of efficiency of working capital management on improving the indicators of profitability of financial and economic activity, business activity; increasing financial sustainability and stability of development; ensuring an acceptable level of financial safety of trade enterprises. The main results of financial and economic activities of Ukrainian trade enterprises for the period 2010-2015 that influenced the level of their financial security are analyzed, the negative trends in the dynamics of receiving net profit, low profitability of sales and unprofitableness of using the current assets are highlighted. There revealed a significant disproportion in the structure of capital formation sources, high deficit of own financial resources, trend of financing the current assets entirely from borrowed funds, rapid growth of the level of credit interest rates. There performed an estimation of indicators of financial sustainability by means of the coefficient and aggregate approaches, which indicated the unstable and crisis financial condition of the majority of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine. There determined reserves of increasing financial security with the identification of the key components in the subsystems of financial security, criteria and indicators for an objective assessment of the financial status, taking into account the influence of the external environment, which will allow making sound management decisions regarding the analysis, prevention and neutralization of real and potential threats to trade enterprises.

  8. A Decision Support System for Assessing Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Management Goals: An Application in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cork oak (Quercus suber L. and holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia ecosystems are characteristic of Mediterranean forestry in Portugal. Even though cork is the most valuable product, these ecosystems provide multiple products and services. Assessing trade-offs between multiple goals is thus critical for the effectiveness of oak ecosystem management planning. This paper focuses on the development of a decision support system for oak ecosystems’ scenario analysis including multiple criteria. It includes an innovative decision support systems (DSS functionality to assess trade-offs between the criteria that may support negotiation and consensus building between decision-makers and forest stakeholders. Specifically, a module that encapsulates the Feasible Goals Method/Interactive Decision Maps (FGM/IDM technique is developed for interactive visualization of the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier illustrates the degree to which improving one particular criterion requires accepting sacrifices in the achievements of others. It thus provides information about trade-offs between competing decision-makers’ preferences. Results are discussed for a large-scale application encompassing over 1 million ha of cork and holm oak forest ecosystems in Southern Portugal. This study demonstrates the potential of the new DSS functionality to enhance multi-objective forest planning, namely by facilitating participation by stakeholders and providing transparency to the decision-making processes.

  9. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  10. Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs—informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel T.; Harou, Julien J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-reservoir system planners should consider how new dams impact downstream reservoirs and the potential contribution of each component to coordinated management. We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. This proof-of concept study shows that recommended Blue Nile system designs would depend on whether monthly firm energy or annual energy is prioritized. 39 TWh/yr of energy potential is available from the proposed Blue Nile reservoirs. The results show that depending on the amount of energy deemed sufficient, the current maximum capacities of the planned reservoirs could be larger than they need to be. The method can also be used to inform which of the proposed reservoir type and their storage sizes would allow for the highest downstream benefits to Sudan in different objectives of upstream operating objectives (i.e., operated to maximize either average annual energy or firm energy). The proposed approach identifies the most promising system designs, reveals how they imply different trade-offs between metrics of system performance, and helps system planners asses the sensitivity of overall performance to the design parameters of component reservoirs.

  11. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  12. The hygiene practices of three systems of game meat production in South Africa in terms of animal class and health compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Maretha; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J; Calitz, Frikkie Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Three game meat production systems used on game ranches in South Africa are reported on. System one is applied in the game export market and conforms to the hygiene requirements of the European Union (EU). System two and three entail game meat available on the local market not subjected to any regulation. System 2 however, implemented basic meat hygiene values. Measurements of pH, temperature, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), E. coli, Salmonella and S. aureus were subjected to a 3×2 factorial analysis of variance with factors that involve 3 system compliances in 2 classes of game animals in a completely randomised design. The measured bacteriological and quality differences between the three systems do not justify EU standards application on the local market but results indicated a significant compliance×class interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IAEA preparations for the year 2000 compliance of safeguards information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The year-2000 (Y2K) problem affects both information systems and equipment systems. This paper describes the work which has been done, and is currently underway, to make the information systems of the Department of Safeguards year-2000 compliant. (author)

  14. 17 CFR 37.6 - Compliance with core principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with core principles. 37.6 Section 37.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.6 Compliance with core principles. (a) In general. To...

  15. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  16. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  17. 76 FR 50286 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...., subsidies, standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  18. Decreased respiratory system compliance on the sixth day of mechanical ventilation is a predictor of death in patients with established acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthay Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have identified single variables or composite scores that help risk stratify patients at the time of acute lung injury (ALI diagnosis. However, few studies have addressed the important question of how changes in pulmonary physiologic variables might predict mortality in patients during the subacute or chronic phases of ALI. We studied pulmonary physiologic variables, including respiratory system compliance, P/F ratio and oxygenation index, in a cohort of patients with ALI who survived more than 6 days of mechanical ventilation to see if changes in these variables were predictive of death and whether they are informative about the pathophysiology of subacute ALI. Methods Ninety-three patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated for more than 6 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were enrolled at two medical centers in the US, a county hospital and a large academic center. Bivariate analyses were used to identify pulmonary physiologic predictors of death during the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation. Predictors on day 1, day 6 and the changes between day 1 and day 6 were compared in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The overall mortality was 35%. In multivariate analysis, the PaO2/FiO2 (OR 2.09, p th day of acute lung injury. In addition, a decrease in respiratory system compliance between days 1 and days 6 (OR 2.14, p Conclusions A low respiratory system compliance on day 6 or a decrease in the respiratory system compliance between the 1st and 6th day of mechanical ventilation were associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis of this cohort of patients with ALI. We suggest that decreased respiratory system compliance may identify a subset of patients who have persistent pulmonary edema, atelectasis or the fibroproliferative sequelae of ALI and thus are less likely to survive their hospitalization.

  19. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  20. Resolving the challenges in the international comparison of health systems: the must do's and the trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ian; Morgan, David; Klazinga, Niek S

    2013-09-01

    Countries are increasingly publishing health system performance statistics alongside those of their peers, to identify high performers and achieve a continuously improving health system. The aim of the paper is to identify, and discuss resolution of, some key methodological challenges, which arise when comparing health system performance. To illustrate the issues, we focus on two OECD flagship initiatives: the System of Health Accounts (SHA) and the Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) project and refer to two main actors: a coordinating agency, which proposes and collates performance data and second, data correspondents in constituent health systems, who submit data to the coordinating centre. Discussion is structured around two themes: a set of must-do's (legitimacy of the coordinating centre, validity of proposed indicators, feasibility of data collection and technical support for data correspondents) and a set of trade-offs (depth vs. breadth in the number of system elements compared, aggregation vs. granularity of data, flexibility vs. consistency of indicator definitions and inclusion criteria). Robust fulfillment of the must-do's and transparent resolution of the trade-offs both depend upon effective collaboration between the coordinating centre and data correspondents, and a close working relationship between a technical secretariat and a body of experts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing distorted trading incentives of balance responsible parties based on the example of the Swiss power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Marc; Haubensak, Oliver; Staake, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated. - Highlights: • We investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design. • Cross-border trading that undermines electricity balancing principles is evaluated. • Little effort is necessary to make a good profit at the expense of system security. • We examine historical data from the Swiss power system. • We outline remedies to limit the possibilities of profiting from potential loopholes.

  2. Cooperative advanced Driver assistance Systems - Technological measures for data privacy compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Hubert; Schnieder, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) will contribute to road traffic safety: Critical situations will be detected, the driver alerted and control of the vehicle interfered with automatically. However, the introduction of such driver assistance systems presupposes that data privacy issues have already been solved in advance. A necessary condition for the driver to accept and trust new Driver assistance systems is that his/her personal and personally identifiable data will be t...

  3. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  4. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  5. Special and Differential Treatment, The Multilateral Trading System and Economic Development in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    2003-01-01

    The principle of “non-reciprocity” in international trade negotiations, together with the concept of Special and Differential Treatment (S&DT) for developing countries (DCs), were considered by the latter at the time to have been some of their important achievements in the 1950s and 1960s. Non-reciprocity indicated recognition by the international community that playing fields between developed and developing countries are not level. In order to provide some kind of parity advanced countries ...

  6. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  7. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  8. A Global Maritime Emissions Trading System. Design and Impacts on the Shipping Sector, Countries and Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Markowska, A.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Selstad, E. Shipping / Emissions trading / Economy / Costs / Effects / Developing countries Publication number:

    2010-01-15

    This report designs a global cap-and-trade scheme for maritime transport and assesses its impacts on the shipping sector, regions and groups of countries. It shows that it is feasible to implement a cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime transport sector. Such a scheme ensures that the environmental target is met, while allowing the sector to grow and ensuring that the target is met in the most cost-effective way. An emissions trading scheme would result in an increase in the costs of shipping of less than 10%, depending on the price of allowances. The increase in import values is likely to be less than 1% for most commodity groups, and the impact on consumer prices even lower. Using new data on emissions of ships sailing to regions and country groups, this report demonstrates that the additional costs of imports for most regions and country groups are estimated to be less than 0.2% of GDP, with a few exceptions. This report demonstrates that it is possible to compensate developing countries for the increased costs of imports by using approximately two thirds of the revenues of the auction. The remainder of the revenues can be used for other aims, such as R and D into fuel-efficiency of ships.

