WorldWideScience

Sample records for track multiple phases

  1. Elastic tracking versus neural network tracking for very high multiplicity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1991-04-01

    A new Elastic Tracking (ET) algorithm is proposed for finding tracks in very high multiplicity and noisy environments. It is based on a dynamical reinterpretation and generalization of the Radon transform and is related to elastic net algorithms for geometrical optimization. ET performs an adaptive nonlinear fit to noisy data with a variable number of tracks. Its numerics is more efficient than that of the traditional Radon or Hough transform method because it avoids binning of phase space and the costly search for valid minima. Spurious local minima are avoided in ET by introducing a time-dependent effective potential. The method is shown to be very robust to noise and measurement error and extends tracking capabilities to much higher track densities than possible via local road finding or even the novel Denby-Peterson neural network tracking algorithms. 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. No Evidence for Phase-Specific Effects of 40 Hz HD–tACS on Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Bland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase synchronization drives connectivity between neural oscillators, providing a flexible mechanism through which information can be effectively and selectively routed between task-relevant cortical areas. The ability to keep track of objects moving between the left and right visual hemifields, for example, requires the integration of information between the two cerebral hemispheres. Both animal and human studies have suggested that coherent (or phase-locked gamma oscillations (30–80 Hz might underlie this ability. While most human evidence has been strictly correlational, high-density transcranial alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS has been used to manipulate ongoing interhemispheric gamma phase relationships. Previous research showed that 40 Hz tACS delivered bilaterally over human motion complex could bias the perception of a bistable ambiguous motion stimulus (Helfrich et al., 2014. Specifically, this work showed that in-phase (0° offset stimulation boosted endogenous interhemispheric gamma coherence and biased perception toward the horizontal (whereby visual tokens moved between visual hemifields—requiring interhemispheric integration. By contrast, anti-phase (180° offset stimulation decreased interhemispheric gamma coherence and biased perception toward the vertical (whereby tokens moved within separate visual hemifields. Here we devised a multiple object tracking arena comprised of four quadrants whereby discrete objects moved either entirely within the left and right visual hemifields, or could cross freely between visual hemifields, thus requiring interhemispheric integration. Using the same HD-tACS montages as Helfrich et al. (2014, we found no phase-specific effect of 40 Hz stimulation on overall tracking performance. While tracking performance was generally lower during between-hemifield trials (presumably reflecting a cost of integration, this difference was unchanged by in- vs. anti-phase stimulation. Our null results

  3. Self-Motion Impairs Multiple-Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of multiple-object tracking aim to further our understanding of how people perform common activities such as driving in traffic. However, tracking tasks in the laboratory have overlooked a crucial component of much real-world object tracking: self-motion. We investigated the hypothesis that keeping track of one's own movement…

  4. Homography-based multiple-camera person-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple video cameras are cheaply installed overlooking an area of interest. While computerized single-camera tracking is well-developed, multiple-camera tracking is a relatively new problem. The main multi-camera problem is to give the same tracking label to all projections of a real-world target. This is called the consistent labelling problem. Khan and Shah (2003) introduced a method to use field of view lines to perform multiple-camera tracking. The method creates inter-camera meta-target associations when objects enter at the scene edges. They also said that a plane-induced homography could be used for tracking, but this method was not well described. Their homography-based system would not work if targets use only one side of a camera to enter the scene. This paper overcomes this limitation and fully describes a practical homography-based tracker. A new method to find the feet feature is introduced. The method works especially well if the camera is tilted, when using the bottom centre of the target's bounding-box would produce inaccurate results. The new method is more accurate than the bounding-box method even when the camera is not tilted. Next, a method is presented that uses a series of corresponding point pairs "dropped" by oblivious, live human targets to find a plane-induced homography. The point pairs are created by tracking the feet locations of moving targets that were associated using the field of view line method. Finally, a homography-based multiple-camera tracking algorithm is introduced. Rules governing when to create the homography are specified. The algorithm ensures that homography-based tracking only starts after a non-degenerate homography is found. The method works when not all four field of view lines are discoverable; only one line needs to be found to use the algorithm. To initialize the system, the operator must specify pairs of overlapping cameras. Aside from that, the algorithm is fully automatic and uses the natural movement of

  5. Hemifield effects in multiple identity tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hudson

    Full Text Available In everyday life, we often need to attentively track moving objects. A previous study has claimed that this tracking occurs independently in the left and right visual hemifields (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005, Psychological Science,16, 637-647. Specifically, it was shown that observers were much more accurate at tracking objects that were spread over both visual hemifields as opposed to when all were confined to a single visual hemifield. In that study, observers were not required to remember the identities of the objects. Conversely, in real life, there is seldom any benefit to tracking an object unless you can also recall its identity. It has been predicted that when observers are required to remember the identities of the tracked objects a bilateral advantage should no longer be observed (Oksama & Hyönä, 2008, Cognitive Psychology, 56, 237-283. We tested this prediction and found that a bilateral advantage still occurred, though it was not as strong as when observers were not required to remember the identities of the targets. Even in the later case we found that tracking was not completely independent in the two visual hemifields. We present a combined model of multiple object tracking and multiple identity tracking that can explain our data.

  6. Accuracy improvement in measurement of arterial wall elasticity by applying pulse inversion to phased-tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Yukiya; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2018-07-01

    In our studies on ultrasonic elasticity assessment, minute change in the thickness of the arterial wall was measured by the phased-tracking method. However, most images in carotid artery examinations contain multiple-reflection noise, making it difficult to evaluate arterial wall elasticity precisely. In the present study, a modified phased-tracking method using the pulse inversion method was examined to reduce the influence of the multiple-reflection noise. Moreover, aliasing in the harmonic components was corrected by the fundamental components. The conventional and proposed methods were applied to a pulsated tube phantom mimicking the arterial wall. For the conventional method, the elasticity was 298 kPa without multiple-reflection noise and 353 kPa with multiple-reflection noise on the posterior wall. That of the proposed method was 302 kPa without multiple-reflection noise and 297 kPa with multiple-reflection noise on the posterior wall. Therefore, the proposed method was very robust against multiple-reflection noise.

  7. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  8. Tracking Multiple People Online and in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU 21-12-2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Tracking multiple people ...online and in real time We cast the problem of tracking several people as a graph partitioning problem that takes the form of an NP-hard binary...PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Duke University 2200 West Main Street Suite 710 Durham, NC 27705 -4010 ABSTRACT Tracking multiple

  9. Phase tracking system for ultra narrow bandwidth applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Cantoni, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances make it possible to mitigate a number of drawbacks of conventional phase locked loops. These advances permit the design of phase tracking systems with much improved characteristics that are sought after in modern communication system applications. A new phase tracking system is

  10. Multiple hypothesis tracking for the cyber domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoegler, Stefan; Blackman, Sam; Holsopple, Jared; Hirsch, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses how methods used for conventional multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) can be extended to domain-agnostic tracking of entities from non-kinematic constraints such as those imposed by cyber attacks in a potentially dense false alarm background. MHT is widely recognized as the premier method to avoid corrupting tracks with spurious data in the kinematic domain but it has not been extensively applied to other problem domains. The traditional approach is to tightly couple track maintenance (prediction, gating, filtering, probabilistic pruning, and target confirmation) with hypothesis management (clustering, incompatibility maintenance, hypothesis formation, and Nassociation pruning). However, by separating the domain specific track maintenance portion from the domain agnostic hypothesis management piece, we can begin to apply the wealth of knowledge gained from ground and air tracking solutions to the cyber (and other) domains. These realizations led to the creation of Raytheon's Multiple Hypothesis Extensible Tracking Architecture (MHETA). In this paper, we showcase MHETA for the cyber domain, plugging in a well established method, CUBRC's INFormation Engine for Real-time Decision making, (INFERD), for the association portion of the MHT. The result is a CyberMHT. We demonstrate the power of MHETA-INFERD using simulated data. Using metrics from both the tracking and cyber domains, we show that while no tracker is perfect, by applying MHETA-INFERD, advanced nonkinematic tracks can be captured in an automated way, perform better than non-MHT approaches, and decrease analyst response time to cyber threats.

  11. The Effect of Fearful Expressions on Multiple Face Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Jin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How does the visual system realize dynamic tracking? This topic has become popular within cognitive science in recent years. The classical theory argues that multiple object tracking is accomplished via pre-attention visual indexes as part of a cognitively impenetrable low-level visual system. The present research aimed to investigate whether and how tracking processes are influenced by facial expressions that convey abundant social information about one’s mental state and situated environment. The results showed that participants tracked fearful faces more effectively than neutral faces. However, this advantage was only present under the low-attentional load condition, and distractor face emotion did not impact tracking performance. These findings imply that visual tracking is not driven entirely by low-level vision and encapsulated by high-level representations; rather, that facial expressions, a kind of social information, are able to influence dynamic tracking. Furthermore, the effect of fearful expressions on multiple face tracking is mediated by the availability of attentional resources.

  12. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  13. Continuous fractional-order Zero Phase Error Tracking Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tian, Siyuan; Xue, Dingyu; Zhang, Tao; Chen, YangQuan

    2018-04-01

    A continuous time fractional-order feedforward control algorithm for tracking desired time varying input signals is proposed in this paper. The presented controller cancels the phase shift caused by the zeros and poles of controlled closed-loop fractional-order system, so it is called Fractional-Order Zero Phase Tracking Controller (FZPETC). The controlled systems are divided into two categories i.e. with and without non-cancellable (non-minimum-phase) zeros which stand in unstable region or on stability boundary. Each kinds of systems has a targeted FZPETC design control strategy. The improved tracking performance has been evaluated successfully by applying the proposed controller to three different kinds of fractional-order controlled systems. Besides, a modified quasi-perfect tracking scheme is presented for those systems which may not have available future tracking trajectory information or have problem in high frequency disturbance rejection if the perfect tracking algorithm is applied. A simulation comparison and a hardware-in-the-loop thermal peltier platform are shown to validate the practicality of the proposed quasi-perfect control algorithm. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  15. Studying visual attention using the multiple object tracking paradigm: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Human observers are capable of tracking multiple objects among identical distractors based only on their spatiotemporal information. Since the first report of this ability in the seminal work of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988, Spatial Vision, 3, 179-197), multiple object tracking has attracted many researchers. A reason for this is that it is commonly argued that the attentional processes studied with the multiple object paradigm apparently match the attentional processing during real-world tasks such as driving or team sports. We argue that multiple object tracking provides a good mean to study the broader topic of continuous and dynamic visual attention. Indeed, several (partially contradicting) theories of attentive tracking have been proposed within the almost 30 years since its first report, and a large body of research has been conducted to test these theories. With regard to the richness and diversity of this literature, the aim of this tutorial review is to provide researchers who are new in the field of multiple object tracking with an overview over the multiple object tracking paradigm, its basic manipulations, as well as links to other paradigms investigating visual attention and working memory. Further, we aim at reviewing current theories of tracking as well as their empirical evidence. Finally, we review the state of the art in the most prominent research fields of multiple object tracking and how this research has helped to understand visual attention in dynamic settings.

  16. A new three-dimensional track fit with multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kiehn, Moritz; Schöning, André

    2017-01-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long distance effects can be ignored for the momentum measurement, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significantly better performance than a single helix fit. The triplets fit is fast and can easily be parallelized, which makes it ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures.

  17. A new three-dimensional track fit with multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik and PRISMA cluster of excellence, Mainz University, Mainz (Germany); Kiehn, Moritz; Schöning, André [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long distance effects can be ignored for the momentum measurement, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significantly better performance than a single helix fit. The triplets fit is fast and can easily be parallelized, which makes it ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures.

  18. Reallocating attention during multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Justin M; Christensen, James C

    2012-07-01

    Wolfe, Place, and Horowitz (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:344-349, 2007) found that participants were relatively unaffected by selecting and deselecting targets while performing a multiple object tracking task, such that maintaining tracking was possible for longer durations than the few seconds typically studied. Though this result was generally consistent with other findings on tracking duration (Franconeri, Jonathon, & Scimeca Psychological Science 21:920-925, 2010), it was inconsistent with research involving cuing paradigms, specifically precues (Pylyshyn & Annan Spatial Vision 19:485-504, 2006). In the present research, we broke down the addition and removal of targets into separate conditions and incorporated a simple performance model to evaluate the costs associated with the selection and deselection of moving targets. Across three experiments, we demonstrated evidence against a cost being associated with any shift in attention, but rather that varying the type of cue used for target deselection produces no additional cost to performance and that hysteresis effects are not induced by a reduction in tracking load.

  19. Multiple Object Tracking Using the Shortest Path Faster Association Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghao Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  20. Multiple Learning Tracks: For Training Multinational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Kerin, Roger A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of identifying and training college students to be effective multinational marketing managers is investigated in three parts: (1) Identification of multinational manager attributes, (2) selection of multinational managers, and (3) multiple "track" training programs. (TA)

  1. Robust multiple cue fusion-based high-speed and nonrigid object tracking algorithm for short track speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenguang; Cheng, Heng-Da; Zhang, Yingtao; Wang, Yuxuan; Xian, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for tracking multiple skaters in short track speed skating competitions. Nonrigid skaters move at high speed with severe occlusions happening frequently among them. The camera is panned quickly in order to capture the skaters in a large and dynamic scene. To automatically track the skaters and precisely output their trajectories becomes a challenging task in object tracking. We employ the global rink information to compensate camera motion and obtain the global spatial information of skaters, utilize random forest to fuse multiple cues and predict the blob of each skater, and finally apply a silhouette- and edge-based template-matching and blob-evolving method to labelling pixels to a skater. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are verified through thorough experiments.

  2. Kalman filters for real-time magnetic island phase tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgers, D.P.; Lauret, M.; Baar, M.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two Kalman filters for tracking of NTMs on ASDEX Upgrade. • The Kalman filters can track NTMs in a much larger frequency range than PLLs. • The filters are tested on synthetic and experimental data from TEXTOR and TCV. • We conclude that the unscented Kalman filter can be useful for NTM control. -- Abstract: For control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the resulting rotating magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas, the frequency and phase of the magnetic islands need to be accurately tracked in real-time. In previous experiments on TEXTOR, this was achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL). For ASDEX Upgrade however, the desired frequency range in which the islands are to be tracked (100 Hz–10 kHz) is much larger than is possible with a PLL. In this contribution, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are proposed for real-time frequency, phase and amplitude tracking of sinusoidal signals, based on noisy measurements. Compared to PLLs, the EKF and UKF are able to track sinusoidal signals in a much larger frequency range. The filters are applied on synthetic data and on experimental data from the TEXTOR and TCV tokamaks, from which we conclude that the UKF can be useful for real-time control of magnetic islands on ASDEX Upgrade

  3. Kalman filters for real-time magnetic island phase tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgers, D.P. [Hybrid and Networked Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lauret, M., E-mail: M.Lauret@tue.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Control Systems Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baar, M.R. de [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Control Systems Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We propose two Kalman filters for tracking of NTMs on ASDEX Upgrade. • The Kalman filters can track NTMs in a much larger frequency range than PLLs. • The filters are tested on synthetic and experimental data from TEXTOR and TCV. • We conclude that the unscented Kalman filter can be useful for NTM control. -- Abstract: For control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the resulting rotating magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas, the frequency and phase of the magnetic islands need to be accurately tracked in real-time. In previous experiments on TEXTOR, this was achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL). For ASDEX Upgrade however, the desired frequency range in which the islands are to be tracked (100 Hz–10 kHz) is much larger than is possible with a PLL. In this contribution, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are proposed for real-time frequency, phase and amplitude tracking of sinusoidal signals, based on noisy measurements. Compared to PLLs, the EKF and UKF are able to track sinusoidal signals in a much larger frequency range. The filters are applied on synthetic data and on experimental data from the TEXTOR and TCV tokamaks, from which we conclude that the UKF can be useful for real-time control of magnetic islands on ASDEX Upgrade.

  4. Tracking Performance in High Multiplicity Environment for the CLIC ILD Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the tracking efficiency and the fraction of badly reconstructed tracks in the CLIC ILD detector for high multiplicity events (tt ̄@3 TeV) with and without the presence of γγ →hadrons background. They have been studied for the silicon tracking, the TPC tracking and the so called FullLDC tacking, which combines silicon and TPC measurements.

  5. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  6. Object tracking using multiple camera video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2010-05-01

    Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.

  7. Visual attention is required for multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annie; Hoffman, James E

    2016-12-01

    In the multiple object tracking task, participants attempt to keep track of a moving set of target objects embedded in an identical set of moving distractors. Depending on several display parameters, observers are usually only able to accurately track 3 to 4 objects. Various proposals attribute this limit to a fixed number of discrete indexes (Pylyshyn, 1989), limits in visual attention (Cavanagh & Alvarez, 2005), or "architectural limits" in visual cortical areas (Franconeri, 2013). The present set of experiments examined the specific role of visual attention in tracking using a dual-task methodology in which participants tracked objects while identifying letter probes appearing on the tracked objects and distractors. As predicted by the visual attention model, probe identification was faster and/or more accurate when probes appeared on tracked objects. This was the case even when probes were more than twice as likely to appear on distractors suggesting that some minimum amount of attention is required to maintain accurate tracking performance. When the need to protect tracking accuracy was relaxed, participants were able to allocate more attention to distractors when probes were likely to appear there but only at the expense of large reductions in tracking accuracy. A final experiment showed that people attend to tracked objects even when letters appearing on them are task-irrelevant, suggesting that allocation of attention to tracked objects is an obligatory process. These results support the claim that visual attention is required for tracking objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Multiple Object Permanence Tracking: Maintenance, Retrieval and Transformation of Dynamic Object Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Saiki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Multiple object permanence tracking (MOPT) task revealed that our ability of maintaining and transforming multiple representations of complex feature-bound objects is limited to handle only 1-2 objects. Often reported capacity of 3-5 objects likely reflects memory for partial representations of objects and simple cases such as just color and their locations. Also, performance in multiple object tracking (MOT) task is likely mediated by spatiotemporal indices, not by feature-bound object repre...

  9. Through-Wall Multiple Targets Vital Signs Tracking Based on VMD Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO ultra-wideband (UWB radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance. Intensive evaluation has been conducted to show the effectiveness of our scheme with a 0.15 m thick concrete brick wall. Constant, piecewise-constant and time-varying vital signs could be separated and tracked successfully with the proposed VMD based algorithm for two targets, even up to three targets. For the multiple targets’ vital signs tracking issues like urban search and rescue missions, our algorithm has superior capability in most detection applications.

  10. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  11. A Tracking Analyst for large 3D spatiotemporal data from multiple sources (case study: Tracking volcanic eruptions in the atmosphere)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohamed A.; Elshehaly, Mai H.; Gračanin, Denis; Elmongui, Hicham G.

    2018-02-01

    This research presents a novel Trajectory-based Tracking Analyst (TTA) that can track and link spatiotemporally variable data from multiple sources. The proposed technique uses trajectory information to determine the positions of time-enabled and spatially variable scatter data at any given time through a combination of along trajectory adjustment and spatial interpolation. The TTA is applied in this research to track large spatiotemporal data of volcanic eruptions (acquired using multi-sensors) in the unsteady flow field of the atmosphere. The TTA enables tracking injections into the atmospheric flow field, the reconstruction of the spatiotemporally variable data at any desired time, and the spatiotemporal join of attribute data from multiple sources. In addition, we were able to create a smooth animation of the volcanic ash plume at interactive rates. The initial results indicate that the TTA can be applied to a wide range of multiple-source data.

  12. Experimental Validation of Pulse Phase Tracking for X-Ray Pulsar Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Pulsars are a form of variable celestial source that have shown to be usable as aids for autonomous, deep space navigation. Particularly those sources emitting in the X-ray band are ideal for navigation due to smaller detector sizes. In this paper X-ray photons arriving from a pulsar are modeled as a non-homogeneous Poisson process. The method of pulse phase tracking is then investigated as a technique to measure the radial distance traveled by a spacecraft over an observation interval. A maximum-likelihood phase estimator (MLE) is used for the case where the observed frequency signal is constant. For the varying signal frequency case, an algorithm is used in which the observation window is broken up into smaller blocks over which an MLE is used. The outputs of this phase estimation process were then looped through a digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) in order to reduce the errors and produce estimates of the doppler frequency. These phase tracking algorithms were tested both in a computer simulation environment and using the NASA Goddard Space flight Center X-ray Navigation Laboratory Testbed (GXLT). This provided an experimental validation with photons being emitted by a modulated X-ray source and detected by a silicon-drift detector. Models of the Crab pulsar and the pulsar B1821-24 were used in order to generate test scenarios. Three different simulated detector trajectories were used to be tracked by the phase tracking algorithm: a stationary case, one with constant velocity, and one with constant acceleration. All three were performed in one-dimension along the line of sight to the pulsar. The first two had a constant signal frequency and the third had a time varying frequency. All of the constant frequency cases were processed using the MLE, and it was shown that they tracked the initial phase within 0.15% for the simulations and 2.5% in the experiments, based on an average of ten runs. The MLE-DPLL cascade version of the phase tracking algorithm was used in

  13. Beyond Group: Multiple Person Tracking via Minimal Topology-Energy-Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Ye, Qixiang; Xing, Junliang; Kuijper, Arjan; Han, Zhenjun; Jiao, Jianbin; Ji, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    Tracking multiple persons is a challenging task when persons move in groups and occlude each other. Existing group-based methods have extensively investigated how to make group division more accurately in a tracking-by-detection framework; however, few of them quantify the group dynamics from the perspective of targets' spatial topology or consider the group in a dynamic view. Inspired by the sociological properties of pedestrians, we propose a novel socio-topology model with a topology-energy function to factor the group dynamics of moving persons and groups. In this model, minimizing the topology-energy-variance in a two-level energy form is expected to produce smooth topology transitions, stable group tracking, and accurate target association. To search for the strong minimum in energy variation, we design the discrete group-tracklet jump moves embedded in the gradient descent method, which ensures that the moves reduce the energy variation of group and trajectory alternately in the varying topology dimension. Experimental results on both RGB and RGB-D data sets show the superiority of our proposed model for multiple person tracking in crowd scenes.

  14. A Mobile Service Oriented Multiple Object Tracking Augmented Reality Architecture for Education and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanarungrot, Sasithorn; White, Martin; Newbury, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of our service-oriented architecture to support mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality applications applied to education and learning scenarios. The architecture is composed of a mobile multiple object tracking augmented reality client, a web service framework, and dynamic content providers. Tracking of…

  15. Method for Multiple Targets Tracking in Cognitive Radar Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiple targets cognitive radar tracking method based on Compressed Sensing (CS is proposed. In this method, the theory of CS is introduced to the case of cognitive radar tracking process in multiple targets scenario. The echo signal is sparsely expressed. The designs of sparse matrix and measurement matrix are accomplished by expressing the echo signal sparsely, and subsequently, the restruction of measurement signal under the down-sampling condition is realized. On the receiving end, after considering that the problems that traditional particle filter suffers from degeneracy, and require a large number of particles, the particle swarm optimization particle filter is used to track the targets. On the transmitting end, the Posterior Cramér-Rao Bounds (PCRB of the tracking accuracy is deduced, and the radar waveform parameters are further cognitively designed using PCRB. Simulation results show that the proposed method can not only reduce the data quantity, but also provide a better tracking performance compared with traditional method.

  16. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) for Space Surveillance: Results and Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Poore, A.; Sheaff, C.; Aristoff, J.; Jah, M.

    2013-09-01

    With the anticipated installation of more accurate sensors and the increased probability of future collisions between space objects, the potential number of observable space objects is likely to increase by an order of magnitude within the next decade, thereby placing an ever-increasing burden on current operational systems. Moreover, the need to track closely-spaced objects due, for example, to breakups as illustrated by the recent Chinese ASAT test or the Iridium-Kosmos collision, requires new, robust, and autonomous methods for space surveillance to enable the development and maintenance of the present and future space catalog and to support the overall space surveillance mission. The problem of correctly associating a stream of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs) and uncorrelated optical observations (UCOs) into common objects is critical to mitigating the number of UCTs and is a prerequisite to subsequent space catalog maintenance. Presently, such association operations are mainly performed using non-statistical simple fixed-gate association logic. In this paper, we report on the salient features and the performance of a newly-developed statistically-robust system-level multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system for advanced space surveillance. The multiple-frame assignment (MFA) formulation of MHT, together with supporting astrodynamics algorithms, provides a new joint capability for space catalog maintenance, UCT/UCO resolution, and initial orbit determination. The MFA-MHT framework incorporates multiple hypotheses for report to system track data association and uses a multi-arc construction to accommodate recently developed algorithms for multiple hypothesis filtering (e.g., AEGIS, CAR-MHF, UMAP, and MMAE). This MHT framework allows us to evaluate the benefits of many different algorithms ranging from single- and multiple-frame data association to filtering and uncertainty quantification. In this paper, it will be shown that the MHT system can provide superior

  17. A data fusion approach for track monitoring from multiple in-service trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, George; Chen, Siheng; Garrett, James H.; Kovačević, Jelena; Noh, Hae Young; Bielak, Jacobo

    2017-10-01

    We present a data fusion approach for enabling data-driven rail-infrastructure monitoring from multiple in-service trains. A number of researchers have proposed using vibration data collected from in-service trains as a low-cost method to monitor track geometry. The majority of this work has focused on developing novel features to extract information about the tracks from data produced by individual sensors on individual trains. We extend this work by presenting a technique to combine extracted features from multiple passes over the tracks from multiple sensors aboard multiple vehicles. There are a number of challenges in combining multiple data sources, like different relative position coordinates depending on the location of the sensor within the train. Furthermore, as the number of sensors increases, the likelihood that some will malfunction also increases. We use a two-step approach that first minimizes position offset errors through data alignment, then fuses the data with a novel adaptive Kalman filter that weights data according to its estimated reliability. We show the efficacy of this approach both through simulations and on a data-set collected from two instrumented trains operating over a one-year period. Combining data from numerous in-service trains allows for more continuous and more reliable data-driven monitoring than analyzing data from any one train alone; as the number of instrumented trains increases, the proposed fusion approach could facilitate track monitoring of entire rail-networks.

  18. Evaluating Multiple Object Tracking Performance: The CLEAR MOT Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardin Keni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous tracking of multiple persons in real-world environments is an active research field and several approaches have been proposed, based on a variety of features and algorithms. Recently, there has been a growing interest in organizing systematic evaluations to compare the various techniques. Unfortunately, the lack of common metrics for measuring the performance of multiple object trackers still makes it hard to compare their results. In this work, we introduce two intuitive and general metrics to allow for objective comparison of tracker characteristics, focusing on their precision in estimating object locations, their accuracy in recognizing object configurations and their ability to consistently label objects over time. These metrics have been extensively used in two large-scale international evaluations, the 2006 and 2007 CLEAR evaluations, to measure and compare the performance of multiple object trackers for a wide variety of tracking tasks. Selected performance results are presented and the advantages and drawbacks of the presented metrics are discussed based on the experience gained during the evaluations.

  19. A feature point identification method for positron emission particle tracking with multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Cody, E-mail: cwiggin2@vols.utk.edu [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1408 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Santos, Roque [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States); Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ciencias Nucleares (Ecuador); Ruggles, Arthur [University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-21

    A novel detection algorithm for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) with multiple tracers based on optical feature point identification (FPI) methods is presented. This new method, the FPI method, is compared to a previous multiple PEPT method via analyses of experimental and simulated data. The FPI method outperforms the older method in cases of large particle numbers and fine time resolution. Simulated data show the FPI method to be capable of identifying 100 particles at 0.5 mm average spatial error. Detection error is seen to vary with the inverse square root of the number of lines of response (LORs) used for detection and increases as particle separation decreases. - Highlights: • A new approach to positron emission particle tracking is presented. • Using optical feature point identification analogs, multiple particle tracking is achieved. • Method is compared to previous multiple particle method. • Accuracy and applicability of method is explored.

  20. Tracking multiple objects is limited only by object spacing, not by speed, time, or capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franconeri, S L; Jonathan, S V; Scimeca, J M

    2010-07-01

    In dealing with a dynamic world, people have the ability to maintain selective attention on a subset of moving objects in the environment. Performance in such multiple-object tracking is limited by three primary factors-the number of objects that one can track, the speed at which one can track them, and how close together they can be. We argue that this last limit, of object spacing, is the root cause of all performance constraints in multiple-object tracking. In two experiments, we found that as long as the distribution of object spacing is held constant, tracking performance is unaffected by large changes in object speed and tracking time. These results suggest that barring object-spacing constraints, people could reliably track an unlimited number of objects as fast as they could track a single object.

  1. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  2. RPC based 5D tracking concept for high multiplicity tracking trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Distante, L; Liberti, B; Paolozzi, L; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2018-01-01

    The recently approved High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) and the future col- liders proposals present a challenging experimental scenario, dominated by high pileup, radiation background and a bunch crossing time possibly shorter than 5 ns. This holds as well for muon systems, where RPCs can play a fundamental role in the design of the future experiments. The RPCs, thanks to their high space-time granularity, allows a sparse representation of the particle hits, in a very large parametric space containing, in addition to 3D spatial localization, also the pulse time and width associated to the avalanche charge. This 5D representation of the hits can be exploited to improve the performance of complex detectors such as muon systems and increase the discovery potential of a future experiment, by allowing a better track pileup rejection and sharper momentum resolution, an effective measurement of the particle velocity, to tag and trigger the non- ultrarelativistic particles, and the detection local multiple track ...

  3. Longitudinal tracking with phase and amplitude modulated rf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.

    1993-06-01

    Synchrotron motion was induced by phase shifting the rf of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) cooler-synchrotron. The resulting coherent-bunch motion was tracked in longitudinal phase space for as many as 700,000 turns, or for over 350 synchrotron oscillations. Results of recent experimental studies of longitudinal motion in which the rf phase and amplitude were harmonically modulated are also presented. Comparisons of experimental data with numerical simulations, assuming independent particle motion, are made. Observed multiparticle effects are also discussed

  4. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery.

  5. Kalman filters for real-time magnetic island phase tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, D. P.; Lauret, M.; M.R. de Baar,

    2013-01-01

    For control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the resulting rotating magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas, the frequency and phase of the magnetic islands need to be accurately tracked in real-time. In previous experiments on TEXTOR, this was achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL). For ASDEX

  6. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL; Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  7. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Tracy A.; Walker, Randy M.; Hill, David E.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Abercrombie, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies

  8. Automatic feature-based grouping during multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S; Kellman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation, and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. We found that intertarget grouping improved performance for all feature types except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were, at times, large (>15% decrement in accuracy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2), and relative to a "diversity" condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking.

  9. MetaTracker: integration and abstraction of 3D motion tracking data from multiple hardware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Ken; Winer, Eliot

    2014-06-01

    Motion tracking has long been one of the primary challenges in mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR). Military and defense training can provide particularly difficult challenges for motion tracking, such as in the case of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) and other dismounted, close quarters simulations. These simulations can take place across multiple rooms, with many fast-moving objects that need to be tracked with a high degree of accuracy and low latency. Many tracking technologies exist, such as optical, inertial, ultrasonic, and magnetic. Some tracking systems even combine these technologies to complement each other. However, there are no systems that provide a high-resolution, flexible, wide-area solution that is resistant to occlusion. While frameworks exist that simplify the use of tracking systems and other input devices, none allow data from multiple tracking systems to be combined, as if from a single system. In this paper, we introduce a method for compensating for the weaknesses of individual tracking systems by combining data from multiple sources and presenting it as a single tracking system. Individual tracked objects are identified by name, and their data is provided to simulation applications through a server program. This allows tracked objects to transition seamlessly from the area of one tracking system to another. Furthermore, it abstracts away the individual drivers, APIs, and data formats for each system, providing a simplified API that can be used to receive data from any of the available tracking systems. Finally, when single-piece tracking systems are used, those systems can themselves be tracked, allowing for real-time adjustment of the trackable area. This allows simulation operators to leverage limited resources in more effective ways, improving the quality of training.

  10. Multiple solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of multiple solid-phase microextraction are described and the principle is illustrated with the extraction of lidocaine from aqueous solutions. With multiple extraction under non-equilibrium conditions considerably less time is required in order to obtain an extraction yield that

  11. Multi-physics modeling of single/multiple-track defect mechanisms in electron beam selective melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wentao; Ge, Wenjun; Qian, Ya; Lin, Stephen; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Wing Kam; Lin, Feng; Wagner, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies have many promising attributes. The single track acts as one fundamental building unit, which largely influences the final product quality such as the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. A high-fidelity powder-scale model is developed to predict the detailed formation processes of single/multiple-track defects, including the balling effect, single track nonuniformity and inter-track voids. These processes are difficult to observe in experiments; previous studies have proposed different or even conflicting explanations. Our study clarifies the underlying formation mechanisms, reveals the influence of key factors, and guides the improvement of fabrication quality of single tracks. Additionally, the manufacturing processes of multiple tracks along S/Z-shaped scan paths with various hatching distance are simulated to further understand the defects in complex structures. The simulations demonstrate that the hatching distance should be no larger than the width of the remelted region within the substrate rather than the width of the melted region within the powder layer. Thus, single track simulations can provide valuable insight for complex structures.

  12. Tracking of multiple objects with time-adjustable composite correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly; Chernoskulov, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    An algorithm for tracking of multiple objects in video based on time-adjustable adaptive composite correlation filtering is proposed. For each frame a bank of composite correlation filters are designed in such a manner to provide invariance to pose, occlusion, clutter, and illumination changes. The filters are synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm, which optimizes the discrimination capability for each object. The filters are adapted to the objects changes online using information from the current and past scene frames. Results obtained with the proposed algorithm using real-life scenes are presented and compared with those obtained with state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of detection efficiency, tracking accuracy, and speed of processing.

  13. Interacting Multiple Model (IMM Fifth-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF. The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF, the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF.

  14. Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) Fifth-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wu, Wen

    2017-06-13

    For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF) is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM) filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF). The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF), the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF) and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF).

  15. Multiple instance learning tracking method with local sparse representation

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Chengjun

    2013-10-01

    When objects undergo large pose change, illumination variation or partial occlusion, most existed visual tracking algorithms tend to drift away from targets and even fail in tracking them. To address this issue, in this study, the authors propose an online algorithm by combining multiple instance learning (MIL) and local sparse representation for tracking an object in a video system. The key idea in our method is to model the appearance of an object by local sparse codes that can be formed as training data for the MIL framework. First, local image patches of a target object are represented as sparse codes with an overcomplete dictionary, where the adaptive representation can be helpful in overcoming partial occlusion in object tracking. Then MIL learns the sparse codes by a classifier to discriminate the target from the background. Finally, results from the trained classifier are input into a particle filter framework to sequentially estimate the target state over time in visual tracking. In addition, to decrease the visual drift because of the accumulative errors when updating the dictionary and classifier, a two-step object tracking method combining a static MIL classifier with a dynamical MIL classifier is proposed. Experiments on some publicly available benchmarks of video sequences show that our proposed tracker is more robust and effective than others. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

  16. Charged particle tracking in high multiplicity events at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Love, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the ability to track some fraction of the charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions is very desirable. At a very minimum, one must detect the occurance of multiple interactions in a single crossing. The very tight beam structure at RHIC does not favor time separation, so the location of separate vertices seems the best solution. The limits of tracking large numbers of tracks in a solid angle approaching 4π have been explored. A model detector considered is a 2.5 m radius TPC, a true 3D tracking device. In order to estimate the particle density of a function of production angle, five Hijet Au-Au central events were used to deduce the particle density distribution as a function of polar angle. An important feature of a tracking detector is the effective ''pixel'' size - the area within which two tracks cannot be resolved. In a TPC with multistep avalanche chamber readout this is approximately 3 mm x 3 mm or approx.0.1 cm 2 . Using this pixel size we have calculated the radius at which the number of particles/pixel is 0.01 and 0.1. With the exception of the region very near the beam expect these distributions aren't expected to change very much with the application of a low (approx. 0.5 tesla) magnetic field. While the actual reconstruction efficiency will depend on the fine details of the apparatus and reconstruction program, the 1% fill fraction is safe for efficiencies in the 80 to 90% region. Tracking is found to be feasible at pseudorapidities up to 3

  17. Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking by Improved Particle Filter Based on Multiscan JPDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.

  18. A Small Ku-Band Polarization Tracking Active Phased Array for Mobile Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact polarization tracking active phased array for Ku-band mobile satellite signal reception is presented. In contrast with conventional mechanically tracking antennas, the approach presented here meets the requirements of beam tracking and polarization tracking simultaneously without any servo components. The two-layer stacked square patch fed by two probes is used as antenna element. The impedance bandwidth of 16% for the element covers the operating frequency range from 12.25 GHz to 12.75 GHz. In the presence of mutual coupling, the dimensional parameters for each element of the small 7 × 7 array are optimized during beam scanning and polarization tracking. The compact polarization tracking modules based on the low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC system-in-package (SiP technology are proposed. A small active phased array prototype with the size of 120 mm (length × 120 mm (width × 55 mm (height is developed. The measured polarization tracking patterns of the prototype are given. The polarization tracking beam can be steered in the elevation up to 50°. The gain of no less than 16.0 dBi and the aperture efficiency of more than 50% are obtained. The measured and simulated polarization tracking patterns agreed well.

