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Sample records for trachomatis isolates circulating

  1. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G infection in a bisexual male with urethritis.

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    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Saigal, Karnika; Khanna, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar G urogenital tract infection in a 33-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) seropositive Indian bisexual male. This case highlights the emergence of a new serovar in India. The patient was tested positive for C. trachomatis by both cryptic plasmid and omp A gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On further characterization using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and omp A gene sequencing, the strain was found to be C. trachomatis serovar G. His spouse was also found to be infected with C. trachomatis serovar G. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the clinical isolates obtained from both partners and were found to be identical to the isolates available in GenBank. The sexual network could not be traced further. Detection of a new genotype suggests importation of a new strain into the population probably by sexual contact with a person from a geographical area where the strain is common. Identifying circulating genotypes in the community can assist in developing strategies for improved sexually transmitted disease control.

  3. A case of lymphogranuloma venereum of 20 years' duration. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from perianal lesions.

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    Dan, M; Rotmensch, H H; Eylan, E; Rubinstein, A; Ginsberg, R; Liron, M

    1980-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from perianal lesions in a patient in whom lymphogranuloma venereum had been diagnosed 20 years previously. Treatment with tetracycline resulted in a pronounced improvement. Although C trachomatis is known to persist for a long time in the host, isolation of the micro-organism from infected tissues after such a prolonged period has not previously been reported. Images PMID:7427708

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

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    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  5. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum from the synovial fluid of patients with Reiter's syndrome

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    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to contribute to the insight of the role of the infectious agent in ethiopathogenesis of the Reiter’s syndrome development, which could directly influence the choise of treatment of these patients. Methods. Eighteen patients with urogenital form of the Reiter’s syndrome and 16 controls (6 with rheumatoid arthritis and 10 with pigmented villonodular synovitis were included in the study. In all patients standard laboratory analyses of the blood, urine and stool were made; antibody titer to Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was determined in synovial fluid and serum; isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in urethral, cervical and conjunctival swabs, as well as in prostatic and synovial fluid, was also made. HLA typing was done, too. Chlamydia was isolated in the McCoy cell culture treated with cycloheximide while Ureaplasma was identified according to its biochemical properties grown on cell-free liquid medium. Results. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the synovial fluid of 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome 22.2%, while Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 7 of them (38.9%. These microorganisms were not found in any synovial fluid of the control group patients. Conclusion. Presence of these bacteria in the inflamed joint might be an important factor in etiopathogenesis of this disease, and it supports the hypothesis that arthritis in Reiter's syndrome is probably of the infectious origin.

  6. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

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    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  7. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

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    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  8. Normal IncA expression and fusogenicity of inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates with the incA I47T mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; Eijk, P. P.; van Marle, J.; de Witte, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Morré, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types

  9. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Mohile Mukula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  10. Normal IncA Expression and Fusogenicity of Inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates with the incA I47T Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Eijk, Paul P.; van Marle, Jan; de Witte, Moniek A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Dankert, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types expressed IncA in the membrane of one large single inclusion. In conclusion, the incA I47T mutation is not associated with the nonfusogenic phenotype.

  11. Polymorphisms in Inc Proteins and Differential Expression of inc Genes among Chlamydia trachomatis Strains Correlate with Invasiveness and Tropism of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Isolates

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    Almeida, Filipe; Borges, Vítor; Ferreira, Rita; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human bacterial pathogen that multiplies only within an intracellular membrane-bound vacuole, the inclusion. C. trachomatis includes ocular and urogenital strains, usually causing infections restricted to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and genital mucosa, respectively, and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains, which can infect macrophages and spread into lymph nodes. However, C. trachomatis genomes display >98% identity at the DNA level. In this work, we studied whether C. trachomatis Inc proteins, which have a bilobed hydrophobic domain that may mediate their insertion in the inclusion membrane, could be a factor determining these different types of infection and tropisms. Analyses of polymorphisms and phylogeny of 48 Inc proteins from 51 strains encompassing the three disease groups showed significant amino acid differences that were mainly due to variations between Inc proteins from LGV and ocular or urogenital isolates. Studies of the evolutionary dynamics of inc genes suggested that 10 of them are likely under positive selection and indicated that most nonsilent mutations are LGV specific. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR analyses in prototype and clinical strains covering the three disease groups identified three inc genes with LGV-specific expression. We determined the transcriptional start sites of these genes and found LGV-specific nucleotides within their promoters. Thus, subtle variations in the amino acids of a subset of Inc proteins and in the expression of inc genes may contribute to the unique tropism and invasiveness of C. trachomatis LGV strains. PMID:23042990

  12. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

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    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H; Elborgy, Ebrahim S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value.