  9. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  10. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish biorefinery system were determined using five different emission allocation principles. The results show that emission savings ranged from −34 % to 71 %, indicating the need for a better definition of regulatory calculation principles. The calculated emission factors differed significantly from default values provided in the literature, suggesting that case-specific local conditions should be taken into consideration. A more holistic LCA-based approach proved useful in overcoming some of the issues inherent in the regulatory allocation principles. On this basis, indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions were shown to have the same magnitude as the direct emissions, thus indicating that the overall system should be included when assessing biofuel sustainability criteria. - Highlights: • Fulfillment of the GHG compliance criteria may depend on the calculation criteria. • Default factors may not be representative of local conditions. • Zero burden approach should be excluded. • ILUC should not be neglected

  11. Evaluation of the induced electric field and compliance procedure for a wireless power transfer system in an electrical vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2013-11-07

    In this study, an induced electric field in a human body is evaluated for the magnetic field leaked from a wireless power transfer system for charging an electrical vehicle. The magnetic field from the wireless power transfer system is modelled computationally, and its effectiveness is confirmed by comparison with the field measured in a previous study. The induced electric field in a human standing around the vehicle is smaller than the allowable limit prescribed in international guidelines, although the magnetic field strength in the human body is locally higher than the allowable external field strength. Correlation between the external magnetic field and the induced electric field is confirmed to be reasonable at least in the standing posture, which is the case discussed in the international standard. Based on this finding, we discussed and confirmed the applicability of a three-point magnetic field measurement at heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m for safety compliance.

  12. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  13. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  14. Tailored patient information using a database system: Increasing patient compliance in a day surgery setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Grode, Louise; Steinsøe, Ulla

    rehabilitation. The hospital is responsible of providing the patients with accurate information enabling the patient to prepare for surgery. Often patients are overloaded with uncoordinated information, letters and leaflets. The contribution of this project is a database system enabling health professionals...... to empower patients through tailored individualized information. Performing 6500 operations per year at our Day Surgery Centre, health professionals need a computer based system to create individualized information material. Health professionals must be able to adapt the information material quickly...... was established to support these requirements. A relational database system holds all information pieces in a granular, structured form. Each individual piece of information can be joined with other pieces thus supporting the tailoring of information. A web service layer caters for integration with output systems...

  15. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia

    2017-01-01

    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  16. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    by the anticipated enforcement decision of the monitoring agency and whether this agency is responsive to the probability of enforcement success and the potential sanctioning costs produced by noncomplying implementers. Compared to other monitoring systems, the centralized monitoring system of the European Union (EU......This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined......) is praised for exemplary effectiveness, but our findings reveal that the monitoring agency refrains from enforcing compliance when the probability of success is low, and the sanctioning costs are high. This results in a compliance deficit, even though the selective enforcement activities of the monitoring...

  17. Cyber Security for the Spaceport Command and Control System: Vulnerability Management and Compliance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, the number of malicious threats to organizations is continually increasing. In June of 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) had a data breach resulting in the compromise of millions of government employee records. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not exempt from these attacks. Cyber security is becoming a critical facet to the discussion of moving forward with projects. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) aims to develop the launch control system for the next generation launch vehicle in the coming decades. There are many ways to increase the security of the network it uses, from vulnerability management to ensuring operating system images are compliant with securely configured baselines recommended by the United States Government.

  18. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  19. Toward a food service quality management system for compliance with the Mediterranean dietary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoroudis, Evangelos; Psaroudaki, Antonia; Diakaki, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The traditional diet of Cretan people in the 1960s is the basis of the Mediterranean dietary model. This article investigates the potential of this model to inspire proposals of meals by food-serving businesses, and suggests a methodology for the development of a quality management system, which will certify the delivery of food service according to this dietary model. The proposed methodology is built upon the principles and structure of the ISO 9001:2008 quality standard to enable integration with other quality, environmental, and food safety management systems.

  20. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identified in the finished water. (iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium shall be conducted by... requirements for radionuclides in community water systems. 141.26 Section 141.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER...

  1. 75 FR 57191 - Compliance With Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emission Standards: Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... 28, 1975, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)'s Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety published in the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 325 [Docket...: Exhaust Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule...

  2. The Implications of Integrating Governance, Risk and Compliance in Business Intelligence Systems on Corporate Performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Madlener (Jos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe last decade organizations have understood more and more the importance of enforcing achievement of the goals defined by their strategy through metrics-driven management. The data warehousing process in Business Intelligence Systems, though supporting bottomup extraction of

  3. Systemic Policy Compliance in a Multi-Jurisdictional Defence Program - Defence Suppliers Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Organisation Based Access Control (OrBAC) [4] systems start new grounds in leveraging outcome of social and organisational sciences (and not...and convey these attributes to the resource domain, using a standard identity-federation protocol;  An enterprise directory is used to repose user

  4. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504

  5. Media rating systems: do they work? Shop floor compliance with age restrictions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Media rating systems have been introduced in many countries to protect minors from being exposed to harmful media content. This study examines whether retailers comply with the guidelines of media ratings in the Netherlands. In a mystery shopping study, minors tried to buy or rent media products for

  6. 32 CFR 806b.30 - Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy issues are unchanged. (d) The depth and content of the Privacy Impact Assessment should be... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluating information systems for Privacy Act... FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Privacy Impact Assessments § 806b.30 Evaluating information...

  7. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  8. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other political

  9. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  10. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada, E-mail: hayashi@affrc.go.jp [Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Nagumo, Yoshifumi [Crop Research Center, Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, 857 Nagakura-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-0826 (Japan); Domoto, Akiko [Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, 530 Kawakita-cho, Ureshino, Matsusaka, Mie 515-2316 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  11. Wear-Time Compliance with a Dual-Accelerometer System for Capturing 24-h Behavioural Profiles in Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Duncan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To advance the field of time-use epidemiology, a tool capable of monitoring 24 h movement behaviours including sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour is needed. This study explores compliance with a novel dual-accelerometer system for capturing 24 h movement patterns in two free-living samples of children and adults. A total of 103 children aged 8 years and 83 adults aged 20-60 years were recruited. Using a combination of medical dressing and purpose-built foam pouches, participants were fitted with two Axivity AX3 accelerometers—one to the thigh and the other to the lower back—for seven 24 h periods. AX3 accelerometers contain an inbuilt skin temperature sensor that facilitates wear time estimation. The median (IQR wear time in children was 160 (67 h and 165 (79 h (out of a maximum of 168 h for back and thigh placement, respectively. Wear time was significantly higher and less variable in adults, with a median (IQR for back and thigh placement of 168 (1 and 168 (0 h. A greater proportion of adults (71.6% achieved the maximum number of complete days when compared to children (41.7%. We conclude that a dual-accelerometer protocol using skin attachment methods holds considerable promise for monitoring 24-h movement behaviours in both children and adults.

  12. Energy/Reliability Trade-offs in Fault-Tolerant Event-Triggered Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Gruian, Flavius; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the timing constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. Tasks are scheduled using fixed-priority preemptive scheduling, while replication is used for recovery from multiple transient faults. Addressing energy...... and reliability simultaneously is especially challenging, since lowering the voltage to reduce the energy consumption has been shown to increase the transient fault rate. We presented a Tabu Search-based approach which uses an energy/reliability trade-off model to find reliable and schedulable implementations...

  13. DOHA Negotiations on Agriculture and Future of the WTO Multilateral Trade System

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The WTO Doha Round of trade negotiations was launched in 2001 and after twelve years of negotiations members seem unable to bring it to a successful conclusion. An attempt to deliver an ‘early harvest’ of deliverables at the 9th WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali in December 2013 does not appear likely to be more successful. This paper describes the stage that the negotiations have reached in agriculture and the value of what is currently on the table. It reviews the agricultural agenda for t...

  14. Performance of Technical Trading Systems in the Yen/Dollar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the profitability of 1,024 moving average and momentum models and their components in the yen/dollar market. It turns out that all models would have been profitable between 1976 and 1999. The pattern of profitability is as follows: the models produce more single losses than single profits, however, the size of the single profits is on average much higher than the size of single losses. Hence, the profitability of technical currency trading is exclusively due to the expl...

  15. Algerian Economy and Multilateral Trading System: Why Is It So Hard to Join the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide a overview on different stages of the negotiations with World Trade Organization, since 1987 date of submission the application for accession, Algeria still trying to snatch accession card with minimum cost, where it tries to provide small guarantees, but some WTO members raises reservations over some issues like aspects related to investment, for example: the Rule of 49/51, and domestic component, prevention of exporting, besides the agricultural issue which takes advantage of domestic subsidies and exporting subsides, also services industry knows low degree of openness, especially In some sensitive areas such as financial services, telecommunications.