  19. Multiple player tracking in sports video: a dual-mode two-way bayesian inference approach with progressive observation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junliang; Ai, Haizhou; Liu, Liwei; Lao, Shihong

    2011-06-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a very challenging task yet of fundamental importance for many practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking multiple players in sports video which is even more difficult due to the abrupt movements of players and their complex interactions. To handle the difficulties in this problem, we present a new MOT algorithm which contributes both in the observation modeling level and in the tracking strategy level. For the observation modeling, we develop a progressive observation modeling process that is able to provide strong tracking observations and greatly facilitate the tracking task. For the tracking strategy, we propose a dual-mode two-way Bayesian inference approach which dynamically switches between an offline general model and an online dedicated model to deal with single isolated object tracking and multiple occluded object tracking integrally by forward filtering and backward smoothing. Extensive experiments on different kinds of sports videos, including football, basketball, as well as hockey, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Real-Time Radar-Based Tracking and State Estimation of Multiple Non-Conformant Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brandon; Arnett, Timothy; Macmann, Owen; Kumar, Manish

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a novel solution for automated tracking of multiple unknown aircraft is proposed. Many current methods use transponders to self-report state information and augment track identification. While conformant aircraft typically report transponder information to alert surrounding aircraft of its state, vehicles may exist in the airspace that are non-compliant and need to be accurately tracked using alternative methods. In this study, a multi-agent tracking solution is presented that solely utilizes primary surveillance radar data to estimate aircraft state information. Main research challenges include state estimation, track management, data association, and establishing persistent track validity. In an effort to realize these challenges, techniques such as Maximum a Posteriori estimation, Kalman filtering, degree of membership data association, and Nearest Neighbor Spanning Tree clustering are implemented for this application.

  1. A distributed database view of network tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosinski, Jason; Paffenroth, Randy

    2008-04-01

    In distributed tracking systems, multiple non-collocated trackers cooperate to fuse local sensor data into a global track picture. Generating this global track picture at a central location is fairly straightforward, but the single point of failure and excessive bandwidth requirements introduced by centralized processing motivate the development of decentralized methods. In many decentralized tracking systems, trackers communicate with their peers via a lossy, bandwidth-limited network in which dropped, delayed, and out of order packets are typical. Oftentimes the decentralized tracking problem is viewed as a local tracking problem with a networking twist; we believe this view can underestimate the network complexities to be overcome. Indeed, a subsequent 'oversight' layer is often introduced to detect and handle track inconsistencies arising from a lack of robustness to network conditions. We instead pose the decentralized tracking problem as a distributed database problem, enabling us to draw inspiration from the vast extant literature on distributed databases. Using the two-phase commit algorithm, a well known technique for resolving transactions across a lossy network, we describe several ways in which one may build a distributed multiple hypothesis tracking system from the ground up to be robust to typical network intricacies. We pay particular attention to the dissimilar challenges presented by network track initiation vs. maintenance and suggest a hybrid system that balances speed and robustness by utilizing two-phase commit for only track initiation transactions. Finally, we present simulation results contrasting the performance of such a system with that of more traditional decentralized tracking implementations.

  2. Location-allocation algorithm for multiple particle tracking using Birmingham MWPC positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.; Tarcan, E.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking is a powerful, non-invasive technique that employs a single radioactive particle. It has been applied to a wide range of industrial systems. This paper presents an original application of a technique, which was mainly developed in economics or resource management. It allows the tracking of multiple particles using small number of trajectories with correct tagging. This technique originally used in economics or resource management provides very encouraging results

  3. Location-allocation algorithm for multiple particle tracking using Birmingham MWPC positron camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uko_gundo@yahoo.co.uko.gundogdu@kingston.ac.uk; Tarcan, E

    2004-05-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking is a powerful, non-invasive technique that employs a single radioactive particle. It has been applied to a wide range of industrial systems. This paper presents an original application of a technique, which was mainly developed in economics or resource management. It allows the tracking of multiple particles using small number of trajectories with correct tagging. This technique originally used in economics or resource management provides very encouraging results.

  4. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. A Single Unexpected Change in Target- but Not Distractor Motion Impairs Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke S. Meyerhoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addresses the question whether motion information of multiple objects contributes to maintaining a selection of objects across a period of motion. Here, we investigate whether target and/or distractor motion information is used during attentive tracking. We asked participants to track four objects and changed either the motion direction of targets, the motion direction of distractors, neither, or both during a brief flash in the middle of a tracking interval. We observed that a single direction change of targets is sufficient to impair tracking performance. In contrast, changing the motion direction of distractors had no effect on performance. This indicates that target- but not distractor motion information is evaluated during tracking.

  6. Basic simulation models of phase tracking devices using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William

    2010-01-01

    The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), and many of the devices used for frequency and phase tracking, carrier and symbol synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis, are fundamental building blocks in today's complex communications systems. It is therefore essential for both students and practicing communications engineers interested in the design and implementation of modern communication systems to understand and have insight into the behavior of these important and ubiquitous devices. Since the PLL behaves as a nonlinear device (at least during acquisition), computer simulation can be used

  7. Extraction of airway trees using multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2016-01-01

    used in constructing a multiple hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to reach decisions. The proposed modifications remove the need for local thresholding of hypotheses as decisions are made entirely based on statistical comparisons involving the hypothesis tree. The results show improvements......Knowledge of airway tree morphology has important clinical applications in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We present an automatic tree extraction method based on multiple hypothesis tracking and template matching for this purpose and evaluate its performance on chest CT images...

  8. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  9. A novel String Banana Template Method for Tracks Reconstruction in High Multiplicity Events with significant Multiple Scattering and its Firmware Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Kulinich, P; Krylov, V

    2004-01-01

    Novel String Banana Template Method (SBTM) for track reconstruction in difficult conditions is proposed and implemented for off-line analysis of relativistic heavy ion collision events. The main idea of the method is in use of features of ensembles of tracks selected by 3-fold coincidence. Two steps model of track is used: the first one - averaged over selected ensemble and the second - per event dependent. It takes into account Multiple Scattering (MS) for this particular track. SBTM relies on use of stored templates generated by precise Monte Carlo simulation, so it's more time efficient for the case of 2D spectrometer. All data required for track reconstruction in such difficult conditions could be prepared in convenient format for fast use. Its template based nature and the fact that the SBTM track model is actually very close to the hits implies that it can be implemented in a firmware processor. In this report a block diagram of firmware based pre-processor for track reconstruction in CMS-like Si tracke...

  10. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Landsmeer, Sander; Kruszynski, Chris; van Antwerpen, Gert; Dijk, Judith

    2013-05-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time tracking and fast interactive retrieval of persons in video streams from multiple static surveillance cameras. This system is demonstrated in a shopping mall, where the cameras are positioned without overlapping fields-of-view and have different lighting conditions. The results show that the system allows an operator to find the origin or destination of a person more efficiently. The misses are reduced with 37%, which is a significant improvement.

  11. The semantic category-based grouping in the Multiple Identity Tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Zhen; Liu, Jingyao

    2018-01-01

    In the Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) task, categorical distinctions between targets and distractors have been found to facilitate tracking (Wei, Zhang, Lyu, & Li in Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 589, 2016). The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reasons for the facilitation effect, through six experiments. The results of Experiments 1-3 excluded the potential explanations of visual distinctiveness, attentional distribution strategy, and a working memory mechanism, respectively. When objects' visual information was preserved and categorical information was removed, the facilitation effect disappeared, suggesting that the visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors was not the main reason for the facilitation effect. Moreover, the facilitation effect was not the result of strategically shifting the attentional distribution, because the targets received more attention than the distractors in all conditions. Additionally, the facilitation effect did not come about because the identities of targets were encoded and stored in visual working memory to assist in the recovery from tracking errors; when working memory was disturbed by the object identities changing during tracking, the facilitation effect still existed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that observers grouped targets together and segregated them from distractors on the basis of their categorical information. By doing this, observers could largely avoid distractor interference with tracking and improve tracking performance. Finally, Experiment 6 indicated that category-based grouping is not an automatic, but a goal-directed and effortful, strategy. In summary, the present findings show that a semantic category-based target-grouping mechanism exists in the MIT task, which is likely to be the major reason for the tracking facilitation effect.

  12. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, Julie; Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-03-30

    Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age. In addition to its importance for typical development, these results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in this regard. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The origin of the Gestalt principles is still an ongoing debate: Are they innate, learned over time, or both? Developmental research has revealed how each Gestalt principle has its own trajectory and unique relationship to visual experience. Both connectedness and object-based grouping play an important role in object formation during childhood. What does this study add? The study identifies how sensitivity to connectedness and object-based grouping evolves in individuals, aged 9-21 years old. Using multiple-object tracking, results reveal that the ability to track multiple objects increases with age. These results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in different types of grouping. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  13. LiTrack A Fast longitudinal phase space tracking code with graphical user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Emma, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Many linear accelerators, such as linac-based light sources and linear colliders, apply longitudinal phase space manipulations in their design, including electron bunch compression and wakefield-induced energy spread control. Several computer codes handle such issues, but most require detailed information on the transverse focusing lattice. In fact, in most linear accelerators, the transverse distributions do not significantly affect the longitudinal, and can be ignored initially. This allows the use of a fast 2D code to study longitudinal aspects without time-consuming considerations of the transverse focusing. LiTrack is based on a 15-year old code (same name) originally written by one of us (KB), which is now a MATLAB-based code with additional features, such as a graphical user interface and output plotting. The single-bunch tracking includes RF acceleration, bunch compression to 3rd order, geometric and resistive wakefields, aperture limits, synchrotron radiation, and flexible output plotting. The code w...

  14. Range measurements and track kinetics in Dielectric Nuclear Track Detectors (DNTDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aframian, A

    1981-01-01

    Observations of nuclear track development profiles and the kinetics of etched tracks in sensitive dielectric nuclear track detectors indicate three separate phases: the inception phase or the cone phase, the transition phase and the sphere phase. Continued etching of the sphere phase to through-tracks yields accurate range data for particles of different masses and energies and minimum critical angles of registration for each particle. The present results show an energy resolution of 40 keV (fwhm) for 5.48 MeV alpha-particles emitted from Am-241.

  15. Charge asymmetry and track multiplicity associated with high transverse momentum direct γ and π0 produced in pBe collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarnik, K.

    1986-01-01

    Away and Trigger Hemisphere charge asymmetry and Away and Trigger Regions track multiplicity in direct γ and π 0 events produced in pBe collisions have been studied. No significant difference in charge asymmetry was found between direct γ and π 0 events. In both direct γ and π 0 , the charge asymmetries showed a trend towards higher values with increasing trigger particle P/sub t/ for the Away Hemisphere, and towards lower values for the Trigger Hemisphere. No significant difference was observed in the direct γ and π 0 events particle multiplicity, except for the Away Region tracks with P/sub t/ above 0.5 GeV/c. In the latter case, π 0 events showed higher track multiplicity for trigger P/sub t/ above 4.5 GeV/c. In general, the Away Region had higher track multiplicity than the Trigger Region

  16. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  17. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.

    1993-12-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  18. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  19. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S.

    1993-01-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown

  20. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Landsmeer, S.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Antwerpen, G. van; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time

  1. MULTIPLE HUMAN TRACKING IN COMPLEX SITUATION BY DATA ASSIMILATION WITH PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nakanishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  2. Multi-Target Angle Tracking Algorithm for Bistatic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Radar Based on the Elements of the Covariance Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA and the direction of departure (DOD of multiple targets for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. A high-precision tracking algorithm for target angle is proposed. First, the linear relationship between the covariance matrix difference and the angle difference of the adjacent moment was obtained through three approximate relations. Then, the proposed algorithm obtained the relationship between the elements in the covariance matrix difference. On this basis, the performance of the algorithm was improved by averaging the covariance matrix element. Finally, the least square method was used to estimate the DOD and DOA. The algorithm realized the automatic correlation of the angle and provided better performance when compared with the adaptive asymmetric joint diagonalization (AAJD algorithm. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  3. Multi-Target Angle Tracking Algorithm for Bistatic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radar Based on the Elements of the Covariance Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyan; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhou, Qingsong; Li, Xiaobo

    2018-03-07

    In this paper, we consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA) and the direction of departure (DOD) of multiple targets for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. A high-precision tracking algorithm for target angle is proposed. First, the linear relationship between the covariance matrix difference and the angle difference of the adjacent moment was obtained through three approximate relations. Then, the proposed algorithm obtained the relationship between the elements in the covariance matrix difference. On this basis, the performance of the algorithm was improved by averaging the covariance matrix element. Finally, the least square method was used to estimate the DOD and DOA. The algorithm realized the automatic correlation of the angle and provided better performance when compared with the adaptive asymmetric joint diagonalization (AAJD) algorithm. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  4. Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

  5. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  6. Multiple objects tracking in fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2009-01-01

    Many processes in cell biology are connected to the movement of compact entities: intracellular vesicles and even single molecules. The tracking of individual objects is important for understanding cellular dynamics. Here we describe the tracking algorithms which have been developed in the non-biological fields and successfully applied to object detection and tracking in biological applications. The characteristics features of the different algorithms are compared.

  7. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  8. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  9. An efficient central DOA tracking algorithm for multiple incoherently distributed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Sonia Ben; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new tracking method for the direction of arrival (DOA) parameters assuming multiple incoherently distributed (ID) sources. The new approach is based on a simple covariance fitting optimization technique exploiting the central and noncentral moments of the source angular power densities to estimate the central DOAs. The current estimates are treated as measurements provided to the Kalman filter that model the dynamic property of directional changes for the moving sources. Then, the covariance-fitting-based algorithm and the Kalman filtering theory are combined to formulate an adaptive tracking algorithm. Our algorithm is compared to the fast approximated power iteration-total least square-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT) algorithm using the TLS-ESPRIT method and the subspace updating via FAPI-algorithm. It will be shown that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent DOA tracking performance and outperforms the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Moreover, the performances of the two methods increase as the SNR values increase. This increase is more prominent with the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method. However, their performances degrade when the number of sources increases. It will be also proved that our method depends on the form of the angular distribution function when tracking the central DOAs. Finally, it will be shown that the more the sources are spaced, the more the proposed method can exactly track the DOAs.

  10. The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005, the L2C signal was introduced to improve the accuracy, tracking and redundancy of the GPS system for civilian users. The L2C signal also provides improved SNR data when compared with the L2P(Y) legacy signal, comparable to that of the L1 C/A-code, which allows for better tracking at lower elevations. With the recent launch of the first block II-F satellite (SVN62/PRN25), there are 8 healthy satellites broadcasting L2C signals, or 25% of the constellation. However, GNSS network operators such as the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) have been hesitant to use the new signal as it is not well determined how tracking and logging L2C could affect the positions derived from L2 carrier phase measurements for a given receiver. The L2C carrier phase is in quadrature (90° out of phase) with the L2P(Y) phase that has been used by high-precision positioning software since the beginning of GPS. To complicate matters further, some receiver manufacturers (e.g. Trimble) correct for this when logging L2C phase while others (e.g. Topcon) do not. The L2C capability of receivers currently in widespread use in permanent networks can depend on firmware as well as hardware; in some cases receivers can simultaneously track L2C and L2P(Y) phases and some can track only one or the other, and the resulting observation files can depend on how individual operators configure the devices. In cases where both L2C and L2P(Y) are logged simultaneously, translation software (such as UNAVCO’s teqc) must be used carefully in order to select which L2 observation is written to RINEX (2.11) and used in positioning. Modifications were recently made to teqc to eliminate potential confusion in that part of the process; if L2C code observations appear in a RINEX (2.11) file produced by teqc, the L2 phase and S2 SNR observations were from the L2C carrier for those satellites. To date L2C analyses have been restricted to special applications such as snow depth and soil moisture using SNR data

  11. Loss of positional information when tracking multiple moving dots: the role of visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Tripathy, Srimant P; Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    Pylyshyn, Z.W. and Storm, R.W. (1988) (Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism. Spatial Vision, 3(3), 179-197) proposed that human observers could simultaneously track up to five dots when presented with an array of dots moving in a random manner. In contrast, Tripathy, S.P., and Barrett, B.T. (2004) (Severe loss of positional information when detecting deviations in multiple trajectories. Journal of Vision, 4(12):4, 1020-1043, http://journalofvision.org/4/14/4/, doi: 10.1167/4.12.4) showed that when a threshold paradigm was employed, observers' ability to track deviations in straight-line trajectories is severely compromised when attending to two or more dots. In this study we present a series of four experiments that investigates the role of attention and visual memory while tracking deviations in multiple trajectories using a threshold paradigm. Our stimuli consisted of several linear, non-parallel, left-to-right trajectories, each moving at the same speed. At the trajectory mid-point (reached simultaneously by all dots), one of the dots (target) deviated clockwise or counter-clockwise. The observers' task was to identify the direction of deviation. The target trajectory was cued in the second half of the trial either by disappearance of distractors at the monitor's mid-line (Experiment 1) or by means of a change in colour of the target (Experiment 2); in both cases deviation thresholds rose steeply when the number of distractor trajectories was increased from 0 (typical threshold approximately 2 degrees) to 3 (typical threshold>20 degrees). When all the trajectories were presented statically in a single frame (Experiment 3), thresholds for identifying the orientation change of the target trajectory remained relatively unchanged as the number of distractor trajectories was increased. When a temporal delay of a few hundred milliseconds was introduced between the first and second halves of trajectories (Experiment 4

  12. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  13. Multitarget multisensor closed-loop tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Reed, John N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a closed-loop tracking system using multiple co-located sensors to develop multi-sensor track histories on multiple targets. The use of multiple, co-aligned sensors to track multiple, possibly maneuvering targets, presents a number of tracker design challenges and opportunities. Many of these problems have been addressed individually in the published literature from a theoretical point of view. However, no one has yet addressed the design and implementation of a specific tracker to meet all of these requirements at once. Specific questions addressed in this paper include how to assign N detections in a current frame to M active tracks, how to initiate new tracks and terminate dead tracks, how to combine information from multiple sensors into a single integrated picture, represented by a global track file, and how to perform these functions in a timely manner to support a precision closed loop tracking system.

  14. Position Affects Performance in Multiple-Object Tracking in Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment that examines the performance of rugby union players and a control group composed of graduate student with no sport experience, in a multiple-object tracking task. It compares the ability of 86 high level rugby union players grouped as Backs and Forwards and the control group, to track a subset of randomly moving targets amongst the same number of distractors. Several difficulties were included in the experimental design in order to evaluate possible interactions between the relevant variables. Results show that the performance of the Backs is better than that of the other groups, but the occurrence of interactions precludes an isolated groups analysis. We interpret the results within the framework of visual attention and discuss both, the implications of our results and the practical consequences.

  15. LiTrack: A Fast Longitudinal Phase Space Tracking Code with Graphical User Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Linac-based light sources and linear colliders typically apply longitudinal phase space manipulations in their design, including electron bunch compression and wakefield-induced energy spread control. Several computer codes handle such issues, but most also require detailed information on the transverse focusing lattice. In fact, in most linear accelerators, the transverse distributions do not significantly affect the longitudinal, and can be ignored initially. This allows the use of a fast 2D code to study longitudinal aspects without time-consuming considerations of the transverse focusing. LiTrack is based on a 15-year old code (same name) originally written by one of us (KB), which is now a Matlab [1] code with additional features, such as graphical user interface, prompt output plotting, and functional call within a script. This single-bunch tracking code includes RF acceleration, bunch compression to 3rd order, geometric and resistive short-range wakefields, aperture limits, synchrotron radiation, and flexible output plotting. The code was used to design both the LCLS [2] and the SPPS [3] projects at SLAC and typically runs 10 5 particles in < 1 minute. We describe the features, show some examples, and provide free access to the code

  16. A Synthetic Algorithm for Tracking a Moving Object in a Multiple-Dynamic Obstacles Environment Based on Kinematically Planar Redundant Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthetic algorithm for tracking a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment based on kinematically planar manipulators. By observing the motions of the object and obstacles, Spline filter associated with polynomial fitting is utilized to predict their moving paths for a period of time in the future. Several feasible paths for the manipulator in Cartesian space can be planned according to the predicted moving paths and the defined feasibility criterion. The shortest one among these feasible paths is selected as the optimized path. Then the real-time path along the optimized path is planned for the manipulator to track the moving object in real-time. To improve the convergence rate of tracking, a virtual controller based on PD controller is designed to adaptively adjust the real-time path. In the process of tracking, the null space of inverse kinematic and the local rotation coordinate method (LRCM are utilized for the arms and the end-effector to avoid obstacles, respectively. Finally, the moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment is thus tracked via real-time updating the joint angles of manipulator according to the iterative method. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible to track a moving object in a multiple-dynamic obstacles environment.

  17. An adaptive Multiplicative Extened Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    , an adaptive Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) for attitude estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is presented with the measurement noise covariance matrix adjusted according to the norm of accelerometer measurements, which can significantly reduce the slamming influence from waves...

  18. Eye movements in Multiple Object Tracking systematically lagging behind the scene content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, Suppl (2013), s. 42-43 ISSN 0301-0066. [36th European Conference on Visual Perception . 25.08.2013.-29.08.2013, Brémy] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : eye movements * attention * multiple object tracking Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www. perception web.com/abstract.cgi?id=v130146

  19. Optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for optical multiple-image encryption based on multiplane phase retrieval and interference. An optical encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain. A phase-only map is iteratively extracted based on a multiplane phase retrieval algorithm, and multiple plaintexts are simultaneously encrypted. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only map is further encrypted into two phase-only masks based on a non-iterative interference algorithm. During image decryption, the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystem are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optical multiple-image encryption method

  20. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  1. "You Get Reminded You're a Sick Person": Personal Data Tracking and Patients With Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S; Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther

    2015-08-19

    Consumer health information technologies (HIT) that encourage self-tracking, such as diet and fitness tracking apps and disease journals, are attracting widespread interest among technology-oriented consumers (such as "quantified self" advocates), entrepreneurs, and the health care industry. Such electronic technologies could potentially benefit the growing population of patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). However, MCC is predominantly a condition of the elderly and disproportionately affects the less affluent, so it also seems possible that the barriers to use of consumer HIT would be particularly severe for this patient population. Our aim was to explore the perspectives of individuals with MCC using a semistructured interview study. Our research questions were (1) How do individuals with MCC track their own health and medical data? and (2) How do patients and providers perceive and use patient-tracked data? We used semistructured interviews with patients with multiple chronic diseases and providers with experience caring for such patients, as well as participation in a diabetes education group to triangulate emerging themes. Data were analyzed using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Recruitment and analysis took place iteratively until thematic saturation was reached. Interviews were conducted with 22 patients and 7 health care providers. The patients had an average of 3.5 chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, chronic pain, and depression, and had regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose from the interviews: (1) tracking this data feels like work for many patients, (2) personal medical data for individuals with chronic conditions are not simply objective facts, but instead provoke strong positive and negative emotions, value judgments, and diverse interpretations, (3) patients track for different purposes, ranging from sense-making to self-management to reporting to the doctor, and (4

  2. Multiple hypothesis tracking based extraction of airway trees from CT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavendra, Selvan; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    Segmentation of airway trees from CT scans of lungs has important clinical applications, in relation to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present a method based on multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) and template matching, originally devised for vessel...... segmentation, to extract airway trees. Idealized tubular templates are constructed and ranked using scores assigned based on the image data. Several such regularly spaced hypotheses are used in constructing a hypothesis tree, which is then traversed to obtain improved segmentation results....

  3. Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hai-Qiong; Zeng Zhong; Zhang Liang-Qi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. (paper)

  4. Theoretical model and experimental verification on the PID tracking method using liquid crystal optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Ziqiang; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Tianyi; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA) has been considered with great potential on the non-mechanical laser deflector because it is fabricated using photolithographic patterning technology which has been well advanced by the electronics and display industry. As a vital application of LC-OPA, free space laser communication has demonstrated its merits on communication bandwidth. Before data communication, ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing) process costs relatively long time to result in a bottle-neck of free space laser communication. Meanwhile, dynamic real time accurate tracking is sensitive to keep a stable communication link. The electro-optic medium liquid crystal with low driving voltage can be used as the laser beam deflector. This paper presents a fast-track method using liquid crystal optical phased array as the beam deflector, CCD as a beacon light detector. PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) loop algorithm is introduced as the controlling algorithm to generate the corresponding steering angle. To achieve the goal of fast and accurate tracking, theoretical analysis and experimental verification are demonstrated that PID closed-loop system can suppress the attitude random vibration. Meanwhile, theoretical analysis shows that tracking accuracy can be less than 6.5μrad, with a relative agreement with experimental results which is obtained after 10 adjustments that the tracking accuracy is less than12.6μrad.

  5. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring Project: Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Hill, David E.; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    As a proof of concept tested in an operational context, the Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (GRadSSTraM) Project successfully demonstrated that radio frequency identification (RFID) and Web 2.0* technologies can be deployed to track controlled shipments between the United States and the European Union. Between November 2009 and May 2010, a total of 19 shipments were successfully shipped from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and tracked to their delivery at England's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) by the United Kingdom Royal Mail. However, the project can only be viewed as a qualified success as notable shortcomings were observed. Although the origin and terminus of all RFID-enabled shipments were recorded and no shipments were lost, not all the waypoints between ORNL and NPL were incorporated into the pilot. Given limited resources, the project team was able to install RFID listeners/actuators at three waypoints between the two endpoints. Although it is likely that all shipments followed the same route between ORNL and NPL, it cannot be determined beyond question that all 19 shipments were routed on identical itineraries past the same three waypoints. The pilot also raises the distinct possibility that unattended RFID tracking alone, without positive confirmation that a tagged item has been properly recorded by an RFID reader, does not meet a rigorous standard for shipping controlled items. Indeed, the proof of concept test strongly suggests that a multifaceted approach to tracking may be called for, including tracking methods that are capable of reading and accepting multiple inputs for individual items (e.g., carrier-provided tracking numbers, Universal Product Codes (UPCs), and RFID tags). For controlled items, another apparent requirement is a confirmation feature, human or otherwise, which can certify that an item's RFID tag, UPC, or tracking number has been recorded.

  6. A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Syed Safwan; Abrar, Shafayat

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.

  7. A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Syed Safwan

    2017-01-22

    In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.

  8. I’ll Be Back: On the Multiple Lives of Users of a Mobile Activity Tracking Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiyuan; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-01-01

    Mobile health applications that track activities, such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. While these activity tracking applications have the potential to improve our health, user engagement and retention are critical factors for their success. However, long-term user engagement patterns in real-world activity tracking applications are not yet well understood. Here we study user engagement patterns within a mobile physical activity tracking application consisting of 115 million logged activities taken by over a million users over 31 months. Specifically, we show that over 75% of users return and re-engage with the application after prolonged periods of inactivity, no matter the duration of the inactivity. We find a surprising result that the re-engagement usage patterns resemble those of the start of the initial engagement period, rather than being a simple continuation of the end of the initial engagement period. This evidence points to a conceptual model of multiple lives of user engagement, extending the prevalent single life view of user activity. We demonstrate that these multiple lives occur because the users have a variety of different primary intents or goals for using the app. These primary intents are associated with how long each life lasts and how likely the user is to re-engage for a new life. We find evidence for users being more likely to stop using the app once they achieved their primary intent or goal (e.g., weight loss). However, these users might return once their original intent resurfaces (e.g., wanting to lose newly gained weight). We discuss implications of the multiple life paradigm and propose a novel prediction task of predicting the number of lives of a user. Based on insights developed in this work, including a marker of improved primary intent performance, our prediction models achieve 71% ROC AUC. Overall, our research has implications for modeling user re-engagement in health activity tracking applications and

  9. Combination of various data analysis techniques for efficient track reconstruction in very high multiplicity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklér, Ferenc

    2017-08-01

    A novel combination of established data analysis techniques for reconstructing charged-particles in high energy collisions is proposed. It uses all information available in a collision event while keeping competing choices open as long as possible. Suitable track candidates are selected by transforming measured hits to a binned, three- or four-dimensional, track parameter space. It is accomplished by the use of templates taking advantage of the translational and rotational symmetries of the detectors. Track candidates and their corresponding hits, the nodes, form a usually highly connected network, a bipartite graph, where we allow for multiple hit to track assignments, edges. In order to get a manageable problem, the graph is cut into very many minigraphs by removing a few of its vulnerable components, edges and nodes. Finally the hits are distributed among the track candidates by exploring a deterministic decision tree. A depth-limited search is performed maximizing the number of hits on tracks, and minimizing the sum of track-fit χ2. Simplified but realistic models of LHC silicon trackers including the relevant physics processes are used to test and study the performance (efficiency, purity, timing) of the proposed method in the case of single or many simultaneous proton-proton collisions (high pileup), and for single heavy-ion collisions at the highest available energies.

  10. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Chance, J.C.; Christie, W.F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Romero, J.L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C.E.; Warren, P.

    1997-01-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (equation of state) TPC and other EOS collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI. (orig.)

  11. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew

    2014-09-16

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  12. Coronary artery analysis: Computer-assisted selection of best-quality segments in multiple-phase coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuan, E-mail: chuan@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiyski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A. [Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0904 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing an automated method to identify the best-quality coronary arterial segment from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) acquisitions, which may be used by either interpreting physicians or computer-aided detection systems to optimally and efficiently utilize the diagnostic information available in multiple-phase cCTA for the detection of coronary artery disease. Methods: After initialization with a manually identified seed point, each coronary artery tree is automatically extracted from multiple cCTA phases using our multiscale coronary artery response enhancement and 3D rolling balloon region growing vessel segmentation and tracking method. The coronary artery trees from multiple phases are then aligned by a global registration using an affine transformation with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization, followed by a local registration using a cubic B-spline method with fast localized optimization. The corresponding coronary arteries among the available phases are identified using a recursive coronary segment matching method. Each of the identified vessel segments is transformed by the curved planar reformation (CPR) method. Four features are extracted from each corresponding segment as quality indicators in the original computed tomography volume and the straightened CPR volume, and each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier for the arterial segment. A weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is designed to combine the votes of the four voting classifiers for each corresponding segment. The segment with the highest WVE vote is then selected as the best-quality segment. In this study, the training and test sets consisted of 6 and 20 cCTA cases, respectively, each with 6 phases, containing a total of 156 cCTA volumes and 312 coronary artery trees. An observer preference study was also conducted with one expert cardiothoracic radiologist and four nonradiologist readers to visually rank vessel segment

  13. Coronary artery analysis: Computer-assisted selection of best-quality segments in multiple-phase coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiyski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing an automated method to identify the best-quality coronary arterial segment from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) acquisitions, which may be used by either interpreting physicians or computer-aided detection systems to optimally and efficiently utilize the diagnostic information available in multiple-phase cCTA for the detection of coronary artery disease. Methods: After initialization with a manually identified seed point, each coronary artery tree is automatically extracted from multiple cCTA phases using our multiscale coronary artery response enhancement and 3D rolling balloon region growing vessel segmentation and tracking method. The coronary artery trees from multiple phases are then aligned by a global registration using an affine transformation with quadratic terms and nonlinear simplex optimization, followed by a local registration using a cubic B-spline method with fast localized optimization. The corresponding coronary arteries among the available phases are identified using a recursive coronary segment matching method. Each of the identified vessel segments is transformed by the curved planar reformation (CPR) method. Four features are extracted from each corresponding segment as quality indicators in the original computed tomography volume and the straightened CPR volume, and each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier for the arterial segment. A weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is designed to combine the votes of the four voting classifiers for each corresponding segment. The segment with the highest WVE vote is then selected as the best-quality segment. In this study, the training and test sets consisted of 6 and 20 cCTA cases, respectively, each with 6 phases, containing a total of 156 cCTA volumes and 312 coronary artery trees. An observer preference study was also conducted with one expert cardiothoracic radiologist and four nonradiologist readers to visually rank vessel segment

  14. Lock threshold deterioration induced by antenna vibration and signal coupling effects in hypersonic vehicle carrier tracking system of Ka band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congying ZHU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The envelope of a hypersonic vehicle is affected by severe fluctuating pressure, which causes the airborne antenna to vibrate slightly. This vibration mixes with the transmitted signals and thus introduces additional multiplicative phase noise. Antenna vibration and signal coupling effects as well as their influence on the lock threshold of the hypersonic vehicle carrier tracking system of the Ka band are investigated in this study. A vibration model is initially established to obtain phase noise in consideration of the inherent relationship between vibration displacement and electromagnetic wavelength. An analytical model of the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, which is widely used in carrier tracking systems, is established. The coupling effects on carrier tracking performance are investigated and quantitatively analyzed by imposing the multiplicative phase noise on the PLL model. Simulation results show that the phase noise presents a Gaussian distribution and is similar to vibration displacement variation. A large standard deviation in vibration displacement exerts a significant effect on the lock threshold. A critical standard deviation is observed in the PLL of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK signals. The effect on QPSK signals is more severe than that on BPSK signals. The maximum tolerable standard deviations normalized by the wavelength of the carrier are 0.04 and 0.02 for BPSK and QPSK signals, respectively. With these critical standard deviations, lock thresholds are increased from −12 and −4 dB to 3 and −2 dB, respectively. Keywords: Antenna vibration, Carrier tracking performance, Lock threshold, Phase locked loop, Tracking Telemetry and Command (TT&C signals

  15. Multiple-object permanence tracking: limitation in maintenance and transformation of perceptual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Jun

    2002-01-01

    Research on change blindness and transsaccadic memory revealed that a limited amount of information is retained across visual disruptions in visual working memory. It has been proposed that visual working memory can hold four to five coherent object representations. To investigate their maintenance and transformation in dynamic situations, I devised an experimental paradigm called multiple-object permanence tracking (MOPT) that measures memory for multiple feature-location bindings in dynamic situations. Observers were asked to detect any color switch in the middle of a regular rotation of a pattern with multiple colored disks behind an occluder. The color-switch detection performance dramatically declined as the pattern rotation velocity increased, and this effect of object motion was independent of the number of targets. The MOPT task with various shapes and colors showed that color-shape conjunctions are not available in the MOPT task. These results suggest that even completely predictable motion severely reduces our capacity of object representations, from four to only one or two.

  16. Multiple functions of the S-phase checkpoint mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori

    2010-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that replication defects are the major source of spontaneous genomic instability in cells, and that S-phase checkpoints are the principal defense against such instability. The S-phase checkpoint mediator protein Mrc1/Claspin mediates the checkpoint response to replication stress by facilitating phosphorylation of effector kinase by a sensor kinase. In this review, the multiple functions and the regulation of the S-phase checkpoint mediator are discussed.

  17. Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Levine, Lyle E.; Ricker, Richard E.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Heigel, Jarred C.; Guyer, Jonathan E.

    2018-02-01

    We use single-track laser melting experiments and simulations on Inconel 625 to estimate the dimensions and microstructure of the resulting melt pool. Our work is based on a design-of-experiments approach which uses multiple laser power and scan speed combinations. Single-track experiments generated melt pools of certain dimensions that showed reasonable agreement with our finite-element calculations. Phase-field simulations were used to predict the size and segregation of the cellular microstructure that formed along the melt-pool boundaries for the solidification conditions that changed as a function of melt-pool dimensions.

  18. Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Levine, Lyle E.; Ricker, Richard E.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Heigel, Jarred C.; Guyer, Jonathan E.

    2018-06-01

    We use single-track laser melting experiments and simulations on Inconel 625 to estimate the dimensions and microstructure of the resulting melt pool. Our work is based on a design-of-experiments approach which uses multiple laser power and scan speed combinations. Single-track experiments generated melt pools of certain dimensions that showed reasonable agreement with our finite-element calculations. Phase-field simulations were used to predict the size and segregation of the cellular microstructure that formed along the melt-pool boundaries for the solidification conditions that changed as a function of melt-pool dimensions.

  19. Multiple orbital angular momentum generated by dielectric hybrid phase element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Hu, Dejiao; Li, Xiangping

    2017-09-01

    Vortex beam carrying multiple orbital angular momentum provides a new degree of freedom to manipulate light leading to the various exciting applications as trapping, quantum optics, information multiplexing, etc. Helical wavefront can be generated either via the geometric or the dynamic phase arising from a space-variant birefringence (q-plate) or from phase accumulation through propagation (spiral-phase-plate), respectively. Using fast direct laser writing technique we fabricate and characterize novel hybrid q-plate generating vortex beam simultaneously carrying two different high-order topological charges, which arise from the spin-orbital conversion and the azimuthal height variation of the recorded structures. We approve the versatile concept to generate multiple-OAM vortex beams combining the spin-orbital interaction and the phase accumulation in a single micro-scale device, a hybrid dielectric phase plate.