  13. [Co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis].

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    Romanik, Małgorzata; Martirosian, Gayane; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Cieślik, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by C. trachomatis. The swabs from vagina and cervical canal have been obtained from 122 women (aged 18-40). The presence of C. trachomatis antigen had been detected and diagnosed with the help of direct immunofluorescence, BV with Amesl and Nugent criteria, whereas the AV with Donders criteria. The identification of the bacterial strains isolated from vagina has been performed according to classical microbiological diagnostics. Disruption of vaginal microflora (4-10 in Nugent score) was determined in 11,5% of observed women. AV was diagnosed in 4.5% women with chlamydial cervicitis, BV was diagnosed in 10.9% and 5.45% of these women, on the basis of Amsel and Nugent criteria respectively. Indole-producing bacterial strains connected with BV and AV (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli) have been isolated significantly more often from vagina of women infected with C trachomatis (p = 0.0405, chi2 = 4.20) and these findings confirm co-importance of indole-producing bacterial strains in cervicitis caused by C trachomatis .

  14. A correlative study of Papanicolaou smear, fluorescent antibody, and culture for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Spence, M R; Barbacci, M; Kappus, E; Quinn, T

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 300 patients undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy was conducted. A Papanicolaou smear was obtained and a clinical evaluation of the cervix was made. Specimens from the cervix were examined by both direct fluorescent antibody and culture techniques for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of inflammation on Papanicolaou smear could be correlated with C trachomatis isolation. Papanicolaou smear findings consistent with C trachomatis lacked both sensitivity and specificity when compared with direct fluorescent antibody and/or culture techniques. A correlation was found between the clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and C trachomatis. This interrelationship was absent when the component findings of cervicitis (ectopy, friability, and purulent mucus) were examined independently.

  15. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

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    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  16. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

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    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  17. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

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    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  18. Analysis of proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex, COMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Timmerman, Evy

    2009-01-01

    The protein composition and N-terminal sequences of proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 were analysed following isolation of N-terminal peptides using combined fractional diagonal chromatography and identification by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Acetylation of primary a...

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

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    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  20. Circulating tumor cell isolation and diagnostics: toward routine clinical use

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    Stolpe, van de A.; Pantel, K.; Sleijfer, S.; Terstappen, L.W.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    From February 7–11, 2011, the multidisciplinary Lorentz Workshop Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Isolation and Diagnostics: Toward Routine Clinical Use was held in Leiden (The Netherlands) to discuss progress and define challenges and potential solutions for development of clinically useful circulating

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

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    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  2. Acquired homotypic and heterotypic immunity against oculogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars following female genital tract infection in mice

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    Peña A Salvador

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen causing female genital tract infection throughout the world. Reinfection with the same serovar, as well as multiple infections with different serovars, occurs in humans. Using a murine model of female C. trachomatis genital tract infection, we determined if homotypic and/or heterotypic protection against reinfection was induced following infection with human oculogenital strains of C. trachomatis belonging to two serovars (D and H that have been shown to vary significantly in the course of infection in the murine model. Methods Groups of outbred CF-1 mice were reinfected intravaginally with a strain of either serovar D or H, two months after initial infection with these strains. Cellular immune and serologic status, both quantitative and qualitative, was assessed following initial infection, and the course of infection was monitored by culturing vaginal samples collected every 2–7 days following reinfection. Results Serovar D was both more virulent (longer duration of infection and immunogenic (higher level of circulating and vaginal IgG and higher incidence of IgA in vaginal secretions in the mouse genital tract. Although both serovars induced cross-reacting antibodies during the course of primary infection, prior infection with serovar H resulted in only a slight reduction in the median duration of infection against homotypic reinfection (p ~ 0.10, while prior infection with serovar D resulted in significant reduction in the median duration of infection against both homotypic (p Conclusion Serovar D infection resulted in significant homotypic and heterotypic protection against reinfection, while primary infection with serovar H resulted in only slight homotypic protection. In addition to being the first demonstration of acquired heterotypic immunity between human oculogenital serovars, the differences in the level and extent of this immunity

  3. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (pinfection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (pvaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in North-West Italy.