  16. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  17. A Leading Trade Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, John Kornerup; Greve, Majbritt; Westergaard-Kabelmann, Thomas

    International companies are agents in the globalised economic system and as such they cause social and environmental externalities through their activities. It is a fundamental responsibility of companies to set systems in place to minimise negative impact and ensure compliance with regulation. I...

  18. Information report on greenhouse gas emission trading systems, in the name of the Sustainable Development and Land Management Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report explains the choice of trading systems due to the impossibility to define taxes on carbon emissions and to the influence of international negotiations. It also describes the operation of the European system with its three allocation phases (an experimental framework between 2005 and 2007, an actually constraining framework between 2008 and 2012, and a sustainable frame from 2013), and outlines the realistic character of emission reduction objective by 2020. It identifies and discusses the weaknesses of the European system, notably due to an insufficiently regulated market and to a partial taking into account of emission. The second part identifies ways to improve the system by extending it (including new sectors, taking some particular emissions into account, and valuing carbon sequestration), by preserving the competitiveness of European industries, and by aiming at the construction of a de-carbonated Europe

  19. Organizational performance and regulatory compliance as measured by clinical pertinence indicators before and after implementation of Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Clark K; Saberito, Darlene; Tyagaraj, Changa; Tyagaraj, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that electronic medical records (EMR) can lead to a greater reduction of medical errors and better adherence to regulatory compliance than paper medical records (PMR). In order to assess the organizational performance and regulatory compliance, we tracked different clinical pertinence indicators (CPI) in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS) for 5 years. These indicators comprised of the protocols from the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), elements of performance (EP) from The Joint Commission (TJC), and guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A comprehensive AIMS was initiated and the CPI were collected from October 5, 2009 to December 31, 2010 (EMR period) and from January 1, 2006 to October 4, 2009 (PMR period). Fourteen CPI were found to be common between the EMR and PMR periods. Based on the statistical analysis of the 14 common CPI, there was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in overall compliance after the introduction of EMR compared to the PMR period. The increase in overall compliance was significantly progressive (p = 0.013) from year to year over 2006 and 2010. Of the 14 CPI, Documentation of a) medication doses, and b) monitoring of postoperative physiological status, mental status, and pain scores showed significant improvement (p < 0.001) during the EMR period compared to the PMR period.

  20. Autonomous rehabilitation at stroke patients home for balance and gait: safety, usability and compliance of a virtual reality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Jeremia P; Ferrer, Begoña; Mainetti, Renato; Steblin, Alexander; Hertler, Benjamin; Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Dueñas, Alvaro; Pajaro, Marta; L-Parra-Calderón, Carlos; Vargiu, Eloisa; Zarco, Maria J; Barrera, Maria; Echevarria, Carmen; Jódar-Sánchez, Francisco; Luft, Andreas R; Borghese, Nunzio A

    2017-09-25

    New technologies, such as telerehabilitation and gaming devices offer the possibility for patients to train at home. This opens the challenge of safety for the patient as he is called to exercise neither with a therapist on the patients' side nor with a therapist linked remotely to supervise the sessions. To study the safety, usability and patient acceptance of an autonomous telerehabilitation system for balance and gait (the REWIRE platform) in the patients home. Cohort study. Community, in the stroke patients' home. 15 participants with first-ever stroke, with a mild to moderate residual deficit of the lower extremities. Autonomous rehabilitation based on virtual rehabilitation was provided at the participants' home for twelve weeks. The primary outcome was compliance (the ratio between days of actual and scheduled training), analysed with the two-tailed Wilcoxon Mann- Whitney test. Furthermore safety is defined by adverse events. The secondary endpoint was the acceptance of the system measured with the Technology Acceptance Model. Additionally, the cumulative duration of weekly training was analysed. During the study there were no adverse events related to the therapy. Patients performed on average 71% (range 39 to 92%) of the scheduled sessions. The Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire showed excellent values for stroke patients after the training. The average training duration per week was 99 ±53min. Autonomous telerehabilitation for balance and gait training with the REWIRE-system is safe, feasible and can help to intensive rehabilitative therapy at home. Telerehabilitation enables safe training in home environment and supports of the standard rehabilitation therapy.

  1. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs... strategies; transfer of technology; transportation services; and facilitating the formation of shippers...

  2. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs... strategies; licensing of technology; transportation; and facilitating the formation of products and services...

  3. The Implementation Fair Trade System Based on the Natural Potencial Resources in Effective and Efficient Ways Through the ASEAN Free Trade Era

    OpenAIRE

    Nawastuty S, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian economic development's dimension in free trade zone era will held upon to form the development pillars frameworks. The Indonesian development pillars which are : to pull the destitution out, to absorb the man power, and to develop the economic. However, the main problem to held the development pillars frameworks is the barrier in pulling the destitution out. Pulling the destitution out which are mean by the writers team in these article especially for the traditional farmer. These ...

  4. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  6. Integrated Safeguards Information System for Japan (ISIS-J) - Strengthening SSAC for Enhancing Confidence in Compliance with Safeguards Obligations -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iso, S.; Nishiyama, N.; Kumakura, S.; Takizawa, K.; Yoshida, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Kikuchi, M.; Kimura, N.; Matsubara, T.; Yatsu, S.

    2010-01-01

    IAEA has stated the importance of enhancing cooperation with SSAC. Therefore, Japan has developed the Integrated Safeguards Information System for enhancing confidence in compliance with the national obligation under the safeguards agreement and the additional protocol. Japan already established the National System including national inspections with NDA and DA verification functions and evaluation of data obtained from national inspections and has maintained the National System of safeguards as a SSAC in accordance with the safeguards agreement. Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) is engaged in national safeguards activities as designated organization of national inspectorate and information treatment including safeguards data analysis. Recently, purpose of IAEA's safeguards activities may shift to detection of proliferation based on plausible proliferation paths from detection of diversion by certain material accountancy measures. Major safeguards activities of IAEA have changed from quantitative aspects to qualitative them. As supplements for declining the quantitative measures such as the activities based on the safeguards criteria the IAEA would expect the SSAC functions for maintaining the activities of quantitative manners. Japan believes that the State's responsibility for enhancing cooperation between the National System and the IAEA must assure the confidence level of correctness and completeness of the State declarations with accurate and precise accountability as findings from SSAC. Japan has started the development of the strengthened and autonomous national system namely the Integrated safeguards Information System for Japan (ISIS-J) in order to fulfil our responsibility. Japan would seek to improve quality of information including nuclear material accounting data as well as expanded declaration relevant to nuclear activities in Japan, and to increase abilities for explaining safeguards relevant events in Japan. The enhanced findings could include

  7. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  8. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  9. RBAC-Matrix-based EMR right management system to improve HIPAA compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung-Chang; Chang, Shih-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    Security control of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is a mechanism used to manage electronic medical records files and protect sensitive medical records document from information leakage. Researches proposed the Role-Based Access Control(RBAC). However, with the increasing scale of medical institutions, the access control behavior is difficult to have a detailed declaration among roles in RBAC. Furthermore, with the stringent specifications such as the U.S. HIPAA and Canada PIPEDA etc., patients are encouraged to have the right in regulating the access control of his EMR. In response to these problems, we propose an EMR digital rights management system, which is a RBAC-based extension to a matrix organization of medical institutions, known as RBAC-Matrix. With the aim of authorizing the EMR among roles in the organization, RBAC-Matrix also allow patients to be involved in defining access rights of his records. RBAC-Matrix authorizes access control declaration among matrix organizations of medical institutions by using XrML file in association with each EMR. It processes XrML rights declaration file-based authorization of behavior in the two-stage design, called master & servant stage, thus makes the associated EMR to be better protected. RBAC-Matrix will also make medical record file and its associated XrML declaration to two different EMRA(EMR Authorization)roles, namely, the medical records Document Creator (DC) and the medical records Document Right Setting (DRS). Access right setting, determined by the DRS, is cosigned by the patient, thus make the declaration of rights and the use of EMR to comply with HIPAA specifications.

  10. Microbiological Status and Food Safety Compliance of Commercial Basil Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; Otto, Denise; Korsten, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Basil has been implicated in a number of microbe-associated foodborne illnesses across the world, and the source of contamination has often been traced back to the production and/or processing stages of the supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh basil from the point of production to the retail outlet in the Gauteng and Northwest Provinces of South Africa. A total of 463 samples were collected over a 3-month period from two large-scale commercial herb producing and processing companies and three retail outlets. The microbiological quality of the samples was assessed based on the presence or absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium and the levels of the indicator bacteria E. coli and total coliforms. Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on four basil samples (0.9%) arriving at the processing facility and at dispatch, but no E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the study. Total coliform counts were 0.4 to 4.1 CFU/g for basil, 1.9 to 3.4 log CFU/ml for water, and 0.2 to 1.7 log CFU/cm(2) for contact surfaces, whereas E. coli was detected in the water samples and only once on basil. The Colilert-18 and membrane filter methods were used to analyze water samples, and a comparison of results revealed that the Colilert-18 method was more sensitive. Strong evidence suggests that high numbers of coliforms do not necessarily indicate the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium. The study results highlight the importance of effective implementation of food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry.