  20. Competing failure analysis in phased-mission systems with multiple functional dependence groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Peng, Rui; Pan, Zhusheng

    2017-01-01

    A phased-mission system (PMS) involves multiple, consecutive, non-overlapping phases of operation. The system structure function and component failure behavior in a PMS can change from phase to phase, posing big challenges to the system reliability analysis. Further complicating the problem is the functional dependence (FDEP) behavior where the failure of certain component(s) causes other component(s) to become unusable or inaccessible or isolated. Previous studies have shown that FDEP can cause competitions between failure propagation and failure isolation in the time domain. While such competing failure effects have been well addressed in single-phase systems, only little work has focused on PMSs with a restrictive assumption that a single FDEP group exists in one phase of the mission. Many practical systems (e.g., computer systems and networks), however may involve multiple FDEP groups during the mission. Moreover, different FDEP groups can be dependent due to sharing some common components; they may appear in a single phase or multiple phases. This paper makes new contributions by modeling and analyzing reliability of PMSs subject to multiple FDEP groups through a Markov chain-based methodology. Propagated failures with both global and selective effects are considered. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Reliability of phased-mission systems subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects is modeled. • Multiple independent or dependent functional dependence groups are considered. • Propagated failures with global effects and selective effects are studied. • Four case studies demonstrate generality and application of the proposed Markov-based method.

  1. Multiplicity distributions in small phase-space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E.; Kowalski, M.; Stefanski, P.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ferenc, D.; Kadija, K.; Ljubicic, A. Jr.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Le Vine, M.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Fleischmann, B.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Kosiec, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puehlhofer, F.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Pfenning, J.; Wosiek, B.

    1992-10-01

    Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S + S, O + Au and S + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size. (orig.)

  2. Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

  3. An Efficient Implementation of Track-Oriented Multiple Hypothesis Tracker Using Graphical Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT is currently the preferred method for addressing data association problem in multitarget tracking (MTT application. MHT seeks the most likely global hypothesis by enumerating all possible associations over time, which is equal to calculating maximum a posteriori (MAP estimate over the report data. Despite being a well-studied method, MHT remains challenging mostly because of the computational complexity of data association. In this paper, we describe an efficient method for solving the data association problem using graphical model approaches. The proposed method uses the graph representation to model the global hypothesis formation and subsequently applies an efficient message passing algorithm to obtain the MAP solution. Specifically, the graph representation of data association problem is formulated as a maximum weight independent set problem (MWISP, which translates the best global hypothesis formation into finding the maximum weight independent set on the graph. Then, a max-product belief propagation (MPBP inference algorithm is applied to seek the most likely global hypotheses with the purpose of avoiding a brute force hypothesis enumeration procedure. The simulation results show that the proposed MPBP-MHT method can achieve better tracking performance than other algorithms in challenging tracking situations.

  4. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  5. Automated cell tracking and analysis in phase-contrast videos (iTrack4U): development of Java software based on combined mean-shift processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordelières, Fabrice P; Petit, Valérie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Debeir, Olivier; Letort, Véronique; Gallagher, Stuart J; Larue, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t) of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells.

  6. Automated cell tracking and analysis in phase-contrast videos (iTrack4U: development of Java software based on combined mean-shift processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice P Cordelières

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells.

  7. Observation of diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Wataru

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components was directly observed, and the factors contributing to complex material transfer were investigated, comparing to the former experimental results. The most excellent method of observing the diffusion behavior of liquid phase used heretofore is to trace the time history of concentration distribution for each component in unsteady diffusion process. The method of directly observing the concentration distribution is usually classified into the analysis of diffused samples, the checking of radioactive isotope tracers, and the measurement of light refraction and transmission. The most suitable method among these is to trace this time history by utilizing the spectrophotometer of position scanning type. An improved spectrophotometer was manufactured for trial. The outline of the measuring system and the detail of the optical system of this new type spectrophotometer are explained. The resolving power for position measurement is described with the numerical calculation. As for the observation examples of the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components, the diffusion of multiple electrolytes in aqueous solution, the observation of the material transfer phenomena accompanied by heterogeneous and single phase chemical reaction, and the observation of concentration distribution in the liquid diaphragm in a reaction absorption system are described. For each experimental item, the test apparatus, the sample material, the test process, the test results and the evaluation are explained in detail, and the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components were pretty well elucidated. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Multiple Model-Based Synchronization Approaches for Time Delayed Slaving Data in a Space Launch Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inherent characteristics of the flight mission of a space launch vehicle (SLV, which is required to fly over very large distances and have very high fault tolerances, in general, SLV tracking systems (TSs comprise multiple heterogeneous sensors such as radars, GPS, INS, and electrooptical targeting systems installed over widespread areas. To track an SLV without interruption and to hand over the measurement coverage between TSs properly, the mission control system (MCS transfers slaving data to each TS through mission networks. When serious network delays occur, however, the slaving data from the MCS can lead to the failure of the TS. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose multiple model-based synchronization (MMS approaches, which take advantage of the multiple motion models of an SLV. Cubic spline extrapolation, prediction through an α-β-γ filter, and a single model Kalman filter are presented as benchmark approaches. We demonstrate the synchronization accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed MMS approaches using the Monte Carlo simulation with the nominal trajectory data of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I.

  9. Automated identification of best-quality coronary artery segments from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA) for vessel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing an automated method to identify the best quality segment among the corresponding segments in multiple-phase cCTA. The coronary artery trees are automatically extracted from different cCTA phases using our multi-scale vessel segmentation and tracking method. An automated registration method is then used to align the multiple-phase artery trees. The corresponding coronary artery segments are identified in the registered vessel trees and are straightened by curved planar reformation (CPR). Four features are extracted from each segment in each phase as quality indicators in the original CT volume and the straightened CPR volume. Each quality indicator is used as a voting classifier to vote the corresponding segments. A newly designed weighted voting ensemble (WVE) classifier is finally used to determine the best-quality coronary segment. An observer preference study is conducted with three readers to visually rate the quality of the vessels in 1 to 6 rankings. Six and 10 cCTA cases are used as training and test set in this preliminary study. For the 10 test cases, the agreement between automatically identified best-quality (AI-BQ) segments and radiologist's top 2 rankings is 79.7%, and between AI-BQ and the other two readers are 74.8% and 83.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the performance of our automated method was comparable to those of experienced readers for identification of the best-quality coronary segments.

  10. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect o...

  11. Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality

  12. Ion track etching revisited: II. Electronic properties of aged tracks in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, D.; Muñoz Hernández, G.; Cruz, S. A.; Garcia-Arellano, H.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kiv, A.; Alfonta, L.

    2018-02-01

    We compile here electronic ion track etching effects, such as capacitive-type currents, current spike emission, phase shift, rectification and background currents that eventually emerge upon application of sinusoidal alternating voltages across thin, aged swift heavy ion-irradiated polymer foils during etching. Both capacitive-type currents and current spike emission occur as long as obstacles still prevent a smooth continuous charge carrier passage across the foils. In the case of sufficiently high applied electric fields, these obstacles are overcome by spike emission. These effects vanish upon etchant breakthrough. Subsequent transmitted currents are usually of Ohmic type, but shortly after breakthrough (during the track' core etching) often still exhibit deviations such as strong positive phase shifts. They stem from very slow charge carrier mobility across the etched ion tracks due to retarding trapping/detrapping processes. Upon etching the track's penumbra, one occasionally observes a split-up into two transmitted current components, one with positive and another one with negative phase shifts. Usually, these phase shifts vanish when bulk etching starts. Current rectification upon track etching is a very frequent phenomenon. Rectification uses to inverse when core etching ends and penumbra etching begins. When the latter ends, rectification largely vanishes. Occasionally, some residual rectification remains which we attribute to the aged polymeric bulk itself. Last not least, we still consider background currents which often emerge transiently during track etching. We could assign them clearly to differences in the electrochemical potential of the liquids on both sides of the etched polymer foils. Transient relaxation effects during the track etching cause their eventually chaotic behaviour.

  13. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, T. R.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  14. Multi-static MIMO along track interferometry (ATI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Along-track interferometry (ATI) has the ability to generate high-quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and concurrently detect and estimate the positions of ground moving target indicators (GMTI) with moderate processing requirements. This paper focuses on several different ATI system configurations, with an emphasis on low-cost configurations employing no active electronic scanned array (AESA). The objective system has two transmit phase centers and four receive phase centers and supports agile adaptive radar behavior. The advantages of multistatic, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) ATI system configurations are explored. The two transmit phase centers can employ a ping-pong configuration to provide the multistatic behavior. For example, they can toggle between an up and down linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform every other pulse. The four receive apertures are considered in simple linear spatial configurations. Simulated examples are examined to understand the trade space and verify the expected results. Finally, actual results are collected with the Space Dynamics Laboratorys (SDL) FlexSAR system in diverse configurations. The theory, as well as the simulated and actual SAR results, are presented and discussed.

  15. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  16. STOMP, Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases, theory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Oostrom, M.

    1996-10-01

    This guide describes the simulator's governing equations, constitutive functions and numerical solution algorithms of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator, a scientific tool for analyzing multiple phase subsurface flow and transport. The STOMP simulator's fundamental purpose is to produce numerical predictions of thermal and hydrologic flow and transport phenomena in variably saturated subsurface environments, which are contaminated with volatile or nonvolatile organic compounds. Auxiliary applications include numerical predictions of solute transport processes including radioactive chain decay processes. In writing these guides for the STOMP simulator, the authors have assumed that the reader comprehends concepts and theories associated with multiple-phase hydrology, heat transfer, thermodynamics, radioactive chain decay, and nonhysteretic relative permeability, saturation-capillary pressure constitutive functions. The authors further assume that the reader is familiar with the computing environment on which they plan to compile and execute the STOMP simulator. The STOMP simulator requires an ANSI FORTRAN 77 compiler to generate an executable code. The memory requirements for executing the simulator are dependent on the complexity of physical system to be modeled and the size and dimensionality of the computational domain. Likewise execution speed depends on the problem complexity, size and dimensionality of the computational domain, and computer performance. One-dimensional problems of moderate complexity can be solved on conventional desktop computers, but multidimensional problems involving complex flow and transport phenomena typically require the power and memory capabilities of workstation or mainframe type computer systems

  17. Multiple feature fusion via covariance matrix for visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zefenfen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Yu, Wangsheng; Wang, Xin; Sun, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the problem of complicated dynamic scenes in visual target tracking, a multi-feature fusion tracking algorithm based on covariance matrix is proposed to improve the robustness of the tracking algorithm. In the frame-work of quantum genetic algorithm, this paper uses the region covariance descriptor to fuse the color, edge and texture features. It also uses a fast covariance intersection algorithm to update the model. The low dimension of region covariance descriptor, the fast convergence speed and strong global optimization ability of quantum genetic algorithm, and the fast computation of fast covariance intersection algorithm are used to improve the computational efficiency of fusion, matching, and updating process, so that the algorithm achieves a fast and effective multi-feature fusion tracking. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithm can not only achieve fast and robust tracking but also effectively handle interference of occlusion, rotation, deformation, motion blur and so on.

  18. Symplectic Tracking of Multi-Isotopic Heavy-Ion Beams in SixTrack

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal; De Maria, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The software SixTrack provides symplectic proton tracking over a large number of turns. The code is used for the tracking of beam halo particles and the simulation of their interaction with the collimators to study the efficiency of the LHC collimation system. Tracking simulations for heavy-ion beams require taking into account the mass to charge ratio of each particle because heavy ions can be subject to fragmentation at their passage through the collimators. In this paper we present the derivation of a Hamiltonian for multi-isotopic heavy-ion beams and symplectic tracking maps derived from it. The resulting tracking maps were implemented in the tracking software SixTrack. With this modification, SixTrack can be used to natively track heavy-ion beams of multiple isotopes through a magnetic accelerator lattice.

  19. Symplectic multi-particle tracking on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhicong; Qiang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    A symplectic multi-particle tracking model is implemented on the Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) language. The symplectic tracking model can preserve phase space structure and reduce non-physical effects in long term simulation, which is important for beam property evaluation in particle accelerators. Though this model is computationally expensive, it is very suitable for parallelization and can be accelerated significantly by using GPUs. In this paper, we optimized the implementation of the symplectic tracking model on both single GPU and multiple GPUs. Using a single GPU processor, the code achieves a factor of 2-10 speedup for a range of problem sizes compared with the time on a single state-of-the-art Central Processing Unit (CPU) node with similar power consumption and semiconductor technology. It also shows good scalability on a multi-GPU cluster at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. In an application to beam dynamics simulation, the GPU implementation helps save more than a factor of two total computing time in comparison to the CPU implementation.

  20. Automatic visual tracking and social behaviour analysis with multiple mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giancardo

    Full Text Available Social interactions are made of complex behavioural actions that might be found in all mammalians, including humans and rodents. Recently, mouse models are increasingly being used in preclinical research to understand the biological basis of social-related pathologies or abnormalities. However, reliable and flexible automatic systems able to precisely quantify social behavioural interactions of multiple mice are still missing. Here, we present a system built on two components. A module able to accurately track the position of multiple interacting mice from videos, regardless of their fur colour or light settings, and a module that automatically characterise social and non-social behaviours. The behavioural analysis is obtained by deriving a new set of specialised spatio-temporal features from the tracker output. These features are further employed by a learning-by-example classifier, which predicts for each frame and for each mouse in the cage one of the behaviours learnt from the examples given by the experimenters. The system is validated on an extensive set of experimental trials involving multiple mice in an open arena. In a first evaluation we compare the classifier output with the independent evaluation of two human graders, obtaining comparable results. Then, we show the applicability of our technique to multiple mice settings, using up to four interacting mice. The system is also compared with a solution recently proposed in the literature that, similarly to us, addresses the problem with a learning-by-examples approach. Finally, we further validated our automatic system to differentiate between C57B/6J (a commonly used reference inbred strain and BTBR T+tf/J (a mouse model for autism spectrum disorders. Overall, these data demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new machine learning system in the detection of social and non-social behaviours in multiple (>2 interacting mice, and its versatility to deal with different

  1. Simultaneous Tracking of Multiple Points Using a Wiimote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeffington, Alex; Scully, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the construction of an inexpensive motion tracking and data logging system, which can be used for a wide variety of teaching experiments ranging from entry-level physics courses to advanced courses. The system utilizes an affordable infrared camera found in a Nintendo Wiimote to track IR LEDs mounted to the objects to be…

  2. Tracking cognitive phases in analogical reasoning with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mandy J; McClelland, M Michelle; Donovan, Colin M; Tillman, Gail D; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2012-03-01

    Analogical reasoning consists of multiple phases. Four-term analogies (A:B::C:D) have an encoding period in which the A:B pair is evaluated prior to a mapping phase. The electrophysiological timing associated with analogical reasoning has remained unclear. We used event-related potentials to identify neural timing related to analogical reasoning relative to perceptual and semantic control conditions. Spatiotemporal principal-components analyses revealed differences primarily in left frontal electrodes during encoding and mapping phases of analogies relative to the other conditions. The timing of the activity differed depending upon the phase of the problem. During the encoding of A:B terms, analogies elicited a positive deflection compared to the control conditions between 400 and 1,200 ms, but for the mapping phase analogical processing elicited a negative deflection that occurred earlier and for a shorter time period, between 350 and 625 ms. These results provide neural and behavioral evidence that 4-term analogy problems involve a highly active evaluation phase of the A:B pair. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  3. S-band multiple-access interference study for advanced tracking and data relay satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Chung; Yang, Chau-Chin

    1990-01-01

    The results of a study on the effect of mutual interference among S-band multiple access (SMA) system users of advanced tracking and data relay satellite system (ATDRSS) are presented. In the ATDRSS era, the SMA system is required to support data rates ranging from 10 kb/s to 3 Mb/s. The system will consist of four advanced tracking and data relay satellites (ATDRS) each supporting up to five telemetry links. All users have 10 MHz bandwidth with their carrier frequency equal to 2.2875 GHz. A hybrid SDMA/CDMA scheme is used to mitigate the effect of the interference among system users. SMA system interference probability is evaluated with CLASS software. User link margin degradation due to mutual interference between two users is evaluated. System interference probability is evaluated for the projected 1996 mission model, a reference mission model, and a modified reference mission model.

  4. Circadian Enhancers Coordinate Multiple Phases of Rhythmic Gene Transcription In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Everett, Logan J.; Jager, Jennifer; Briggs, Erika; Armour, Sean M.; Feng, Dan; Roy, Ankur; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Sun, Zheng; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian transcriptomes display complex circadian rhythms with multiple phases of gene expression that cannot be accounted for by current models of the molecular clock. We have determined the underlying mechanisms by measuring nascent RNA transcription around the clock in mouse liver. Unbiased examination of eRNAs that cluster in specific circadian phases identified functional enhancers driven by distinct transcription factors (TFs). We further identify on a global scale the components of the TF cistromes that function to orchestrate circadian gene expression. Integrated genomic analyses also revealed novel mechanisms by which a single circadian factor controls opposing transcriptional phases. These findings shed new light on the diversity and specificity of TF function in the generation of multiple phases of circadian gene transcription in a mammalian organ. PMID:25416951

  5. Object acquisition and tracking for space-based surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the results of research carried out by Space Computer Corporation under the U.S. government's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. The work was sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and managed by the Office of Naval Research under Contracts N00014-87-C-0801 (Phase 1) and N00014-89-C-0015 (Phase 2). The basic purpose of this research was to develop and demonstrate a new approach to the detection of, and initiation of track on, moving targets using data from a passive infrared or visual sensor. This approach differs in very significant ways from the traditional approach of dividing the required processing into time dependent, object dependent, and data dependent processing stages. In that approach individual targets are first detected in individual image frames, and the detections are then assembled into tracks. That requires that the signal to noise ratio in each image frame be sufficient for fairly reliable target detection. In contrast, our approach bases detection of targets on multiple image frames, and, accordingly, requires a smaller signal to noise ratio. It is sometimes referred to as track before detect, and can lead to a significant reduction in total system cost. For example, it can allow greater detection range for a single sensor, or it can allow the use of smaller sensor optics. Both the traditional and track before detect approaches are applicable to systems using scanning sensors, as well as those which use staring sensors.

  6. Multiple Drosophila Tracking System with Heading Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudith Sirigrivatanawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly D r o s o p h i l a m e l a n o g a s t e r , a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking. Our system provides the ability to extract a group of flies as the objects of concern and furthermore determines the heading direction of each fly. As each fly moves, the system states are refined with a Kalman filter to obtain the optimal estimation. For the tracking step, combining information such as position and heading direction with assignment algorithms gives a successful tracking result. The use of heading direction increases the system efficiency when dealing with identity loss and flies swapping situations. The system can also operate with a variety of videos with different light intensities.

  7. Ship track observations of a reduced shortwave aerosol indirect effect in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. W.; Suzuki, K.; Zambri, B.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol influences on clouds are a major source of uncertainty to our understanding of forced climate change. Increased aerosol can enhance solar reflection from clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. Recently, this indirect effect has been extended from water droplet clouds to other types including mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds are important because of their fundamental role on sea ice loss and polar climate change, but very little is known about aerosol effects on these clouds. Here we provide the first analysis of the effects of aerosol emitted from ship stacks into mixed-phase clouds. Satellite observations of solar reflection in numerous ship tracks reveal that cloud albedo increases 5 times more in liquid clouds when polluted and persist 2 h longer than in mixed-phase clouds. These results suggest that seeding mixed-phase clouds via shipping aerosol is unlikely to provide any significant counterbalancing solar radiative cooling effects in warming polar regions.

  8. Effective Multi-Model Motion Tracking Under Multiple Team Member Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yang; Veloso, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the interactions between a team and the tracked target, we contribute a method to achieve efficient tracking through using a play-based motion model and combined vision and infrared sensory information. This method gives the robot a more exact task-specific motion model when executing different tactics over the tracked target (e.g. the ball) or collaborating with the tracked target (e.g. the team member). Then we represent the system in a compact dynamic Bayesian network and use ...

  9. Optimum track fitting in the presence of multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1987-06-01

    A method for track fitting is proposed which attempts to be as close as possible to the real track along the full path length. This is done by the introduction of scattering planes in which the particle is allowed to change its direction. A fit over the full track length includes the probability of direction change by scattering. Using matrix notation a fairly simple formalism for error estimation has been developed. Results of this method are compared to those of more widely used procedures for 'typical' examples of High Energy Spectrometers. (orig.)

  10. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  11. Track finding and fitting in the H1 Forward Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Maxfield, S.J.; Patel, G.D.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Skillicorn, I.O.

    1995-07-01

    The tracking environment in the H1 Forward Tracker Detector, where the hit multiplicity from proton fragments is high, is parituclarly hostile. The techniques and software which have been developed for pattern recognition and Kalman fitting of charged particle tracks in this region are described in detail. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced Algorithms for EO/IR Electronic Stabilization, Clutter Suppression, and Track-Before-Detect for Multiple Low Observable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a suite of advanced algorithms which provide significantly-improved capabilities for finding, fixing, and tracking multiple ballistic and flying low observable objects in highly stressing cluttered environments. The algorithms have been developed for use in satellite-based staring and scanning optical surveillance suites for applications including theatre and intercontinental ballistic missile early warning, trajectory prediction, and multi-sensor track handoff for midcourse discrimination and intercept. The functions performed by the algorithms include electronic sensor motion compensation providing sub-pixel stabilization (to 1/100 of a pixel), as well as advanced temporal-spatial clutter estimation and suppression to below sensor noise levels, followed by statistical background modeling and Bayesian multiple-target track-before-detect filtering. The multiple-target tracking is performed in physical world coordinates to allow for multi-sensor fusion, trajectory prediction, and intercept. Output of detected object cues and data visualization are also provided. The algorithms are designed to handle a wide variety of real-world challenges. Imaged scenes may be highly complex and infinitely varied -- the scene background may contain significant celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. For example, when viewing combined earth limb and terrestrial scenes, a combination of stationary and non-stationary clutter may be present, including cloud formations, varying atmospheric transmittance and reflectance of sunlight and other celestial light sources, aurora, glint off sea surfaces, and varied natural and man-made terrain features. The targets of interest may also appear to be dim, relative to the scene background, rendering much of the existing deployed software useless for optical target detection and tracking. Additionally, it may be necessary to detect and track a large number of objects in the threat cloud

  13. Spatial and visuospatial working memory tests predict performance in classic multiple-object tracking in young adults, but nonspatial measures of the executive do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Lana M; Mutreja, Rachna; Hunt, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    An individual-differences approach was used to investigate the roles of visuospatial working memory and the executive in multiple-object tracking. The Corsi Blocks and Visual Patterns Tests were used to assess visuospatial working memory. Two relatively nonspatial measures of the executive were used: operation span (OSPAN) and reading span (RSPAN). For purposes of comparison, the digit span test was also included (a measure not expected to correlate with tracking). The tests predicted substantial amounts of variance (R (2) = .33), and the visuospatial measures accounted for the majority (R (2) = .30), with each making a significant contribution. Although the executive measures correlated with each other, the RSPAN did not correlate with tracking. The correlation between OSPAN and tracking was similar in magnitude to that between digit span and tracking (p < .05 for both), and when regression was used to partial out shared variance between the two tests, the remaining variance predicted by the OSPAN was minimal (sr ( 2 ) = .029). When measures of spatial memory were included in the regression, the unique variance predicted by the OSPAN became negligible (sr ( 2 ) = .000004). This suggests that the executive, as measured by tests such as the OSPAN, plays little role in explaining individual differences in multiple-object tracking.

  14. Treatment of non-Gaussian tails of multiple Coulomb scattering in track fitting with a Gaussian-sum filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandlie, A.; Wroldsen, J.

    2006-01-01

    If any of the probability densities involved in track fitting deviate from the Gaussian assumption, it is plausible that a non-linear estimator which better takes the actual shape of the distribution into account can do better. One such non-linear estimator is the Gaussian-sum filter, which is adequate if the distributions under consideration can be approximated by Gaussian mixtures. The main purpose of this paper is to present a Gaussian-sum filter for track fitting, based on a two-component approximation of the distribution of angular deflections due to multiple scattering. In a simulation study within a linear track model the Gaussian-sum filter is shown to be a competitive alternative to the Kalman filter. Scenarios at various momenta and with various maximum number of components in the Gaussian-sum filter are considered. Particularly at low momenta the Gaussian-sum filter yields a better estimate of the uncertainties than the Kalman filter, and it is also slightly more precise than the latter

  15. The Tracking Resonance Frequency Method for Photoacoustic Measurements Based on the Phase Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    One of the major issues in the use of the resonant photoacoustic cell is the resonance frequency of the cell. The frequency is not stable, and its changes depend mostly on temperature and gas mixture. This paper presents a new method for tracking resonance frequency, where both the amplitude and phase are calculated from the input samples. The stimulating frequency can be adjusted to the resonance frequency of the cell based on the phase. This method was implemented using a digital measurement system with an analog to digital converter, field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a microcontroller. The resonance frequency was changed by the injection of carbon dioxide into the cell. A theoretical description and experimental results are also presented.

  16. ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2009-04-01

    We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

  17. Combination of multiple measurement cues for visual face tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, Nikolaos; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Visual face tracking is an important building block for all intelligent living and working spaces, as it is able to locate persons without any human intervention or the need for the users to carry sensors on themselves. In this paper we present a novel face tracking system built on a particle...

  18. Multiple topological phase transitions in a gyromagnetic photonic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-04-19

    We present the design of a tunable two-dimensional photonic crystal that exhibits multiple topological phases, including a conventional insulator phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, and a quantum anomalous Hall phase under different combinations of geometric parameters and external magnetic fields. Our photonic crystal enables a platform to study the topology evolution attributed to the interplay between crystalline symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. A four-band tight-binding model unambiguously reveals that the topological property is associated with the pseudospin orientations and that it is characterized by the spin Chern number. The emerging quantum anomalous Hall phase features a single helical edge state that is locked by a specific pseudospin. Simulation results demonstrate that the propagation of such a single helical edge state is robust against magnetic impurities. Potential applications, such as spin splitters, are described.

  19. Visualisation of γH2AX Foci Caused by Heavy Ion Particle Traversal; Distinction between Core Track versus Non-Track Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Brunton, Holly; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Shrikhande, Amruta; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Fujimori, Akira; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny; Shibata, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by delta-electrons distant from the track has not previously been carefully characterised. Using imaging with deconvolution, we show that at 8 hours after exposure to Fe (∼200 keV/µm) ions, γH2AX foci forming at DSBs within the particle track are large and encompass multiple smaller and closely localised foci, which we designate as clustered γH2AX foci. These foci are repaired with slow kinetics by DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in G1 phase with the magnitude of complexity diminishing with time. These clustered foci (containing 10 or more individual foci) represent a signature of DSBs caused by high LET heavy particle radiation. We also identified simple γH2AX foci distant from the track, which resemble those arising after X-ray exposure, which we attribute to low LET delta-electron induced DSBs. They are rapidly repaired by NHEJ. Clustered γH2AX foci induced by heavy particle radiation cause prolonged checkpoint arrest compared to simple γH2AX foci following X-irradiation. However, mitotic entry was observed when ∼10 clustered foci remain. Thus, cells can progress into mitosis with multiple clusters of DSBs following the traversal of a heavy particle. PMID:23967070

  20. Radar tracking with an interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter for civil aviation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-05-17

    The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  1. Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF, is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF, is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  2. A quasi-static treatment of multiple phase jumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englman, R; Vertesi, T

    2005-01-01

    A quasi-static, WKB-type treatment accounts well for the surprising phase jumps that are odd multiples of π (1 + 2n)π, found as a molecular system journeys adiabatically in a configuration coordinate plane that contains several points of degeneracies. We show that the number n in the phase jump is an integer close to |n'| that appears in the expression for the complex wavefunction amplitude valid (approximately) for times close to when the phase jump occurs: -δT + 2πθ+πn'sinδT -i[1-πn'cosδT](δT is a shifted and rescaled trajectory-time parameter and θ is a numerical fraction (<1) which depends on the adiabaticity of the motion.) The central quantity n' is local, i.e., depends on the values of the parameters in the Hamiltonian only at the beginning of the trajectory and at the instant of the phase jump

  3. Multiple-lesion track-structure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions

  4. Remoting alternatives for a multiple phased-array antenna network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-10-01

    Significant improvements in technology have made phased array antennas an attractive alternative to the traditional dish antenna for use on wide body airplanes. These improvements have resulted in reduced size, reduced cost, reduced losses in the transmit and receive channels (simplifying the design), a significant extension in the bandwidth capability, and an increase in the functional capability. Flush mounting (thus reduced drag) and rapid beam switching are among the evolving desirable features of phased array antennas. Beam scanning of phased array antennas is limited to +/-45 degrees at best and therefore multiple phased array antennas would need to be used to insure instantaneous communications with any ground station (stations located at different geographical locations on the ground) and with other airborne stations. The exact number of phased array antennas and the specific installation location of each antenna on the wide body airplane would need to be determined by the specific communication requirements, but it is conceivable as many as five phased array antennas may need to be used to provide the required coverage. Control and switching of these antennas would need to be accomplished at a centralized location on the airplane and since these antennas would be at different locations on the airplane an efficient scheme of remoting would need to be used. To save in cost and keep the phased array antennas as small as possible the design of the phased array antennas would need to be kept simple. A dish antenna and a blade antenna (small size) could also be used to augment the system. Generating the RF signals at the central location and then using RF cables or waveguide to get the signal to any given antenna could result in significant RF losses. This paper will evaluate a number of remoting alternatives to keep the system design simple, reduce system cost, and utilize the functional capability of networking multiple phased array antennas on a wide body

  5. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  6. FTK: A Hardware Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Tompkins, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHC experiments are preparing for instantaneous luminosities above $1 imes 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ as early as 2015. In order to select the rare events of interest in such dense environments, detailed event information is necessary. In particular, the highly granular single particle information of tracking detectors is crucial for the selection of isolated leptons, taus and b-jets in the face of large vertex multiplicities. We report on the developement of the ATLAS FastTracker (FTK), a hardware based track finder which will reconstruct all tracks with a momentum greater than 1 GeV/c up to luminosties of $3 imes 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ at an event input rate of 100 kHz and a latency of a few hundred microseconds. The track information will be available to the Level 2 processors at the beginning of event processing. Significant progress towards a phased installation beginning in 2015 has been achieved. A pre-prototype of the pattern recognition board is taking data in the fall of 2012 and prototypes for all ...

  7. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h -1 ) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  8. Study of the α and β phases of quartz by neutron multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzocchi, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    Crystal structures of α and β phases of quartz are studied, employing neutron multiple diffraction as a method of analysis. Theoretical multiple diffraction patterns in a many-beam case were determined by a computer program which calculates intensities of beams as sums of Taylor's series expansions, retaining terms up to a order n. Experimental 'umweg' and transmitted beam patterns were obtained for the 00.1 primary reflection of α and β phases of quartz. To calculate α - quartz multiple diffraction intensities it was necessary to determine the Dauphine twinning fraction for the crystal after having passed by the β-phase. For the two models of β-quartz a better agreement between experimental and calculated integrated intensities was found for the disordered structure model based on split-half-oxigen positions. (Author) [pt

  9. Requirements for the Silicon Tracking System of CBM at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Johann M.; Deveaux, M.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will systematically study dense baryonic matter created in collisions of intense heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets. The research addresses current questions of strong-interaction physics as confinement in normal nuclear matter, chiral symmetry restoration in deconfined matter at high temperatures and densities, and the search for the critical end-point of the phase boundary. With beams of ions as heavy as Au and U, energies up to 45GeV/nucleon and intensities up to 10 12 ions per pulse, FAIR will enable CBM to probe the phase diagram of quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) in a region poorly known, while being complementary to current and future research programmes at RHIC and LHC. The CBM experiment is planned as a fixed-target spectrometer optimized for the detection of rare probes. Among these are open charm and low-mass vector mesons, important observables for the initial energetic and dense phase of the collisions. The experimental concept and challenge is to accomplish charged particle tracking in the high-multiplicity, high-radiation collision environment. This will be realized exclusively with a silicon tracking detector system installed in a strong magnetic dipole field directly behind the target. Key to the physics of CBM and benchmark for the tracking is the reconstruction of short-lived charmed mesons that puts high demands on the silicon detectors. The article presents a conceptual design of the CBM experiment with emphasis on the silicon tracking system. Requirements for silicon microstrip and pixel detectors and their arrangement in the tracker are discussed in relation to important physics observables addressed by CBM

  10. Unstructured Finite Elements and Dynamic Meshing for Explicit Phase Tracking in Multiphase Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anirban; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Shams, Ehsan; Sahni, Onkar; Oberai, Assad; Shephard, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Multi-phase processes involving phase change at interfaces, such as evaporation of a liquid or combustion of a solid, represent an interesting class of problems with varied applications. Large density ratio across phases, discontinuous fields at the interface and rapidly evolving geometries are some of the inherent challenges which influence the numerical modeling of multi-phase phase change problems. In this work, a mathematically consistent and robust computational approach to address these issues is presented. We use stabilized finite element methods on mixed topology unstructured grids for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Appropriate jump conditions derived from conservations laws across the interface are handled by using discontinuous interpolations, while the continuity of temperature and tangential velocity is enforced using a penalty parameter. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique is utilized to explicitly track the interface motion. Mesh at the interface is constrained to move with the interface while elsewhere it is moved using the linear elasticity analogy. Repositioning is applied to the layered mesh that maintains its structure and normal resolution. In addition, mesh modification is used to preserve the quality of the volumetric mesh. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Grants W911NF1410301 and W911NF16C0117.

  11. Investment feasibility tracking: the importance of measuring and tracking the success level of the project during commercialization phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Y. A.; Setyaningtyas, V. E. D.; Latiffianti, E.; Wijaya, S. H.; Ladamay, O. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Measuring project success level is a challenging activity. This area of works has attracted many researchers to look deeper into the method of measurement, success factor identification, risk management, and many others relevant topics. However, the project management scope is limited until the project handover stage. After a project handover, the control of a project management changes from Project Management Team to the project owner/commercialization team. From an investor’s point of view, the success of a project delivery needs to be followed by the success of commercialization phase. This paper aims to present an approach on how we track and measure the progress and success level of a project investment in the commercialization phase. This is an interesting topic which probably often being forgotten in many practical case. Our proposed concept modify Freeman and Beale concept by estimating the variance between the Planned Net Present Value / Annual Worth (as it is in the Feasibility Study Document) and the Actual Net Present Value / Annual Worth (until the point time of evaluation). The gap will lead us to the next analysis and give us some important information, especially exposing whether our project investment performs better than the planning or underperformed. Some corrective actions can be suggested based on the provided information. Practical cases to exercise the concept is also provided and discussed; one case in a property sector in the middle of commercialization phase, and another case in a Power Plant investment approaching the end of commercialization phase.

  12. Study of the ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic phases of magnetite measured by multiple neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzocchi, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Structural parameters of the ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic phases of magnetite have been refined from neutron multiple diffraction data. Experimental multiple diffraction patterns used in the refinement, were obtained by measuring the 111 primary reflection of a natural single crystal of this compound, at room temperature for the ferrimagnetic phase and 703 0 C for the paramagnetic phase. Corresponding theoretical patterns for both phases have been calculated by the program MULTI which uses the iterative method for the intensity calculations in neutron multiple diffraction. In this method intensities are calculated as Taylor series expansions summed up to a order sufficient for a good approximation. A step by step process has been used in the refinements according to the parameter-shift method. Both isotropic and anisotropic thermal parameters were used in the calculation of the temperature factor. (author)

  13. Random Scenario Generation for a Multiple Target Tracking Environment Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    , which were normally crossing targets, was to test the efficiency of the track splitting algorithm for different situations. However this approach only gives a measure of performance for a specific, possibly unrealistic, scenario and it was felt appropriate to develop procedures that would enable a more...... general performance assessment. Therefore, a random target motion scenario is adopted. Its implementation in particular for testing the track splitting algorithm using Kalman filters is used and a couple of tracking performance parameters are computed to investigate such random scenarios....

  14. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  15. Particle filtering for passive fathometer tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Seabed interface depths and fathometer amplitudes are tracked for an unknown and changing number of sub-bottom reflectors. This is achieved by incorporating conventional and adaptive fathometer processors into sequential Monte Carlo methods for a moving vertical line array. Sediment layering information and time-varying fathometer response amplitudes are tracked by using a multiple model particle filter with an uncertain number of reflectors. Results are compared to a classical particle filter where the number of reflectors is considered to be known. Reflector tracking is demonstrated for both conventional and adaptive processing applied to the drifting array data from the Boundary 2003 experiment. The layering information is successfully tracked by the multiple model particle filter even for noisy fathometer outputs. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  16. Multiradar tracking for theater missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviestins, Egils

    1995-09-01

    A prototype system for tracking tactical ballistic missiles using multiple radars has been developed. The tracking is based on measurement level fusion (`true' multi-radar) tracking. Strobes from passive sensors can also be used. We describe various features of the system with some emphasis on the filtering technique. This is based on the Interacting Multiple Model framework where the states are Free Flight, Drag, Boost, and Auxiliary. Measurement error modeling includes the signal to noise ratio dependence; outliers and miscorrelations are handled in the same way. The launch point is calculated within one minute from the detection of the missile. The impact point, and its uncertainty region, is calculated continually by extrapolating the track state vector using the equations of planetary motion.