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    Grio, R; Bello, L; Smirne, C; D'Addato, F; Latino, M A; Corvetto, L; De Intinis, G; Spagnolo, E; Maffei, S; Leotta, E

    2004-10-01

    Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) among sexually active adolescents and young adults in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among sexually active women in Piedmont, Italy and the correlation between some risk factors and C. trachomatis infection. In our study 31,419 sexually active women aged 12-55 were screened for C. trachomatis by Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) using cervical swabs during the period 1997-2001 at St. Anna Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital, Turin. All the patients answered a specific questionnaire. In our analysis the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was found to be 1.23%, and the average age among the infected patients was 36.98 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi squared test; a peducation (pcitizenship (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among the contraceptive methods used, whether an hormonal or a barrier type; a marked increment of the risk was observed when no contraception was used. Frequent microbiological examinations are desirable for patients whose anamnesis shows an augmented risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections in order to avoid long term complications from misdiagnosed or asymptomatic pathologies, as often happens with C. trachomatis.

  5. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  6. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  7. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  9. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilton Rachel J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data

  10. Isolated transient vertigo: posterior circulation ischemia or benign origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasberg, Tobias F; Wolf, Lea; Henke, Christian; Lorenz, Matthias W

    2017-06-14

    Isolated transient vertigo can be the only symptom of posterior circulation ischemia. Thus, it is important to differentiate isolated vertigo of a cerebrovascular origin from that of more benign origins, as patients with cerebral ischemia have a much higher risk for future stroke than do those with 'peripheral' vertigo. The current study aims to identify risk factors for cerebrovascular origin of isolated transient vertigo, and for future cerebrovascular events. From the files of 339 outpatients with isolated transient vertigo we extracted history, clinical and technical findings, diagnosis, and follow-up information on subsequent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Risk factors were analyzed using multivariate regression models (logistic or Cox) and reconfirmed in univariate analyses. On first presentation, 48 (14.2%) patients received the diagnosis 'probable or definite cerebrovascular vertigo'. During follow-up, 41 patients suffered stroke or TIA (event rate 7.9 per 100 person years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-10.4), 26 in the posterior circulation (event rate 4.8 per 100 person years, 95% CI 3.0-6.7). The diagnosis was not associated with follow-up cerebrovascular events. In multivariate models testing multiple potential determinants, only the presentation mode was consistently associated with the diagnosis and stroke risk: patients who presented because of vertigo (rather than reporting vertigo when they presented for other reasons) had a significantly higher risk for future stroke or TIA (p = 0.028, event rate 13.4 vs. 5.4 per 100 person years) and for future posterior circulation stroke or TIA (p = 0.044, event rate 7.8 vs. 3.5 per 100 person years). We here report for the first time follow-up stroke rates in patients with transient isolated vertigo. In such patients, the identification of those with cerebrovascular origin remains difficult, and presentation mode was found to be the only consistent risk factor. Confirmation in an independent

  11. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  12. Comparison of commercial exosome isolation kits for circulating exosomal microRNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chunni

    2018-06-01

    Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. Here, we analyzed the advantages and weaknesses of four commonly used commercial kits for exosomal miRNA profiling and their application to the sample of serum and/or plasma, respectively. NanoSight and Western blotting were conducted to evaluate the efficiency and purity of the isolated exosomes. In our conditions, the size distribution of the isolated particles was appropriate (40-150 nm), and ExoQuick™ Exosome Precipitation Solution (EXQ) generated a relatively high yield of exosomes. Nevertheless, albumin impurity was ubiquitous for all the four kits, and Total Exosome Isolation for serum or plasma (TEI) yielded a relatively pure isolation. We further performed Illumina sequencing combined with RT-qPCR to determine the ability of these kits for miRNA profiling. There was significant correlation of the exosomal miRNA profile and specific miRNAs between kits, but with differences depending on methods. exoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Midi Kit (EXR) and EXQ performed better in the specific exosomal miRNAs recovery. Intraassay CVs for specific miRNA measurement were 0.88-3.82, 1.19-3.77, 0-2.70, and 1.23-9.11% for EXR, TEI, EXQ, and RIBO™ Exosome Isolation Reagent (REI), respectively. In each kit, serum yielded a higher abundance of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs than plasma, yet with more albumin impurity. In conclusion, our data provide some valuable guidance for the methodology of disease biomarker identification of circulation exosomal miRNAs. Graphical abstract Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. In this study, we compared four commonly used commercially available kits for exosomal mi

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  14. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  15. Prevalence of C.Trachomatis Infection among Ahvaz Females with Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C. trachomatis is one of the most important agents of sexually transmitted diseases(STD. Untreated cases of vaginal infection with this bacterium may end up with infertility, scaring andectopic pregnancy. In most cases infection with C. trachomatis is silent (70-80% but when overtinfection occurs the symptoms include: cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis.Since prevalence of C. trachomatis was not studied in our city, this project was performed to evaluatethe role of this bacterial agent in vaginosis.Material and Methods: Two hundred and two specimens from vaginal discharge of out-patientsreferring to gynecology ward of Ahvaz hospitals were collected and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR.Results: Out of 202 specimens, 33 (16.3% were positive for C. trachomatis.Conclusion: The findings of this study show a high prevalence of C. trachomatis which indicates thatspecial attention must be paid to detection and management of this infection.