  11. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  12. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  13. Scheduling and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Transparency/Performance Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules and for the mapping of fault-tolerant applications. Our techniques handle transparency/performance trade-offs and use the faultoccurrence information to reduce the overhead due to fault tolerance. Processes...... and messages are statically scheduled, and we use process reexecution for recovering from multiple transient faults. We propose a finegrained transparent recovery, where the property of transparency can be selectively applied to processes and messages. Transparency hides the recovery actions in a selected part...... of the application so that they do not affect the schedule of other processes and messages. While leading to longer schedules, transparent recovery has the advantage of both improved debuggability and less memory needed to store the faulttolerant schedules....

  14. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  15. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2001-01-01

    with beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... with beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  16. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  17. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  18. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAM...

  19. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  20. Plant growth and mineral recycle trade-offs in different scenarios for a CELSS. [Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Spitze, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Data for hydroponic plant growth in a manned system test is combined with nutritional recommendations to suport trade-off calculations for closed and partially closed life support system scenarios. Published data are used as guidelines for the masses of mineral nutrients needed for higher plant production. The results of calculations based on various scenarios are presented for various combinations of plant growth chamber utilization and fraction of mineral recycle. Estimates are made of the masses of material needed to meet human nutritional requirements in the various scenarios. It appears that food production from a plant growth chamber with mineral recycle is favorable to reduction of the total launch weight in missions exceeding 3 years.

  1. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  2. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  3. Introduction to interjurisdictional energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This workbook introduces the basic concepts of Interjurisdictional Energy Trading (IJT) in the Independent Electricity System Operator's (IESO) administered markets to assist in the IESO training of market participants. The IESO controlled grid is connected to five jurisdictions with intertie transmission lines that allow Ontario to import and export energy. The workbook contains a listing of the markets in which importers and exports can participate; description of the three types of import and export transactions and how they relate to transactions within Ontario; a differentiation between Ontario prices and prices used for imports and exports; an explanation of the impact imports and exports have on Ontario prices, how prices are set for imports and exports, how imports and exports are scheduled, and how congestion management settlement credits are calculated for intertie transactions; a calculation of intertie offer guarantee (IOG) payments; an explanation of the application of the net interchange schedule limit; a discussion of the settlements process and associated charge types; and an explanation of schedule compliance requirements and potential enforcement actions. tabs., figs

  4. Issues in the implementation of greenhouse gas emissions trading in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, D.

    2001-01-01

    Ironically, emissions trading proposals to implement the Kyoto Protocol are being proposed in Europe, not among the nations usually associated with such measures. This article identifies and discusses very briefly the main issues that will have to be considered in adopting a national system of CO 2 emissions trading. These issues are: allocation of permits and monitoring, penalties and liability for non-compliance, comprehensiveness of the emissions cap, integration with renewable energy certificates, integration of sinks and other gases with carbon trading, and cost caps and escape valves. Assuming the current proposals are adopted, Europe bids fair to become the test-bed in which the rules of an eventual international system will be developed in process not unlike that characterizing the development of the European Union. The European challenge is then both inward, to Europe, to go beyond proposals and to resolve the issues identified here, and outward, to other nations, to take similar steps in matching deed with advocacy. (author)

  5. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  6. Year 2000 Compliance of Selected Mission Critical Command, Control, and Communications Systems Managed by The Defense Information Systems Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) has adequately planned for and managed year 2000 conversion risks to avoid undue disruption to selected mission critical command, control, and communications systems used in support of Unified...

  7. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  8. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  9. A Review of Offset Programs: Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols, Standards and Retailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford

    2008-11-15

    Carbon or greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Furthermore, offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, spurred through technology development and transfer, and to develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge for policymakers is clear: to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. The goal of this review is to provide an up-to-date analysis and synthesis of the most influential offset programs and activities, to reflect on lessons learned, and thus to inform participants and designers of current and future offset programs. Our intention is to periodically update this review to stay abreast of ongoing developments, and to develop a website portal to make this information more accessible. This version targets programs that meet one or more of the following criteria: - a significant volume of credit transactions occurring or anticipated; - an established set of rules or protocols - path-breaking, novel or otherwise notable initiatives or important lessons learned

  10. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  11. 40 CFR 73.35 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 73.35 Section 73.35... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.35 Compliance. (a) Allowance transfer deadline. No allowance... in § 73.34(a) of this part, the Administrator will deduct allowances for each source with excess...

  12. User Interface Composition with COTS-UI and Trading Approaches: Application for Web-Based Environmental Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Javier; Padilla, Nicolás; Iribarne, Luis; Asensio, Jose-Andrés

    Due to the globalization of the information and knowledge society on the Internet, modern Web-based Information Systems (WIS) must be flexible and prepared to be easily accessible and manageable in real-time. In recent times it has received a special interest the globalization of information through a common vocabulary (i.e., ontologies), and the standardized way in which information is retrieved on the Web (i.e., powerful search engines, and intelligent software agents). These same principles of globalization and standardization should also be valid for the user interfaces of the WIS, but they are built on traditional development paradigms. In this paper we present an approach to reduce the gap of globalization/standardization in the generation of WIS user interfaces by using a real-time "bottom-up" composition perspective with COTS-interface components (type interface widgets) and trading services.

  13. The Impact of the EU Emissions Trading System on CO{sub 2} Intensity in Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerberg, Anna (Dept. of Economics, Goeteborgs Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden)); Wraake, Markus (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)). e-mail: markus.wrake@ivl.se

    2009-07-15

    Prior to the launch of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005, the electricity sector was widely proclaimed to have more low-cost emission abatement opportunities than other sectors. If this were true, effects of the EU ETS on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions would likely be visible in the electricity sector. Our study looks at the effect of the price of emission allowances (EUA) on CO{sub 2} emissions from Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis for the period 2004-2008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EUA and the CO{sub 2} emissions of Swedish electricity production. A number of reasons may explain this result and we conclude that other determinants of fossil fuel use in Swedish electricity generation probably diminished the effects of the EU ETS

  14. An eoq model for weibull deteriorating item with ramp type demand and salvage value under trade credit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Mohan Pradhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present competitive business scenario researchers have developed various inventory models for deteriorating items considering various practical situations for better inventory control. Permissible delay in payments with various demands and deteriorations is considerably a new concept introduced in developing various inventory models. These models are very useful for both the consumers and the manufacturer. Methods: In the present work an inventory model has been developed for a three parameter Weibull deteriorating item with ramp type demand and salvage value under trade credit system. Here we have considered a single item for developing the model. Results and conclusion: Optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and total variable cost during a cycle have been derived for the proposed inventory model. The results obtained in this paper have been illustrated with the help of numerical examples and sensitivity analysis.   

  15. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    , is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed in the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves......The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities...... with the aim of producing food, not sequestering CO2 in their shells, therefore the main ecosystem good provided by bivalve aquaculture is meat production, and shells should be considered as by-products of this human activity. This reasoning is key to split the CO2 released due to respiration between meat...

  16. 75 FR 45693 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  17. 77 FR 50206 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  18. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    . Besides, it enables to avoid over-allocations and perverse threshold effects observed in Phase III, but it further mutes the carbon price signal to consumers, and should be complemented by additional mechanisms to exploit demand -side abatement potentials. This mechanism would lead to a less impacting CSCF of 71% in 2030 with a 1.4% annual growth assumption that would however depend on the aggregate output level. Based on our estimates, this factor would be comprised between 62% and 82% in 2030, entailing an uncertainty about the net carbon cost borne by installations amounting to 10% of added value for the cement sector and 6% for the steel sector, with a 30 euro/tCO 2 price assumption. - In Scenario 3, a more targeted and focused allocation is presented, which better reflects the exposure to carbon leakage risks. It is proposed to use differentiated allocation rates either based on carbon cost and trade intensity thresholds like implemented in California for example, or based on targeted maximum carbon costs for each sectors depending on trade intensity. This would enable to reduce the allocation volume and overcome the ex post correction and the uncertainty coming with it, and to mitigate carbon costs more efficiently for exposed sectors. - The Scenario 4 assesses the European Commission's proposal, which could be leading to a 20% ex post reduction of allocation volume to all installations by 2030, on top of the 20% uniform reduction of benchmarks. Focusing allocation to exposed sectors, and enhancing flexibility in the supply of free allowances through a dynamic New Entrant Reserve could be levers to help combat carbon leakages more efficiently and maintain incentives to reduce emissions. In the end, it appears that a combination of instruments is needed to forge a credible road-map for decarbonization of industry sectors: a predictable carbon price signal, flexible and targeted free allocation, as well as additional instruments to steer demand for low

  19. A Study of Customer Satisfaction on Online Trading System Application of Securities Company in Indonesia Using Servqual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Hery

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the service  quality of online trading system implemented by PT  KDB  Daewoo  Securities  Indonesia.  The study is  a part of the company  efforts to provide  the best solution  services. The study  is performed   to determine the influence of service quality  factors on the customer satisfaction by means of ServQual  method. The method takes  into account  five  independent  variables,  namely, reliability (X1 ,  responsiveness  (X2 ,  assurance  (X3 , empathy (X4 , and tangibility (X5 . Meanwhile,  the cus- tomer satisfaction is considered as the dependent variable (Y . The population of of the study  is all 67 900 online traders at the company and the sample size is 265 traders. The data are collected via questionnaires and interviews. From the study results, we conclude that the five variables have  significant  influence  on the customer  satisfaction on the online trading system application   at PT KDB Daewoo Securities Indonesia. To  improve  the customer satisfaction, the company  should prioritize the quality- related factors,  and expand  and upgrade  the existing facilities and infrastructures.