  17. Distributed Tracking in Distributed Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-26

    Glocal Track 6-17 6-12: Case II: Initial Glocal Track 6-18 6-13: Local Tracking Results with Multiple Model Approach 6-19 6-14: Model Probability History...3480.0- 2290.0e iee. onee -5800 -4600.8 -3400.8 -2208.8 -1886 X (Mi) Figure 6-11: Case 1: Initial Glocal Track 6-17 460. 420. 38 . 3488.9 1st 3498.9

  18. Simultaneous estimation of multiple phases in digital holographic interferometry using state space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2018-05-01

    A new approach is proposed for the multiple phase estimation from a multicomponent exponential phase signal recorded in multi-beam digital holographic interferometry. It is capable of providing multidimensional measurements in a simultaneous manner from a single recording of the exponential phase signal encoding multiple phases. Each phase within a small window around each pixel is appproximated with a first order polynomial function of spatial coordinates. The problem of accurate estimation of polynomial coefficients, and in turn the unwrapped phases, is formulated as a state space analysis wherein the coefficients and signal amplitudes are set as the elements of a state vector. The state estimation is performed using the extended Kalman filter. An amplitude discrimination criterion is utilized in order to unambiguously estimate the coefficients associated with the individual signal components. The performance of proposed method is stable over a wide range of the ratio of signal amplitudes. The pixelwise phase estimation approach of the proposed method allows it to handle the fringe patterns that may contain invalid regions.

  19. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  20. Multiple wall-reflection effect in adaptive-array differential-phase reflectometry on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Onchi, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Mishra, K.; Hamasaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamamoto, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    A phased array antenna and Software-Defined Radio (SDR) heterodyne-detection systems have been developed for adaptive array approaches in reflectometry on the QUEST. In the QUEST device considered as a large oversized cavity, standing wave (multiple wall-reflection) effect was significantly observed with distorted amplitude and phase evolution even if the adaptive array analyses were applied. The distorted fields were analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in wavenumber domain to treat separately the components with and without wall reflections. The differential phase evolution was properly obtained from the distorted field evolution by the FFT procedures. A frequency derivative method has been proposed to overcome the multiple-wall reflection effect, and SDR super-heterodyned components with small frequency difference for the derivative method were correctly obtained using the FFT analysis

  1. Joint compensation scheme of polarization crosstalk, intersymbol interference, frequency offset, and phase noise based on cascaded Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Xiang, Qian; Zhou, Zhongqing; Yao, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A joint compensation scheme based on cascaded Kalman filter is proposed, which can implement polarization tracking, channel equalization, frequency offset, and phase noise compensation simultaneously. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only compensate multiple channel impairments simultaneously but also improve the polarization tracking capacity and accelerate the convergence speed. The scheme has up to eight times faster convergence speed compared with radius-directed equalizer (RDE) + Max-FFT (maximum fast Fourier transform) + BPS (blind phase search) and can track up polarization rotation 60 times and 15 times faster than that of RDE + Max-FFT + BPS and CMMA (cascaded multimodulus algorithm) + Max-FFT + BPS, respectively.

  2. Track finding with neural networks in ALICE ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Belikov, Yu.A.; Fedunov, A.G.; Zinchenko, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    A program based on Neural Networks technique was developed for track recognition in ALICE ITS. The efficiency of this program was estimated on Monte Carlo simulated events for particles with p T ≤ 100 MeV/c. The advantages of this program are the high performance, the capability of track finding in conditions of the high particle multiplicity and the ability to find tracks distorted by the multiple Coulomb scattering and the energy losses. 7 refs., 1 tab

  3. Refinement of the ferri and paramagnetic phases of magnetite measured by neutron multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzochi, V.L.; Parente, C.B.R.

    1989-10-01

    Structural parameters of the ferri and paramagnetic phases of magnetite have been refined from neutron multiple diffraction data. Experimental patterns were obtained by measuring the III primary reflection of a natural single crystal of this compound, at room temperature for the ferrimagnetic phase and 703 0 C for the paramagnetic phase. Theoretical multiple diffraction patterns for both phases have been calculated by the program MULTI which uses the iterative method. In this method intensities are caluclated as Taylor series expansions summed up to a order sufficient for a good approximation. A step by step process has been used in the refinements similarly to the parameter-shift method. Final values for the discrepancy factor found for the ferri and paramagnetic phases were R = 3.96% and R = 3.46%, respectively. (author) [pt

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, Hu; Hong, Shan; Mingyue, Luo; Shaoqiong, Chen; Wang, Kang; Bingjun, He; Yan, Zou [Department of Radiology, the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Binbin, Ye

    2007-02-15

    Objective: To demonstrate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, periplaque white matter regions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) regions in patients with MS, and to evaluate the clinical values of DTI and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of MS. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in 32 patients with MS and 32 age-matched control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated and coregistered with T{sub 2}-weighted MR images. FA and ADC values were calculated in regions of interest in plaques, periplaque white matter regions, NAWM regions and white matter regions in control subjects. And three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps were generated by using the DTI. Results: The ADC was (1.233 {+-} 0.119) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS plaques, (0.973 {+-} 0.098) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in periplaque white matter regions, (0.748 {+-} 0.089) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in NAWM, and (0.620 {+-} 0.094) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in control subjects. The FA was 0.225 {+-} 0.052 in MS plaques, 0.311 {+-} 0.050 in periplaque white matter regions, 0.421 {+-} 0.070 in NAWM, and 0.476 {+-} 0.069 in control subjects. Significant differences in FA and ADC values were observed among all white matter regions (P<0.01). MS plaques were demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. Conclusion: FA and ADC maps are helpful for the evaluation of all white matter changes of MS. The abnormalities of white matter fiber tracts in MS plaques could be demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. (authors)

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Bing; Shan Hong; Luo Mingyue; Chen Shaoqiong; Kang Wang; He Bingjun; Zou Yan; Ye Binbin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, periplaque white matter regions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) regions in patients with MS, and to evaluate the clinical values of DTI and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of MS. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in 32 patients with MS and 32 age-matched control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated and coregistered with T 2 -weighted MR images. FA and ADC values were calculated in regions of interest in plaques, periplaque white matter regions, NAWM regions and white matter regions in control subjects. And three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps were generated by using the DTI. Results: The ADC was (1.233 ± 0.119) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS plaques, (0.973 ± 0.098) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in periplaque white matter regions, (0.748 ± 0.089) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in NAWM, and (0.620 ± 0.094) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in control subjects. The FA was 0.225 ± 0.052 in MS plaques, 0.311 ± 0.050 in periplaque white matter regions, 0.421 ± 0.070 in NAWM, and 0.476 ± 0.069 in control subjects. Significant differences in FA and ADC values were observed among all white matter regions (P<0.01). MS plaques were demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. Conclusion: FA and ADC maps are helpful for the evaluation of all white matter changes of MS. The abnormalities of white matter fiber tracts in MS plaques could be demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. (authors)

  6. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    be used to improve the prediction step of the tracking, while, at the same time, tracking information can be used for online activity recognition. Experimental results in two different settings show that our approach 1) decreases the error rate and improves the identity maintenance of the positional......Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... tracking and 2) identifies the correct activity with higher accuracy than standard approaches....

  7. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  8. Vortex phase diagram in Bi2Sr2CaCuO8+δ with damage tracks created by 30 MeV fullerene irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Beek, C.J. van der; Dunlop, A.; Jaskierowicz, G.; Li, Ming; Kes, P.H.; Della-Negra, S.

    2004-01-01

    Using 30 MeV C 60 fullerene irradiation, we have produced latent tracks of diameter 20 nm and length 200 nm, near the surface of single crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . A preliminary transmission electron microscopy study shows evidence for a very high density of deposited energy, and the ejection of material from the track core in very thin specimens. The latent tracks reveal themselves to be exceptionally strong pinning centers for vortices in the superconducting mixed state. Both the critical current density and magnetic irreversibility line are significantly enhanced. The irradiated crystals present salient features of the (B, T) phase diagram of vortex matter both of pristine crystals, such as the first order vortex phase transition, and the exponential Bose-glass line characteristic of heavy ion-irradiated crystals. We show that the latter is manifestly independent of the pinning potential. (author)

  9. Effects of Parallel Channel Interactions on Two-Phase Flow Split in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tests would aid the development of a realistic transient computer model for tracking the distribution of two-phase flows into the multiple parallel channels of a Nuclear Reactor, during Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA), and were performed at the General Electric Nuclear Energy Division Laboratory, California. The test ...

  10. Power Factor Correction Capacitors for Multiple Parallel Three-Phase ASD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Today’s three-phase Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems still employ Diode Rectifiers (DRs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) as the front-end converters due to structural and control simplicity, small volume, low cost, and high reliability. However, the uncontrollable DRs and phase......-controllable SCRs bring side-effects by injecting high harmonics to the grid, which will degrade the system performance in terms of lowering the overall efficiency and overheating the system if remain uncontrolled or unattenuated. For multiple ASD systems, certain harmonics in the entire system can be mitigated...... the power factor, passive capacitors can be installed, which yet can trigger the system resonance. Hence, this paper analyzes the resonant issues in multiple ASD systems with power factor correction capacitors. Potential damping solutions are summarized. Simulations are carried out, while laboratory tests...

  11. Wireless Power Transmission via Sheet Medium Using Automatic Phase Adjustment of Multiple Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Oota, Toshifumi; Kado, Youiti; Zhang, Bing

    The wireless power transmission via sheet medium is a novel physical form of communication that utilizes the surface as a medium to provide both data and power transmission services. To efficiently transmit a relatively-large amount of electric power (several watts), we have developed a wireless power transmission system via sheet medium that concentrates the electric power on a specific spot by using phase control of multiple inputs. However, to find the optimal phases of the multiple inputs making the microwave converge on a specific spot in the sheet medium, the prior knowledge of the device's position, and the pre-experiment measuring the output power, are needed. In wireless communication area, it is known that the retrodirective array scheme can efficiently transmit the power in a self-phasing manner, which uses the pilot signals sent by the client devices. In this paper, we apply the retrodirective array scheme to the wireless power transmission system via sheet medium, and propose a power transmission scheme using the phase-adjustment of multiple inputs. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposal scheme, we evaluate its performance by computer simulation and realistic measurement. Both results show that the proposal scheme can achieve the retrodirectivity over the wireless power transmission via sheet medium.

  12. Design of the ATLAS Phase-II hardware-based tracking processor

    CERN Document Server

    Poggi, Riccardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The expected increase in peak luminosity of the upgraded high-luminosity LHC will force the ATLAS experiment to increase early stage trigger selection power. The agreed strategy is to implement precise hardware track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved for primary single-lepton selections, while contributing to b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques as well as multi-jet rejection. The hardware-based tracking for the trigger (HTT) will use a combination of Associative Memory ASICs and FPGAs to provide the software-based trigger system with access to tracking information. In this poster, we present the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking capability, and trigger selection, based on detailed simulations.

  13. Improved nano-particle tracking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, John G

    2012-01-01

    Nano-particle tracking is a method to estimate a particle size distribution by tracking the movements of individual particles, using multiple images of particles moving under Brownian motion. A novel method to recover a particle size distribution from nano-particle tracking data is described. Unlike a simple histogram-based method, the method described is able to account for the finite number of steps in each particle track and consequently for the measurement uncertainty in the step-length data. Computer simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the approach compared with the current method. (paper)

  14. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...

  15. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  16. Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yijie [ORNL; Lim, Hyun-Kyung [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Navamita, Ray [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Wang, Shuqiang [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Glimm, James G [ORNL; Li, Xiao-lin [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Jiao, Xiangmin [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This progress report describes the development of a front tracking method for the solution of the governing equations of motion for two-phase micromixing of incompressible, viscous, liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes. The ability to compute the detailed local interfacial structure of the mixture allows characterization of the statistical properties of the two-phase mixture in terms of droplets, filaments, and other structures which emerge as a dispersed phase embedded into a continuous phase. Such a statistical picture provides the information needed for building a consistent coarsened model applicable to the entire mixing device. Coarsening is an undertaking for a future mathematical development and is outside the scope of the present work. We present here a method for accurate simulation of the micromixing dynamics of an aqueous and an organic phase exposed to intense centrifugal force and shearing stress. The onset of mixing is the result of the combination of the classical Rayleigh- Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A mixing environment that emulates a sector of the annular mixing zone of a centrifugal contactor is used for the mathematical domain. The domain is small enough to allow for resolution of the individual interfacial structures and large enough to allow for an analysis of their statistical distribution of sizes and shapes. A set of accurate algorithms for this application requires an advanced front tracking approach constrained by the incompressibility condition. This research is aimed at designing and implementing these algorithms. We demonstrate verification and convergence results for one-phase and unmixed, two-phase flows. In addition we report on preliminary results for mixed, two-phase flow for realistic operating flow parameters.

  17. Search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state using large track multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lysák, Roman; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Vrba, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 7 (2013), "072001-1"-"072001-22" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tracks * multiplicity * final state * dimuon * same sign * black hole * mass * gravitation * model * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * background Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2013

  18. Preliminary study on radiation crosslinking of PE-NBR multiple phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Zhang Wanxi; Sun Jiazhen

    1989-01-01

    The effect of radiation crosslinking on the structure and properties of PE-NBR (polyethylene-acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) multiple phase system was studied in this paper. The relationship of sol fraction and irradiated dose to multiplephase system was demonstrated

  19. Power-Quality-Oriented Optimization in Multiple Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    As an almost standardized configuration, Diode Rectifiers (DRs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) are commonly employed as the front-end topology in three-phase Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. Features of this ASD configuration include: structural and control simplicity, small volume......, low cost, and high reliability during operation. Yet, DRs and SCRs bring harmonic distortions in the mains and thus lowering the overall efficiency. Power quality standards/rules are thus released. For multiple ASD systems, certain harmonics of the total grid current can be mitigated by phase......-shifting the currents drawn by SCR-fed drives, and thus it is much flexible to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) level in such applications. However, the effectiveness of this harmonic mitigation scheme for multiple ASD systems depends on: a) the number of parallel drives, b) the power levels, and c...

  20. Multi-detector row CT of the kidney: Optimizing scan delays for bolus tracking techniques of arterial, corticomedullary, and nephrographic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Nishibori, Hironori; Kondo, Hiroshi; Tsuge, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal scan delays for renal arterial-, corticomedullary-, and nephrographic-phase imaging with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) of the kidney using a bolus-tracking technique. Methods and materials: One hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent three-phase CT scan of the kidney with eight-row MDCT after receiving 2 mL/kg of 300 mg I/mL contrast medium at 4 mL/s. Patients were prospectively randomized into three groups with different scan delays for the three scan phases (arterial, corticomedullary, and nephrographic) after bolus-tracking triggered at 50 HU of aortic contrast enhancement: group 1 (5, 20, 45 s); group 2 (10, 25, 50 s); and group 3 (15, 30, 55 s). Mean CT values (HU) of the abdominal aorta, renal artery, renal vein, renal cortex, and renal medulla were measured; increases in CT values pre- to post-contrast were assessed as contrast enhancement. Renal artery-to-vein and renal cortex-to-medulla contrast differences were also assessed. Qualitative analysis was also performed. Results: Mean renal artery enhancement was 240-288 HU at 5-15 s after the trigger and peaked at 10 s (P < .001). Mean renal cortical enhancement was 195-217 HU at 10-30 s and peaked at 25 s (P < .01). Contrast enhancement in the renal medulla increased gradually and reached mean 145 HU at 55 s. Cortex-to-medulla contrast difference was high (110-140 HU) at 5-30 s and decreased below 30 HU at 45 s after the trigger. Renal artery-to-vein contrast difference was high (121-125 HU) at 5-10 s. Qualitative results correlated well with quantitative results. Conclusion: For the injection protocol used in this study, optimal scan delays after the bolus-tracking trigger were 5-10 s for renal arterial, 15-25 s for corticomedullary, and 50-55 s for nephrographic phases.

  1. OpenCV and TYZX : video surveillance for tracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jim; Spencer, Andrew; Chu, Eric

    2008-08-01

    As part of the National Security Engineering Institute (NSEI) project, several sensors were developed in conjunction with an assessment algorithm. A camera system was developed in-house to track the locations of personnel within a secure room. In addition, a commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tracking system developed by TYZX was examined. TYZX is a Bay Area start-up that has developed its own tracking hardware and software which we use as COTS support for robust tracking. This report discusses the pros and cons of each camera system, how they work, a proposed data fusion method, and some visual results. Distributed, embedded image processing solutions show the most promise in their ability to track multiple targets in complex environments and in real-time. Future work on the camera system may include three-dimensional volumetric tracking by using multiple simple cameras, Kalman or particle filtering, automated camera calibration and registration, and gesture or path recognition.

  2. OpenCV and TYZX : video surveillance for tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jim; Spencer, Andrew; Chu, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As part of the National Security Engineering Institute (NSEI) project, several sensors were developed in conjunction with an assessment algorithm. A camera system was developed in-house to track the locations of personnel within a secure room. In addition, a commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tracking system developed by TYZX was examined. TYZX is a Bay Area start-up that has developed its own tracking hardware and software which we use as COTS support for robust tracking. This report discusses the pros and cons of each camera system, how they work, a proposed data fusion method, and some visual results. Distributed, embedded image processing solutions show the most promise in their ability to track multiple targets in complex environments and in real-time. Future work on the camera system may include three-dimensional volumetric tracking by using multiple simple cameras, Kalman or particle filtering, automated camera calibration and registration, and gesture or path recognition

  3. Bearings-Only Tracking of Manoeuvring Targets Using Particle Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanjeev Arulampalam

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of bearings-only tracking of manoeuvring targets using particle filters (PFs. Three different (PFs are proposed for this problem which is formulated as a multiple model tracking problem in a jump Markov system (JMS framework. The proposed filters are (i multiple model PF (MMPF, (ii auxiliary MMPF (AUX-MMPF, and (iii jump Markov system PF (JMS-PF. The performance of these filters is compared with that of standard interacting multiple model (IMM-based trackers such as IMM-EKF and IMM-UKF for three separate cases: (i single-sensor case, (ii multisensor case, and (iii tracking with hard constraints. A conservative CRLB applicable for this problem is also derived and compared with the RMS error performance of the filters. The results confirm the superiority of the PFs for this difficult nonlinear tracking problem.

  4. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  5. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanori Yorozu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm   that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON.

  6. Tracking of Range and Azimuth for Continuous Imaging of Marine Target in Monopulse ISAR with Wideband Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time tracking of maneuvering targets is the prerequisite for continuous imaging of moving targets in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. In this paper, the range and azimuth tracking (RAT method with wideband radar echoes is first presented for a mechanical scanning monopulse ISAR, which is regarded as the simplest phased array unit due to the two antenna feeds. To relieve the estimation fluctuation and poor robustness of the RAT method with a single snapshot, a modified range and azimuth tracking approach based on centroid algorithm (RATCA with forgotten factor and multiple echoes is then proposed. The performances of different forgotten factors are investigated. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that RATCA is superior to RAT method. Particularly, when target echo is missing occasionally, RAT method fails while RATCA still keeps good performance. The potential of continuous imaging with shipborne ISAR is verified by experimental results. With minor modification, the method proposed in this paper can be potentially applied in the phased array radar.

  7. Real-time object detection, tracking and occlusion reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Yu, Qian; Tamrakar, Amir; Sawhney, Harpreet Singh; Zhu, Jiejie; Javed, Omar; Liu, Jingen; Cheng, Hui; Eledath, Jayakrishnan

    2018-02-27

    A system for object detection and tracking includes technologies to, among other things, detect and track moving objects, such as pedestrians and/or vehicles, in a real-world environment, handle static and dynamic occlusions, and continue tracking moving objects across the fields of view of multiple different cameras.

  8. SU-E-J-240: Development of a Novel 4D MRI Sequence for Real-Time Liver Tumor Tracking During Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, L; Burmeister, J [Department of Oncology, Wayne State Univ School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Ye, Y [Department of Radiology, Wayne State Univ School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a Novel 4D MRI Technique that is feasible for realtime liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy. Methods: A volunteer underwent an abdominal 2D fast EPI coronal scan on a 3.0T MRI scanner (Siemens Inc., Germany). An optimal set of parameters was determined based on image quality and scan time. A total of 23 slices were scanned to cover the whole liver in the test scan. For each scan position, the 2D images were retrospectively sorted into multiple phases based on breathing signal extracted from the images. Consequently the 2D slices with same phase numbers were stacked to form one 3D image. Multiple phases of 3D images formed the 4D MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle. Results: The optimal set of scan parameters were: TR= 57ms, TE= 19ms, FOV read= 320mm and flip angle= 30°, which resulted in a total scan time of 14s for 200 frames (FMs) per slice and image resolution of (2.5mm,2.5mm,5.0mm) in three directions. Ten phases of 3D images were generated, each of which had 23 slices. Based on our test scan, only 100FMs were necessary for the phase sorting process which may lower the scan time to 7s/100FMs/slice. For example, only 5 slices/35s are necessary for a 4D MRI scan to cover liver tumor size ≤ 2cm leading to the possibility of tumor trajectory tracking every 35s during treatment. Conclusion: The novel 4D MRI technique we developed can reconstruct a 4D liver MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle (7s/ slice) without an external monitor. This technique can potentially be used for real-time liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy.

  9. Phase unwinding for dictionary compression with multiple channel transmission in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Zhang, Bei; Knoll, Florian; Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting reconstructions can become computationally intractable with multiple transmit channels, if the B 1 + phases are included in the dictionary. We describe a general method that allows to omit the transmit phases. We show that this enables straightforward implementation of dictionary compression to further reduce the problem dimensionality. We merged the raw data of each RF source into a single k-space dataset, extracted the transceiver phases from the corresponding reconstructed images and used them to unwind the phase in each time frame. All phase-unwound time frames were combined in a single set before performing SVD-based compression. We conducted synthetic, phantom and in-vivo experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of SVD-based compression in the case of two-channel transmission. Unwinding the phases before SVD-based compression yielded artifact-free parameter maps. For fully sampled acquisitions, parameters were accurate with as few as 6 compressed time frames. SVD-based compression performed well in-vivo with highly under-sampled acquisitions using 16 compressed time frames, which reduced reconstruction time from 750 to 25min. Our method reduces the dimensions of the dictionary atoms and enables to implement any fingerprint compression strategy in the case of multiple transmit channels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Gyoergy

    1985-01-01

    The birth and development of two decades of a new nuclear detection method is briefly summarized by one of the first inventors. The main steps of the development and broadening application of nuclear solid state track detectors are described underlying the contribution and main results of the research group of ATOMKI, Hungary (i.e. the finding of the proper plastic materials for track detectors, the discovery of correlations between the track diameter and the particle energy, the increasing of energy resolution, explanation of the track developing process, elaboration of new electrochemical track analyzing methods and automatic track analyzers). Recently, this detecting technique has grown to the phase of the industrial mass production and broad application in radiogeochemistry, mining, radioecology, personal monitoring in nuclear power plants, etc. (D.Gy.)

  11. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  12. A multiple-pass ring oscillator based dual-loop phase-locked loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Danfeng; Ren Junyan; Deng Jingjing; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2009-01-01

    A dual-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) for wideband operation is proposed. The dual-loop architecture combines a coarse-tuning loop with a fine-tuning one, enabling a wide tuning range and low voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain without poisoning phase noise and reference spur suppression performance. An analysis of the phase noise and reference spur of the dual-loop PLL is emphasized. A novel multiple-pass ring VCO is designed for the dual-loop application. It utilizes both voltage-control and current-control simultaneously in the delay cell. The PLL is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured tuning range is from 4.2 to 5.9 GHz. It achieves a low phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz offset from a 5.5 GHz carrier.

  13. A multiple-pass ring oscillator based dual-loop phase-locked loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Danfeng; Ren Junyan; Deng Jingjing; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: dfchen@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A dual-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) for wideband operation is proposed. The dual-loop architecture combines a coarse-tuning loop with a fine-tuning one, enabling a wide tuning range and low voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain without poisoning phase noise and reference spur suppression performance. An analysis of the phase noise and reference spur of the dual-loop PLL is emphasized. A novel multiple-pass ring VCO is designed for the dual-loop application. It utilizes both voltage-control and current-control simultaneously in the delay cell. The PLL is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-{mu}m RF CMOS technology. The measured tuning range is from 4.2 to 5.9 GHz. It achieves a low phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz offset from a 5.5 GHz carrier.

  14. Track reconstruction algorithms for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Andrey; Hoehne, Claudia; Kisel, Ivan; Ososkov, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR accelerator complex at Darmstadt is being designed for a comprehensive measurement of hadron and lepton production in heavy-ion collisions from 8-45 AGeV beam energy, producing events with large track multiplicity and high hit density. The setup consists of several detectors including as tracking detectors the silicon tracking system (STS), the muon detector (MUCH) or alternatively a set of Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). In this contribution, the status of the track reconstruction software including track finding, fitting and propagation is presented for the MUCH and TRD detectors. The track propagation algorithm takes into account an inhomogeneous magnetic field and includes accurate calculation of multiple scattering and energy losses in the detector material. Track parameters and covariance matrices are estimated using the Kalman filter method and a Kalman filter modification by assigning weights to hits and using simulated annealing. Three different track finder algorithms based on track following have been developed which either allow for track branches, just select nearest hits or use the mentioned weighting method. The track reconstruction efficiency for central Au+Au collisions at 25 AGeV beam energy using events from the UrQMD model is at the level of 93-95% for both detectors.

  15. Charged track multiplicity in B meson decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, G.; Ershov, A.; Gao, Y. S.; Kim, D. Y.-J.; Wilson, R.; Browder, T. E.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have used the CLEO II detector to study the multiplicity of charged particles in the decays of B mesons produced at the Υ(4S) resonance. Using a sample of 1.5x10 6 B meson pairs, we find the mean inclusive charged particle multiplicity to be 10.71±0.02 -0.15 +0.21 for the decay of the pair. This corresponds to a mean multiplicity of 5.36±0.01 -0.08 +0.11 for a single B meson. Using the same data sample, we have also extracted the mean multiplicities in semileptonic and nonleptonic decays. We measure a mean of 7.82±0.05 -0.19 +0.21 charged particles per BB(bar sign) decay when both mesons decay semileptonically. When neither B meson decays semileptonically, we measure a mean charged particle multiplicity of 11.62±0.04 -0.18 +0.24 per BB(bar sign) pair. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Track measurement in the high multiplicity environment at the CBM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    In the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS) will perform track reconstruction and momentum determination of the charged particles created in interactions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets. The STS will consist of 8 tracking layers located at distances between 30 cm and 100 cm downstream of the target inside the 1 Tm magnetic dipole field. An ultra-low material budget is required to achieve momentum resolution of the order of Δp/p = 1%. Therefore, the front-end electronics is placed outside the physics aperture. The active volume of the STS is built from 300 μm thick double-sided silicon microstrip sensors mounted onto lightweight carbon fiber support ladders. The sensors will be read out through ultra-thin micro-cables with fast self-triggering electronics at the periphery of the stations where also other infrastructure such as cooling can be placed. In this paper, the development status of the detector system, highlighting the overview of the STS layout, tracking algorithm and performance simulations are presented.

  17. Computationally Efficient DOA Tracking Algorithm in Monostatic MIMO Radar with Automatic Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA of multiple moving targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. A low-complexity DOA tracking algorithm in monostatic MIMO radar is proposed. The proposed algorithm obtains DOA estimation via the difference between previous and current covariance matrix of the reduced-dimension transformation signal, and it reduces the computational complexity and realizes automatic association in DOA tracking. Error analysis and Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB of DOA tracking are derived in the paper. The proposed algorithm not only can be regarded as an extension of array-signal-processing DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008, but also is an improved version of the DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has better DOA tracking performance than the DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008. The simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Our work provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  18. Complex 3D Vortex Lattice Formation by Phase-Engineered Multiple Beam Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the computational results on the formation of diverse complex 3D vortex lattices by a designed superposition of multiple plane waves. Special combinations of multiples of three noncoplanar plane waves with a designed relative phase shift between one another are perturbed by a nonsingular beam to generate various complex 3D vortex lattice structures. The formation of complex gyrating lattice structures carrying designed vortices by means of relatively phase-engineered plane waves is also computationally investigated. The generated structures are configured with both periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic basis, while these whirling complex lattices possess a long-range order of designed symmetry in a given plane. Various computational analytical tools are used to verify the presence of engineered geometry of vortices in these complex 3D vortex lattices.

  19. Particle tracking at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.E.; Williams, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The intent of this study was to get some idea of how difficult tracking will be at √s = 40 TeV for events involving momentum transfers in the vicinity of several hundred GeV. While some studies have been done to determine the minimum separation between two random tracks as a function of radius, the authors know of no previous study in this energy range which has considered the ''observability'' of a track along its entire path length, including the effects of magnetic field and finite double track resolution. They have not considered the effects of pileup due to multiple events, concentrating instead of the inherent difficulties of single high p/sub T/ events

  20. Investigating the QCD phase diagram with hadron multiplicities at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze (Italy); INFN, Firenze (Italy); Stock, R. [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We discuss the potential of the experimental programme at NICA to investigate the QCD phase diagram and particularly the position of the critical line at large baryon-chemical potential with accurate measurements of particle multiplicities. We briefly review the present status and we outline the tasks to be accomplished both theoretically and the experimentally to make hadronic abundances a sensitive probe. (orig.)

  1. Mixed-order phase transition of the contact process near multiple junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the phase transition of the contact process near a multiple junction of M semi-infinite chains by Monte Carlo simulations. As opposed to the continuous transitions of the translationally invariant (M=2) and semi-infinite (M=1) system, the local order parameter is found to be discontinuous for M>2. Furthermore, the temporal correlation length diverges algebraically as the critical point is approached, but with different exponents on the two sides of the transition. In the active phase, the estimate is compatible with the bulk value, while in the inactive phase it exceeds the bulk value and increases with M. The unusual local critical behavior is explained by a scaling theory with an irrelevant variable, which becomes dangerous in the inactive phase. Quenched spatial disorder is found to make the transition continuous in agreement with earlier renormalization group results.

  2. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  3. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  4. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported.

  5. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported

  6. MODELING OF THE TRACK AND ROLLING STOCK INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Interaction of system’s elements of "carriage–track" modelling requires consideration of various criteria, it also requires analysis of many uncertainty and randomness factors’ influence on the basic parameters to ensure optimal or rational parameters of the system. The researching of interactions’ process requires new theoretical approaches to formulation of objectives, based on a generalization of existing modeling approaches. The purpose of this work is development of interaction models between track and rolling stock based on multiple structures of objects. Methodology. Dedicated and formed the main evaluation criteria of dynamic interaction between track and rolling stock optimization - quality assurance and safety of transportation process, improving of their efficiency and reducing of prime cost’s. Based on vector optimization methods, proposed model of rolling stock and track’s elements interaction. For the synthesis of the model used mathematical machine of multiple objects structures. Findings. Generalized approaches to modeling in the interaction of rolling stock and track for different structural elements of the system under different exploitation conditions. This theoretical approach demonstrated on the examples of modeling of passenger and freight cars with track under different exploitation conditions. Originality. Proposed theoretical approach to the problem of track and rolling stock interaction, based on a synthesis of existing models by using of multiple objects structures. Practical value. Using of proposed model allows to structure key data and rational parameters of rolling stock and track interaction’s modeling and to formulate optimal and rational parameters of the system, to determine the effective exploitation parameters and measurement system for rational use of infrastructure.

  7. Automatic tracking of implanted fiducial markers in cone beam CT projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, T. E.; Skalski, A.; Matuszewski, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a novel method for simultaneous intrafraction tracking of multiple fiducial markers. Although the proposed method is generic and can be adopted for a number of applications including fluoroscopy based patient position monitoring and gated radiotherapy, the tracking results presented in this paper are specific to tracking fiducial markers in a sequence of cone beam CT projection images. Methods: The proposed method is accurate and robust thanks to utilizing the mean shift and random sampling principles, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods, using data from two pancreatic and one prostate cancer patients and a moving phantom. The ground truth, for quantitative evaluation, was calculated based on manual tracking preformed by three observers. Results: The average dispersion of marker position error calculated from the tracking results for pancreas data (six markers tracked over 640 frames, 3840 marker identifications) was 0.25 mm (at iscoenter), compared with an average dispersion for the manual ground truth estimated at 0.22 mm. For prostate data (three markers tracked over 366 frames, 1098 marker identifications), the average error was 0.34 mm. The estimated tracking error in the pancreas data was < 1 mm (2 pixels) in 97.6% of cases where nearby image clutter was detected and in 100.0% of cases with no nearby image clutter. Conclusions: The proposed method has accuracy comparable to that of manual tracking and, in combination with the proposed batch postprocessing, superior robustness. Marker tracking in cone beam CT (CBCT) projections is useful for a variety of purposes, such as providing data for assessment of intrafraction motion, target tracking during rotational treatment delivery, motion correction of CBCT, and phase sorting for 4D CBCT.

  8. Endoscopic vision-based tracking of multiple surgical instruments during robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jiwon; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is effective for operations in limited space. Enhancing safety based on automatic tracking of surgical instrument position to prevent inadvertent harmful events such as tissue perforation or instrument collisions could be a meaningful augmentation to current robotic surgical systems. A vision-based instrument tracking scheme as a core algorithm to implement such functions was developed in this study. An automatic tracking scheme is proposed as a chain of computer vision techniques, including classification of metallic properties using k-means clustering and instrument movement tracking using similarity measures, Euclidean distance calculations, and a Kalman filter algorithm. The implemented system showed satisfactory performance in tests using actual robot-assisted surgery videos. Trajectory comparisons of automatically detected data and ground truth data obtained by manually locating the center of mass of each instrument were used to quantitatively validate the system. Instruments and collisions could be well tracked through the proposed methods. The developed collision warning system could provide valuable information to clinicians for safer procedures. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure

  10. Phase transitions in distributed control systems with multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Bamieh, Bassam; Mitra, Partha; Sire, Clément

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary technological challenges often involve many degrees of freedom in a distributed or networked setting. Three aspects are notable: the variables are usually associated with the nodes of a graph with limited communication resources, hindering centralized control; the communication is subject to noise; and the number of variables can be very large. These three aspects make tools and techniques from statistical physics particularly suitable for the performance analysis of such networked systems in the limit of many variables (analogous to the thermodynamic limit in statistical physics). Perhaps not surprisingly, phase-transition like phenomena appear in these systems, where a sharp change in performance can be observed with a smooth parameter variation, with the change becoming discontinuous or singular in the limit of infinite system size. In this paper, we analyze the so called network consensus problem, prototypical of the above considerations, that has previously been analyzed mostly in the context of additive noise. We show that qualitatively new phase-transition like phenomena appear for this problem in the presence of multiplicative noise. Depending on dimensions, and on the presence or absence of a conservation law, the system performance shows a discontinuous change at a threshold value of the multiplicative noise strength. In the absence of the conservation law, and for graph spectral dimension less than two, the multiplicative noise threshold (the stability margin of the control problem) is zero. This is reminiscent of the absence of robust controllers for certain classes of centralized control problems. Although our study involves a ‘toy’ model, we believe that the qualitative features are generic, with implications for the robust stability of distributed control systems, as well as the effect of roundoff errors and communication noise on distributed algorithms.

  11. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; 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Rossi, E.; Rossi, L.P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rottlander, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rust, D.R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N.C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schoning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  12. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  13. Tracking and Recognition of Multiple Human Targets Moving in a Wireless Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With characteristics of low-cost and easy deployment, the distributed wireless pyroelectric infrared sensor network has attracted extensive interest, which aims to make it an alternate infrared video sensor in thermal biometric applications for tracking and identifying human targets. In these applications, effectively processing signals collected from sensors and extracting the features of different human targets has become crucial. This paper proposes the application of empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform to extract features of moving human targets both in the time domain and the frequency domain. Moreover, the support vector machine is selected as the classifier. The experimental results demonstrate that by using this method the identification rates of multiple moving human targets are around 90%.

  14. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A.; De Wit, M.C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of ∼ 14 μm with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 μm). In any particular area the older apatite ages only occur above a critical threshold elevation, forming a regional pattern in the data and indicating cooling of the upper few kilometres of the crust during the early cretaceous. This episode of cooling is shown to have been the consequence of an accelerated phase of erosion associated with the early stages of rifting and break-up of Gondwana, and correlates with sedimentation patterns derived from borehole data for the adjacent offshore basin. (author)

  15. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W. (La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia)); Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK)); De Wit, M.C.J. (De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., Kimberley (South Africa))

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of {approx} 14 {mu}m with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 {mu}m). In any particular area the older apatite ages only occur above a critical threshold elevation, forming a regional pattern in the data and indicating cooling of the upper few kilometres of the crust during the early cretaceous. This episode of cooling is shown to have been the consequence of an accelerated phase of erosion associated with the early stages of rifting and break-up of Gondwana, and correlates with sedimentation patterns derived from borehole data for the adjacent offshore basin. (author).