  16. Genomic content of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in areas of intensive children vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to analyse the evolution of Bordetella pertussis population and the influence of herd immunity in different areas of the world where newborns and infants are highly vaccinated. METHODOLOGY: The analysis was performed using DNA microarray on 15 isolates, PCR on 111 isolates as well as GS-FLX sequencing technology on 3 isolates and the B. pertussis reference strain, Tohama I. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our analyses demonstrate that the current circulating isolates are continuing to lose genetic material as compared to isolates circulating during the pre-vaccine era whatever the area of the world considered. The lost genetic material does not seem to be important for virulence. Our study confirms that the use of whole cell vaccines has led to the control of isolates that were similar to vaccine strains. GS-FLX sequencing technology shows that current isolates did not acquire any additional material when compared with vaccine strains or with isolates of the pre-vaccine era and that the sequenced strain Tohama I is not representative of the isolates. Furthermore, this technology allowed us to observe that the number of Insertion Sequence elements contained in the genome of the isolates is temporally increasing or varying between isolates. CONCLUSIONS: B. pertussis adaptation to humans is still in progress by losing genetic material via Insertion Sequence elements. Furthermore, recent isolates did not acquire any additional material when compared with vaccine strains or with isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Herd immunity, following intensive vaccination of infants and children with whole cell vaccines, has controlled isolates similar to the vaccine strains without modifying significantly the virulence of the isolates. With the replacement of whole cell vaccines by subunit vaccines, containing only few bacterial antigens targeting the virulence of the bacterium, one could hypothesize the circulation of isolates

  17. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  18. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  19. Sen debut af neonatal pneumoni forårsaget af Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte Johanne; Hermansen, Mette Nortman

    2013-01-01

    A newborn colonized with Chlamydia trachomatis will often show symptoms of conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. We report a case of interstitial pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis in a 2-month-old boy admitted with RSV. We point to the importance of C. trachomatis in the differential diagnostics...

  20. Standardization of an isolated pig heart preparation with parabiotic circulation: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we standardized an experimental model of parabiotic circulation of isolated pig heart. The isolated heart was perfused with arterial blood from a second animal as support and submitted to regional ischemia for 30 min, followed by total ischemia for 90 min and reperfusion for 90 min. Parameters for measurement of ventricular performance using different indices measured directly or indirectly from intraventricular pressure were defined as: maximum peak pressure, final diastolic pressure, pressure developed, first derivative of maximum pressure (dP/dt max, first derivative of minimum pressure (dP/dt min, systolic stress of the left ventricle (sigmas, and maximum elastance of the left ventricle. Isolated hearts subjected to regional and global ischemia presented significant worsening of all measured parameters. Less discriminative parameters were dP/dt max and dP/dt min. Elastance was the most sensitive parameter during the reperfusion period, demonstrating an early loss of ventricular function during reperfusion. The model proved to be stable and reproducible and permitted the study of several variables in the isolated heart, such as ischemia and reperfusion phenomena, the effects of different drugs, surgical interventions, etc. The model introduces an advantage over the classical models which use crystalloid solutions as perfusate, because parabiotic circulation mimics heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

  1. Direct amplification, sequencing and profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in single and mixed infection clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Joseph

    Full Text Available Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1-1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy. We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches.

  2. Low prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.S.; Westh, Henrik T.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Fifty consecutive C trachomatis urine samples from each of the 14 regional microbiology laboratories were initially tested and re-analysed with a real-time C trachomatis PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...

  3. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC. Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study's follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61. Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%, greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%, followed by HPV-58 (17.81%. It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59-26.05 95%CI or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22-6.63 95%CI had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  5. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  6. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  7. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  10. Plasmid Negative Regulation of CPAF Expression Is Pgp4 Independent and Restricted to Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Biovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Patton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. C. trachomatis isolates are classified into 2 biovars—lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and trachoma—which are distinguished biologically by their natural host cell infection tropism. LGV biovars infect macrophages and are invasive, whereas trachoma biovars infect oculo-urogenital epithelial cells and are noninvasive. The C. trachomatis plasmid is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these infections. Central to its pathogenic role is the transcriptional regulatory function of the plasmid protein Pgp4, which regulates the expression of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. As many gene regulatory functions are post-transcriptional, we employed a comparative proteomic study of cells infected with plasmid-cured C. trachomatis serovars A and D (trachoma biovar, a L2 serovar (LGV biovar, and the L2 serovar transformed with a plasmid containing a nonsense mutation in pgp4 to more completely elucidate the effects of the plasmid on chlamydial infection biology. Our results show that the Pgp4-dependent elevations in the levels of Pgp3 and a conserved core set of chromosomally encoded proteins are remarkably similar for serovars within both C. trachomatis biovars. Conversely, we found a plasmid-dependent, Pgp4-independent, negative regulation in the expression of the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF for the L2 serovar but not the A and D serovars. The molecular mechanism of plasmid-dependent negative regulation of CPAF expression in the LGV serovar is not understood but is likely important to understanding its macrophage infection tropism and invasive infection nature.