  20. Preliminary preview for a geographic and monitoring program project; a review of point source-nonpoint source effluent trading/offset systems in watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander Warren; Bernknopf, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Watershed-based trading and offset systems are being developed to improve policy-maker?s and regulator?s ability to assess nonpoint source impacts in watersheds and to evaluate the efficacy of using market-incentive programs for preserving environmental quality. An overview of the history of successful and failed trading programs throughout the United States suggests that certain political, economic, and scientific conditions within a temporal and spatial setting help meet water quality standards. The current lack of spontaneous trading among dischargers does not mean that a marketable permit trading system is an inherently inefficient regulatory approach. Rather, its infrequent use is the result of institutional and informational barriers. Improving and refining the earth science information and technologies may help determine whether trading is a suitable policy for improving water quality. However, it is debatable whether or not environmental information is the limiting factor. This paper reviews additional factors affecting the potential for instituting a trading policy. The motivation for investigating and reviewing the history of offsets and trading was inspired by a project in the preliminary stages being developed by U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center and the Environmental Protection Agency Region IX. An offset feasibility study will be an integrated, map-based approach that incorporates environmental, economic, and statistical information to investigate the potential for using offsets to meet mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Sacramento River watershed. A regional water-quality offset program is being studied that may help known point sources reduce mercury loading more cost effectively by the remediation of abandoned mines or other diffuse sources as opposed to more costly treatment at their own sites. An efficient offset program requires both a scientific basis and methods to translate that science into a regulatory decision

  1. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing...

  2. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; padrenaline levels (r=-0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; padrenaline (-16%; p... to COMP(art) disappeared. The relation of COMP(art) to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline...

  3. The European Emission Trading System and competition. Anticompetitive measures beyond reach? An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaar, S.

    2006-10-01

    The center piece of the European Climate Change Program is the ambitious Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, Directive 2003/87/EC) which helps Member States to fulfill their Kyoto commitments. It particularly facilitates the old EU 15 Member States to make progress towards meeting their particular greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals committed under the Burden Sharing Agreement. EU Member States have developed national greenhouse gas allowances allocation plans and distributed these allowances to around 5000 operators with approximately 12.000 installations. Differences between allocations can give rise to severe anticompetitive effects. Undue interventions by Member States are largely contained through the application of the four freedoms, while EC Competition law (Articles 81 and 82) is geared to the containment of competitive distortions arising in particular from undue behavior of firms. State involvement in infringements is addressed through Articles 87 (State aid) and 86 (public undertakings) and the 'joint application doctrine' (Articles 10(2), 3(g), 81 and 82) which was developed by the ECJ upon recognition that State measures can undermine the effectiveness of the EC Treaty. The paper examines how anticompetitive distortions originating from Member State action under National Allocation Plans in general and by application of (historical) grandfathering and the (hypothetical) Performance Standard Rate (PSR) allocation format in particular are dealt with under European competition law rules. The PSR System is a relative benchmark system with an intended cap for all participants but without a cap for individual operators. This alternative approach has been developed and is actually in use for the Dutch NOx Emission Trading System. An interdisciplinary industrial economic and competition law framework is chosen to formulate an economic critique. After the introductory part the anticompetitive effects originating in State measures are examined

  4. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy

    2018-06-13

    The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership. Growing & diverse sources of evidence indicate that the TI remains involved in tobacco smuggling and that TI cigarettes account for around two-thirds of the illicit cigarette market. The TI therefore has a vested interest in controlling the global T&T system aimed to curtail this behaviour. To this end, Philip Morris International (PMI) adapted its pack marker system, Codentify, to meet T&T requirements, licensed it for free to its three major competitors who then collectively promoted it to governments using front groups and third parties including companies claiming to be independent despite clear TI links. PMI also sought to suggest Codentify was independent by selling some parts of its intellectual property on Codentify while retaining others, leaving a complex web of shared interests. In Africa, British American Tobacco used payments to obtain data suggesting its smaller competitor companies were evading taxes and secure influence with tax authorities. Regulatory capture has been enhanced by a public relations effort involving TI funding for conferences, training, research, and international police and anti-corruption organisations. Collectively this has created public messaging and a powerful network of organisations supportive of the TI's misleading postion on illicit. Governments should assume the TI seeks to control T&T systems in order to avoid scrutiny and minimise excise tax payments and that any T&T system based on Codentify, on intellectual property

  5. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  6. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  7. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  8. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  9. Planning integrated system and energy trading; Sistema integrado de planejamento e comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzatto, Wilson Tadeu; Ferreira, Luiz Roberto Morgenstern; Bloot, Marcio Luiz; Carneiro, Carlos Fernando Bley [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: pizzatto@copel.com; luiz.roberto@copel.com; mlbloot@copel.com; carlos.bley@copel.com; Bessa, Marcelo Rodrigues; Favoreto, Rafael de Souza [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: bessa@lactec.org.br; favoreto@lactec.org.br

    2006-07-01

    In a complex system as the one composed by Brazilian Power Plants and connecting grid, with many associated risks, it is important to a Generation Company to use computer programs that help the decision making process in planning and energy commercialization areas. This paper describes the necessary steps to obtain a Integrated Planning and Energy Commercialization System which aims to measure the profitability of Brazilian Generation Company working in an Integrated Electric System based on hydropower generation. (author)

  10. Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Sato, Masahiro; Yarime, Masaru; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yu, Yadong; Kraines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a critical component of achieving sustainable development. In addition to the three aspects of promoting access, renewables, and efficiency, the dimension of resilience in energy systems should also considered. The implementation of resilient energy systems requires a quantitative understanding of the socio-economic practices underlying such systems. Specifically, in line with the increasing globalization of trade, there remains a critical knowledge gap on the link between embodied energy in the production and consumption of traded goods. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate the resilience of global energy systems through an examination of a diversity measure of global embodied electricity trade based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) networks. The significance of this research lies in its ability to utilize high resolution MRIO data sets in assessing the resilience of national energy systems. This research indicates that secure and responsible consumption requires the diversification of not only energy generation but also energy imports. This research will lay the ground for further research in the governance of resilience in global energy networks. - Highlights: • We examine the resilience of global embodied energy based on (MRIO) trade networks. • We propose a secure and responsible mode of thinking for national energy consumption. • Secure & responsible consumption requires diversity in energy generation and imports.

  11. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEGM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3

  12. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  13. 75 FR 70973 - Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... prospectively to facilitate direct access to the electronic trading system of a foreign board of trade by its U... Trade; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 223 / Friday, November 19, 2010 / Proposed... Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. A New Matrix Theorem: Interpretation in Terms of Internal Trade Structure and Implications for Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, A.E.; Thissen, M.J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Economic systems often are described in matrix form as x = Mx. We present a new theorem for systems of this type where M is square, nonnegative and indecomposable. The theorem discloses the existence of additional economic relations that have not been discussed in the literature up to now, and gives

  15. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. III - Mars expedition system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1991-01-01

    Several alternative configurations of life-support systems (LSSs) for a Mars missions are compared analytically on a quantitative basis in terms of weight, volume, and power. A baseline technology set is utilized for the illustrations of systems including totally open loop, carbon dioxide removal only, partially closed loop, and totally closed loop. The analytical model takes advantage of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of LSS subsystems into functional elements that represent individual processing technologies. The open-loop systems are not competitive in terms of weight for both long-duration orbiters and short-duration lander vehicles, and power demands are lowest with the open loop and highest with the closed loop. The closed-loop system can reduce vehicle weight by over 70,000 lbs and thereby overcome the power penalty of 1600 W; the closed-loop variety is championed as the preferred system for a Mars expedition.