  16. Multiple instance learning tracking method with local sparse representation

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Chengjun; Tan, Jieqing; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Helg, Lei

    2013-01-01

    as training data for the MIL framework. First, local image patches of a target object are represented as sparse codes with an overcomplete dictionary, where the adaptive representation can be helpful in overcoming partial occlusion in object tracking. Then MIL

  17. Tracking the Evolution of Cerebral Gadolinium-Enhancing Lesions to Persistent T1 Black Holes in Multiple Sclerosis: Validation of a Semiautomated Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermatt, Simon; Papadopoulou, Athina; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Cattin, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials. We created a semiautomated workflow for tracking the evolution of individual MS lesions, to calculate the proportion of enhancing lesions becoming persistent BHs at follow-up. Our workflow automatically coregisters, compares, and detects overlaps between lesion masks at different time points. We tested the algorithm in a data set of Magnetic Resonance images (1.5 and 3T; spin-echo T1-sequences) from a phase 3 clinical trial (n = 1,272), in which all enhancing lesions and all BHs had been previously segmented at baseline and year 2. The algorithm analyzed the segmentation masks in a longitudinal fashion to determine which enhancing lesions at baseline turned into BHs at year 2. Images of 50 patients (192 enhancing lesions) were also reviewed by an experienced MRI rater, blinded to the algorithm results. In this MRI data set, there were no cases that could not be processed by the algorithm. At year 2, 417 lesions were classified as persistent BHs (417/1,613 = 25.9%). The agreement between the rater and the algorithm was > 98%. Due to the semiautomated procedure, this algorithm can be of great value in the analysis of large clinical trials, when a rater-based analysis would be time-consuming. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. A configurable tracking algorithm to detect cosmic muon tracks for the CMS-RPC based technical trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, R T; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Ranieri, A; Abbrescia, M; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, b, S; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, e, A; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Polese, G; Sciacca, C; Baesso, g, P; Belli, G; Necchi, M; Ratti, S P; Pagano, D; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Bunkowski, K; Kierzkowski, K; Konecki, M; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, K

    2009-01-01

    In the CERN CMS experiment at LHC Collider special trigger signals called Technical Triggers will be used for the purpose of test and calibration. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) based Technical Trigger system is a part of the CMS muon trigger system and is designed to detect cosmic muon tracks. It is based on two boards, namely RBC (RPC Balcony Collector) and TTU (Technical Trigger Unit). The proposed tracking algorithm (TA) written in VHDL and implemented in the TTU board detects single or multiple cosmic muon tracks at every bunch crossing along with their track lengths and corresponding chamber coordinates. The TA implementation in VHDL and its preliminary simulation results are presented.

  19. Single and Multiple Object Tracking Using a Multi-Feature Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a tracking algorithm based on a multi-feature joint sparse representation. The templates for the sparse representation can include pixel values, textures, and edges. In the multi-feature joint optimization, noise or occlusion is dealt with using a set of trivial templates. A sparse weight constraint is introduced to dynamically select the relevant templates from the full set of templates. A variance ratio measure is adopted to adaptively adjust the weights of different features. The multi-feature template set is updated adaptively. We further propose an algorithm for tracking multi-objects with occlusion handling based on the multi-feature joint sparse reconstruction. The observation model based on sparse reconstruction automatically focuses on the visible parts of an occluded object by using the information in the trivial templates. The multi-object tracking is simplified into a joint Bayesian inference. The experimental results show the superiority of our algorithm over several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  20. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier

  1. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.

  2. Real space multiple scattering description of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been recently developed to study phase stability properties of substitutional alloys, including order-disorder phenomena and structural transformations. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method first introduced by Ducastelle and Gautier, within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method. The viability and the predictive power of such a scheme will be illustrated by a few examples, among them: the ground state properties of alloys, in particular the ordering tendencies for a series of equiatomic bcc-based alloys, the computation of alloy phase diagrams with the case of fcc and bcc-based Ni-Al alloys, the calculation of antiphase boundary energies and interfacial energies, and the stability of artificial ordered superlattices

  3. Reconstructing events, from electronic signals to tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing tracks in the events taken by LHC experiments is one of the most challenging and computationally expensive software tasks to be carried out in the data processing chain. A typical LHC event is composed of multiple p-p interactions, each leaving signals from many charged particles in the detector and jus building up an environment of unprecedented complexity. In the lecture I will give an overview of event reconstruction in a typical High Energy Physics experiment. After an introduction to particle tracking detectors I will discuss the concepts and techniques required to master the tracking challenge at the LHC. I will explain how track propagation in a realistic detector works, present different techniques for track fitting and track finding. At the end we will see how all of those techniques play together in the ATLAS track reconstruction application.

  4. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  5. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  6. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James

    2001-01-01

    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  7. On the GI/M/1 Queue with Vacations and Multiple Service Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a GI/M/1 queue with vacations and multiple service phases. Whenever the system becomes empty, the server takes a vacation, causing the system to move to vacation phase 0. If the server returns from a vacation to find no customer waiting, another vacation begins. Otherwise, the system jumps from phase 0 to some service phase i with probability qi,  i=1,2,…,N. Using the matrix geometric solution method and semi-Markov process, we obtain the distributions of the stationary system size at both arrival and arbitrary epochs. The distribution of the stationary waiting time of an arbitrary customer is also derived. In addition, we present some performance measures such as mean waiting time of an arbitrary customer, mean length of the type-i cycle, and mean number of customers in the system at the end of phase 0. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  8. Level tracking in detailed reactor simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, B.; Mahaffy, J.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    We introduce a useful test problem for judging the performance of reactor safety codes in situations where moving two-phase mixture levels are present. The test problem tracks a two-phase liquid level as it rises and then falls back to its original position. Pure air exists above the level, and a low void air-water mixture is below the level. Conditions are subcooled and isothermal to remove complications resulting from failures of interfacial heat transfer packages to properly account for the level. Comparisons are made between the performance of current versions of CATHARE, RELAP5, TRAC-BF1, and TRAC-PF1. These system codes are based on finite-difference methods with a fixed, Eulerian staggered grid in space. When a partially filled cell with a mixture level discontinuity becomes the donor cell, the sharp changes in fluid properties across the interface results in numerical oscillations of various terms. Furthermore, the cell-to-cell convection of mass, momentum and energy are inaccurately predicted nearby a mixture level. To adequately model moving mixture levels, an efficient discontinuity tracking method for the finite-difference Eulerian approximations is described. This model had been implemented in the TRAC-BWR code for the two-phase mixture level tracking since the TRAC-BD1 Version (released April 1984). The result of the test problem run by the current version of TRAC-BF1/MOD1 with the mixture level tracking model shows some peculiar behavior of the variables such as velocities, pressures and interfacial terms. A systematic approach to improving performance of the tracking method is described. Implementing this approach in TRAC-BF1/MOD1 has shown a major improvement in the results.

  9. Generation of ultra-long pure magnetization needle and multiple spots by phase modulated doughnut Gaussian beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, M.; Prabakaran, K.; Rajesh, K. B.; Jaroszewicz, Z.; Belafhal, Abdelmajid; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2018-06-01

    Based on vector diffraction theory and inverse Faraday effect (IFE), the light induced magnetization distribution of a tightly focused azimuthally polarized doughnut Gaussian beam superimposed with a helical phase and modulated by an optimized multi belt complex phase filter (MBCPF) is analysed numerically. It is noted that by adjusting the radii of different rings of the complex phase filter, one can achieve many novel magnetization focal distribution such as sub wavelength scale (0.29λ) and super long (52.2λ) longitudinal magnetic probe suitable for all optical magnetic recording and the formation of multiple magnetization chain with four, six and eight sub-wavelength spherical magnetization spots suitable for multiple trapping of magnetic particles are achieved.

  10. Robust lane detection and tracking using multiple visual cues under stochastic lane shape conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Fan, Baozheng; Song, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    As one of the essential components of environment perception techniques for an intelligent vehicle, lane detection is confronted with challenges including robustness against the complicated disturbance and illumination, also adaptability to stochastic lane shapes. To overcome these issues, we proposed a robust lane detection method named classification-generation-growth-based (CGG) operator to the detected lines, whereby the linear lane markings are identified by synergizing multiple visual cues with the a priori knowledge and spatial-temporal information. According to the quality of linear lane fitting, the linear and linear-parabolic models are dynamically switched to describe the actual lane. The Kalman filter with adaptive noise covariance and the region of interests (ROI) tracking are applied to improve the robustness and efficiency. Experiments were conducted with images covering various challenging scenarios. The experimental results evaluate the effectiveness of the presented method for complicated disturbances, illumination, and stochastic lane shapes.

  11. Intraoperative visualization and assessment of electromagnetic tracking error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Vinyas; Ungi, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; MacDonald, Andrew; Nanji, Sulaiman; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic tracking allows for increased flexibility in designing image-guided interventions, however it is well understood that electromagnetic tracking is prone to error. Visualization and assessment of the tracking error should take place in the operating room with minimal interference with the clinical procedure. The goal was to achieve this ideal in an open-source software implementation in a plug and play manner, without requiring programming from the user. We use optical tracking as a ground truth. An electromagnetic sensor and optical markers are mounted onto a stylus device, pivot calibrated for both trackers. Electromagnetic tracking error is defined as difference of tool tip position between electromagnetic and optical readings. Multiple measurements are interpolated into the thin-plate B-spline transform visualized in real time using 3D Slicer. All tracked devices are used in a plug and play manner through the open-source SlicerIGT and PLUS extensions of the 3D Slicer platform. Tracking error was measured multiple times to assess reproducibility of the method, both with and without placing ferromagnetic objects in the workspace. Results from exhaustive grid sampling and freehand sampling were similar, indicating that a quick freehand sampling is sufficient to detect unexpected or excessive field distortion in the operating room. The software is available as a plug-in for the 3D Slicer platforms. Results demonstrate potential for visualizing electromagnetic tracking error in real time for intraoperative environments in feasibility clinical trials in image-guided interventions.

  12. A Robust Two-Phase Pumped Loop With Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future spacecraft require advanced thermal management technologies to provide effective cooling for multiple instruments and reject heat through multiple...

  13. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  14. Monitoring Mining Subsidence Using A Combination of Phase-Stacking and Offset-Tracking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Fan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach to study the mechanism of mining-induced subsidence, using a combination of phase-stacking and sub-pixel offset-tracking methods, is reported. In this method, land subsidence with a small deformation gradient was calculated using time-series differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR data, whereas areas with greater subsidence were calculated by a sub-pixel offset-tracking method. With this approach, time-series data for mining subsidence were derived in Yulin area using 11 TerraSAR-X (TSX scenes from 13 December 2012 to 2 April 2013. The maximum mining subsidence and velocity values were 4.478 m and 40 mm/day, respectively, which were beyond the monitoring capabilities of D-InSAR and advanced InSAR. The results were compared with the GPS field survey data, and the root mean square errors (RMSE of the results in the strike and dip directions were 0.16 m and 0.11 m, respectively. Four important results were obtained from the time-series subsidence in this mining area: (1 the mining-induced subsidence entered the residual deformation stage within about 44 days; (2 the advance angle of influence changed from 75.6° to 80.7°; (3 the prediction parameters of mining subsidence; (4 three-dimensional deformation. This method could be used to predict the occurrence of mining accidents and to help in the restoration of the ecological environment after mining activities have ended.

  15. Multi-view video segmentation and tracking for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Gelareh; Dufaux, Frederic; Minh, Thien Ha; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2009-05-01

    Tracking moving objects is a critical step for smart video surveillance systems. Despite the complexity increase, multiple camera systems exhibit the undoubted advantages of covering wide areas and handling the occurrence of occlusions by exploiting the different viewpoints. The technical problems in multiple camera systems are several: installation, calibration, objects matching, switching, data fusion, and occlusion handling. In this paper, we address the issue of tracking moving objects in an environment covered by multiple un-calibrated cameras with overlapping fields of view, typical of most surveillance setups. Our main objective is to create a framework that can be used to integrate objecttracking information from multiple video sources. Basically, the proposed technique consists of the following steps. We first perform a single-view tracking algorithm on each camera view, and then apply a consistent object labeling algorithm on all views. In the next step, we verify objects in each view separately for inconsistencies. Correspondent objects are extracted through a Homography transform from one view to the other and vice versa. Having found the correspondent objects of different views, we partition each object into homogeneous regions. In the last step, we apply the Homography transform to find the region map of first view in the second view and vice versa. For each region (in the main frame and mapped frame) a set of descriptors are extracted to find the best match between two views based on region descriptors similarity. This method is able to deal with multiple objects. Track management issues such as occlusion, appearance and disappearance of objects are resolved using information from all views. This method is capable of tracking rigid and deformable objects and this versatility lets it to be suitable for different application scenarios.

  16. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  17. Modified Extended Kalman Filtering for Tracking with Insufficient and Intermittent Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the Kalman filtering problem for tracking a single target on the fixed-topology wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Both the insufficient anchor coverage and the packet dropouts have been taken into consideration in the filter design. The resulting tracking system is modeled as a multichannel nonlinear system with multiplicative noise. Noting that the channels may be correlated with each other, we use a general matrix to express the multiplicative noise. Then, a modified extended Kalman filtering algorithm is presented based on the obtained model to achieve high tracking accuracy. In particular, we evaluate the effect of various parameters on the tracking performance through simulation studies.

  18. SWISTRACK - AN OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE PACKAGE APPLICABLE TO TRACKING OF FISH LOCOMOTION AND BEHAVIOUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    including swimming speed, acceleration and directionality of movements as well as the examination of locomotory panems during swimming. SWiSlrdL:k, a [n: t; and downloadable software package (available from www.sourceforge.com) is widely used for tracking robots, humans and other animals. Accordingly......, Swistrack can be easily adopted for the tracking offish. Benefits associated with the free software include: • Contrast or marker based tracking enabling tracking of either the whole animal, or tagged marks placed upon the animal • The ability to track multiple tags placed upon an individual animal • Highly...... effective background subtraction algorithms and filters ensuring smooth tracking of fish • Application of tags of different colour enables the software to track multiple fish without the problem of track exchange between individuals • Low processing requirements enable tracking in real-time • Further...

  19. Fast simulation of the forward tracking detector of HPLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yapeng; Fan Ruirui; Fu Fen; Yue Ke; Yuan Xiaohua; Xu Huagen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yao Nan; Xu Hushan; Jin Genming; Liang Jinjie; Chen Ruofu; Sun Zhiyu; Duan Limin; Xiao Zhigang; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of installing a forward tracking detector stack is discussed for the Hadron Physics Lanzhou Spectrometer(HPLUS). A local tracker is developed to solve the multi-track finding problem. The track candidates are searched iteratively via Hough Transform. The fake tracks are removed by a least square fitting process. With this tracker we have studied the feasibility of pp→pp+φ(→K + K - ), a typical physical channel proposed on HPLUS. The single track momentum resolution due to the uncertainty of the positioning in FTD is 1.3%. The multiple scattering effect contributes about 20% to the momentum resolution in the FTD coverage. The width and the signal-to-background ratio of the reconstructed φ are 1.51 MeV and 4.36, respectively, taking into account the direct Kaon channel pp→pp+K + K - as background. The geometry coverage of FTD for qb events is about 85.4%. Based on the current fast simulation and estimation, the geometrical configuration of FTD meets the physical requirement of HPLUS under the current luminosity and multiplicity conditions. The tracker is applicable in the full simulation coming next and is extendable to other tracking component of HPLUS. (authors)

  20. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James Jaeyoon; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI) and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT) to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF) requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal’s positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole source

  1. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jaeyoon Jun

    Full Text Available In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal's positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole

  2. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  3. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  4. Multiple scales and phases in discrete chains with application to folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikova, A.; Niemi, A. J.; Nilsson, Johan; Ulybyshev, M.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral heteropolymers such as large globular proteins can simultaneously support multiple length scales. The interplay between the different scales brings about conformational diversity, determines the phase properties of the polymer chain, and governs the structure of the energy landscape. Most importantly, multiple scales produce complex dynamics that enable proteins to sustain live matter. However, at the moment there is incomplete understanding of how to identify and distinguish the various scales that determine the structure and dynamics of a complex protein. Here we address this impending problem. We develop a methodology with the potential to systematically identify different length scales, in the general case of a linear polymer chain. For this we introduce and analyze the properties of an order parameter that can both reveal the presence of different length scales and can also probe the phase structure. We first develop our concepts in the case of chiral homopolymers. We introduce a variant of Kadanoff's block-spin transformation to coarse grain piecewise linear chains, such as the C α backbone of a protein. We derive analytically, and then verify numerically, a number of properties that the order parameter can display, in the case of a chiral polymer chain. In particular, we propose that in the case of a chiral heteropolymer the order parameter can reveal traits of several different phases, contingent on the length scale at which it is scrutinized. We confirm that this is the case with crystallographic protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Thus our results suggest relations between the scales, the phases, and the complexity of folding pathways.

  5. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-01-01

    , other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall

  6. Quantum critical matter. Quantum phase transitions with multiple dynamics and Weyl superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, the physics of quantum critical matter and exotic quantum state close to quantum phase transitions is investigated. We will focus on three different examples that highlight some of the interesting phenomena related to quantum phase transitions. Firstly, we discuss the physics of quantum phase transitions in quantum wires as a function of an external gate voltage when new subbands are activated. We find that at these transitions, strong correlations lead to the formation of an impenetrable gas of polarons, and identify criteria for possible instabilities in the spin- and charge sectors of the model. Our analysis is based on the combination of exact resummations, renormalization group techniques and Luttinger liquid approaches. Secondly, we turn to the physics of multiple divergent time scales close to a quantum critical point. Using an appropriately generalized renormalization group approach, we identify that the presence of multiple dynamics at a quantum phase transition can lead to the emergence of new critical scaling exponents and thus to the breakdown of the usual scaling schemes. We calculate the critical behavior of various thermodynamic properties and detail how unusual physics can arise. It is hoped that these results might be helpful for the interpretation of experimental scaling puzzles close to quantum critical points. Thirdly, we turn to the physics of topological transitions, and more precisely the physics of Weyl superconductors. The latter are the superconducting variant of the topologically non-trivial Weyl semimetals, and emerge at the quantum phase transition between a topological superconductor and a normal insulator upon perturbing the transition with a time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation, such as magnetism. We characterize the topological properties of Weyl superconductors and establish a topological phase diagram for a particular realization in heterostructures. We discuss the physics of vortices in Weyl

  7. Search for long-lived supersymmetry particles by signature of a high track-multiplicity displaced vertex using the LHC-ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360876

    Long-lived supersymmetry (SUSY) particles decaying within the tracking volume of the LHC-ATLAS Experiment can be reconstructed as a displaced vertex (DV). The search strategy involves attempting to reassemble the decay point of the long-lived particles (LLPs) by fitting vertices from the trajectories arising from the charged decay products. A search, looking for a signature of a massive high track-multiplicity DV has been conducted using data collected during 2012 by the LHC-ATLAS Experiment at $\\sqrt{s}~=~8$ TeV, equaling to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. A signature of a massive displaced vertex is especially powerful due to the lack of any heavy long-lived standard model particles. Thereby, giving an analysis that is nearly background free. This dissertation describes the new, much more generic, "$DV+\\text{jets}$" channel. In this channel events with high momentum jets and at least one displaced vertex are considered. Eliminating the requirement of an associated $\\mu$ generated, to date of w...

  8. A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Stefan; Pervan, Boris

    2018-01-19

    We propose a novel GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) performance metric based on the standard deviation of tracking error (defined as the discriminator's estimate of the true phase error), and explain its advantages over the popular phase jitter metric using theory, numerical simulation, and experimental results. We derive an augmented GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) linear model, which includes the effect of coherent averaging, to be used in conjunction with this proposed metric. The augmented linear model allows more accurate calculation of tracking error standard deviation in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as compared to traditional linear models. The standard deviation of tracking error, with a threshold corresponding to half of the arctangent discriminator pull-in region, is shown to be a more reliable/robust measure of PLL performance under interference conditions than the phase jitter metric. In addition, the augmented linear model is shown to be valid up until this threshold, which facilitates efficient performance prediction, so that time-consuming direct simulations and costly experimental testing can be reserved for PLL designs that are much more likely to be successful. The effect of varying receiver reference oscillator quality on the tracking error metric is also considered.

  9. Studies on the Belle II L1 CDC track trigger's z-vertex resolution with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skambraks, Sebastian; Neuhaus, Sara; Chen, Yang [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Abudinen, Fernando; Kiesling, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present the use of a neural network ensemble for the first level (L1) track trigger subsystem of Belle II. Our method employs hit and drift time information from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC). Estimating the z-coordinates of the vertex positions improves the signal to background ratio in the recorded data. Especially beam induced background can clearly be rejected, allowing to relax the 2D trigger conditions and thus enhancing the physics gain for low multiplicity events (e.g. tau pair production). Neural networks enable an improvement of the z-vertex resolution compared to linear least squares track fitting. As general function approximators, they are capable of learning nonlinearities solely from a training dataset. We propose a combined setup, integrating the benefits of the linear fit and enriching it with the nonlinear prediction capabilities of the neural networks. The precise z-vertices of single tracks are estimated by an ensemble of local expert neural networks, specialized to sectors in the track parameter phase space. A comparison is presented, demonstrating the differences of the linear fit and the neural network approach.

  10. Robust Real-Time Tracking for Visual Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera Josep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time multi-camera surveillance system that can be applied to a range of application domains. This integrated system is designed to observe crowded scenes and has mechanisms to improve tracking of objects that are in close proximity. The four component modules described in this paper are (i motion detection using a layered background model, (ii object tracking based on local appearance, (iii hierarchical object recognition, and (iv fused multisensor object tracking using multiple features and geometric constraints. This integrated approach to complex scene tracking is validated against a number of representative real-world scenarios to show that robust, real-time analysis can be performed.

  11. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . Transmission range of 10m-30m indoors is common. RFID is a commonly available system which uses either low-cost passive Radio tags, or higher cost active tags, that an RF receiver can then read. An RFID system comprises of a reader, its associated antenna...]. 3. Proposed Tracking System The proposed tracking system consists of a two phases. In the first phase a passive radio frequency (RF) tag is read by a RF reader. In the second phase the information obtained from the reader is wirelessly...

  12. Rotational scanning and multiple-spot focusing through a multimode fiber based on digital optical phase conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Xiao, Fajun; Zhang, Jiwei; Liu, Kaihui; Bai, Xuedong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the rotational memory effect of a multimode fiber (MMF) based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) to achieve multiple-spot focusing. An implementation interferometer is used to address the challenging alignments in DOPC. By rotating the acquired phase conjugate pattern, rotational scanning through a MMF could be achieved by recording a single off-axis hologram. The generation of two focal spots through a MMF is also demonstrated by combining the rotational memory effect with the superposition principle. The results may be useful for ultrafast scanning imaging and optical manipulation of multiple objects through a MMF.

  13. Modelling and simulation of multiple single - phase induction motor in parallel connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitjorn, S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for parallel connected n-multiple single-phase induction motors in generalized state-space form is proposed in this paper. The motor group draws electric power from one inverter. The model is developed by the dq-frame theory and was tested against four loading scenarios in which satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  15. Joint Multi-person Detection and Tracking from Overlapping Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a system to track the positions of multiple persons in a scene from overlapping cameras. The distinguishing aspect of our method is a novel, two-step approach that jointly estimates person position and track assignment. The proposed approach keeps solving the assignment problem tractable,

  16. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  17. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.

  18. Technology survey on video face tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  19. Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, J; Hess, M; Macke, A

    2000-04-20

    Multiple-scattering correction factors for cirrus particle extinction coefficients measured with Raman and high spectral resolution lidars are calculated with a radiative-transfer model. Cirrus particle-ensemble phase functions are computed from single-crystal phase functions derived in a geometrical-optics approximation. Seven crystal types are considered. In cirrus clouds with height-independent particle extinction coefficients the general pattern of the multiple-scattering parameters has a steep onset at cloud base with values of 0.5-0.7 followed by a gradual and monotonic decrease to 0.1-0.2 at cloud top. The larger the scattering particles are, the more gradual is the rate of decrease. Multiple-scattering parameters of complex crystals and of imperfect hexagonal columns and plates can be well approximated by those of projected-area equivalent ice spheres, whereas perfect hexagonal crystals show values as much as 70% higher than those of spheres. The dependencies of the multiple-scattering parameters on cirrus particle spectrum, base height, and geometric depth and on the lidar parameters laser wavelength and receiver field of view, are discussed, and a set of multiple-scattering parameter profiles for the correction of extinction measurements in homogeneous cirrus is provided.

  20. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  1. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B Y; Liew, L H; Cheah, W S; Wang, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  2. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Y.; Liew, L. H.; Cheah, W. S.; Wang, Y. C.

    2014-02-01

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  3. Search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state using large track multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Aad Georges; others

    2013-01-01

    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAM A search is presented for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state in proton–proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. Using a high track multiplicity ...

  4. Application of dual-anneal diffusion multiples to the effective study of phase diagrams and phase transformations in the Fe–Cr–Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Siwei; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A dual-anneal diffusion multiple (DADM) approach is developed for effective determination of intermediate-temperature phase diagrams that are critical to the establishment of reliable thermodynamic databases. A large amount of phase equilibrium data was obtained from DADMs to construct the Fe–Cr–Ni isothermal sections at 1200, 900, 800 and 700 °C. The DADM approach is also a systematic and effective way to study phase precipitation from wide ranges of compositions, thus generating rich atlases of microstructures induced by various transformations. The results from this study indicate that the body-centered cubic to sigma phase transformation in the Fe–Cr–Ni system took place initially through a massive transformation mechanism

  5. Ion track etching revisited: II. Electronic properties of aged tracks in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Hernandez, G. M.; Cruz, S. A.; Garcia-Arellano, H.; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Kiv, A.; Alfonta, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1-2 (2018), s. 148-164 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : polymers * ion tracks * etching * conductometry * rectification * phase shift Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 0.443, year: 2016

  6. Design of the ATLAS phase-II hardware-based tracking processor

    CERN Document Server

    Poggi, Riccardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The expected factor four increase in peak luminosity of the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) compared to the current system will force the ATLAS experiment to increase early stage trigger selection power. The agreed strategy is to implement precise hardware track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved for primary single-lepton selections, while contributing to b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques as well as pileup mitigation for hadronic signatures, such as multijet and missing transverse momentum. This work discusses the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking capability, and trigger selection, based on detailed simulations.

  7. Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

  8. Robust Target Tracking with Multi-Static Sensors under Insufficient TDOA Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunhak; Ku, Bonhwa; Nelson, Jill K; Ko, Hanseok

    2018-05-08

    This paper focuses on underwater target tracking based on a multi-static sonar network composed of passive sonobuoys and an active ping. In the multi-static sonar network, the location of the target can be estimated using TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) measurements. However, since the sensor network may obtain insufficient and inaccurate TDOA measurements due to ambient noise and other harsh underwater conditions, target tracking performance can be significantly degraded. We propose a robust target tracking algorithm designed to operate in such a scenario. First, track management with track splitting is applied to reduce performance degradation caused by insufficient measurements. Second, a target location is estimated by a fusion of multiple TDOA measurements using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). In addition, the target trajectory is refined by conducting a stack-based data association method based on multiple-frames measurements in order to more accurately estimate target trajectory. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through simulations.

  9. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-actuation requ......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro...... waveguides (WOWs) [2]. As the WOWs are optically trapped and maneuvered in 3D-space, it is important to maintain efficient light-coupling through these free-standing waveguides within their operating volume [3]. We propose the use ofdynamic diffractive techniques to create focal spots that will track...... and couple to the WOWs during full volume operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking...

  10. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ju Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F1 score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms.

  11. Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.

  12. Neutron-induced complex reaction analysis with 3D nuclear track simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Palfalvi, J.K.; Akatov, Yu.; Arevalo, O.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.; Palacios, D.; Szabo, J.; Eoerdoegh, I.

    2005-01-01

    Complex (multiple) etched tracks are analysed through digitised images and 3D simulation by a purpose-built algorithm. From a binary track image an unfolding procedure is followed to generate a 3D track model, from which several track parameters are estimated. The method presented here allows the deposited energy, that originated from particle fragmentation or carbon spallation by means of induced tracks in commercially available PADC detectors, to be estimated. Results of evaluated nuclear tracks related to 12 C (n,3αn ' ) reaction are presented here. The detectors were exposed on the ISS in 2001

  13. A Multiple Model SNR/RCS Likelihood Ratio Score for Radar-Based Feature-Aided Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slocumb, Benjamin J; Klusman, III, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    ...) and radar cross section (RCS) for use in narrowband radar tracking. The formulation requires an estimate of the target mean RCS, and a key challenge is the tracking of the mean RCS through significant jumps due to aspect dependencies...

  14. Preparation of sulfur/multiple pore size porous carbon composite via gas-phase loading method for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long-Yan; Chen, Yan-Xiao; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zhong, Ben-He; Zhong, Yan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A porous carbon with multiple pore size distribution was synthesized, and regarded as a carrier to obtain the sulfur/carbon (S/C) composite via a gas-phase loading method. We proposed this novel gas-phase loading method by using a specially designed fluid-bed reactor to encapsulate and sequester gas-phase sulfur molecules into the porous carbon in current study. The nitrogen Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) characterizations were investigated on both the porous carbon and the sulfur/carbon composite. The results show that the gas-phase loading method contributes to the combination of sulfur molecules and matrix porous carbon. Furthermore, the sulfur/multiple pore size distribution carbon composite based on the gas-phase loading method demonstrate an excellent electrochemical property. The initial specific discharge capacity is 795.0 mAh g −1 at 800 mA g −1 , with a capacity retention of 86.3% after 100 cycles

  15. A constrained tracking algorithm to optimize plug patterns in multiple isocenter Gamma Knife radiosurgery planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaile; Ma Lijun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a source blocking optimization algorithm for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, which is based on tracking individual source contributions to arbitrarily shaped target and critical structure volumes. A scalar objective function and a direct search algorithm were used to produce near real-time calculation results. The algorithm allows the user to set and vary the total number of plugs for each shot to limit the total beam-on time. We implemented and tested the algorithm for several multiple-isocenter Gamma Knife cases. It was found that the use of limited number of plugs significantly lowered the integral dose to the critical structures such as an optical chiasm in pituitary adenoma cases. The main effect of the source blocking is the faster dose falloff in the junction area between the target and the critical structure. In summary, we demonstrated a useful source-plugging algorithm for improving complex multi-isocenter Gamma Knife treatment planning cases

  16. Imaging a Large Sample with Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy Based on Multiple Fluorescent Microsphere Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Inkeon; Kim, Daekeun

    2018-04-01

    A typical selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) image size is basically limited by the field of view, which is a characteristic of the objective lens. If an image larger than the imaging area of the sample is to be obtained, image stitching, which combines step-scanned images into a single panoramic image, is required. However, accurately registering the step-scanned images is very difficult because the SPIM system uses a customized sample mount where uncertainties for the translational and the rotational motions exist. In this paper, an image registration technique based on multiple fluorescent microsphere tracking is proposed in the view of quantifying the constellations and measuring the distances between at least two fluorescent microspheres embedded in the sample. Image stitching results are demonstrated for optically cleared large tissue with various staining methods. Compensation for the effect of the sample rotation that occurs during the translational motion in the sample mount is also discussed.

  17. Recent advances in the GENFIT track fitting package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicker, Karl A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hoeppner, Christian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan; Rauch, Johannes [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The GENFIT software package provides a framework for track fitting. Due to the modular and generic structure, it is usable with arbitrary detector and field geometries. GENFIT is used in several collaborations (e.g. Belle II, COMPASS, FOPI, PANDA). GENFIT provides hit classes for common detector types and their information is used by GENFIT in their native coordinate system. Hits are collected in tracks, as are track representations. The track representation handles the extrapolation of the track through matter and fields. Multiple track representations can be fitted simultaneously. GENFIT has recently been equipped with several new features. Besides adding Smoothing, the standard Kalman fit algorithm has been extended by a Deterministic Annealing Filter (DAF), which can tag noise hits. An interface to the RAVE vertexing package has equipped GENFIT with the capability for vertex reconstruction and fitting. Results from simulation and real data are presented.

  18. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4π detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4π detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

  19. A Novel Sensor Selection and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiple-Target Tracking in an LPI Radar Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji She

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar networks are proven to have numerous advantages over traditional monostatic and bistatic radar. With recent developments, radar networks have become an attractive platform due to their low probability of intercept (LPI performance for target tracking. In this paper, a joint sensor selection and power allocation algorithm for multiple-target tracking in a radar network based on LPI is proposed. It is found that this algorithm can minimize the total transmitted power of a radar network on the basis of a predetermined mutual information (MI threshold between the target impulse response and the reflected signal. The MI is required by the radar network system to estimate target parameters, and it can be calculated predictively with the estimation of target state. The optimization problem of sensor selection and power allocation, which contains two variables, is non-convex and it can be solved by separating power allocation problem from sensor selection problem. To be specific, the optimization problem of power allocation can be solved by using the bisection method for each sensor selection scheme. Also, the optimization problem of sensor selection can be solved by a lower complexity algorithm based on the allocated powers. According to the simulation results, it can be found that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the total transmitted power of a radar network, which can be conducive to improving LPI performance.

  20. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  1. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  3. Data fusion for target tracking and classification with wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannetier, Benjamin; Doumerc, Robin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of multiple ground target tracking and classification with information obtained from a unattended wireless sensor network. A multiple target tracking (MTT) algorithm, taking into account road and vegetation information, is proposed based on a centralized architecture. One of the key issue is how to adapt classical MTT approach to satisfy embedded processing. Based on track statistics, the classification algorithm uses estimated location, velocity and acceleration to help to classify targets. The algorithms enables tracking human and vehicles driving both on and off road. We integrate road or trail width and vegetation cover, as constraints in target motion models to improve performance of tracking under constraint with classification fusion. Our algorithm also presents different dynamic models, to palliate the maneuvers of targets. The tracking and classification algorithms are integrated into an operational platform (the fusion node). In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  4. Poisson point processes imaging, tracking, and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2010-01-01

    This overview of non-homogeneous and multidimensional Poisson point processes and their applications features mathematical tools and applications from emission- and transmission-computed tomography to multiple target tracking and distributed sensor detection.

  5. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  6. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce; Broderick, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  7. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  8. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups. Forty-eight patients (23 males, 25 females, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase. The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients

  9. A framework for multi-object tracking over distributed wireless camera networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Victor; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework targeting at two important issues in a distributed wireless camera network, i.e., object tracking and network communication, to achieve reliable multi-object tracking over distributed wireless camera networks. In the object tracking part, we propose a fully automated approach for tracking of multiple objects across multiple cameras with overlapping and non-overlapping field of views without initial training. To effectively exchange the tracking information among the distributed cameras, we proposed an idle probability based broadcasting method, iPro, which adaptively adjusts the broadcast probability to improve the broadcast effectiveness in a dense saturated camera network. Experimental results for the multi-object tracking demonstrate the promising performance of our approach on real video sequences for cameras with overlapping and non-overlapping views. The modeling and ns-2 simulation results show that iPro almost approaches the theoretical performance upper bound if cameras are within each other's transmission range. In more general scenarios, e.g., in case of hidden node problems, the simulation results show that iPro significantly outperforms standard IEEE 802.11, especially when the number of competing nodes increases.

  10. ROBUST PERSON TRACKING WITH MULTIPLE NON-OVERLAPPING CAMERAS IN AN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hellwig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to combine multiple cameras for a robust tracking of persons in an outdoor environment. Although surveillance is a well established field, many algorithms apply various constraints like overlapping fields of view or precise calibration of the cameras to improve results. An application of these developed systems in a realistic outdoor environment is often difficult. Our aim is to be widely independent from the camera setup and the observed scene, in order to use existing cameras. Thereby our algorithm needs to be capable to work with both overlapping and non-overlapping fields of views. We propose an algorithm that allows flexible combination of different static cameras with varying properties. Another requirement of a practical application is that the algorithm is able to work online. Our system is able to process the data during runtime and to provide results immediately. In addition to seeking flexibility in the camera setup, we present a specific approach that combines state of the art algorithms in order to be robust to environment influences. We present results that indicate a good performance of our introduced algorithm in different scenarios. We show its robustness to different types of image artifacts. In addition we demonstrate that our algorithm is able to match persons between cameras in a non-overlapping scenario.

  11. Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.

  12. Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-20

    We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.

  13. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  14. Simulation and Track Reconstruction for Beam Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are an important tool to test new detectors under development in a particle beam. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, its predicted position on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them do not account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framework along with the General Broken ...