  11. Interplay of recombination and selection in the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Deborah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, which causes several severe and debilitating diseases in humans. This study uses comparative genomic analyses of 12 complete published C. trachomatis genomes to assess the contribution of recombination and selection in this pathogen and to understand the major evolutionary forces acting on the genome of this bacterium. Results The conserved core genes of C. trachomatis are a large proportion of the pan-genome: we identified 836 core genes in C. trachomatis out of a range of 874-927 total genes in each genome. The ratio of recombination events compared to mutation (ρ/θ was 0.07 based on ancestral reconstructions using the ClonalFrame tool, but recombination had a significant effect on genetic diversification (r/m = 0.71. The distance-dependent decay of linkage disequilibrium also indicated that C. trachomatis populations behaved intermediately between sexual and clonal extremes. Fifty-five genes were identified as having a history of recombination and 92 were under positive selection based on statistical tests. Twenty-three genes showed evidence of being under both positive selection and recombination, which included genes with a known role in virulence and pathogencity (e.g., ompA, pmps, tarp. Analysis of inter-clade recombination flux indicated non-uniform currents of recombination between clades, which suggests the possibility of spatial population structure in C. trachomatis infections. Conclusions C. trachomatis is the archetype of a bacterial species where recombination is relatively frequent yet gene gains by horizontal gene transfer (HGT and losses (by deletion are rare. Gene conversion occurs at sites across the whole C. trachomatis genome but may be more often fixed in genes that are under diversifying selection. Furthermore, genome sequencing will reveal patterns of serotype specific gene exchange and selection that will generate important

  12. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (pHPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  13. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Gascoyne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a the principles of DEP; (b the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  14. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C., E-mail: pgascoyn@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Shim, Sangjo [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C0800, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Present address: Micro & Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  15. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies

  16. Impact of antiseptics on Chlamydia trachomatis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párducz, L; Eszik, I; Wagner, G; Burián, K; Endrész, V; Virok, D P

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a frequent dysbiosis, where the normal lactobacillus-dominated flora is replaced by an anaerob/aerob polymicrobial flora. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI) including the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Intravaginal antiseptics are part of the bacterial vaginosis treatment, and ideally they should also inhibit the bacterial vaginosis-related STI. Therefore, we tested the antichlamydial activity of four antiseptics: iodine aqueous solution, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and borax. First, we measured the impact of antiseptics on the viability of the HeLa cervical epithelial cells, and calculated the maximum nontoxic concentrations. Next, we infected the cells with C. trachomatis preincubated for 1 h with the particular antiseptic. The chlamydial growth was measured by direct quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the infected cells. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were 3·91 and 97 μg ml(-1) respectively; however, the MIC of chlorhexidine was close to its maximum nontoxic concentration. The iodine aqueous solution and the borax showed no antichlamydial activity. Our in vitro studies showed that chlorhexidine and particularly povidone-iodine are potentially able to limit the bacterial vaginosis-related C. trachomatis infection. We measured the antichlamydial effects of various antiseptics. These antiseptics are being used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, but their effect on the bacterial vaginosis-related sexually transmitted infections, particularly the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections has not been investigated. We showed that povidone-iodine (Betadine) inhibited the chlamydial growth in concentrations that was not toxic to the epithelial cells. We concluded that due to its additional antichlamydial effect, povidone-iodine could be a preferable antiseptic in bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  17. The chlamydial functional homolog of KsgA confers kasugamycin sensitivity to Chlamydia trachomatis and impacts bacterial fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurelli Anthony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background rRNA adenine dimethyltransferases, represented by the Escherichia coli KsgA protein, are highly conserved phylogenetically and are generally not essential for growth. They are responsible for the post-transcriptional transfer of two methyl groups to two universally conserved adenosines located near the 3'end of the small subunit rRNA and participate in ribosome maturation. All sequenced genomes of Chlamydia reveal a ksgA homolog in each species, including C. trachomatis. Yet absence of a S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase in Chlamydia, the conserved enzyme involved in the synthesis of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine, raises a doubt concerning the activity of the KsgA homolog in these organisms. Results Lack of the dimethylated adenosines following ksgA inactivation confers resistance to kasugamycin (KSM in E. coli. Expression of the C. trachomatis L2 KsgA ortholog restored KSM sensitivity to the E. coli ksgA mutant, suggesting that the chlamydial KsgA homolog has specific rRNA dimethylase activity. C. trachomatis growth was sensitive to KSM and we were able to isolate a KSM resistant mutant of C. trachomatis containing a frameshift mutation in ksgA, which led to the formation of a shorter protein with no activity. Growth of the C. trachomatis ksgA mutant was negatively affected in cell culture highlighting the importance of the methylase in the development of these obligate intracellular and as yet genetically intractable pathogens. Conclusion The presence of a functional rRNA dimethylase enzyme belonging to the KsgA family in Chlamydia presents an excellent chemotherapeutic target with real potential. It also confirms the existence of S-adenosyl-methionine - dependent methylation reactions in Chlamydia raising the question of how these organisms acquire this cofactor.