  16. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  17. Assuring data quality for use in waste management system trade-off studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Stiles, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has responsibility for constructing and operating facilities to accept and dispose of high-level nuclear waste generated by commercial and defense reactors. The Office of Systems Integration and Regulation within OCRWM has sponsored the development of a suite of computer models to be used in analyzing various possible alternatives for the configuration and operation of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system. This suite of models and their associated databases is referred to as the Systems Integration Modeling System (SIMS). As part of SIMS, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories has developed the Systems Engineering Cost Analysis Capability (SECAC), which, working in conjunction with one or more logistics models, provides cost estimates at various levels of detail for the complete Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The SECAC has been designed as a flexible tool for use in estimating the cost of alternative operating modes, different waste acceptance priorities and alternative designs that may be proposed for the FWMS components. A relatively large amount of data must be compiled and managed to fully represent these possible alternative FWMS configurations and operating strategies. A systems engineering approach has been implemented to ensure the integrity of this large cost data library throughout the evolution of the capability. 4 refs

  18. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... for three hours due to malfunctions in quote dissemination systems and potential connectivity issues... (``TAC''); the Futures Industry Association's (``FIA'') Principal Traders Group and Market Access Working Group; the International Organization of Securities Commissions (``IOSCO''); the European Securities and...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act. 52.225-3 Section 52.225-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli...

  20. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

  1. The role of the noradrenergic system in the exploration-exploitation trade-off: a pharmacological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Jepma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal research and computational modeling have indicated an important role for the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system in the control of behavior. According to the adaptive gain theory, the LC-NE system is critical for optimizing behavioral performance by regulating the balance between exploitative and exploratory control states. However, crucial direct empirical tests of this theory in human subjects have been lacking. We used a pharmacological manipulation of the LC-NE system to test predictions of this theory in humans. In a double-blind parallel-groups design (N = 52, participants received 4 mg reboxetine (a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, 30 mg citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or placebo. The adaptive gain theory predicted that the increased tonic NE levels induced by reboxetine would promote task disengagement and exploratory behavior. We assessed the effects of reboxetine on performance in two cognitive tasks designed to examine task (disengagement and exploitative versus exploratory behavior: a diminishing-utility task and a gambling task with a non-stationary pay-off structure. In contrast to predictions of the adaptive gain theory, we did not find differences in task (disengagement or exploratory behavior between the three experimental groups, despite demonstrable effects of the two drugs on non-specific central and autonomic nervous system parameters. Our findings suggest that the LC-NE system may not be involved in the regulation of the exploration-exploitation trade-off in humans, at least not within the context of a single task. It remains to be examined whether the LC-NE system is involved in random exploration exceeding the current task context.

  2. The Anatomy of Digital Trade Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukanova, Boriana; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In global supply chains information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The introduction of digital trade infrastructures (DTI) that transcend organizational and systems domains is driven by the prospect of reducing this information fragmentation......, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in trade process. To understand the problem at hand and build cumulative knowledge about its resolution a way to conceptualize the different digital trade infrastructure initiatives is needed. This paper develops the Digital Trade Infrastructure Framework...

  3. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  4. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  5. Evaluation of hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, J-C; Reynier, P; Boudjema, S; Soto Aladro, A; Giorgi, R; Brouqui, P

    2017-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a major means for preventing healthcare-associated infections. One critical point in understanding poor compliance is the lack of relevant markers used to monitor practices systematically. This study analysed hand hygiene compliance and associated factors with a radio-frequency-identification-based real-time continuous automated monitoring system in an infectious disease ward with 17 single bedrooms. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were tracked while performing routine care over 171 days. A multi-level multi-variate logistics model was used for data analysis. The main outcome measures were hand disinfection before entering the bedroom (outside use) and before entering the patient care zone, defined as the zone surrounding the patient's bed (inside/bedside use). Variables analysed included HCWs' characteristics and behaviour, patients, room layouts, path chains and duration of HCWs' paths. In total, 4629 paths with initial hand hygiene opportunities when entering the patient care zone were selected, of which 763 (16.5%), 285 (6.1%) and 3581 (77.4%) were associated with outside use, inside/bedside use and no use, respectively. Hand hygiene is caregiver-dependent. The shorter the duration of the HCW's path, the worse the bedside hand hygiene. Bedside hand hygiene is improved when one or two extra HCWs are present in the room. Hand hygiene compliance at the bedside, as analysed using the continuous monitoring system, depended upon the HCW's occupation and personal behaviour, number of HCWs, time spent in the room and (potentially) dispenser location. Meal tray distribution was a possible factor in the case of failure to disinfect hands. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooperation through Competition—Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the “cooperation” between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time. PMID:27446142

  7. Cooperation through Competition-Dynamics and Microeconomics of a Minimal Nutrient Trade System in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Stephan; Valdebenito, Braulio; Bustos, Daniel; Gomez-Porras, Judith L; Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated during AM formation. We show that this minimal network is sufficient to describe accurately and realistically the nutrient trade system. By applying basic principles of microeconomics, we link the biophysics of transmembrane nutrient transport with the ecology of organismic interactions and straightforwardly explain macroscopic scenarios of the relations between plant and AM fungus. This computational cell biology study allows drawing far reaching hypotheses about the mechanism and the regulation of nutrient exchange and proposes that the "cooperation" between plant and fungus can be in fact the result of a competition between both for the same resources in the tiny periarbuscular space. The minimal model presented here may serve as benchmark to evaluate in future the performance of more complex models of AM nutrient exchange. As a first step toward this goal, we included SWEET sugar transporters in the model and show that their co-occurrence with proton-coupled sugar transporters results in a futile carbon cycle at the plant plasma membrane proposing that two different pathways for the same substrate should not be active at the same time.

  8. International trade and Austria's livestock system: Direct and hidden carbon emission flows associated with production and consumption of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, Olga; Jonas, Matthias; Erb, Karlheinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created a framework of responsibilities and mechanisms to mitigate climate change by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The Protocol stipulates accounting and reporting of GHG emissions and removals, such as energy use, industrial processes, agriculture, waste and net emissions resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities. Emissions reported according to the rules set by the Kyoto Protocol do not include GHG emissions outside a country's boundaries resulting from the production of imported goods or services. As a result, GHG accounts constructed according to the Kyoto Protocol reflect the GHG emissions resulting from the production system of a country, but not all the emissions resulting from the consumption of goods and services within the country. However, as previous studies demonstrate, a country's emission balance changes remarkably if emissions related to goods or services imported and exported are taken into account. Here, we go beyond the aforementioned studies which mainly focus on GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion. We assess, in a first-order approach, upstream emissions that result from LULUC activities outside a country while the produced goods are consumed within the country. In our study we focus on Austria's livestock system to elucidate the difference between production and consumption-related emissions accounting approaches. We study direct and 'hidden' (embodied) GHG emissions associated with Austria's bilateral trade in livestock and livestock-related products, based on the integration of full carbon accounting (FCA) and life cycle analysis (LCA). (author)

  9. Compliance als Schutz vor Verbandsverantwortlichkeit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tipold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance bedeutet nicht nur Einhaltung und Beachtung von Vorschriften, sondern betrifft auch Maßnahmen, die die Einhaltung der Rechtsnormen absichern sollen und läuft somit auf eine Übererfüllung von Verpflichtungen hinaus. Wenn es keinen klaren Maßstab für Kontroll- und Überwachungspflichten gibt, besteht die Gefahr, dass Strafverfolgungsbehörden die Compliance-Maßnahmen als Maßstab heranziehen und so eine Verschärfung der Pflichten erzeugen. Nach den Regeln des Verbandsverantwortlichkeitsgesetzes schließt im Übrigen das beste Compliance-System nicht zwingend die Verbandsverantwortlichkeit aus, steht aber unter Umständen einem Verfahren gegen den Verband entgegen.

  10. Mathematical approaches for complexity/predictivity trade-offs in complex system models : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Mayo, Jackson R.; Bhattacharyya, Arnab (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Armstrong, Robert C.; Vanderveen, Keith

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this research was to examine foundational methods, both computational and theoretical, that can improve the veracity of entity-based complex system models and increase confidence in their predictions for emergent behavior. The strategy was to seek insight and guidance from simplified yet realistic models, such as cellular automata and Boolean networks, whose properties can be generalized to production entity-based simulations. We have explored the usefulness of renormalization-group methods for finding reduced models of such idealized complex systems. We have prototyped representative models that are both tractable and relevant to Sandia mission applications, and quantified the effect of computational renormalization on the predictive accuracy of these models, finding good predictivity from renormalized versions of cellular automata and Boolean networks. Furthermore, we have theoretically analyzed the robustness properties of certain Boolean networks, relevant for characterizing organic behavior, and obtained precise mathematical constraints on systems that are robust to failures. In combination, our results provide important guidance for more rigorous construction of entity-based models, which currently are often devised in an ad-hoc manner. Our results can also help in designing complex systems with the goal of predictable behavior, e.g., for cybersecurity.