  15. Heterodyne detection using spectral line pairing for spectral phase encoding optical code division multiple access and dynamic dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Foster, Mark; Khurgin, Jacob B; Cooper, A Brinton

    2012-07-30

    A novel coherent optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) scheme is proposed that uses spectral line pairing to generate signals suitable for heterodyne decoding. Both signal and local reference are transmitted via a single optical fiber and a simple balanced receiver performs sourceless heterodyne detection, canceling speckle noise and multiple-access interference (MAI). To validate the idea, a 16 user fully loaded phase encoded system is simulated. Effects of fiber dispersion on system performance are studied as well. Both second and third order dispersion management is achieved by using a spectral phase encoder to adjust phase shifts of spectral components at the optical network unit (ONU).

  16. Simultaneous 3D localization of multiple MR-visible markers in fully reconstructed MR images: proof-of-concept for subsecond position tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörmer, Gregor; Garnov, Nikita; Moche, Michael; Haase, Jürgen; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether a greatly reduced spatial resolution of fully reconstructed projection MR images can be used for the simultaneous 3D localization of multiple MR-visible markers and to assess the feasibility of a subsecond position tracking for clinical purposes. Miniature, inductively coupled RF coils were imaged in three orthogonal planes with a balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence and automatically localized using a two-dimensional template fitting and a subsequent three-dimensional (3D) matching of the coordinates. Precision, accuracy, speed and robustness of 3D localization were assessed for decreasing in-plane resolutions (0.6-4.7 mm). The feasibility of marker tracking was evaluated at the lowest resolution by following a robotically driven needle on a complex 3D trajectory. Average 3D precision and accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of localization ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mm, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, 100% and 95%, and 100% and 96%, respectively. At the lowest resolution, imaging and localization took ≈350 ms and provided an accuracy of ≈1.0 mm. In the tracking experiment, the needle was clearly depicted on the oblique scan planes defined by the markers. Image-based marker localization at a greatly reduced spatial resolution is considered a feasible approach to monitor reference points or rigid instruments at subsecond update rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  18. Multithreaded hybrid feature tracking for markerless augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehee; Höllerer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel markerless camera tracking approach and user interaction methodology for augmented reality (AR) on unprepared tabletop environments. We propose a real-time system architecture that combines two types of feature tracking. Distinctive image features of the scene are detected and tracked frame-to-frame by computing optical flow. In order to achieve real-time performance, multiple operations are processed in a synchronized multi-threaded manner: capturing a video frame, tracking features using optical flow, detecting distinctive invariant features, and rendering an output frame. We also introduce user interaction methodology for establishing a global coordinate system and for placing virtual objects in the AR environment by tracking a user's outstretched hand and estimating a camera pose relative to it. We evaluate the speed and accuracy of our hybrid feature tracking approach, and demonstrate a proof-of-concept application for enabling AR in unprepared tabletop environments, using bare hands for interaction.

  19. TrackArt: the user friendly interface for single molecule tracking data analysis and simulation applied to complex diffusion in mica supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysik, Artur; Kraut, Rachel S

    2014-05-01

    Single molecule tracking (SMT) analysis of fluorescently tagged lipid and protein probes is an attractive alternative to ensemble averaged methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) or fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) for measuring diffusion in artificial and plasma membranes. The meaningful estimation of diffusion coefficients and their errors is however not straightforward, and is heavily dependent on sample type, acquisition method, and equipment used. Many approaches require advanced computing and programming skills for their implementation. Here we present TrackArt software, an accessible graphic interface for simulation and complex analysis of multiple particle paths. Imported trajectories can be filtered to eliminate spurious or corrupted tracks, and are then analyzed using several previously described methodologies, to yield single or multiple diffusion coefficients, their population fractions, and estimated errors. We use TrackArt to analyze the single-molecule diffusion behavior of a sphingolipid analog SM-Atto647N, in mica supported DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayers. Fitting with a two-component diffusion model confirms the existence of two separate populations of diffusing particles in these bilayers on mica. As a demonstration of the TrackArt workflow, we characterize and discuss the effective activation energies required to increase the diffusion rates of these populations, obtained from Arrhenius plots of temperature-dependent diffusion. Finally, TrackArt provides a simulation module, allowing the user to generate models with multiple particle trajectories, diffusing with different characteristics. Maps of domains, acting as impermeable or permeable obstacles for particles diffusing with given rate constants and diffusion coefficients, can be simulated or imported from an image. Importantly, this allows one to use simulated data with a known diffusion behavior as a comparison for results

  20. High Dynamic Optimized Carrier Loop Improvement for Tracking Doppler Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Fereidountabar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical analysis and optimization of a carrier tracking loop are presented. Due to fast changing of the carrier frequency in some satellite systems, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO or Global Positioning System (GPS, or some planes like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, high dynamic tracking loops play a very important role. In this paper an optimized tracking loop consisting of a third-order Phase Locked Loop (PLL assisted by a second-order Frequency Locked Loop (FLL for UAVs is proposed and discussed. Based on this structure an optimal loop has been designed. The main advantages of this approach are the reduction of the computation complexity and smaller phase error. The paper shows the simulation results, comparing them with a previous work.

  1. A New Track Reconstruction Algorithm suitable for Parallel Processing based on Hit Triplets and Broken Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöning André

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Track reconstruction in high track multiplicity environments at current and future high rate particle physics experiments is a big challenge and very time consuming. The search for track seeds and the fitting of track candidates are usually the most time consuming steps in the track reconstruction. Here, a new and fast track reconstruction method based on hit triplets is proposed which exploits a three-dimensional fit model including multiple scattering and hit uncertainties from the very start, including the search for track seeds. The hit triplet based reconstruction method assumes a homogeneous magnetic field which allows to give an analytical solutions for the triplet fit result. This method is highly parallelizable, needs fewer operations than other standard track reconstruction methods and is therefore ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures. The proposed track reconstruction algorithm has been studied in the context of the Mu3e-experiment and a typical LHC experiment.

  2. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of the ITk will consist of a pixel detector with stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions; there may also be novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap regions. The new detector could have as much as 14 m2 of sensitive silicon. Support structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The ITk will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance compared to the current detector. All the module components must be performant enough and robust enough to cope with the expected high particle multiplicity and severe radiation background of the High-Luminosity LHC. Readout...

  3. Tracking Persons-of-Interest via Unsupervised Representation Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shun; Huang, Jia-Bin; Lim, Jongwoo; Gong, Yihong; Wang, Jinjun; Ahuja, Narendra; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Multi-face tracking in unconstrained videos is a challenging problem as faces of one person often appear drastically different in multiple shots due to significant variations in scale, pose, expression, illumination, and make-up. Existing multi-target tracking methods often use low-level features which are not sufficiently discriminative for identifying faces with such large appearance variations. In this paper, we tackle this problem by learning discriminative, video-specific face representa...

  4. Pupil size signals mental effort deployed during multiple object tracking and predicts brain activity in the dorsal attention network and the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus Handal; Espeseth, Thomas; Endestad, Tor; van de Pavert, Steven Harry Pieter; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Attentional effort relates to the allocation of limited-capacity attentional resources to meet current task demands and involves the activation of top-down attentional systems in the brain. Pupillometry is a sensitive measure of this intensity aspect of top-down attentional control. Studies relate pupillary changes in response to cognitive processing to activity in the locus coeruleus (LC), which is the main hub of the brain's noradrenergic system and it is thought to modulate the operations of the brain's attentional systems. In the present study, participants performed a visual divided attention task known as multiple object tracking (MOT) while their pupil sizes were recorded by use of an infrared eye tracker and then were tested again with the same paradigm while brain activity was recorded using fMRI. We hypothesized that the individual pupil dilations, as an index of individual differences in mental effort, as originally proposed by Kahneman (1973), would be a better predictor of LC activity than the number of tracked objects during MOT. The current results support our hypothesis, since we observed pupil-related activity in the LC. Moreover, the changes in the pupil correlated with activity in the superior colliculus and the right thalamus, as well as cortical activity in the dorsal attention network, which previous studies have shown to be strongly activated during visual tracking of multiple targets. Follow-up pupillometric analyses of the MOT task in the same individuals also revealed that individual differences to cognitive load can be remarkably stable over a lag of several years. To our knowledge this is the first study using pupil dilations as an index of attentional effort in the MOT task and also relating these to functional changes in the brain that directly implicate the LC-NE system in the allocation of processing resources.

  5. Estimating Accurate Target Coordinates with Magnetic Resonance Images by Using Multiple Phase-Encoding Directions during Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Jung, Na Young; Park, Chang Kyu; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jin Woo

    2018-06-01

    Stereotactic procedures are image guided, often using magnetic resonance (MR) images limited by image distortion, which may influence targets for stereotactic procedures. The aim of this work was to assess methods of identifying target coordinates for stereotactic procedures with MR in multiple phase-encoding directions. In 30 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation, we acquired 5 image sets: stereotactic brain computed tomography (CT), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and T1WI in both right-to-left (RL) and anterior-to-posterior (AP) phase-encoding directions. Using CT coordinates as a reference, we analyzed anterior commissure and posterior commissure coordinates to identify any distortion relating to phase-encoding direction. Compared with CT coordinates, RL-directed images had more positive x-axis values (0.51 mm in T1WI, 0.58 mm in T2WI). AP-directed images had more negative y-axis values (0.44 mm in T1WI, 0.59 mm in T2WI). We adopted 2 methods to predict CT coordinates with MR image sets: parallel translation and selective choice of axes according to phase-encoding direction. Both were equally effective at predicting CT coordinates using only MR; however, the latter may be easier to use in clinical settings. Acquiring MR in multiple phase-encoding directions and selecting axes according to the phase-encoding direction allows identification of more accurate coordinates for stereotactic procedures. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Experimentation of Eigenvector Dynamics in a Multiple Input Multiple Output Channel in the 5GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Tim; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.; Katz, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Much research has been carried out on the production of both physical and non physical Multiple Input Multiple Output channel models with regard to increased channel capacity as well as analysis of eigenvalues through the use of singular value decomposition. Little attention has been paid...... to the analysis of vector dynamics in terms of how the state of eigenvectors will change as a mobile is moving through a changing physical environment. This is important in terms of being able to track the orthogonal eigenmodes at system level, while also relieving the burden of tracking of the full channel...

  7. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations of target fragments in nucleus-emulsion collisions at a few hundred MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Donghai; Chen Yanling; Wang Guorong; Li Wangdong; Wang Qing; Yao Jijie; Zhou Jianguo; Li Rong; Li Junsheng; Li Huiling

    2015-01-01

    The forward-backward multiplicity and correlations of a target evaporated fragment (black track particle) and target recoiled proton (grey track particle) emitted from 150 A MeV "4He, 290 A MeV "1"2C, 400 A MeV "1"2C, 400 A MeV "2"0Ne and 500 A MeV "5"6Fe induced different types of nuclear emulsion target interactions are investigated. It is found that the forward and backward averaged multiplicity of a grey, black and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the target size. The averaged multiplicity of a forward black track particle, backward black track particle, and backward grey track particle do not depend on the projectile size and energy, but the averaged multiplicity of a forward grey track particle increases with an increase of projectile size and energy. The backward grey track particle multiplicity distribution follows an exponential decay law and the decay constant decreases with an increase of target size. The backward-forward multiplicity correlations follow linear law which is independent of the projectile size and energy, and the saturation effect is observed in some heavy target data sets. (authors)

  8. Output Tracking Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Fliess Functional Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The output tracking problem is investigated for a nonlinear affine system with multiple modes of continuous control inputs. We convert the family of nonlinear affine systems under consideration into a switched hybrid system by introducing a multiple-valued logic variable. The Fliess functional expansion is adopted to express the input and output relationship of the switched hybrid system. The optimal switching control is determined for a multiple-step output tracking performance index. The proposed approach is applied to a multitarget tracking problem for a flight vehicle aiming for one real target with several decoys flying around it in the terminal guidance course. These decoys appear as apparent targets and have to be distinguished with the approaching of the flight vehicle. The guidance problem of one flight vehicle versus multiple apparent targets should be considered if no large miss distance might be caused due to the limitation of the flight vehicle maneuverability. The target orientation at each time interval is determined. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Multi-Perspective Vehicle Detection and Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    this dataset is introduced along with its challenges and evaluation metrics. A vision-based multi-perspective dataset is presented, containing a full panoramic view from a moving platform driving on U.S. highways capturing 2704x1440 resolution images at 12 frames per second. The dataset serves multiple......The research community has shown significant improvements in both vision-based detection and tracking of vehicles, working towards a high level understanding of on-road maneuvers. Behaviors of surrounding vehicles in a highway environment is found as an interesting starting point, of why...... purposes to be used as traditional detection and tracking, together with tracking of vehicles across perspectives. Each of the four perspectives have been annotated, resulting in more than 4000 bounding boxes in order to evaluate and compare novel methods....

  10. Comparative investigation into Viterbi based and multiple hypothesis based track stitching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, LJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available . A sequential Viterbi data association algorithm is then used to solve the trellis and associate track fragments with each other. A Kalman filter is used to determine the possible associations as well as the probabilities of the associations between...

  11. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  12. Sub-μrad laser beam tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    We compare active optical elements based on different technologies to accomplish the requirements of a 2-dim. fine tracking control system. A cascaded optically and electrically addressable spatial light modulator (OASLM) based on liquid crystals (LC) is used for refractive beam steering. Spatial light modulators provide a controllable phase wedge to generate a beam deflection. Additionally, a tip/tilt mirror approach operating with piezo-electric actuators is investigated. A digital PID controller is implemented for closed-loop control. Beam tracking with a root-mean-squared accuracy of Δα=30 nrad has been laboratory-confirmed.

  13. Field-Testing of an Active Laser Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V.; Khiznyak, A.; Woll, D.; Liu, S.

    Comprehensive space surveillance demands a more accurate technique in tracking multi-dimensional state vector (3D coordinate, velocity, vibration, etc.) of the space objects. RF radiometric techniques typically can not provide the needed accuracy, while passive optical (and laser) tracking systems can provide distance to the object and its angular position, but not a direct reading of velocity, the parameter of primary importance for space object tracking and characterization. Addressing this problem with active optical tracking techniques is challenging because of the great distances involved, the high velocity of the satellites, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. We have proposed a phase conjugation based laser tracking concept, and accomplished the first version of design and engineering of a prototype for an Active Laser Tracking System (ALTS). In its current state the ALTS is capable to demonstrate the very basics operational principles of the proposed active tracking technique. We then performed a number of experiments to prove operational capabilities of this prototype both at MetroLaser's lab environment and at Edwards AFB Test Range. In its current architecture the ALTS is comprised of two laser cavities, Master and Slave that are coupled through a Phase Conjugate Mirror (PCM) formed in a non-linear medium (NLM) set at Master laser cavity. By pumping NLM and forming PCM, Master laser establishes the cavities coupling mode and injects the photons in the slave cavity. It is essential that the specific features of the PCM not only serve to couple ALTS cavities, but also serves to compensate optical aberrations of the ALTS (gain media and optical elements of the laser resonator). Due to its ability to compensate optical aberrations, phase conjugate resonators are capable of sustaining oscillation with a remote target as an output coupler. The entire system comprises of several modules, including a laser, emitting/receiving telescope, gimbal

  14. Formation of Multiple-Phase Catalysts for the Hydrogen Storage of Mg Nanoparticles by Adding Flowerlike NiS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiubo; Ma, Xiujuan; Liu, Peng; Shang, Jiaxiang; Li, Xingguo; Liu, Tong

    2017-02-22

    In order to enhance the hydrogen storage properties of Mg, flowerlike NiS particles have been successfully prepared by solvothermal reaction method, and are subsequently ball milled with Mg nanoparticles (NPs) to fabricate Mg-5 wt % NiS nanocomposite. The nanocomposite displays Mg/NiS core/shell structure. The NiS shell decomposes into Ni, MgS and Mg 2 Ni multiple-phases, decorating on the surface of the Mg NPs after the first hydrogen absorption and desorption cycle at 673 K. The Mg-MgS-Mg 2 Ni-Ni nanocomposite shows enhanced hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates: it can quickly uptake 3.5 wt % H 2 within 10 min at 423 K and release 3.1 wt % H 2 within 10 min at 573 K. The apparent hydrogen absorption and desorption activation energies are decreased to 45.45 and 64.71 kJ mol -1 . The enhanced sorption kinetics of the nanocomposite is attributed to the synergistic catalytic effects of the in situ formed MgS, Ni and Mg 2 Ni multiple-phase catalysts during the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation process, the porthole effects for the volume expansion and microstrain of the phase transformation of Mg 2 Ni and Mg 2 NiH 4 and the reduced hydrogen diffusion distance caused by nanosized Mg. This novel method of in situ producing multiple-phase catalysts gives a new horizon for designing high performance hydrogen storage material.

  15. The Layout and Performance of the Phase-II upgrade of the tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Xiaocong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    HL-LHC will deliver about 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity in over 10 year. This will present an extremely challenging environment to the ATLAS experiment, well beyond that for which it was designed. In ATLAS Phase II upgrade, the Inner Detector will be replace by a new all-silicon Inner Tracker to maintain tracking performance in this high-occupancy environment and to cope with the increase of approximately a factor of ten in the integrated radiation dose. The ITk Detector layout is designed to meet the requirement for identifying charged particles with high efficiency and measuring their properties with high precision in the denser environment. The Layout and performance of the ITk is presented.

  16. Cooling Li-ion batteries of racing solar car by using multiple phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, Nelson O.; Xamán, Jesús P.; Araya, Ricardo H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal efficiency of Li-ion batteries improved by use of phase change materials. • Multiple layers of PCM provides good cooling capabilities for solar car batteries. • Evolution of temperature of solar car batteries described by Finite Volume Method. • Thermal control in discharge mode of lithium battery for solar car achieved by PCM. - Abstract: A numerical study of the unsteady phase change convection-conduction heat transfer of an ion-lithium battery with volumetric heat generation used in solar vehicles is presented. The cooling process is investigated for a total of seven arrays of phase change material (PCM): capric acid (PCM 1), eicosane (PCM 2), decahydrated sodium carbonate (PCM 3) and octadecane (PCM 4) located in one or three layers around the battery. The results show that heat conduction predominates in the battery with a PCM and the liquid phase fraction of the PCM indicates that the melting initiates after 7 min, reaching totally liquid state after 14.25 min. From the different configurations of PCM around the battery, the configuration “B” (multiple PCM: PCM 1 (5 mm) + PCM 3 (2.9 mm) + PCM 2 (4.3 mm)) and the configuration with a single layer of PCM 3 (14.3 mm) respectively reduce the maximum temperature of the battery about 20.9 and 23.2 K compared with the temperature reached by the battery without PCM. This result occurs because of the Decahydrated Sodium Carbonate PCM, since it has the highest latent heat and has a low melting point.

  17. Monte Carlo Library Least Square (MCLLS) Method for Multiple Radioactive Particle Tracking in BPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Lee, Kyoung; Gardner, Robin

    2010-03-01

    In This work, a new method of radioactive particles tracking is proposed. An accurate Detector Response Functions (DRF's) was developed from MCNP5 to generate library for NaI detectors with a significant speed-up factor of 200. This just make possible for the idea of MCLLS method which is used for locating and tracking the radioactive particle in a modular Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) by searching minimum Chi-square values. The method was tested to work pretty good in our lab condition with a six 2" X 2" NaI detectors array only. This method was introduced in both forward and inverse ways. A single radioactive particle tracking system with three collimated 2" X 2" NaI detectors is used for benchmark purpose.

  18. CosmoTransitions: Computing cosmological phase transition temperatures and bubble profiles with multiple fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Carroll L.

    2012-09-01

    I present a numerical package (CosmoTransitions) for analyzing finite-temperature cosmological phase transitions driven by single or multiple scalar fields. The package analyzes the different vacua of a theory to determine their critical temperatures (where the vacuum energy levels are degenerate), their supercooling temperatures, and the bubble wall profiles which separate the phases and describe their tunneling dynamics. I introduce a new method of path deformation to find the profiles of both thin- and thick-walled bubbles. CosmoTransitions is freely available for public use.Program summaryProgram Title: CosmoTransitionsCatalogue identifier: AEML_v1_0Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEML_v1_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8775No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 621096Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: Python.Computer: Developed on a 2009 MacBook Pro. No computer-specific optimization was performed.Operating system: Designed and tested on Mac OS X 10.6.8. Compatible with any OS with Python installed.RAM: Approximately 50 MB, mostly for loading plotting packages.Classification: 1.9, 11.1.External routines: SciPy, NumPy, matplotLibNature of problem: I describe a program to analyze early-Universe finite-temperature phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. The goal is to analyze the phase structure of an input theory, determine the amount of supercooling at each phase transition, and find the bubble-wall profiles of the nucleated bubbles that drive the transitions.Solution method: To find the bubble-wall profile, the program assumes that tunneling happens along a fixed path in field space. This reduces the equations of motion to one dimension, which can then be solved using the overshoot

  19. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  20. Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb 70 Te 30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  1. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non

  2. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U; Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non

  3. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  4. Systems and methods for tracking a device in zero-infrastructure and zero-power conditions, and a tracking device therefor

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2017-03-23

    Disclosed are embodiments for a tracking device having multiple layers of localization and communication capabilities, and particularly having the ability to operate in zero-infrastructure or zero-power conditions. Also disclosed are methods and systems that enhance location determination in zero-infrastructure and zero-power conditions. In one example, a device, system and/or method includes an infrastructure-based localization module, an infrastructure-less localization module and a passive module that can utilize at least two of the modules to determine a location of the tracking device.

  5. gamma-ray tracking in germanium the backtracking method

    CERN Document Server

    Marel, J V D

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a European TMR network project the concept for a gamma-ray tracking array is being developed for nuclear physics spectroscopy in the energy range of approx 10 keV up to several MeV. The tracking array will consist of a large number of position-sensitive germanium detectors in a spherical geometry around a target. Due to the high segmentation, a Compton scattered gamma-ray will deposit energy in several different segments. A method has been developed to reconstruct the tracks of multiple coincident gamma-rays and to find their initial energies. By starting from the final point the track can be reconstructed backwards to the origin with the help of the photoelectric and Compton cross-sections and the Compton scatter formula. Every reconstructed track is given a figure of merit, thus allowing suppression of wrongly reconstructed tracks and gamma-rays that have scattered out of the detector system. This so-called backtracking method has been tested on simulated events in a shell-like geometry ...

  6. γ-ray tracking in germanium: the backtracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marel, J. van der; Cederwall, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a European TMR network project the concept for a γ-ray tracking array is being developed for nuclear physics spectroscopy in the energy range of ∼10 keV up to several MeV. The tracking array will consist of a large number of position-sensitive germanium detectors in a spherical geometry around a target. Due to the high segmentation, a Compton scattered γ-ray will deposit energy in several different segments. A method has been developed to reconstruct the tracks of multiple coincident γ-rays and to find their initial energies. By starting from the final point the track can be reconstructed backwards to the origin with the help of the photoelectric and Compton cross-sections and the Compton scatter formula. Every reconstructed track is given a figure of merit, thus allowing suppression of wrongly reconstructed tracks and γ-rays that have scattered out of the detector system. This so-called backtracking method has been tested on simulated events in a shell-like geometry for germanium and in planar geometries for silicon, germanium and CdTe

  7. Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems.

  8. Entropic multiple-relaxation-time multirange pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feifei; Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Kang, Qinjun; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2018-03-01

    An entropic multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann approach is coupled to a multirange Shan-Chen pseudopotential model to study the two-phase flow. Compared with previous multiple-relaxation-time multiphase models, this model is stable and accurate for the simulation of a two-phase flow in a much wider range of viscosity and surface tension at a high liquid-vapor density ratio. A stationary droplet surrounded by equilibrium vapor is first simulated to validate this model using the coexistence curve and Laplace's law. Then, two series of droplet impact behavior, on a liquid film and a flat surface, are simulated in comparison with theoretical or experimental results. Droplet impact on a liquid film is simulated for different Reynolds numbers at high Weber numbers. With the increase of the Sommerfeld parameter, onset of splashing is observed and multiple secondary droplets occur. The droplet spreading ratio agrees well with the square root of time law and is found to be independent of Reynolds number. Moreover, shapes of simulated droplets impacting hydrophilic and superhydrophobic flat surfaces show good agreement with experimental observations through the entire dynamic process. The maximum spreading ratio of a droplet impacting the superhydrophobic flat surface is studied for a large range of Weber numbers. Results show that the rescaled maximum spreading ratios are in good agreement with a universal scaling law. This series of simulations demonstrates that the proposed model accurately captures the complex fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfacial physical processes for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers at high density ratios.

  9. Tracking Accuracy of a Real-Time Fiducial Tracking System for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchory, Tal; Schifter, Dan; Lichtman, Rinat; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy there is a need to accurately know the location of the target in real time. A novel radioactive tracking technology has been developed to answer this need. The technology consists of a radioactive implanted fiducial marker designed to minimize migration and a linac mounted tracking device. This study measured the static and dynamic accuracy of the new tracking technology in a clinical radiation therapy environment. Methods and Materials: The tracking device was installed on the linac gantry. The radioactive marker was located in a tissue equivalent phantom. Marker location was measured simultaneously by the radioactive tracking system and by a Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring machine (certified spatial accuracy of 0.38 mm). Localization consistency throughout a volume and absolute accuracy in the Fixed coordinate system were measured at multiple gantry angles over volumes of at least 10 cm in diameter centered at isocenter. Dynamic accuracy was measured with the marker located inside a breathing phantom. Results: The mean consistency for the static source was 0.58 mm throughout the tested region at all measured gantry angles. The mean absolute position error in the Fixed coordinate system for all gantry angles was 0.97 mm. The mean real-time tracking error for the dynamic source within the breathing phantom was less than 1 mm. Conclusions: This novel radioactive tracking technology has the potential to be useful in accurate target localization and real-time monitoring for radiation therapy.

  10. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  11. Multiple phase transitions and magnetoresistance of HoFe{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J., E-mail: liujing@iastate.edu; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Three magnetic transitions at T{sub N} = 51 K, T{sub f1} = 42 K, and T{sub f2} = 15 K. • Kinetically arrested phase below a freezing point of ∼11 K. • First-order metamagnetic transition at critical field ∼22 kOe below 35 K. • A large magnetoresistance of ∼30% at a field change of 30 kOe near 15 K. - Abstract: A systematic study of the structural, magnetic, heat capacity, electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance properties of HoFe{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} has been performed. The temperature dependencies of the magnetization and heat capacity show three magnetic transitions at T{sub N} = 51 K, T{sub f1} = 42 K, and T{sub f2} = 15 K. The high temperature transition is antiferromagnetic ordering and the two low temperature phase transitions are due to rearrangements of the magnetic structure. A kinetically arrested phase is observed below a freezing point of ∼11 K. Below 35 K, the behavior of the isothermal magnetization reflects a first-order metamagnetic phase transition. Multiple phase transitions are also manifested in the electrical resistivity behavior. For a field change of 30 kOe, a large magnetoresistance of ∼30% is observed near T{sub f2} (15 K)

  12. Suppression of metastable-phase inclusion in N-polar (0001¯) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojiki, Kanako; Iwabuchi, Takuya; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Choi, Jung-Hun; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi; Usami, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The metastable zincblende (ZB) phase in N-polar (0001 ¯ ) (−c-plane) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is elucidated by the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. From the comparison between the −c-plane and Ga-polar (0001) (+c-plane), the −c-plane MQWs were found to be suffered from the severe ZB-phase inclusion, while ZB-inclusion is negligible in the +c-plane MQWs grown under the same growth conditions. The ZB-phase inclusion is a hurdle for fabricating the −c-plane light-emitting diodes because the islands with a triangular shape appeared on a surface in the ZB-phase domains. To improve the purity of stable wurtzite (WZ)-phase, the optimum conditions were investigated. The ZB-phase is dramatically eliminated with decreasing the V/III ratio and increasing the growth temperature. To obtain much-higher-quality MQWs, the thinner InGaN wells and the hydrogen introduction during GaN barriers growth were tried. Consequently, MQWs with almost pure WZ phase and with atomically smooth surface have been demonstrated

  13. Implementation of an object oriented track reconstruction model into multiple LHC experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Irwin; Gonzalez, Saul; Qian, Sijin

    2001-10-01

    An Object Oriented (OO) model (Gaines et al., 1996; 1997; Gaines and Qian, 1998; 1999) for track reconstruction by the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders. The model has been coded in the C++ programming language and has been successfully implemented into the OO computing environments of both the CMS (1994) and ATLAS (1994) experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. We shall report: how the OO model was adapted, with largely the same code, to different scenarios and serves the different reconstruction aims in different experiments (i.e. the level-2 trigger software for ATLAS and the offline software for CMS); how the OO model has been incorporated into different OO environments with a similar integration structure (demonstrating the ease of re-use of OO program); what are the OO model's performance, including execution time, memory usage, track finding efficiency and ghost rate, etc.; and additional physics performance based on use of the OO tracking model. We shall also mention the experience and lessons learned from the implementation of the OO model into the general OO software framework of the experiments. In summary, our practice shows that the OO technology really makes the software development and the integration issues straightforward and convenient; this may be particularly beneficial for the general non-computer-professional physicists.

  14. Arbitrary-step randomly delayed robust filter with application to boost phase tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wutao; Wang, Xiaogang; Bai, Yuliang; Cui, Naigang

    2018-04-01

    The conventional filters such as extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter and cubature Kalman filter assume that the measurement is available in real-time and the measurement noise is Gaussian white noise. But in practice, both two assumptions are invalid. To solve this problem, a novel algorithm is proposed by taking the following four steps. At first, the measurement model is modified by the Bernoulli random variables to describe the random delay. Then, the expression of predicted measurement and covariance are reformulated, which could get rid of the restriction that the maximum number of delay must be one or two and the assumption that probabilities of Bernoulli random variables taking the value one are equal. Next, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is derived based on the 5th-degree spherical-radial rule and the reformulated expressions. Finally, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is modified to the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Huber-based filter based on the Huber technique, which is essentially an M-estimator. Therefore, the proposed filter is not only robust to the randomly delayed measurements, but robust to the glint noise. The application to the boost phase tracking example demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms.

  15. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    separate and associate calls from individual animals . Marine mammal; Passive acoustic monitoring; Localization; Tracking; Multiple source; Sparse array...position and hydrophone timing offset in addition to animal position Almost all marine mammal tracking methods treat animal position as the only unknown...Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization (DCL) of Marine Mammals). The animals were expected to be relatively close to the surface

  16. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A; Teplykh, S; Bukhman, N

    2016-01-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks. (paper)

  17. GPU-accelerated 3-D model-based tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J Anthony; Capson, David W

    2010-01-01

    Model-based approaches to tracking the pose of a 3-D object in video are effective but computationally demanding. While statistical estimation techniques, such as the particle filter, are often employed to minimize the search space, real-time performance remains unachievable on current generation CPUs. Recent advances in graphics processing units (GPUs) have brought massively parallel computational power to the desktop environment and powerful developer tools, such as NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), have provided programmers with a mechanism to exploit it. NVIDIA GPUs' single-instruction multiple-thread (SIMT) programming model is well-suited to many computer vision tasks, particularly model-based tracking, which requires several hundred 3-D model poses to be dynamically configured, rendered, and evaluated against each frame in the video sequence. Using 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) rigid hand tracking as an example application, this work harnesses consumer-grade GPUs to achieve real-time, 3-D model-based, markerless object tracking in monocular video.

  18. Single-track handshake signaling with application to micropipelines and handshake circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van C.H.; Bink, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Single-track handshake signaling is using the same wire for request and acknowledge signaling. After each 2-phase handshake the wire is back in its initial state. A sequence of three protocol definitions suggests both a design method for single-track circuits and a trade-off between their robustness

  19. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  20. Linearly interpolated sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Hong, Xiaojian; He, Sailing

    2015-02-23

    An optical phase noise suppression algorithm, LI-SCPEC, based on phase linear interpolation and sub-symbol processing is proposed for CO-OFDM system. By increasing the temporal resolution of carrier phase tracking through dividing one symbol into several sub-blocks, i.e., sub-symbols, inter-carrier-interference (ICI) mitigation is achieved in the proposed algorithm. Linear interpolation is employed to obtain a reliable temporal reference for sub-symbol phase estimation. The new algorithm, with only a few number of sub-symbols (N(B) = 4), can provide a considerably larger laser linewidth tolerance than several other ICI mitigation algorithms as demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical analysis verifies that the best performance is achieved with an optimal and moderate number of sub-symbols. Complexity analysis shows that the required number of complex-valued multiplications is independent of the number of sub-symbols used in the proposed algorithm.

  1. Charged Particle Tracking and Vertex Detection Group summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.; Meyer, D.

    1984-09-01

    Charged particle tracking is essential in order to investigate the new physics expected at the SSC. The Tracking Group studied radiation damage and rate limitations to tracking devices, vertex detectors, and central tracking. The Group concluded that silicon strips and large wire tracking chambers with small cells can probably survive at the design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 ; however, the presently designed electronics for silicon strip vertex detectors can withstand a luminosity of only 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 . Wire chambers at a radius of less than about 25 cm can withstand a luminosity of less than or equal to 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 only. Actual tracking and pattern recognition in central tracking chambers at a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 will be very difficult because of multiple interactions within the resolving time of the chambers; detailed simulations are needed in order to decide whether tracking is indeed possible at this luminosity. Scintillating glass fibers are an interesting possibility both for vertex detectors and for central trackers, but much research and development is still needed both on the fibers themselves and on the readout

  2. Robust Pedestrian Tracking and Recognition from FLIR Video: A Unified Approach via Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR video to support nighttime machine vision systems. A key technical contribution of this work is to unify existing sparse coding-based approaches toward tracking and recognition under the same framework, so that they can benefit from each other in a closed-loop. On the one hand, tracking the same object through temporal frames allows us to achieve improved recognition performance through dynamical updating of template/dictionary and combining multiple recognition results; on the other hand, the recognition of individual objects facilitates the tracking of multiple objects (i.e., walking pedestrians, especially in the presence of occlusion within a crowded environment. We report experimental results on both the CASIAPedestrian Database and our own collected FLIR video database to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed joint tracking-and-recognition approach.

  3. Study Protocol: Phase III single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention for breathlessness in advanced disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brafman-Kennedy Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness in advanced disease causes significant distress to patients and carers and presents management challenges to health care professionals. The Breathlessness Intervention Service (BIS seeks to improve the care of breathless patients with advanced disease (regardless of cause through the use of evidence-based practice and working with other healthcare providers. BIS delivers a complex intervention (of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments via a multi-professional team. BIS is being continuously developed and its impact evaluated using the MRC's framework for complex interventions (PreClinical, Phase I and Phase II completed. This paper presents the protocol for Phase III. Methods/Design Phase III comprises a pragmatic, fast-track, single-blind randomised controlled trial of BIS versus standard care. Due to differing disease trajectories, the service uses two broad service models: one for patients with malignant disease (intervention delivered over two weeks and one for patients with non-malignant disease (intervention delivered over four weeks. The Phase III trial therefore consists of two sub-protocols: one for patients with malignant conditions (four week protocol and one for patients with non-malignant conditions (eight week protocol. Mixed method interviews are conducted with patients and their lay carers at three to five measurement points depending on randomisation and sub-protocol. Qualitative interviews are conducted with referring and non-referring health care professionals (malignant disease protocol only. The primary outcome measure is 'patient distress due to breathlessness' measured on a numerical rating scale (0-10. The trial includes economic evaluation. Analysis will be on an intention to treat basis. Discussion This is the first evaluation of a breathlessness intervention for advanced disease to have followed the MRC framework and one of the first palliative care trials to use fast

  4. Confidence-Based Data Association and Discriminative Deep Appearance Learning for Robust Online Multi-Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

    2018-03-01

    Online multi-object tracking aims at estimating the tracks of multiple objects instantly with each incoming frame and the information provided up to the moment. It still remains a difficult problem in complex scenes, because of the large ambiguity in associating multiple objects in consecutive frames and the low discriminability between objects appearances. In this paper, we propose a robust online multi-object tracking method that can handle these difficulties effectively. We first define the tracklet confidence using the detectability and continuity of a tracklet, and decompose a multi-object tracking problem into small subproblems based on the tracklet confidence. We then solve the online multi-object tracking problem by associating tracklets and detections in different ways according to their confidence values. Based on this strategy, tracklets sequentially grow with online-provided detections, and fragmented tracklets are linked up with others without any iterative and expensive association steps. For more reliable association between tracklets and detections, we also propose a deep appearance learning method to learn a discriminative appearance model from large training datasets, since the conventional appearance learning methods do not provide rich representation that can distinguish multiple objects with large appearance variations. In addition, we combine online transfer learning for improving appearance discriminability by adapting the pre-trained deep model during online tracking. Experiments with challenging public datasets show distinct performance improvement over other state-of-the-arts batch and online tracking methods, and prove the effect and usefulness of the proposed methods for online multi-object tracking.