  18. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  19. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.

  20. Evaluation of a high resolution genotyping method for Chlamydia trachomatis using routine clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and the genitourinary genotypes D-K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing.We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or "MLVA-ompA" to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43% were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59% were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types.Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks.

  1. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  2. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'....

  4. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

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    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  5. Identification of concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-negative mutant and wild-type strains by genomic, transcriptional, and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchland, Robert J; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xia, Minsheng; Bhatia, Ajay; Chu, Hencelyn G; Rockey, Daniel D; Stamm, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription, and growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo in comparison with IncA-positive C. trachomatis strains. Three clinical samples were identified that contained a mixture of IncA-positive and -negative same-serovar C. trachomatis populations, and two more such pairs were found in serial isolates from persistently infected individuals. Genomic sequence analysis of individual strains from each of two serovar-matched pairs showed that these pairs were very similar genetically. In contrast, the genome sequence of an unmatched IncA-negative strain contained over 5,000 nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the genome sequence of a serovar-matched but otherwise unlinked strain. Transcriptional analysis, in vitro culture kinetics, and animal modeling demonstrated that IncA-negative strains isolated in the presence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain are phenotypically more similar to the wild-type strain than are IncA-negative strains isolated in the absence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain. These studies support a model suggesting that a change from an IncA-positive strain to the previously described IncA-negative phenotype may involve multiple steps, the first of which involves a translational inactivation of incA, associated with subsequent unidentified steps that lead to the observed decrease in transcript level, differences in growth rate, and differences in mouse infectivity.

  6. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial...

  7. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  8. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Sattari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group and 100 pregnant women (control group. The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004. Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients

  9. [Expression of gamma interferon during HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Ferreyra, María Del Carmen; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Martínez-Madrigal, Migdania; Martínez-Pérez, Sergio; Domínguez-García, María Victoria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to mesure the expression of gamma interferon in HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Samples from 100 patients diagnosed by colposcopy with or without squamous intraepithelial lesions were used in the present study. Each patient was found to be infected by HPV and C.trachomatis. Relative gamma interferon mRNA expression was assessed using a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (RT-PCR). The relative units of expression of gamma interferon mRNA were 13, 1.8 and 0.3, for HPV and C.trachomatis co-infection, or HPV or C.trachomatis infection, respectively. HPV and C.trachomatis could overstimulate the expression of gamma interferon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uehara, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Kadota, Junichi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Masumori, Naoya; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Wada, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Eto, Masatoshi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Sumii, Toru; Kawai, Shuichi; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Kawano, Hiromi; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Takayama, Kazuo; Ito, Masayasu; Yoshioka, Masaru; Kano, Motonori; Konishi, Takatoshi; Kadena, Hitoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Horie, Masanobu; Ihara, Hideari; Matsumura, Masaru; Shirane, Takeshi; Takeyama, Koh; Akiyama, Kikuo; Takahashi, Koichi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Inatomi, Hisato; Yoh, Mutsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Genital chlamydial infection is a principal sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause male urethritis, acute epididymitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease as sexually transmitted infections. Fortunately, homotypic resistant C. trachomatis strains have not been isolated to date; however, several studies have reported the isolation of heterotypic resistant strains from patients. In this surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 51 hospitals and clinics in 2009 and 38 in 2012. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 19 isolates in 2009 and 39 in 2012. In 2009 and 2012, the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.016 μg/ml and 0.016 μg/ml, and 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any resistant strain against fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid Circulation Determined in the Isolated Bovine Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Oscar A.; Mathias, Richard; Gerometta, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In 1997, a theoretical model was developed that predicted the existence of an internal, Na+-driven fluid circulation from the poles to the equator of the lens. In the present work, we demonstrate with a novel system that fluid movement can be measured across the polar and equatorial surface areas of isolated cow lenses. We have also determined the effects of ouabain and reduced bath [Na+]. Methods. Lenses were isolated in a chamber with three compartments separated by two thin O-rings. Each compartment, anterior (A), equatorial (E), and posterior (P), was connected to a vertical capillary graduated in 0.25 μL. Capillary levels were read every 15 minutes. The protocols consisted of 2 hours in either open circuit or short circuit. The effects of ouabain and low-Na+ solutions were determined under open circuit. Results. In 21 experiments, the E capillary increased at a mean rate of 0.060 μL/min while the A and P levels decreased at rates of 0.044 and 0.037 μL/min, respectively, closely accounting for the increase in E. The first-hour flows under short circuit were approximately 40% larger than those in open-circuit conditions. The first-hour flows were always larger than those during the second hour. Preincubation of lenses with either ouabain or low-[Na+] solutions resulted in reduced rates of fluid transport. When KCl was used to replace NaCl, a transitory stimulation of fluid transport occurred. Conclusions. These experiments support that a fluid circulation consistent with the 1997 model is physiologically active. PMID:22969071