  11. Exploring profit - Sustainability trade-offs in cropping systems using evolutionary algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVoil, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Hammer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Models that implement the bio-physical components of agro-ecosystems are ideally suited for exploring sustainability issues in cropping systems. Sustainability may be represented as a number of objectives to be maximised or minimised. However, the full decision space of these objectives is usually

  12. Crisis and pension system design in the EU : International spillover effects via factor mobility and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedotenkov, I.; Meijdam, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Many European Union states have adjusted pension benefits or reformed the pension system in reaction to the recent economic crisis, while other member states have postponed this type of adjustments. In this paper we study to what extent countries that responded quickly to the crisis are harmed by

  13. Environmental trade-offs of pig production systems under varied operational efficiencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, G. A.; Takahashi, T; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Production of pork, the most consumed meat globally, is estimated to emit 668 m tonnes CO2-eq of greenhouse gases each year. Amongst various production systems that comprise the pig industry, grain-based intensive production is widely regarded as the largest polluter of the environment, and thus ...

  14. Audit-based compliance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dimitrakos, T.; Corin, R.J.; Martinelli, F.; Ryan, P.Y.A.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Schneider, S.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal

  15. Context-aware compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations face more and more the burden to show that their business is compliant with respect to many different boundaries. The activity of compliance checking is commonly referred to as auditing. As information systems supporting the organization’s business record their usage, process mining

  16. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  17. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  18. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  19. Enterprise systems in financial sector - an application in precious metal trading forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaozhu; Fang, Yiwei

    2013-11-01

    The use of enterprise systems has become increasingly popular in the financial service industry. This paper discusses the applications of enterprise systems in the financial sectors and presents an application in gold price forecasting. We carefully examine the impacts of a few most widely assumed factors that have significant impact on the long-term gold price using statistical regression techniques. The analysis on our proposed linear regression mode indicates that the United States ultra scale of M2 money supply has been the most important catalyst for the rising price of gold, and the CRB index upward trend has also been the weighty factor for pushing up the gold price. In addition, the gold price has a low negative correlation with the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and low positive correlations with the US dollar index and the gold ETFs holdings.

  20. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  1. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  2. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  3. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  4. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  5. Piloting a livestock identification and traceability system in the northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi trade route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence; Kihara, Absolomon; Rogena, Jason; Ngwili, Nicholas; Aboge, Gabriel; Wabacha, James; Bett, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    We designed and piloted a livestock identification and traceability system (LITS) along the Northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi beef value chain. Animals were randomly selected and identified at the primary markets using uniquely coded ear tags. Data on identification, ownership, source (village), and the site of recruitment (primary market) were collected and posted to an online database. Similar data were collected in all the markets where tagged animals passed through until they got to defined slaughterhouses. Meat samples were collected during slaughter and later analyzed for tetracycline and diminazene residues using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Follow up surveys were done to assess the pilot system. The database captured a total of 4260 records from 741 cattle. Cattle recruited in the primary markets in Narok (n = 1698) either came from farms (43.8%), local markets (37.7%), or from markets in Tanzania (18.5%). Soit Sambu market was the main source of animals entering the market from Tanzania (54%; n = 370). Most tagged cattle (72%, n = 197) were slaughtered at the Ewaso Ng'iro slaughterhouse in Narok. Lesions observed (5%; n = 192) were related to either hydatidosis or fascioliasis. The mean diminazene aceturate residue level was 320.78 ± 193.48 ppb. We used the traceability system to identify sources of animals with observable high drug residue levels in tissues. Based on the findings from this study, we discuss opportunities for LITS-as a tool for surveillance for both animal health and food safety, and outline challenges of its deployment in a local beef value chain-such as limited incentives for uptake.

  6. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  7. Memory controllers for mixed-time-criticality systems architectures, methodologies and trade-offs

    CERN Document Server

    Goossens, Sven; Akesson, Benny; Goossens, Kees

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design and performance analysis of SDRAM controllers that cater to both real-time and best-effort applications, i.e. mixed-time-criticality memory controllers. The authors describe the state of the art, and then focus on an architecture template for reconfigurable memory controllers that addresses effectively the quickly evolving set of SDRAM standards, in terms of worst-case timing and power analysis, as well as implementation. A prototype implementation of the controller in SystemC and synthesizable VHDL for an FPGA development board are used as a proof of concept of the architecture template.

  8. Strategy of Trade-Reliable Featured Product Supporting Regional Innovation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskiawan, H. Y.; Purnomo, B. H.; Abdurahman, A.; Hariono, B.; Puspitasari, T. D.

    2018-01-01

    Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan had planned the development of featured products as contained in the Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) until 2020. The focus of development is almost similar to featured products derived from agribusiness, food processing, handycrafts, and tourism. The geographical proximity results characteristics of natural resources and social culture have similarities, including the type of featured products, constraints, problems, and opportunities for development. Given the characteristics and the support system of some featured products contained in these three regions have a lot in common and their functional interactions involving actors from across the region, it is necessary to develop cross-jurisdictional policy. The resulting strategy should be able to support the development of Regional Innovation System (RIS). The purpose of this research is 1) Determining featured product cross-regional between Pacitan regency; Ponorogo and Magetan districts in support of RIS development; and 2) Designing a featured product development strategy using supply chain management in order to drive the local economy. Based on the results of research conducted, featured products across the region that have potentiality to be developed are: processed products of “janggelan” leather products, and woven bamboo.

  9. OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM AT TRADE ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Radu said (2009, pag. 91 [6] logical approach developed by accounting, presentation of an exact image of the heritage, the financial situation and financial results, based on a rational thought, a gradual knowledge domain investigated, concepts, tools and processes that allow a better understanding of the essence of economic phenomena and processes. Theoretical framework brings together a number of concepts that are considered fundamental to regulatory or accounting systems applied at the level of the entity to have clearly specified the coordinates of the base and are able to achieve cohesion between the objective of financial statements as true and fair view, financial information and policy characteristics and estimation techniques as a form of expression towards the recognition and presentation of economic reality. The author considers, in the context of the defined system applied within the accounting entities in general, that principles, presents not only a crucial premise, as well as needed necessity in order to show an exact image of the performance and financial position of the entity.

  10. Electric vehicle charging in China’s power system: Energy, economic and environmental trade-offs and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Davis, Chris; Lukszo, Zofia; Weijnen, Margot

    2016-01-01

    generation; and (3) reducing generation costs and EV charging costs. Hence, in light of this trade-off of controlled charging with the goals of energy security, economic efficiency and reducing environmental impacts, policy interventions in the Chinese power system should opt for controlled charging strategies in order to best realize the benefits of EVs. Accordingly, this paper proposes that increasing the use of cleaner forms of electricity generation, such as RES power and gas power, and establishing energy efficiency and CO_2 emission regulations in power dispatch are critical for China. Lastly, this work illustrates what the optimized charging profiles from the power system perspective look like for different regions. These results can inform Chinese policy makers in creating a better integration of the transportation and the power system.

  11. Toward an inclusive and a little bit ethical world trading system : listening to the voices of the people in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kan Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Many specialists in international trade have started saying that the era of a mega FTA is approaching. If the three poles of the global economy, namely East Asia, EU and the United States, form mega FTAs, most of the volume of global trade will be covered. That may be fine, but there will be many countries left out of the mega FTA, most of which will be the least developed countries (LDCs). \

  12. Swedish Industry and Kyoto. An Assessment of the Effects of the European CO2 Emission Permit Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    We assess the effects on Swedish industry input and output demands of different climate policy scenarios connected to energy policy induced by the Kyoto protocol. A unique data set containing firm level data on outputs and inputs during the years 1991-2001 is used to estimate a factor demand model, which is then simulated for different policy scenarios. Sector specific estimation suggests that the proposed quadratic profit function specification exhibit properties and robustness that are consistent with economic theory; that is, all own-price elasticities are negative and all output elasticities are positive. Furthermore, the elasticities show that the input demands are, in most cases, relatively inelastic. Simulation of the model for 6 different policy scenarios reveal that the effects on Swedish base industry of a EU level permit trade system is dependent on (i) removal or no removal of current CO 2 tax, (ii) the established price of permits, and (iii) what will happen to the electricity price. Our analysis show that changes in electricity price may be more important than the price of permits for some sectors

  13. Swedish industry and Kyoto - An assessment of the effects of the European CO2 emission trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    We assess the effects on Swedish industry input demands and output of different climate policy scenarios connected to energy policy induced by the Kyoto protocol. We use a unique dataset containing firm-level data on outputs and inputs between 1991 and 2001 to estimate a factor demand model, which we use to simulate different policy scenarios. Sector-specific estimation suggests that the proposed quadratic profit function specification exhibits properties and robustness that are consistent with economic theory; that is, all own-price elasticities are negative and all output elasticities are positive. Furthermore, the elasticities show that the input demands are, in most cases, relatively inelastic. Simulation of the model for six different policy scenarios reveal that effects on the Swedish base industry of a EU-level permit-trading system depends on (i) the removal or maintenance of the current CO 2 tax, (ii) the price of permits, and (iii) the future price of electricity. Our analysis shows that changes in electricity price may be more important than the price of permits for some sectors. (author)

  14. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  15. Lagrangian evolution of the marine boundary layer from the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, J.; Ghate, V. P.; McCoy, I. L.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign took place July/August 2015 to study the evolution of clouds, precipitation, and aerosols in the stratocumulus-to-cumulus (Sc-Cu) transition region of the northeast Pacific marine boundary layer (MBL). Aircraft observations sampled across a wide range of cloud and aerosol conditions. The sampling strategy, where MBL airmasses were sampled with the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V (HIAPER) and resampled then at their advected location two days later, resulted in a dataset of 14 paired flights suitable for Lagrangian analysis. This analysis shows that Lagrangian coherence of long-lived species (namely CO and O3) across 48 hours are high, but that of subcloud aerosol, MBL depth, and cloud properties is limited. Geostationary satellite retrievals are compared against aircraft observations; these are combined with reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories to document the Lagrangian evolution of cloud fraction, cloud droplet number concentration, liquid water path, estimated inversion strength (EIS), and MBL depth, which are used to expand upon and validate the aircraft-based analysis. Many of the trajectories sampled by the aircraft show a clear Sc-Cu transition. Although satellite cloud fraction and EIS were found to be strongly spatiotemporally correlated, changes in MBL cloud fraction along trajectories did not correlate with any measure of EIS forcing.