  5. Online track reconstruction at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerio, Silvia; Bettini, Marco; Nicoletto, Marino; Crescioli, Francesco; Bucciantonio, Martina; DELL'ORSO, Mauro; Piendibene, Marco; VOLPI, Guido; Annovi, Alberto; Catastini, Pierluigi; Giannetti, Paola; Lucchesi, Donatella

    2010-01-01

    Real time event reconstruction plays a fundamental role in High Energy Physics experiments. Reducing the rate of data to be saved on tape from millions to hundreds per second is critical. In order to increase the purity of the collected samples, rate reduction has to be coupled with the capability to simultaneously perform a first selection of the most interesting events. A fast and efficient online track reconstruction is important to effectively trigger on leptons and/or displaced tracks from b-quark decays. This talk will be an overview of online tracking techniques in different HEP environments: we will show how H1 experiment at HERA faced the challenges of online track reconstruction implementing pattern matching and track linking algorithms on CAMs and FPGAs in the Fast Track Processor (FTT). The pattern recognition technique is also at the basis of the Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the CDF experiment at Tevatron: coupled to a very fast fitting phase, SVT allows to trigger on displaced tracks, thus greatly increasing the efficiency for the hadronic B decay modes. A recent upgrade of the SVT track fitter, the Giga-fitter, can perform more than 1 fit/ns and further improves the CDF online trigger capabilities at high luminosity. At SLHC, where luminosities will be 2 orders of magnitude greater than Tevatron, online tracking will be much more challenging: we will describe CMS future plans for a Level-1 track trigger and the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor at the ATLAS experiment, based on the Giga-fitter architecture and designed to provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector in time for a Level-2 trigger decision.luminosity. At SLHC, where luminosities will be 2 orders of magnitude greater than Tevatron, online tracking will be much more challenging: we will describe CMS future plans for a Level-1 track trigger and the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor at the Atlas experiment, based on the Giga-fitter architecture and designed to provide high

  6. Measurement of Reconstructed Charged Particle Multiplicities of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Aleena [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Here, we compare the observed charged particle multiplicity distributions in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber from neutrino interactions in a restricted final state phase space to predictions of this distribution from several GENIE models. The measurement uses a data sample consisting of neutrino interactions with a final state muon candidate fully contained within the MicroBooNE detector. These data were collected in 2015-2016 with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), which has an average neutrino energy of 800 MeV, using an exposure corresponding to 5e19 protons-on-target. The analysis employs fully automatic event selection and charged particle track reconstruction and uses a data-driven technique to determine the contribution to each multiplicity bin from neutrino interactions and cosmic-induced backgrounds. The restricted phase space employed makes the measurement most sensitive to the higher-energy charged particles expected from primary neutrino-argon collisions and less sensitive to lower energy protons expected to be produced in final state interactions of collision products with the target argon nucleus.

  7. Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking in Williams Syndrome: How Atypical Development Can Inform Theories of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Katrina; Hoffman, James E.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects is a crucial skill for performance in everyday spatial tasks. The tracking mechanism depends on representation of moving items as coherent entities, which follow the spatiotemporal constraints of objects in the world. In the present experiment, participants tracked 1 to 4 targets in a display of 8 identical…

  8. Search for Microscopic Black Holes in a Like-sign Dimuon Final State using large Track Multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; 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Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heimel, Bertha; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Heller, Ryan Edward; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; 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Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-10-01

    A search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state in proton−proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV is presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. Using a high track multiplicity requirement, 0.6 $\\pm$ 0.2 background events are predicted from Standard Model processes and none are observed. This result is interpreted in the context of low-scale gravity models and 95% CL lower limits on microscopic black hole masses are set at 3.7 TeV through 5.9 TeV depending on the model assumptions.

  9. GenPlay Multi-Genome, a tool to compare and analyze multiple human genomes in a graphical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajugie, Julien; Fourel, Nicolas; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    Parallel visualization of multiple individual human genomes is a complex endeavor that is rapidly gaining importance with the increasing number of personal, phased and cancer genomes that are being generated. It requires the display of variants such as SNPs, indels and structural variants that are unique to specific genomes and the introduction of multiple overlapping gaps in the reference sequence. Here, we describe GenPlay Multi-Genome, an application specifically written to visualize and analyze multiple human genomes in parallel. GenPlay Multi-Genome is ideally suited for the comparison of allele-specific expression and functional genomic data obtained from multiple phased genomes in a graphical interface with access to multiple-track operation. It also allows the analysis of data that have been aligned to custom genomes rather than to a standard reference and can be used as a variant calling format file browser and as a tool to compare different genome assembly, such as hg19 and hg38. GenPlay is available under the GNU public license (GPL-3) from http://genplay.einstein.yu.edu. The source code is available at https://github.com/JulienLajugie/GenPlay. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Double tracks test site characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER)

  11. Three-dimensional tracking of small aquatic organisms using fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Mikael T; Bianco, Giuseppe; Linse, Sara; Linke, Heiner; Bäckman, Johan; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Tracking techniques are vital for the understanding of the biology and ecology of organisms. While such techniques have provided important information on the movement and migration of large animals, such as mammals and birds, scientific advances in understanding the individual behaviour and interactions of small (mm-scale) organisms have been hampered by constraints, such as the sizes of existing tracking devices, in existing tracking methods. By combining biology, chemistry and physics we here present a method that allows three-dimensional (3D) tracking of individual mm-sized aquatic organisms. The method is based on in-vivo labelling of the organisms with fluorescent nanoparticles, so-called quantum dots, and tracking of the organisms in 3D via the quantum-dot fluorescence using a synchronized multiple camera system. It allows for the efficient and simultaneous study of the behaviour of one as well as multiple individuals in large volumes of observation, thus enabling the study of behavioural interactions at the community scale. The method is non-perturbing - we demonstrate that the labelling is not affecting the behavioural response of the organisms - and is applicable over a wide range of taxa, including cladocerans as well as insects, suggesting that our methodological concept opens up for new research fields on individual behaviour of small animals. Hence, this offers opportunities to focus on important biological, ecological and behavioural questions never before possible to address.

  12. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  13. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented

  14. VLWIR Sensors for Detecting and Tracking Near-Earth Asteroids, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important NASA mission is to detect, count and track near-earth asteroids for a variety of reasons including the hazards of collisions with our planet. Such...

  15. Effect of multiple Higgs fields on the phase structure of the SU(2)-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtz, Mark; Steele, T. G.; Lewis, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The SU(2)-Higgs model, with a single Higgs field in the fundamental representation and a quartic self-interaction, has a Higgs region and a confinement region which are analytically connected in the parameter space of the theory; these regions thus represent a single phase. The effect of multiple Higgs fields on this phase structure is examined via Monte Carlo lattice simulations. For the case of N≥2 identical Higgs fields, there is no remaining analytic connection between the Higgs and confinement regions, at least when Lagrangian terms that directly couple different Higgs flavors are omitted. An explanation of this result in terms of enhancement from overlapping phase transitions is explored for N=2 by introducing an asymmetry in the hopping parameters of the Higgs fields. It is found that an enhancement of the phase transitions can still occur for a moderate (10%) asymmetry in the resulting hopping parameters.

  16. Decision-Directed Recursive Least Squares MIMO Channels Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Ebrahim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for joint data estimation and channel tracking for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels is proposed based on the decision-directed recursive least squares (DD-RLS algorithm. RLS algorithm is commonly used for equalization and its application in channel estimation is a novel idea. In this paper, after defining the weighted least squares cost function it is minimized and eventually the RLS MIMO channel estimation algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm combined with the decision-directed algorithm (DDA is then extended for the blind mode operation. From the computational complexity point of view being versus the number of transmitter and receiver antennas, the proposed algorithm is very efficient. Through various simulations, the mean square error (MSE of the tracking of the proposed algorithm for different joint detection algorithms is compared with Kalman filtering approach which is one of the most well-known channel tracking algorithms. It is shown that the performance of the proposed algorithm is very close to Kalman estimator and that in the blind mode operation it presents a better performance with much lower complexity irrespective of the need to know the channel model.

  17. An open source framework for tracking and state estimation ('Stone Soup')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul A.; Barr, Jordi; Balaji, Bhashyam; White, Kruger

    2017-05-01

    The ability to detect and unambiguously follow all moving entities in a state-space is important in multiple domains both in defence (e.g. air surveillance, maritime situational awareness, ground moving target indication) and the civil sphere (e.g. astronomy, biology, epidemiology, dispersion modelling). However, tracking and state estimation researchers and practitioners have difficulties recreating state-of-the-art algorithms in order to benchmark their own work. Furthermore, system developers need to assess which algorithms meet operational requirements objectively and exhaustively rather than intuitively or driven by personal favourites. We have therefore commenced the development of a collaborative initiative to create an open source framework for production, demonstration and evaluation of Tracking and State Estimation algorithms. The initiative will develop a (MIT-licensed) software platform for researchers and practitioners to test, verify and benchmark a variety of multi-sensor and multi-object state estimation algorithms. The initiative is supported by four defence laboratories, who will contribute to the development effort for the framework. The tracking and state estimation community will derive significant benefits from this work, including: access to repositories of verified and validated tracking and state estimation algorithms, a framework for the evaluation of multiple algorithms, standardisation of interfaces and access to challenging data sets. Keywords: Tracking,

  18. Using Gaussian Process Annealing Particle Filter for 3D Human Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rudzsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for human body parts tracking in 3D with prelearned motion models using multiple cameras. Gaussian process annealing particle filter is proposed for tracking in order to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to increase the tracker's stability and robustness. Comparing with a regular annealed particle filter-based tracker, we show that our algorithm can track better for low frame rate videos. We also show that our algorithm is capable of recovering after a temporal target loss.

  19. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System /TDRSS/ telecommunication services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1975-01-01

    The TDRSS and tracking services define the telecommunication performance of the TDRSS between the RF interface with user spacecraft and the data interface with NASCOM at the ground terminal. Attention is given to system constraints, forward link services, multiple-access signal design parameters, S-band single access signal design parameters, multiple-access return link services, and single-access return link services.

  20. SKYWARD: the next generation airborne infrared search and track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, L.; Colombi, G.; Ondini, A.; Quaranta, C.; Giunti, C.; Sozzi, B.; Balzarotti, G.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Search and Track systems are an essential element of the modern and future combat aircrafts. Passive automatic search, detection and tracking functions, are key points for silent operations or jammed tactical scenarios. SKYWARD represents the latest evolution of IRST technology in which high quality electro-optical components, advanced algorithms, efficient hardware and software solutions are harmonically integrated to provide high-end affordable performances. Additionally, the reduction of critical opto-mechanical elements optimises weight and volume and increases the overall reliability. Multiple operative modes dedicated to different situations are available; many options can be selected among multiple or single target tracking, for surveillance or engagement, and imaging, for landing or navigation aid, assuring the maximum system flexibility. The high quality 2D-IR sensor is exploited by multiple parallel processing chains, based on linear and non-linear techniques, to extract the possible targets from background, in different conditions, with false alarm rate control. A widely tested track processor manages a large amount of candidate targets simultaneously and allows discriminating real targets from noise whilst operating with low target to background contrasts. The capability of providing reliable passive range estimation is an additional qualifying element of the system. Particular care has been dedicated to the detector non-uniformities, a possible limiting factor for distant targets detection, as well as to the design of the electro-optics for a harsh airborne environment. The system can be configured for LWIR or MWIR waveband according to the customer operational requirements. An embedded data recorder saves all the necessary images and data for mission debriefing, particularly useful during inflight system integration and tuning.

  1. Dynamic sensor tasking and IMM EKF estimation for tracking impulsively maneuvering satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lace, Arthur A.

    In order to efficiently maintain space situational awareness, care must be taken to optimally allocate expensive observation resources. In most situations the available sensors capable of tracking spacecraft have their time split between many different monitoring responsibilities. Tracking maneuvering spacecraft can be especially difficult as the schedule of maneuvers may not be known and will often throw off previous orbital models. Effectively solving this tasking problem is an ongoing focus of research in the area of space situational awareness. Most methods of automated tasking do not make use of interacting multiple model extended Kalman filter techniques to better track satellites during maneuvers. This paper proposes a modification to a Fisher information gain and estimated state covariance based sensor tasking method to take maneuver probability and multiple model dynamics into account. By incorporating the probabilistic maneuvering model, sensor tasking can be improved during satellite maneuvers using constrained resources. The proposed methods are verified through the use of numerical simulations with multiple maneuvering satellites and both orbital and ground-based sensors.

  2. The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00249819; Appelshauser, H.; Bablok, S.; Bialas, N.; Bolgen, R.; Bonnes, U.; Bramm, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Christiansen, P.; Dobrin, A.; Engster, C.; Fehlker, D.; Foka, Y.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C.; Gros, P.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Helstrup, H.; Hoch, M.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Junique, A.; Kalweit, A.; Keidel, R.; Kniege, S.; Kowalski, M.; Larsen, D.T.; Lesenechal, Y.; Lenoir, P.; Lindegaard, N.; Lippmann, C.; Mager, M.; Mast, M.; Matyja, A.; Munkejord, M.; Musa, L.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolic, V.; Oeschler, H.; Olsen, E.K.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Pikna, M.; Rehman, A.; Renault, G.; Renfordt, R.; Rossegger, S.; Rohrich, D.; Roed, K.; Richter, M.; Rueshmann, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sann, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siska, M.; Sitar, B.; Soegaard, C.; Soltveit, H.K.; Soyk, D.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Stenlund, E.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Ullaland, K.; Vranic, D.; Veenhof, R.; Westergaard, J.; Wiechula, J.; Windelband, B.

    2010-01-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m^3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb--Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate result...

  3. Visual Tracking via Feature Tensor Multimanifold Discriminate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-quan Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the visual tracking scenarios, if there are multiple objects, due to the interference of similar objects, tracking may fail in the progress of occlusion to separation. To address this problem, this paper proposed a visual tracking algorithm with discrimination through multimanifold learning. Color-gradient-based feature tensor was used to describe object appearance for accommodation of partial occlusion. A prior multimanifold tensor dataset is established through the template matching tracking algorithm. For the purpose of discrimination, tensor distance was defined to determine the intramanifold and intermanifold neighborhood relationship in multimanifold space. Then multimanifold discriminate analysis was employed to construct multilinear projection matrices of submanifolds. Finally, object states were obtained by combining with sequence inference. Meanwhile, the multimanifold dataset and manifold learning embedded projection should be updated online. Experiments were conducted on two real visual surveillance sequences to evaluate the proposed algorithm with three state-of-the-art tracking methods qualitatively and quantitatively. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve effective and robust effect in multi-similar-object mutual occlusion scenarios.

  4. Recurrent plot analysis of discharge sequences in tracking test of polybutylene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, B X; Gu, L; Dong, D S [Key Laboratory of Power System Simulation and Control of Ministry of Education, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zheng, X L [Henan Electric Power Survey and Design Institute, Henan 450007 (China)], E-mail: duboxue@tju.edu.cn

    2008-10-07

    Polymers are required to use in radiation environments as insulation materials. However, they often suffer from tracking failure. There is an increasing demand to evaluate radiation effects on dielectric performance. This paper presents a recurrence plot (RP) approach to analyse surface discharge sequences of gamma-ray irradiated polymer materials based on tracking test. Studying the non-linear characteristics of discharge sequences can assist in understanding the underlying mechanism of the discharge process. Discharge sequences of the test are extended to m-dimensional phase space by using the phase space reconstructed method. As test samples, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polybutylene naphthalate (PBN) were irradiated to 100 kGy and then up to 1 MGy with a dosage rate of 10 kGy h{sup -1} by using a {sup 60}Co gamma source. The tracking tests were carried out according to the test method described in IEC60112. It is found that the RPs can give visual recurrent patterns of discharge sequences for identification of the effects of gamma-ray radiation dosage on the resistance to tracking of the polymers. The detection of recurrent patterns together with comparative tracking index value results indicate that with the increase in the radiation dosage, the resistance to tracking of PBT decreases, but increases for PBN.

  5. Joint Conditional Random Field Filter for Multi-Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ronghua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking can improve the performance of mobile robot especially in populated dynamic environments. A novel joint conditional random field Filter (JCRFF based on conditional random field with hierarchical structure is proposed for multi-object tracking by abstracting the data associations between objects and measurements to be a sequence of labels. Since the conditional random field makes no assumptions about the dependency structure between the observations and it allows non-local dependencies between the state and the observations, the proposed method can not only fuse multiple cues including shape information and motion information to improve the stability of tracking, but also integrate moving object detection and object tracking quite well. At the same time, implementation of multi-object tracking based on JCRFF with measurements from the laser range finder on a mobile robot is studied. Experimental results with the mobile robot developed in our lab show that the proposed method has higher precision and better stability than joint probabilities data association filter (JPDAF.

  6. Optical tracking of nanoscale particles in microscale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, P. P.; Liddle, J. A.; Stavis, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The trajectories of nanoscale particles through microscale environments record useful information about both the particles and the environments. Optical microscopes provide efficient access to this information through measurements of light in the far field from nanoparticles. Such measurements necessarily involve trade-offs in tracking capabilities. This article presents a measurement framework, based on information theory, that facilitates a more systematic understanding of such trade-offs to rationally design tracking systems for diverse applications. This framework includes the degrees of freedom of optical microscopes, which determine the limitations of tracking measurements in theory. In the laboratory, tracking systems are assemblies of sources and sensors, optics and stages, and nanoparticle emitters. The combined characteristics of such systems determine the limitations of tracking measurements in practice. This article reviews this tracking hardware with a focus on the essential functions of nanoparticles as optical emitters and microenvironmental probes. Within these theoretical and practical limitations, experimentalists have implemented a variety of tracking systems with different capabilities. This article reviews a selection of apparatuses and techniques for tracking multiple and single particles by tuning illumination and detection, and by using feedback and confinement to improve the measurements. Prior information is also useful in many tracking systems and measurements, which apply across a broad spectrum of science and technology. In the context of the framework and review of apparatuses and techniques, this article reviews a selection of applications, with particle diffusion serving as a prelude to tracking measurements in biological, fluid, and material systems, fabrication and assembly processes, and engineered devices. In so doing, this review identifies trends and gaps in particle tracking that might influence future research.

  7. Development of a Level-1 Track and Vertex Finder for the Phase II CMS experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414391; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire

    The High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider will operate at an increased instantaneous luminosity, up to seven times the design value, in order to collect an integrated luminosity of $3,000$\\,fb$^{-1}$ in the decade following 2025. Proton bunches at the HL-LHC will cross every $25$\\,ns, producing an average of 140-200 pile-up proton-proton collisions per crossing. A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the HL-LHC. A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above $2$--$3$\\,GeV within $4\\,\\upmu$s to be used in the Level-1 (L1) trigger decision. This thesis presents one of the main proposals for the final L1 Track Finding system, which exploits a fully time-multiplexed architecture based on high-speed FPGA electronics. The developed track finding algorithm makes use of the Hough Transform technique to identify track candidates, followed by a track fitting stage. Sever...

  8. Three-Dimensional Triplet Tracking for LHC and Future High Rate Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schöning, Andre

    2014-10-20

    The hit combinatorial problem is a main challenge for track reconstruction and triggering at high rate experiments. At hadron colliders the dominant fraction of hits is due to low momentum tracks for which multiple scattering (MS) effects dominate the hit resolution. MS is also the dominating source for hit confusion and track uncertainties in low energy precision experiments. In all such environments, where MS dominates, track reconstruction and fitting can be largely simplified by using three-dimensional (3D) hit-triplets as provided by pixel detectors. This simplification is possible since track uncertainties are solely determined by MS if high precision spatial information is provided. Fitting of hit-triplets is especially simple for tracking detectors in solenoidal magnetic fields. The over-constrained 3D-triplet method provides a complete set of track parameters and is robust against fake hit combinations. The triplet method is ideally suited for pixel detectors where hits can be treated as 3D-space poi...

  9. TRACK The New Beam Dynamics Code

    CERN Document Server

    Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter; Schnirman-Lessner, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    The new ray-tracing code TRACK was developed* to fulfill the special requirements of the RIA accelerator systems. The RIA lattice includes an ECR ion source, a LEBT containing a MHB and a RFQ followed by three SC linac sections separated by two stripping stations with appropriate magnetic transport systems. No available beam dynamics code meet all the necessary requirements for an end-to-end simulation of the RIA driver linac. The latest version of TRACK was used for end-to-end simulations of the RIA driver including errors and beam loss analysis.** In addition to the standard capabilities, the code includes the following new features: i) multiple charge states ii) realistic stripper model; ii) static and dynamic errors iii) automatic steering to correct for misalignments iv) detailed beam-loss analysis; v) parallel computing to perform large scale simulations. Although primarily developed for simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam dynamics code. Currently it is being used for the design and ...

  10. Oral fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis: two-year results of a phase II extension study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, P; Comi, G; Montalban, X

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a 24-month extension of a phase II trial assessing the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the once-daily oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, fingolimod (FTY720), in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the randomized, double-blind, pla...

  11. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2004-12-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method.

  13. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS is planning a trigger upgrade that will enable the experiment to use tracking information already at the first trigger level. This will provide enhanced background rejection power at trigger level while preserving much needed flexibility for the trigger system. The status and current plans for the new ATLAS Level-1 tracking trigger are presented.

  14. Correlations of Platooning Track Test and Wind Tunnel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2018-02-02

    In this report, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed results from multiple, independent truck platooning projects to compare and contrast track test results with wind tunnel test results conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Some highlights from the report include compiled data, and results from four independent SAE J1321 full-size track test campaigns that were compared to LLNL wind tunnel testing results. All platooning scenarios tested demonstrated significant fuel savings with good correlation relative to following distances, but there are still unanswered questions and clear opportunities for system optimization. NOx emissions showed improvements from NREL tests in 2014 to Auburn tests in 2015 with respect to J1321 platooning track testing of Peloton system. NREL evaluated data from Volpe's Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior, which showed minimal impact of naturalistic background platooning. We found significant correlation between multiple track studies, wind tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamics, but also showed that there is more to learn regarding close formation and longer-distance effects. We also identified potential areas for further research and development, including development of advanced aerodynamic designs optimized for platooning, measurement of platoon system performance in traffic conditions, impact of vehicle lateral offsets on platooning performance, and characterization of the national potential for platooning based on fleet operational characteristics.

  15. Tracking change over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  16. A common source of attention for auditory and visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Daryl; Cockhren, Jurnell; Marois, René

    2018-05-01

    Tasks that require tracking visual information reveal the severe limitations of our capacity to attend to multiple objects that vary in time and space. Although these limitations have been extensively characterized in the visual domain, very little is known about tracking information in other sensory domains. Does tracking auditory information exhibit characteristics similar to those of tracking visual information, and to what extent do these two tracking tasks draw on the same attention resources? We addressed these questions by asking participants to perform either single or dual tracking tasks from the same (visual-visual) or different (visual-auditory) perceptual modalities, with the difficulty of the tracking tasks being manipulated across trials. The results revealed that performing two concurrent tracking tasks, whether they were in the same or different modalities, affected tracking performance as compared to performing each task alone (concurrence costs). Moreover, increasing task difficulty also led to increased costs in both the single-task and dual-task conditions (load-dependent costs). The comparison of concurrence costs between visual-visual and visual-auditory dual-task performance revealed slightly greater interference when two visual tracking tasks were paired. Interestingly, however, increasing task difficulty led to equivalent costs for visual-visual and visual-auditory pairings. We concluded that visual and auditory tracking draw largely, though not exclusively, on common central attentional resources.

  17. Performance and track-based alignment of the Phase-1 upgraded CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is a multi-purpose detector constructed in order to study high-energy particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The all-silicon design of the tracking system of the CMS experiment provided excellent resolution for charged tracks and an efficient tagging of jets during Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC. After the pixel detector of the CMS experiment was upgraded and installed during the shutdown in the beginning of 2017, the positions and orientations of the tracker modules needed to be determined with a precision of several micrometers. The alignment also needs to be quickly recalculated each time the state of the CMS magnet is changed between 0 T and 3.8 T. The latest results of the CMS tracker performance in the 2017 run are presented, with a special focus on alignment and resolution performance using several million reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and collision data.

  18. Three-dimensional tracking of small aquatic organisms using fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael T Ekvall

    Full Text Available Tracking techniques are vital for the understanding of the biology and ecology of organisms. While such techniques have provided important information on the movement and migration of large animals, such as mammals and birds, scientific advances in understanding the individual behaviour and interactions of small (mm-scale organisms have been hampered by constraints, such as the sizes of existing tracking devices, in existing tracking methods. By combining biology, chemistry and physics we here present a method that allows three-dimensional (3D tracking of individual mm-sized aquatic organisms. The method is based on in-vivo labelling of the organisms with fluorescent nanoparticles, so-called quantum dots, and tracking of the organisms in 3D via the quantum-dot fluorescence using a synchronized multiple camera system. It allows for the efficient and simultaneous study of the behaviour of one as well as multiple individuals in large volumes of observation, thus enabling the study of behavioural interactions at the community scale. The method is non-perturbing - we demonstrate that the labelling is not affecting the behavioural response of the organisms - and is applicable over a wide range of taxa, including cladocerans as well as insects, suggesting that our methodological concept opens up for new research fields on individual behaviour of small animals. Hence, this offers opportunities to focus on important biological, ecological and behavioural questions never before possible to address.

  19. Chromaticity tracking using a phase modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.Y.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In the classical chromaticity measurement technique, chromaticity is measured by measuring the change in betatron tune as the RF frequency is varied. This paper will describe a novel way of measuring chromaticity: we will phase modulate the RF with a known sine wave and then phase demodulate the betatron frequency. The result is a line in Fourier space which corresponds to the frequency of our sine wave modulation. The peak of this sine wave is proportional to chromaticity. For this technique to work, a tune tracker PLL system is required because it supplies the betatron carrier frequency. This method has been tested in the Tevatron and we will show the results here

  20. Data-Base Software For Tracking Technological Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, James A.; Wright, Simon; Monteith, Steve K.

    1996-01-01

    Technology Tracking System (TechTracS) computer program developed for use in storing and retrieving information on technology and related patent information developed under auspices of NASA Headquarters and NASA's field centers. Contents of data base include multiple scanned still images and quick-time movies as well as text. TechTracS includes word-processing, report-editing, chart-and-graph-editing, and search-editing subprograms. Extensive keyword searching capabilities enable rapid location of technologies, innovators, and companies. System performs routine functions automatically and serves multiple users.

  1. Evaluation of a novel multiple phase veneering ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuprasirt, Pannapa; van Noort, Richard; Moorehead, Robert; Pollington, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    To produce a new veneering ceramic based on the production of a multiple phase glass-ceramic with improved performance in terms of strength and toughness. A composition of 60% leucite, 20% diopside and 20% feldspathic glass was prepared, blended and a heat treatment schedule of 930°C for 5 min was derived from differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the glasses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis determined the crystalline phases and microstructure. Chemical solubility, biaxial flexural strength (BFS), fracture toughness, hardness, total transmittance and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) were all measured in comparison to a commercial veneering ceramic (VITA VM9). Thermal shock resistance of the leucite-diopside and VITA VM9 veneered onto a commercial high strength zirconia (Vita In-Ceram YZ) was also assessed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Independent Samples t-test. Weibull analysis was employed to examine the reliability of the strength data. The mean chemical solubility was 6 μg/cm(2) for both ceramics (P=1.00). The mean BFS was 109 ± 8 MPa for leucite-diopside ceramic and 79 ± 11 MPa for VITA VM9 ceramic (P=0.01). Similarly, the leucite-diopside ceramic demonstrated a significantly higher fracture toughness and hardness. The average total transmittance was 46.3% for leucite-diopside ceramic and 39.8% for VITA VM9 (P=0.01). The leucite-diopside outperformed the VITA VM9 in terms of thermal shock resistance. Significance This novel veneering ceramic exhibits significant improvements in terms of mechanical properties, yet retains a high translucency and is the most appropriate choice as a veneering ceramic for a zirconia base core material. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of track reconstruction methods in the context of CMS physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, M.

    2002-05-01

    This thesis deals mainly with the problem of reconstructing the tracks of charged particles from the measurements recorded by the CMS Tracker, in particular with track fitting. The task of the track fit is to use the available information (the subsets of hits belonging to the track of a particle found by a track finder) in a statistically optimal way for the estimation of the track parameters and the associated errors. Due to the high track multiplicity at LHC and the large background of noise hits, combinatorial methods such as the Kalman filter may have problems in the association of hits to tracks, and their results will be biased in the case of wrong hits assigned to a track. Recently developped non-linear, adaptive methods such as the deterministic annealing filter and the multi track filter try to solve the assignment problem during the track fit, by determining an assignment probability of a hit to a track. The methods are studied in the CMS Tracker using various event topologies. (author)

  3. A Microstrip Patch-Fed Short Backfire Antenna for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Short Backfire Antennas (SBAs) are widely utilized for mobile satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications due to their compact structure and excellent radiation characteristics [1-3]. Typically, these SBA s consist of an excitation element (i.e., a half-wavelength dipole), a reflective bottom plane, a planar sub-reflector located above the "exciter", and an outer circular rim. This configuration is capable of achieving gains on the order of 13-15 dBi, but with relatively narrow bandwidths (approx.3%-5%), making it incompatible with the requirements of the next generation enhanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) array [1]. Several attempts have been made to enhance the bandwidth performance of the common dipole-fed SBA by employing various other feeding mechanisms (e.g., waveguide, slot) with moderate success [4-5]. In this paper, a novel method of using a microstrip patch is employed for the first time to excite an SBA. The patch element is fed via two H-shaped slots electromagnetically coupled to a broadband hybrid coupler to maintain a wide bandwidth, as well as provide for dual circular polarization capabilities.

  4. Fiber Bragg grating for spectral phase optical code-division multiple-access encoding and decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohui; Wang, Dong-Ning; Li, Shichen

    2003-08-01

    A new method for realizing spectral phase optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) coding based on step chirped fiber Bragg gratings (SCFBGs) is proposed and the corresponding encoder/decoder is presented. With this method, a mapping code is introduced for the m-sequence address code and the phase shift can be inserted into the subgratings of the SCFBG according to the mapping code. The transfer matrix method together with Fourier transform is used to investigate the characteristics of the encoder/decoder. The factors that influence the correlation property of the encoder/decoder, including index modulation and bandwidth of the subgrating, are identified. The system structure is simple and good correlation output can be obtained. The performance of the OCDMA system based on SCFBGs has been analyzed.

  5. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisielewski, J., E-mail: jankis@uwb.edu.pl; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Wawro, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-05-21

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  6. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielewski, J.; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A.; Wawro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  7. Registration of clinical volumes to beams-eye-view images for real-time tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jonathan H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Lewis, John H.; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross I., E-mail: rberbeco@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors combine the registration of 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) images and 3D planning computed tomography (CT) images, with relative, markerless tumor tracking to provide automatic absolute tracking of physician defined volumes such as the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: During treatment of lung SBRT cases, BEV images were continuously acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) operating in cine mode. For absolute registration of physician-defined volumes, an intensity based 2D/3D registration to the planning CT was performed using the end-of-exhale (EoE) phase of the four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). The volume was converted from Hounsfield units into electron density by a calibration curve and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for each beam geometry. Using normalized cross correlation between the DRR and an EoE BEV image, the best in-plane rigid transformation was found. The transformation was applied to physician-defined contours in the planning CT, mapping them into the EPID image domain. A robust multiregion method of relative markerless lung tumor tracking quantified deviations from the EoE position. Results: The success of 2D/3D registration was demonstrated at the EoE breathing phase. By registering at this phase and then employing a separate technique for relative tracking, the authors are able to successfully track target volumes in the BEV images throughout the entire treatment delivery. Conclusions: Through the combination of EPID/4DCT registration and relative tracking, a necessary step toward the clinical implementation of BEV tracking has been completed. The knowledge of tumor volumes relative to the treatment field is important for future applications like real-time motion management, adaptive radiotherapy, and delivered dose calculations.

  8. Active MRI tracking for robotic assisted FUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Huang, Zhihong; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    MR guided FUS is a noninvasive method producing thermal necrosis at the position of tumors with high accuracy and temperature control. Because the typical size of the ultrasound focus is smaller than the area of interested treatment tissues, focus repositioning become necessary to achieve multiple sonications to cover the whole targeted area. Using MR compatible mechanical actuators could help the ultrasound beam to reach a wider treatment range than using electrical beam steering technique and more flexibility in position the transducer. An active MR tracking technique was combined into the MRgFUS system to help locating the position of the mechanical actuator and the FUS transducer. For this study, a precise agar reference model was designed and fabricated to test the performance of the active tracking technique when it was used on the MR-compatible robotics InnoMotion™ (IBSMM, Engineering spol. s r.o. / Ltd, Czech Republic). The precision, tracking range and positioning speed of the combined robotic FUS system were evaluated in this study. Compared to the existing MR guided HIFU systems, the combined robotic system with active tracking techniques provides a potential that allows the FUS treatment to operate in a larger spatial range and with a faster speed, which is one of the main challenges for organ motion tracking.

  9. Optimal Scheduling of Railway Track Possessions in Large-Scale Projects with Multiple Construction Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    satisfying different operational constraints and minimizing the total construction cost. To find an optimal solution of the RTPSP, this paper proposes an approach that, first, transfers the nominal market prices into track-possession-based real prices, and then generates a schedule of the construction works...... by solving a mixed-integer linear-programming model for the given track blocking proposal. The proposed approach is tested on a real-life case study from the Danish railway infrastructure manager. The results show that, in 2 h of computing time, the approach is able to provide solutions that are within 0...

  10. Effect of track etch rate on geometric track characteristics for polymeric track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Naby, A.A.; El-Akkad, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the variable track etch rate on geometric track characteristic for polymeric track detectors has been applied to the case of LR-155 II SSNTD. Spectrometric characteristics of low energy alpha particles response by the polymeric detector have been obtained. The track etching kinematics theory of development of minor diameter of the etched tracks has been applied. The calculations show that, for this type of detector, the energy dependence of the minor track diameter d is linear for small-etched removal layer h. The energy resolution gets better for higher etched removal layer

  11. LEA Detection and Tracking Method for Color-Independent Visual-MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Eun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication performance in the color-independent visual-multiple input multiple output (visual-MIMO technique is deteriorated by light emitting array (LEA detection and tracking errors in the received image because the image sensor included in the camera must be used as the receiver in the visual-MIMO system. In this paper, in order to improve detection reliability, we first set up the color-space-based region of interest (ROI in which an LEA is likely to be placed, and then use the Harris corner detection method. Next, we use Kalman filtering for robust tracking by predicting the most probable location of the LEA when the relative position between the camera and the LEA varies. In the last step of our proposed method, the perspective projection is used to correct the distorted image, which can improve the symbol decision accuracy. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the possibility of robust detection and tracking of the LEA, which results in a symbol error rate (SER performance improvement.

  12. Behavior Tracking Software Enhancement and Integration of a Feedback Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Horizon Performance designed a Behavior Tracking Software System to collect crew member behavior throughout a mission, giving NASA the capability to monitor...

  13. Nonorthogonal multiple access and carrierless amplitude phase modulation for flexible multiuser provisioning in 5G mobile networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altabas, J.A.; Rommel, S.; Puerta, R.; Izquierdo, D.; Ignacio Garces, J.; Antonio Lazaro, J.; Vegas Olmos, J.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a combined nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and multiband carrierless amplitude phase modulation (multiCAP) scheme is proposed for capacity enhancement of and flexible resource provisioning in 5G mobile networks. The proposed scheme is experimentally evaluated over a W-band

  14. A Level 1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the LHC Phase 2 Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzobon, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The second decade of Large Hadron Collider operations, from about 2020 onwards, envisages a remarkable increase in collider instantaneous luminosity, one order of magnitude above the project one. This luminosity increase presents several challenges to the LHC experiments. The present tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment must be replaced with a system providing excellent tracking quality at higher luminosities, as well as Tracking Trigger inputs to the existing “Level 0” CMS trigger system at the full 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate. The minimal requirements for a Tracking Trigger would be the capability to confirm the presence of high-pT tracks associated with Calorimeter and/or Muon Level 0 triggers. The ability to provide eective isolation criteria may also be required, and would in any case substantially improve the Trigger performance. Maintaining the data rates generated by Tracking Trigger inputs within a manageable bandwidth requires sensor modules able to locally sparsify the data. Measuring...

  15. Analysis of LFM-waveform Libraries for Cognitive Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the waveform agility in cognitive radars,the waveform libraries for maneuvering target tracking are discussed. LFM-waveform libraries are designed according to different combinations of chirp parameters and FrFT rotation angles. By applying the interact multiple model (IMM algorithm in tracking maneuvering targets, transmitted waveform is called real time from the LFM-waveform libraries. The waveforms are selected from the library according to the criterion of maximum mutual information between the current state of knowledge of the model and the measurement. Simulation results show that waveform library containing certain amount LFM-waveforms can improve the performance of cognitive tracking radar.

  16. Rate control and quality assurance during rhythmic force tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Su, Jyong-Huei; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-02-01

    Movement characteristics can be coded in the single neurons or in the summed activity of neural populations. However, whether neural oscillations are conditional to the frequency demand and task quality of rhythmic force regulation is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate EEG dynamics and behavior correlates during force-tracking at different target rates. Fourteen healthy volunteers conducted load-varying isometric abduction of the index finger by coupling the force output to sinusoidal targets at 0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz, and 2.0 Hz. Our results showed that frequency demand significantly affected EEG delta oscillation (1-4 Hz) in the C3, CP3, CPz, and CP4 electrodes, with the greatest delta power and lowest delta peak around 1.5 Hz for slower tracking at 0.5 Hz. Those who had superior tracking congruency also manifested enhanced alpha oscillation (8-12 Hz). Alpha rhythms of the skilled performers during slow tracking spread through the whole target cycle, except for the phase of direction changes. However, the alpha rhythms centered at the mid phase of a target cycle with increasing target rate. In conclusion, our findings clearly suggest two advanced roles of cortical oscillation in rhythmic force regulation. Rate-dependent delta oscillation involves a paradigm shift in force control under different time scales. Phasic organization of alpha rhythms during rhythmic force tracking is related to behavioral success underlying the selective use of bimodal controls (feedback and feedforward processes) and the timing of attentional focus on the target's peak velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cooperative Fault Tolerant Tracking Control for Multiagent Systems: An Intermediate Estimator-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wen-An; Yu, Li

    2017-10-17

    This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some specified parameters. Finally, a simulation example of aircraft demonstrates the effectiveness of the designed tracking protocol.This paper studies the observer based fault tolerant tracking control problem for linear multiagent systems with multiple faults and mismatched disturbances. A novel distributed intermediate estimator based fault tolerant tracking protocol is presented. The leader's input is nonzero and unavailable to the followers. By applying a projection technique, the mismatched disturbances are separated into matched and unmatched components. For each node, a tracking error system is established, for which an intermediate estimator driven by the relative output measurements is constructed to estimate the sensor faults and a combined signal of the leader's input, process faults, and matched disturbance component. Based on the estimation, a fault tolerant tracking protocol is designed to eliminate the effects of the combined signal. Besides, the effect of unmatched disturbance component can be attenuated by directly adjusting some

  18. Automated track recognition and event reconstruction in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Aranas, A.; Cherry, M.L.; Dugas, J.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B.S.; Sengupta, K.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wosiek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject background and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities ∝ 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon 208 Pb beam at CERN. Automatically measured events agree with our best manual measurements on 97% of all the tracks. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation

  20. Online multi-modal robust non-negative dictionary learning for visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Guan, Naiyang; Tao, Dacheng; Qiu, Xiaogang; Luo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Dictionary learning is a method of acquiring a collection of atoms for subsequent signal representation. Due to its excellent representation ability, dictionary learning has been widely applied in multimedia and computer vision. However, conventional dictionary learning algorithms fail to deal with multi-modal datasets. In this paper, we propose an online multi-modal robust non-negative dictionary learning (OMRNDL) algorithm to overcome this deficiency. Notably, OMRNDL casts visual tracking as a dictionary learning problem under the particle filter framework and captures the intrinsic knowledge about the target from multiple visual modalities, e.g., pixel intensity and texture information. To this end, OMRNDL adaptively learns an individual dictionary, i.e., template, for each modality from available frames, and then represents new particles over all the learned dictionaries by minimizing the fitting loss of data based on M-estimation. The resultant representation coefficient can be viewed as the common semantic representation of particles across multiple modalities, and can be utilized to track the target. OMRNDL incrementally learns the dictionary and the coefficient of each particle by using multiplicative update rules to respectively guarantee their non-negativity constraints. Experimental results on a popular challenging video benchmark validate the effectiveness of OMRNDL for visual tracking in both quantity and quality.

  1. Feasibility of mesenchymal stem cell culture expansion for a phase I clinical trial in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, Sarah M; Lingas, Karen T; Reese Koç, Jane; Hooper, Brittney M; Maitra, Basabi; Fox, Robert M; Imrey, Peter B; Drake, Kylie M; Aldred, Micheala A; Lazarus, Hillard M; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system for which therapeutic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is under study. Published experience of culture-expanding multiple sclerosis patients' mesenchymal stem cells for clinical trials is limited. To determine the feasibility of culture-expanding multiple sclerosis patients' mesenchymal stem cells for clinical use. In a phase I trial, autologous, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from 25 trial participants with multiple sclerosis and eight matched controls, and culture-expanded to a target single dose of 1-2 × 10 6 cells/kg. Viability, cell product identity and sterility were assessed prior to infusion. Cytogenetic stability was assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from 18 multiple sclerosis patients and five controls. One patient failed screening. Mesenchymal stem cell culture expansion was successful for 24 of 25 multiple sclerosis patients and six of eight controls. The target dose was achieved in 16-62 days, requiring two to three cell passages. Growth rate and culture success did not correlate with demographic or multiple sclerosis disease characteristics. Cytogenetic studies identified changes on one chromosome of one control (4.3%) after extended time in culture. Culture expansion of mesenchymal stem cells from multiple sclerosis patients as donors is feasible. However, culture time should be minimized for cell products designated for therapeutic administration.

  2. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  3. Contribution to Synchronization and Tracking Modelisation in a CDMA Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Alami Hassani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and analyze a noncoherent receiver with PN code tracking for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA communication systems. We employ the delay-lock loop (DLL architectures for the tracking stage. The choice of DLL parameters is studied with special focus on DS-CDMA communication systems and orthogonality conditions. We described the modeling and simulation of the NCO using hardware description language VHDL. Details of the VHDL implementation are shown.

  4. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  5. Design of all-optical high-order temporal integrators based on multiple-phase-shifted Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2008-07-21

    In exact analogy with their electronic counterparts, photonic temporal integrators are fundamental building blocks for constructing all-optical circuits for ultrafast information processing and computing. In this work, we introduce a simple and general approach for realizing all-optical arbitrary-order temporal integrators. We demonstrate that the N(th) cumulative time integral of the complex field envelope of an input optical waveform can be obtained by simply propagating this waveform through a single uniform fiber/waveguide Bragg grating (BG) incorporating N pi-phase shifts along its axial profile. We derive here the design specifications of photonic integrators based on multiple-phase-shifted BGs. We show that the phase shifts in the BG structure can be arbitrarily located along the grating length provided that each uniform grating section (sections separated by the phase shifts) is sufficiently long so that its associated peak reflectivity reaches nearly 100%. The resulting designs are demonstrated by numerical simulations assuming all-fiber implementations. Our simulations show that the proposed approach can provide optical operation bandwidths in the tens-of-GHz regime using readily feasible photo-induced fiber BG structures.

  6. Characterisation of ultrasonic structural noise in multiple scattering media using phased arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedetti, T; Dorval, V; Jenson, F; Derode, A

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of multiple scattering media gives rise to structural noise which makes it difficult to detect potential damage or crack inside the component. In order to predict the performances of ultrasonic inspection over such complex media, scattering models can be used. Such models rely on specific key parameters describing the multiple scattering process, which can be determined by specific measurements and post-processing techniques. Such experiments were carried out on stainless steel plates using linear phased-arrays. They consist in recording the response matrix constituted by impulse responses between all the elements of the array. By conducting post-processing on this matrix, we measure the elastic mean free path l e and the correlation distance d c of the recorded noise. Additionally, the dynamic behaviour of the coherent backscattering effect was studied in order to measure the diffusion constant D. Plane-wave beamforming has been applied to the response matrix to improve the angular resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered intensity. Details of postprocessing techniques will be shown

  7. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  8. Quality of Slab Track Construction - Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestáková, Janka

    2015-05-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  9. Tracking Studies of the MedAustron HEBT

    CERN Document Server

    Schönauer, H

    2014-01-01

    The design of the HEBT, the High Energy Beam Transfer line of the MedAustron Hadron Therapy Centre is based on new concepts developed in the CERN PIMMS Study of the Nineties. One of those is the ‘bar-of-charge’, a very realistic description of the particularities of the horizontal phase space distribution of the slow-extracted beams. Tracking a distribution - produced by simulation of the slow extraction - from the electrostatic septum through the modules of the transfer line gives the sometimes rather particular phase space distributions and their projections at the monitors. Knowing the theoretical phase space distributions there is helpful in the interpretation of the profiles observed.

  10. Behavior Tracking Software Enhancement and Integration of a Feedback Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Company is proposing to adapt a behavioral tracking program and feedback module specifically developed for the U.S. Army Special Forces for NASA human space...

  11. WE-AB-303-08: Direct Lung Tumor Tracking Using Short Imaging Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C; Huang, C; Keall, P; Feain, I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most current tumor tracking technologies rely on implanted markers, which suffer from potential toxicity of marker placement and mis-targeting due to marker migration. Several markerless tracking methods have been proposed: these are either indirect methods or have difficulties tracking lung tumors in most clinical cases due to overlapping anatomies in 2D projection images. We propose a direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies using short imaging arcs. Methods: The proposed algorithm tracks the tumor based on kV projections acquired within the latest six-degree imaging arc. To account for respiratory motion, an external motion surrogate is used to select projections of the same phase within the latest arc. For each arc, the pre-treatment 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) with tumor contours are used to estimate and remove the contribution to the integral attenuation from surrounding anatomies. The position of the tumor model extracted from 4D CBCT of the same phase is then optimized to match the processed projections using the conjugate gradient method. The algorithm was retrospectively validated on two kV scans of a lung cancer patient with implanted fiducial markers. This patient was selected as the tumor is attached to the mediastinum, representing a challenging case for markerless tracking methods. The tracking results were converted to expected marker positions and compared with marker trajectories obtained via direct marker segmentation (ground truth). Results: The root-mean-squared-errors of tracking were 0.8 mm and 0.9 mm in the superior-inferior direction for the two scans. Tracking error was found to be below 2 and 3 mm for 90% and 98% of the time, respectively. Conclusions: A direct lung tumor tracking algorithm robust to overlapping anatomies was proposed and validated on two scans of a lung cancer patient. Sub-millimeter tracking accuracy was observed, indicating the potential of this algorithm for real-time guidance

  12. Structure of heavy-ion tracks in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunshausen, G.; Bursill, L.A.; Vetter, J.; Spohr, R.

    1990-01-01

    Gem quality zirconas (ZrSiO 4 ) were irradiated with 14MeV/u Pb ions. Observations of heavy-ion tracks confirmed that fission or heavy-ion irradiation damage is confined to a 50-100 Aangstroem core region, which has undergone a crystalline-glass phase transition. 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Route planning with transportation network maps: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Elise; Gyselinck, Valérie; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Wiener, Jan Malte

    2017-09-01

    Planning routes using transportation network maps is a common task that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we present a novel eye-tracking paradigm to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms involved in such a route planning. In the experiment, participants were first presented with an origin and destination pair before we presented them with fictitious public transportation maps. Their task was to find the connecting route that required the minimum number of transfers. Based on participants' gaze behaviour, each trial was split into two phases: (1) the search for origin and destination phase, i.e., the initial phase of the trial until participants gazed at both origin and destination at least once and (2) the route planning and selection phase. Comparisons of other eye-tracking measures between these phases and the time to complete them, which depended on the complexity of the planning task, suggest that these two phases are indeed distinct and supported by different cognitive processes. For example, participants spent more time attending the centre of the map during the initial search phase, before directing their attention to connecting stations, where transitions between lines were possible. Our results provide novel insights into the psychological processes involved in route planning from maps. The findings are discussed in relation to the current theories of route planning.

  14. Long-term tracking of multiple interacting pedestrians using a single camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keaikitse, M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available interacting pedestrians using a single camera Mogomotsi Keaikitse∗, Willie Brink† and Natasha Govender∗ ∗Modelling and Digital Sciences, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa †Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch...-identified and their tracks extended. Standard, publicly available data sets are used to test the system. I. INTRODUCTION Closed circuit cameras are becoming widespread and preva- lent in cities and towns around the world, indicating that surveillance is an important issue...

  15. High temperature series expansions with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian for the bcc and hcp phases of solid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, M.; Suaudeau, E.; Bernier, M.E.R.

    1987-08-01

    High temperature series expansions with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian are performed to fourth order in arbitrary magnetic field for both phases of solid 3 He. The susceptibility series are analysed with Pade approximants and compared with recent experimental results. For the hcp phase we estimate the ferromagnetic ordering temperature from susceptibility series and discuss the influence of four-particle exchange in lowering the transition

  16. Adaptive Backstepping-Based Neural Tracking Control for MIMO Nonlinear Switched Systems Subject to Input Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Li, Lu

    2018-06-01

    This brief proposes a new neural-network (NN)-based adaptive output tracking control scheme for a class of disturbed multiple-input multiple-output uncertain nonlinear switched systems with input delays. By combining the universal approximation ability of radial basis function NNs and adaptive backstepping recursive design with an improved multiple Lyapunov function (MLF) scheme, a novel adaptive neural output tracking controller design method is presented for the switched system. The feature of the developed design is that different coordinate transformations are adopted to overcome the conservativeness caused by adopting a common coordinate transformation for all subsystems. It is shown that all the variables of the resulting closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded under a class of switching signals in the presence of MLF and that the system output can follow the desired reference signal. To demonstrate the practicability of the obtained result, an adaptive neural output tracking controller is designed for a mass-spring-damper system.

  17. Exogenous Social Identity Cues Differentially Affect the Dynamic Tracking of Individual Target Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roy; Gabbert, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experiment to investigate the top-down effect of exogenous social identity cues on a multiple-identity tracking task, a paradigm well suited to investigate the processes of binding identity to spatial locations. Here we simulated an eyewitness event in which dynamic targets, all to be tracked with equal effort, were identified from…

  18. Refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-05-07

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  19. Numerical methods and inversion algorithms in reservoir simulation based on front tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugse, Vidar

    1999-04-01

    This thesis uses front tracking to analyse laboratory experiments on multiphase flow in porous media. New methods for parameter estimation for two- and three-phase relative permeability experiments have been developed. Up scaling of heterogeneous and stochastic porous media is analysed. Numerical methods based on front tracking is developed and analysed. Such methods are efficient for problems involving steep changes in the physical quantities. Multi-dimensional problems are solved by combining front tracking with dimensional splitting. A method for adaptive grid refinement is developed.

  20. Principal axis-based correspondence between multiple cameras for people tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Min; Zhou, Xue; Tan, Tieniu; Lou, Jianguang; Maybank, Steve

    2006-04-01

    Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple cameras. The correspondence likelihood reflecting the similarity of pairs of principal axes of people is constructed according to the relationship between "ground-points" of people detected in each camera view and the intersections of principal axes detected in different camera views and transformed to the same view. Our method has the following desirable properties: 1) Camera calibration is not needed. 2) Accurate motion detection and segmentation are less critical due to the robustness of the principal axis-based feature to noise. 3) Based on the fused data derived from correspondence results, positions of people in each camera view can be accurately located even when the people are partially occluded in all views. The experimental results on several real video sequences from outdoor environments have demonstrated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of our method.

  1. Beam instabilities in race track microtrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euteneuer, H.; Herminghaus, H.; Klein, R.

    1982-01-01

    Several limitations of the benefits of the race track microtron (RTM) as an economic cw electron accelerator are discussed. For beam blowup some final results of our investigations for the Mainz Microtron are given. The other two effects presented more generally are beam diffusion by imperfections of the optical elements of a RTM and the deterioration of transverse phase space by synchrotron radiation

  2. Annealing behavior of alpha recoil tracks in phlogopite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shaokai; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Bao Zengkuan

    2005-01-01

    Alpha recoil tracks (ARTs) formed during the a-decay of U, Th as well as their daughter nuclei are used as a new dating method which is to some extent a complementarity of fission track dating due to its ability to determine the age of young mineral. ARTs can be observable under phase-contrast interference microscope through chemical etching. In order to study the annealing behavior of ARTs in phlogopite, two methods of annealing experiments were executed. Samples were annealed in the electronic tube furnace at different temperatures ranging from 250 degree C to 450 degree C in steps of 50 degree C. For any given annealing temperature, different annealing times were used until total track fading were achieved. It is found that ARTs anneal much more easily than fission tracks, the annealing ratio increase non-linearly with annealing time and temperature. Using the Arrhenius plot, an activation energy of 0.68ev is finally found for 100% removal of ARTs, which is less than the corresponding value for fission tracks (FTs). Through extending the annealing time to geological time, a much lower temperature range of the sample's cooling history can be got.

  3. Triphasic contrast enhanced CT simulation with bolus tracking for pancreas SBRT target delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Devon J; Patel, Bhavik N; Adamson, Justus D; Subashi, Ergys; Salama, Joseph K; Palta, Manisha

    Bolus-tracked multiphasic contrast computed tomography (CT) is often used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the visibility of pancreas tumors, but is uncommon in radiation therapy pancreas CT simulation, and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation is unknown. This study evaluates the lesion conspicuity and consistency of pancreas stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) GTVs contoured in the different contrast phases of triphasic CT simulation scans. Triphasic, bolus-tracked planning CT simulation scans of 10 consecutive pancreas SBRT patients were acquired, yielding images of the pancreas during the late arterial (LA), portal venous (PV), and either the early arterial or delayed phase. GTVs were contoured on each phase by a gastrointestinal-specialized radiation oncologist and reviewed by a fellowship-trained abdominal radiologist who specializes in pancreatic imaging. The volumes of the registered GTVs, their overlap ratio, and the 3-dimensional margin expansions necessary for each GTV to fully encompass GTVs from the other phases were calculated. The contrast difference between tumor and normal pancreas was measured, and 2 radiation oncologists rank-ordered the phases according to their value for the lesion-contouring task. Tumor-to-pancreas enhancement was on average much larger for the LA and PV than the delayed phase or early arterial phases; the LA and PV phases were also consistently preferred by the radiation oncologists. Enhancement differences among the phases resulted in highly variable GTV volumes with no observed trends. Overlap ratios ranged from 18% to 75% across all 3 phases, improving to 43% to 91% when considering only the preferred LA and PV phases. GTV expansions necessary to encompass all GTVs ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 cm for all 3 phases, improving slightly to 0.1 to 1.4 cm when considering just the LA and PV phases. For pancreas SBRT, we recommend combining the GTVs from a multiphasic CT simulation with bolus-tracking, including

  4. Analysed cap mesenchyme track data from live imaging of mouse kidney development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Lefevre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides detailed information on manually tracked cap mesenchyme cells from timelapse imaging of multiple ex vivo embryonic mouse kidneys. Cells were imaged for up to 18 h at 15 or 20 min intervals, and multiple cell divisions were tracked. Positional data is supplemented with a range of information including the relative location of the closest ureteric tip and a correction for drift due to bulk movement and tip growth. A subset of tracks were annotated to indicate the presence of processes attached to the ureteric epithelium. The calculations used for drift correction are described, as are the main methods used in the analysis of this data for the purpose of describing cap cell motility. The outcomes of this analysis are discussed in “Cap mesenchyme cell swarming during kidney development is influenced by attraction, repulsion, and adhesion to the ureteric tip” (A.N. Combes, J.G. Lefevre, S. Wilson, N.A. Hamilton, M.H. Little, 2016 [1].

  5. Methods of reconstruction of multi-particle events in the new coordinate-tracking setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, V. S.; Shutenko, V. V.; Zadeba, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    At the Unique Scientific Facility NEVOD (MEPhI), a large coordinate-tracking detector based on drift chambers for investigations of muon bundles generated by ultrahigh energy primary cosmic rays is being developed. One of the main characteristics of the bundle is muon multiplicity. Three methods of reconstruction of multiple events were investigated: the sequential search method, method of finding the straight line and method of histograms. The last method determines the number of tracks with the same zenith angle in the event. It is most suitable for the determination of muon multiplicity: because of a large distance to the point of generation of muons, their trajectories are quasiparallel. The paper presents results of application of three reconstruction methods to data from the experiment, and also first results of the detector operation.

  6. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  7. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Mangan, John; Prudhomme, Andrew; Nguyen, Phi Khanh; Weber, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Space Time – Track Circuits with Trellis Code Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Enulescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The track circuits are very important equipments used in the railway transportation system. Today these are used to send vital information, to the running train, in the same time with the integrity checking of the rail. The actual track circuits have a small problem due to the use of the same transmission medium by the signals containing vital information and the return traction current, the running track rails. But this small problem can produce big disturbances in the train circulation, especially in the rush hours. To improve the data transmission to the train on-board equipment, the implementation of new track circuits using new communication technology were studied. This technology is used by the mobile and satellite communications and applies the principle of diversity encoding both time and space through the use of multiple transmission points of the track circuit signal for telegram which is sent to the train. Since this implementation does not satisfy the intended purpose, other modern communication principles such as 8PSK signals modulation and encoding using Trellis Coded Modulation were developed. This new track circuit aims to solve the problems which appeared in the current operation of track circuits and theoretically manages to transmit vital information to the train on board equipment without being affected by disturbances in electric traction transport systems.

  10. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  11. Wildlife tracking data management: a new vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Ferdinando; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calenge, Clément; Dettki, Holger; Cameron, Alison; Neteler, Markus

    2010-07-27

    To date, the processing of wildlife location data has relied on a diversity of software and file formats. Data management and the following spatial and statistical analyses were undertaken in multiple steps, involving many time-consuming importing/exporting phases. Recent technological advancements in tracking systems have made large, continuous, high-frequency datasets of wildlife behavioural data available, such as those derived from the global positioning system (GPS) and other animal-attached sensor devices. These data can be further complemented by a wide range of other information about the animals' environment. Management of these large and diverse datasets for modelling animal behaviour and ecology can prove challenging, slowing down analysis and increasing the probability of mistakes in data handling. We address these issues by critically evaluating the requirements for good management of GPS data for wildlife biology. We highlight that dedicated data management tools and expertise are needed. We explore current research in wildlife data management. We suggest a general direction of development, based on a modular software architecture with a spatial database at its core, where interoperability, data model design and integration with remote-sensing data sources play an important role in successful GPS data handling.

  12. Applying dual-laser spot positions measurement technology on a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional tracking measurement system with a tracking module, which consists of two stepping motors, two laser diodes and a four separated active areas segmented position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD was placed on a two-dimensional moving stage and used as a tracking target. The two laser diodes in the tracking module were directly rotated to keep the laser spots on the origin of the PSD. The two-dimensional position of the target PSD on the moving stage is determined from the distance between the two motors and the tracking angles of the two laser diodes, which are rotated by the two stepping motors, respectively. In order to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on one PSD, the laser diodes were modulated by two distinct frequencies. Multiple-laser spot position measurement technology was used to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on the PSD. The experimental results show that the steady-state voltage shift rate is about 0.2% and dynamic cross-talk rate is smaller than 2% when the two laser spots are projected on one PSD at the same time. The measurement errors of the x and y axial positions of the two-dimensional tracking system were less than 1% in the measuring range of 20 mm. The results demonstrate that multiple-laser spot position measurement technology can be employed in a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

  13. An Enhanced Non-Coherent Pre-Filter Design for Tracking Error Estimation in GNSS Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhibin; Ding, Jicheng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Mouyan

    2017-11-18

    Tracking error estimation is of great importance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. Any inaccurate estimation for tracking error will decrease the signal tracking ability of signal tracking loops and the accuracies of position fixing, velocity determination, and timing. Tracking error estimation can be done by traditional discriminator, or Kalman filter-based pre-filter. The pre-filter can be divided into two categories: coherent and non-coherent. This paper focuses on the performance improvements of non-coherent pre-filter. Firstly, the signal characteristics of coherent and non-coherent integration-which are the basis of tracking error estimation-are analyzed in detail. After that, the probability distribution of estimation noise of four-quadrant arctangent (ATAN2) discriminator is derived according to the mathematical model of coherent integration. Secondly, the statistical property of observation noise of non-coherent pre-filter is studied through Monte Carlo simulation to set the observation noise variance matrix correctly. Thirdly, a simple fault detection and exclusion (FDE) structure is introduced to the non-coherent pre-filter design, and thus its effective working range for carrier phase error estimation extends from (-0.25 cycle, 0.25 cycle) to (-0.5 cycle, 0.5 cycle). Finally, the estimation accuracies of discriminator, coherent pre-filter, and the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter are evaluated comprehensively through the carefully designed experiment scenario. The pre-filter outperforms traditional discriminator in estimation accuracy. In a highly dynamic scenario, the enhanced non-coherent pre-filter provides accuracy improvements of 41.6%, 46.4%, and 50.36% for carrier phase error, carrier frequency error, and code phase error estimation, respectively, when compared with coherent pre-filter. The enhanced non-coherent pre-filter outperforms the coherent pre-filter in code phase error estimation when carrier-to-noise density ratio

  14. Adaptive track scheduling to optimize concurrency and vectorization in GeantV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, J; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Novak, M; Wenzel, S; Bandieramonte, M; Bitzes, G; Canal, P; Elvira, V D; Jun, S Y; Lima, G; Licht, J C De Fine; Duhem, L; Sehgal, R; Shadura, O

    2015-01-01

    The GeantV project is focused on the R and D of new particle transport techniques to maximize parallelism on multiple levels, profiting from the use of both SIMD instructions and co-processors for the CPU-intensive calculations specific to this type of applications. In our approach, vectors of tracks belonging to multiple events and matching different locality criteria must be gathered and dispatched to algorithms having vector signatures. While the transport propagates tracks and changes their individual states, data locality becomes harder to maintain. The scheduling policy has to be changed to maintain efficient vectors while keeping an optimal level of concurrency. The model has complex dynamics requiring tuning the thresholds to switch between the normal regime and special modes, i.e. prioritizing events to allow flushing memory, adding new events in the transport pipeline to boost locality, dynamically adjusting the particle vector size or switching between vector to single track mode when vectorization causes only overhead. This work requires a comprehensive study for optimizing these parameters to make the behaviour of the scheduler self-adapting, presenting here its initial results. (paper)

  15. Tracking human multiple myeloma xenografts in NOD-Rag-1/IL-2 receptor gamma chain-null mice with the novel biomarker AKAP-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Yu, Yuefei; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Cobos, Everardo; John, Constance M; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal malignancy ranking second in prevalence among hematological tumors. Continuous efforts are being made to develop innovative and more effective treatments. The preclinical evaluation of new therapies relies on the use of murine models of the disease. Here we describe a new MM animal model in NOD-Rag1null IL2rgnull (NRG) mice that supports the engraftment of cell lines and primary MM cells that can be tracked with the tumor antigen, AKAP-4. Human MM cell lines, U266 and H929, and primary MM cells were successfully engrafted in NRG mice after intravenous administration, and were found in the bone marrow, blood and spleen of tumor-challenged animals. The AKAP-4 expression pattern was similar to that of known MM markers, such as paraproteins, CD38 and CD45. We developed for the first time a murine model allowing for the growth of both MM cell lines and primary cells in multifocal sites, thus mimicking the disease seen in patients. Additionally, we validated the use of AKAP-4 antigen to track tumor growth in vivo and to specifically identify MM cells in mouse tissues. We expect that our model will significantly improve the pre-clinical evaluation of new anti-myeloma therapies

  16. Prospective phase II study of image-guided local boost using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system with fiducial markers has the advantage that it can be used to verify the localization of the markers during radiation delivery in real-time. We conducted a prospective Phase II study of image-guided local-boost radiotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for positioning, and here we report the results regarding the safety and efficacy of the technique. Twenty patients with a T2-T4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were clinically inoperable or refused surgery were enrolled. Transurethral tumor resection and 40 Gy irradiation to the whole bladder was followed by the transurethral endoscopic implantation of gold markers in the bladder wall around the primary tumor. A boost of 25 Gy in 10 fractions was made to the primary tumor while maintaining the displacement from the planned position at less than ±2 mm during radiation delivery using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The toxicity, local control and survival were evaluated. Among the 20 patients, 14 were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 55.5 months. Urethral and bowel late toxicity (Grade 3) were each observed in one patient. The local-control rate, overall survival and cause-specific survival with the native bladder after 5 years were 64, 61 and 65%. Image-guided local-boost radiotherapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system can be safely accomplished, and the clinical outcome is encouraging. A larger prospective multi-institutional study is warranted for more precise evaluations of the technological efficacy and patients' quality of life. (author)

  17. Image-based tracking and sensor resource management for UAVs in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Ashwin; Chang, K. C.

    2010-04-01

    Coordination and deployment of multiple unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) requires a lot of human resources in order to carry out a successful mission. The complexity of such a surveillance mission is significantly increased in the case of an urban environment where targets can easily escape from the UAV's field of view (FOV) due to intervening building and line-of-sight obstruction. In the proposed methodology, we focus on the control and coordination of multiple UAVs having gimbaled video sensor onboard for tracking multiple targets in an urban environment. We developed optimal path planning algorithms with emphasis on dynamic target prioritizations and persistent target updates. The command center is responsible for target prioritization and autonomous control of multiple UAVs, enabling a single operator to monitor and control a team of UAVs from a remote location. The results are obtained using extensive 3D simulations in Google Earth using Tangent plus Lyapunov vector field guidance for target tracking.

  18. Person and gesture tracking with smart stereo cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gaile; Chen, Xiangrong; Buck, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Physical security increasingly involves sophisticated, real-time visual tracking of a person's location inside a given environment, often in conjunction with biometrics and other security-related technologies. However, demanding real-world conditions like crowded rooms, changes in lighting and physical obstructions have proved incredibly challenging for 2D computer vision technology. In contrast, 3D imaging technology is not affected by constant changes in lighting and apparent color, and thus allows tracking accuracy to be maintained in dynamically lit environments. In addition, person tracking with a 3D stereo camera can provide the location and movement of each individual very precisely, even in a very crowded environment. 3D vision only requires that the subject be partially visible to a single stereo camera to be correctly tracked; multiple cameras are used to extend the system's operational footprint, and to contend with heavy occlusion. A successful person tracking system, must not only perform visual analysis robustly, but also be small, cheap and consume relatively little power. The TYZX Embedded 3D Vision systems are perfectly suited to provide the low power, small footprint, and low cost points required by these types of volume applications. Several security-focused organizations, including the U.S Government, have deployed TYZX 3D stereo vision systems in security applications. 3D image data is also advantageous in the related application area of gesture tracking. Visual (uninstrumented) tracking of natural hand gestures and movement provides new opportunities for interactive control including: video gaming, location based entertainment, and interactive displays. 2D images have been used to extract the location of hands within a plane, but 3D hand location enables a much broader range of interactive applications. In this paper, we provide some background on the TYZX smart stereo cameras platform, describe the person tracking and gesture tracking systems

  19. A Quality Evaluation of Single and Multiple Camera Calibration Approaches for an Indoor Multi Camera Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adduci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human detection and tracking has been a prominent research area for several scientists around the globe. State of the art algorithms have been implemented, refined and accelerated to significantly improve the detection rate and eliminate false positives. While 2D approaches are well investigated, 3D human detection and tracking is still an unexplored research field. In both 2D/3D cases, introducing a multi camera system could vastly expand the accuracy and confidence of the tracking process. Within this work, a quality evaluation is performed on a multi RGB-D camera indoor tracking system for examining how camera calibration and pose can affect the quality of human tracks in the scene, independently from the detection and tracking approach used. After performing a calibration step on every Kinect sensor, state of the art single camera pose estimators were evaluated for checking how good the quality of the poses is estimated using planar objects such as an ordinate chessboard. With this information, a bundle block adjustment and ICP were performed for verifying the accuracy of the single pose estimators in a multi camera configuration system. Results have shown that single camera estimators provide high accuracy results of less than half a pixel forcing the bundle to converge after very few iterations. In relation to ICP, relative information between cloud pairs is more or less preserved giving a low score of fitting between concatenated pairs. Finally, sensor calibration proved to be an essential step for achieving maximum accuracy in the generated point clouds, and therefore in the accuracy of the produced 3D trajectories, from each sensor.

  20. A Robust Vision-based Runway Detection and Tracking Algorithm for Automatic UAV Landing

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Jbara, Khaled F.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel real-time algorithm for runway detection and tracking applied to the automatic takeoff and landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The algorithm is based on a combination of segmentation based region competition and the minimization of a specific energy function to detect and identify the runway edges from streaming video data. The resulting video-based runway position estimates are updated using a Kalman Filter, which can integrate other sensory information such as position and attitude angle estimates to allow a more robust tracking of the runway under turbulence. We illustrate the performance of the proposed lane detection and tracking scheme on various experimental UAV flights conducted by the Saudi Aerospace Research Center. Results show an accurate tracking of the runway edges during the landing phase under various lighting conditions. Also, it suggests that such positional estimates would greatly improve the positional accuracy of the UAV during takeoff and landing phases. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is further validated using Hardware in the Loop simulations with diverse takeoff and landing videos generated using a commercial flight simulator.

  1. Creation of nanoscale objects by swift heavy ion track manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Stolterfoht, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we give an overview of the possibilities to create new objects with nanoscale dimensions with ion tracks, for future applications. This can be realized in two ways: by manipulation of latent swift heavy ion (SHI) tracks, or by embedding specific structures within etched SHI tracks. In the first case one can make use of irradiation effects such as phase transitions and chemical or structural changes along the tracks. In the latter case, one can fill etched SHI tracks with metals, semiconductors, insulating and conducting polymers, fullerite, or colloides. Wires and tubules with outer diameters, between about 50 nm and 5 μm and lengths of up to about 100 μm can be obtained. The most important production techniques are galvanic and chemical depositions. Ion Transmission Spectrometry has turned out to be an especially useful tool for the characterisation of the produced objects. Present studies aim at the construction of condensers, magnets, diodes, and sensors in etched tracks. An obstacle for the practical realization of smallest-size polymeric ion track devices is the statistical distribution of the ion tracks on the target areas, which yields some pixels without any track, and other pixels even with overlapping tracks on a given sample. In a first test experiment we demonstrate that one can, in principle, overcome that problem by taking self-ordered porous foils as masks for subsequent high-fluence SHI irradiation. (author)

  2. The great escape - II. Exoplanet ejection from dying multiple-star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Tout, Christopher A.

    2012-05-01

    Extrasolar planets and belts of debris orbiting post-main-sequence single stars may become unbound as the evolving star loses mass. In multiple-star systems, the presence or co-evolution of the additional stars can significantly complicate the prospects for orbital excitation and escape. Here, we investigate the dynamical consequences of multi-phasic, non-linear mass loss and establish a criterion for a system of any stellar multiplicity to retain a planet whose orbit surrounds all of the parent stars. For single stars which become white dwarfs, this criterion can be combined with the Chandrasekhar Limit to establish the maximum allowable mass-loss rate for planet retention. We then apply the criterion to circumbinary planets in evolving binary systems over the entire stellar mass phase space. Through about 105 stellar evolutionary track realizations, we characterize planetary ejection prospects as a function of binary separation, stellar mass and metallicity. This investigation reveals that planets residing at just a few tens of au from a central concentration of stars are susceptible to escape in a wide variety of multiple systems. Further, planets are significantly more susceptible to ejection from multiple-star systems than from single-star systems for a given system mass. For system masses greater than about 2 M⊙, multiple-star systems represent the greater source of free-floating planets.

  3. Effect of cross-correlation on track-to-track fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rajat K.

    1994-07-01

    Since the advent of target tracking systems employing a diverse mixture of sensors, there has been increasing recognition by air defense system planners and other military system analysts of the need to integrate these tracks so that a clear air picture can be obtained in a command center. A popular methodology to achieve this goal is to perform track-to-track fusion, which performs track-to-track association as well as kinematic state vector fusion. This paper seeks to answer analytically the extent of improvement achievable by means of kinetic state vector fusion when the tracks are obtained from dissimilar sensors (e.g., Radar/ESM/IRST/IFF). It is well known that evaluation of the performance of state vector fusion algorithms at steady state must take into account the effects of cross-correlation between eligible tracks introduced by the input noise which, unfortunately, is often neglected because of added computational complexity. In this paper, an expression for the steady-state cross-covariance matrix for a 2D state vector track-to-track fusion is obtained. This matrix is shown to be a function of the parameters of the Kalman filters associated with the candidate tracks being fused. Conditions for positive definiteness of the cross-covariance matrix have been derived and the effect of positive definiteness on performance of track-to-track fusion is also discussed.

  4. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-10-15

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Case of possible multiple system atrophy with a characteristic imaging finding of open bladder neck during storage phase as an initial sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Haga, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Kanako; Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Kataoka, Masao; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-11-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disease that affects autonomic and motor systems. Patients with multiple system atrophy usually experience lower urinary tract symptoms, which sometimes appear as an initial symptom before the emergence of the generalized symptoms. An open bladder neck during the filling phase on video urodynamic study is one characteristic imaging finding after the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, but has not previously been reported at an early phase of the disease. We report a case in which an open bladder neck was observed on several imaging modalities before generalized symptoms emerged. Because occult neurogenic bladder might exist in patients whose lower urinary tract symptoms are resistant to pharmacotherapy, we report this case to raise awareness of the importance of sufficient imaging evaluations. An ope