  16. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  17. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  18. Quality management system in trade: Internationalization of marketing relations with consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Gvozden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of marketing management is to satisfy the needs and desires of consumers. A lot of factors have influenced the consumers and their purchasing. Besides price and assortment factors there are requirements of consumers for the quality of a product. It means that a product should possess physical, chemical, designing, aesthetic, ecological and other desirable properties that should be expressed before the use of products. Because of that the quality in the theory and practice of management is beginning to affirm itself. This has been particularly expressed by the introduction of ISO 9000 which makes internationalization of quality system and circulation of goods and services without 'physical-fiscal-technical' barriers possible.

  19. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health for 2 years (April 2011 to March 2013). Since April 2013, the platform has been progressively modified across three distinct ca. 22 ha farmlets with the underlying principle being to improve the sustainability (economic, social and environmental) by comparing contrasting pasture-based systems (permanent pasture, grass and clover swards, and reseeding of high quality germplasm on a regular cycle). This modification or transitional period ended in July 2015, when the platform assumed full post-baseline status. In this paper, we summarise the sustainability trade-off metrics developed to compare the three systems, together with the farm platform data collections used to create them; collections that can be viewed as 'big data' when considered in their entirety. We concentrate on the baseline and transitional periods and discuss the potential innovations to optimise grazing livestock systems utilising an experimental farm platform approach.

  20. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  1. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: ICIS-NPDES Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Limits data set for Clean Water Act permitted...

  3. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  4. EnviroTRADE: A technical perspective on the development of an information system providing data on environmental technologies and needs worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's commitment to the remediation of waste sites throughout its complex, the DOE has recognized that it can accelerate its technology development efforts and leverage the expenditure of available funds through an international cooperation among government entities, private industry, and educational institutions. To support the technology transfer of environmental information, the DOE has sponsored the development of EnviroTRADE - an international information system that will facilitate the exchange of environmental restoration and waste management technologies worldwide. The system will contain profiles on both environmental restoration / waste management needs and foreign / domestic technologies. Users will be able to identify matches between worldwide needs and available or emerging technologies. Where matches between needs and existing technologies are not found, the system will identify the potential for development of new and innovative technologies to address environmental problems. EnviroTRADE will also provide general information on international environmental restoration and waste management organizations, sites, activities, and contacts

  5. Lateral Pressure and Deforestation A Review Essay of Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade: A Systems Study by Corey L Lofdahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the effects of increased stuctural integration of international trade on the environment of relatively poorer countries, particularly in the southern hemisphere? This is the key question addressed by Corey Lofdahl in his book Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade:A Systems Study. Given the theme for this special issue of the Journal of World-Systems Research, a discussion and evaluation of this book seems rather timely and relevant. An immediate fact of interest is that Lofdahl is not an environmental sociologist, let alone acquainted with relevant empirical works grounded in a world-systems perspective. Rather, he is trained as a political scientist, and works in the simulation and information technology sector.

  6. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  7. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  8. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  9. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  10. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  11. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde Trade unionism, Unified Health System (SUS and private health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.The article intends to discuss the patterns of interlocution between the Brazilian trade unionism, the public health system (SUS and the private health insurance sector. Some thesis originated in the Public Health area about the subject are debated, in the light of more recent Social Science's studies concerned the Brazilian unionism. It presents a documentary analysis for the case of the largest National Workers Organization, named CUT. The need to discuss the problem in distinct political and economic conjunctures of the country is pointed out. The conflicts between the workers and the companies, added to the unemployment and deregulation of the labor markets

  12. Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N

    1999-01-01

    The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.

  13. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  14. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  15. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system: An agent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Emile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO 2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO 2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based on Great Britain, which already has introduced a price floor, and on Central Western Europe). Using an agent-based electricity market simulation with endogenous investment and a CO 2 market (including banking), we analyse the cross-border effects of national policies as well as system-wide policy options. A common, moderate CO 2 auction reserve price results in a more continuous decarbonisation pathway. This reduces CO 2 price volatility and the occurrence of carbon shortage price periods, as well as the average cost to consumers. A price ceiling can shield consumers from extreme price shocks. These price restrictions do not cause a large risk of an overall emissions overshoot in the long run. A national price floor lowers the cost to consumers in the other zone; the larger the zone with the price floor, the stronger the effect. Price floors that are too high lead to inefficiencies in investment choices and to higher consumer costs. - Highlights: • Cross-border effects of CO 2 policies were investigated with an agent-based model. • The current EU ETS might cause CO 2 price shocks and CO 2 price volatility. • A CO 2 auction reserve price does not lower welfare, but lowers CO 2 price volatility. • A national CO 2 price floor lowers consumer cost in the other countries. • A CO 2 price ceiling does not lead to an overshoot of emissions

  16. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  17. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  18. Choices that increase compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A compliance model is developed and tested using a survey of corporate officials and the regulatory arena of equal employment opportunity. Findings support the economic model of compliance in its conclusion that probability of detection and probable level of sanctions influence compliance decisions. Results also indicate that adjustments to the model that account for bounded rationality are valid. The key outcome, however, is that although all types of investigations play some role in enhancing compliance, those that stress sanctions and thus severity rather than certainty of detection may have the greatest positive influence on compliance. Enforcement programs attempting to operate simply as investigators of small-scale complaints will have less success than those with different types of investigations or a balanced type of single investigation. The results also suggest a more complex cognitive process on the part of regulated individuals than initially theorized. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Can Courts Make Federalism Work? A Game Theory Approach to Court-Induced Compliance and Defection in Federal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Sala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies on federalism analyze the role of courts as safeguards of the federal arrangement, and those that do tend to be too optimistic about what courts can do. This article analyzes the effect of judicial review on the interaction between the central and a regional government in a federation in order to understand the conditions under which courts may or may not enforce compliance with federalism. It argues that politicians of either level of government anticipate the likelihood of a judicial challenge and an eventual veto, and it finds distinct equilibria in the interaction between central and regional governments (imposition, auto-limitation, negotiation and litigation. Only under auto-limitation do courts effectively prevent transgressions to the federal arrangement. In all other scenarios, defection may take place despite the presence of courts. These findings show that as the court’s jurisprudence becomes more solid and defined, the chances for governments to successfully exceed their powers increase. Not only do transgressions take place despite the presence of the court, but because of it.

  20. Evaluation of performance, acceptance, and compliance of an auto-injector in healthy and rheumatoid arthritic subjects measured by a motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Li, Wei; Clawson, Corbin; Karvani, David; Sondag, Perceval; Hahn, James K

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to develop a motion capture system that can track, visualize, and analyze the entire performance of self-injection with the auto-injector. Each of nine healthy subjects and 29 rheumatoid arthritic (RA) patients with different degrees of hand disability performed two simulated injections into an injection pad while six degrees of freedom (DOF) motions of the auto-injector and the injection pad were captured. We quantitatively measured the performance of the injection by calculating needle displacement from the motion trajectories. The max, mean, and SD of needle displacement were analyzed. Assessments of device acceptance and usability were evaluated by a survey questionnaire and independent observations of compliance with the device instruction for use (IFU). A total of 80 simulated injections were performed. Our results showed a similar level of performance among all the subjects with slightly larger, but not statistically significant, needle displacement in the RA group. In particular, no significant effects regarding previous experience in self-injection, grip method, pain in hand, and Cochin score in the RA group were found to have an impact on the mean needle displacement. Moreover, the analysis of needle displacement for different durations of injections indicated that most of the subjects reached their personal maximum displacement in 15 seconds and remained steady or exhibited a small amount of increase from 15 to 60 seconds. Device acceptance was high for most of the questions (ie, >4; >80%) based on a 0-5-point scale or percentage of acceptance. The overall compliance with the device IFU was high for the first injection (96.05%) and reached 98.02% for the second injection. We demonstrated the feasibility of tracking the motions of injection to measure the performance of simulated self-injection. The comparisons of needle displacement showed that even RA patients with severe hand disability could properly perform self-injection with this