  12. Interrelationship between Polymorphisms of incA, fusogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains, and clinical manifestations in patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Spaargaren, Joke; Langerak, Ankie A. J.; Merks, Judith; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2005-01-01

    IncA variation among Dutch Chlamydia trachomatis isolates was investigated. Of 98 strains, two carried an incA with a premature stop codon, lacked IncA, and were nonfusogenic, while 96 contained an intact incA, expressed IncA, and were fasogenic. Among these 96 strains, nine IncA sequence types were

  13. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces an inflammatory response that is crucial in resolving acute infection but may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis associated infertility. The immune response is linked to cytokine secretion pattern which is influenced by the host genetic...

  14. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  15. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations......, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  16. Burden of recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young women: further uncovering the "hidden epidemic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; Hochberg, Abby L; Ethier, Kathleen A; Lewis, Jessica B; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2007-03-01

    To determine the frequency and patterns of recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infections, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in young women. Cohort study using different data collection methods, including face-to-face interviews, medical record reviews, urine-based screening for C trachomatis infections, and a review of state health department reports of C trachomatis diagnoses. Ten community-based health centers that provided reproductive health care from June 1998 to September 2001. Eligibility criteria included being nulliparous, between the ages of 14 and 19 years, and human immunodeficiency virus-negative, all at the time of recruitment. This convenience sample (N = 411) was recruited by word of mouth, clinician referrals, and advertisements in the clinics. Prospective follow-up data were available for 93.9% (386/411) of the sample. The exposure of interest was prior chlamydia infection. Main Outcome Measure Diagnosis of recurrent C trachomatis infection. During the follow-up period of 23 318 person-months (mean, 4.7 years per person), 216 participants (52.6%) were diagnosed as having C trachomatis infection, and 123 participants (29.9% of the total sample and 56.9% of those with initial infections) were diagnosed as having recurrent C trachomatis infections. Of 456 C trachomatis diagnoses made during the study period, 241 (52.9%) were recurrent infections. The rate of recurrent infections was 42.1 per 1000 person-months. The median time to recurrent infection was 5.2 months. Recurrent C trachomatis infections comprise a substantial health burden among young women, possibly higher than previously recognized in this vulnerable population.

  17. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michele D; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E; Siber, George R; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  19. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. This conclusion was verified by deep sequencing and by PCR using species-specific primers. All data presented in the results section that refer to C. trachomatis should be interpreted as referring to C. muridarum. Since C. muridarum TARP lacks the consensus tyrosine repeats present in C. trachomatis TARP, we cannot make any conclusions about the role of TARP phosphorylation and C. muridarum entry. However, the conclusion that C. trachomatis L2 TARP is a target of Abl kinase is still valid as these experiments were performed with C. trachomatis L2 TARP [corrected]. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in early events in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we conducted a large scale unbiased RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. This allowed identification of candidate host factors in a simple non-redundant, genetically tractable system. From a library of 7,216 double stranded RNAs (dsRNA, we identified approximately 226 host genes, including two tyrosine kinases, Abelson (Abl kinase and PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related (Pvr, a homolog of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. We further examined the role of these two kinases in C. trachomatis binding and internalization into mammalian cells. Both kinases are phosphorylated upon infection and recruited to the site of bacterial attachment, but their roles in the infectious process are distinct. We provide evidence that PDGFRbeta may function as a receptor, as inhibition of PDGFRbeta by RNA interference or by PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibodies significantly reduces bacterial binding, whereas depletion of Abl kinase has no effect on binding. Bacterial internalization can occur through activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent

  20. Detailed molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis in the population of Southampton attending the genitourinary medicine clinic in 2012-13 reveals the presence of long established genotypes and transitory sexual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiran, Clare; Rowen, David; Clarke, Ian Nicholas; Marsh, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in England. Our objective was to perform a detailed survey of the molecular epidemiology of C. trachomatis in the population of Southampton UK attending the genitourinary medicine clinic (GUM) to seek evidence of sexual network activity. Our hypothesis was that certain genotypes can be associated with specific demographic determinants. 380 positive samples were collected from 375 C. trachomatis positive GUM attendees out of the 3118 who consented to be part of the survey. 302 of the positive samples were fully genotyped. All six of the predominant genotypes possessed ompA locus type E. One ward of Southampton known to contain a large proportion of students had a different profile of genotypes compared to other areas of the city. Some genotypes appeared embedded in the city population whilst others appeared transient. Predominant circulating genotypes remain stable within a city population whereas others are sporadic. Sexual networks could be inferred but not conclusively identified using the data from this survey.

  1. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Michele D.; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M.; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L.; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E.; Siber, George R.; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cel...

  2. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  3. Microarray-based genomic surveying of gene polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelle, Brian W; Nicholson, Tracy L; Stephens, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    By comparing two fully sequenced genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis using competitive hybridization on DNA microarrays, a logarithmic correlation was demonstrated between the signal ratio of the arrays and the 75-99% range of nucleotide identities of the genes. Variable genes within 14 uncharacterized strains of C. trachomatis were identified by array analysis and verified by DNA sequencing. These genes may be crucial for understanding chlamydial virulence and pathogenesis.

  4. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  5. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS IgG ANTIBODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. .... more people were living inside the school hostel in FCETU (45; 45.0%) .... seroprevalence than their counterparts with less risky behaviours ..... Janet S.B, Stephen A.M. Medical Microbiology 24th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA, ...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in the conjunctiva of children living in three rural areas in Mexico Chlamydia trachomatis en la conjuntiva de niños de tres zonas rurales de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goldschmidt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infections, in the context of extreme poverty, may trigger trachoma. Because the levels of C. trachomatis eye infections in Mexico are unknown, this study sought to determine if C. trachomatis was present in the conjunctiva of children living in three poor, rural areas of the country. METHODS: Clinical diagnosis of conjunctival follicles in children was conducted during the 2004 visual acuity assessment campaigns in rural areas of the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Zacatecas. C. trachomatis detection was carried out by sampling the children with follicles and examining the specimens after Giemsa or microimmunofluorescence (MIF staining. RESULTS: A total of 941 children from 6 to 12 years of age were examined in 2004. Of the 484 in Chiapas, 30% were found to have follicles; of the 181 in Zacatecas, 22%; and of the 276 in Oaxaca, 42%. C. trachomatis was detected at levels ranging between 2% and 5%; positive by Giemsa in 4.5% of the children with follicles, and by MIF in 15.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that the chlamydiae sampling procedures and detection methods used in this study were not the most sensitive, the results underestimate the chlamydial eye infections and represent a conservative assessment of a potential risk for preventable visual impairment. Because C. trachomatis was detected here at levels similar to those reported for low-endemic trachoma areas, health authorities should be prepared to implement appropriate measures should it be confirmed that the visual health of Mexico’s children is at risk.OBJETIVOS: En un contexto de pobreza extrema, la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis puede desencadenar el tracoma. Debido a que se desconocen los niveles de infección ocular con C. trachomatis en México, el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia de C. trachomatis en la conjuntiva de niños de tres zonas rurales pobres de México. MÉTODOS:El diagnóstico clínico de fol

  7. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  8. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  9. High-resolution typing of Chlamydia trachomatis: epidemiological and clinical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2015-02-01

    A state-of-the-art overview of molecular Chlamydia trachomatis typing methods that are used for routine diagnostics and scientific studies. Molecular epidemiology uses high-resolution typing techniques such as multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis, and whole-genome sequencing to identify strains based on their DNA sequence. These data can be used for cluster, network and phylogenetic analyses, and are used to unveil transmission networks, risk groups, and evolutionary pathways. High-resolution typing of C. trachomatis strains is applied to monitor treatment efficacy and re-infections, and to study the recent emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) amongst men who have sex with men in high-income countries. Chlamydia strain typing has clinical relevance in disease management, as LGV needs longer treatment than non-LGV C. trachomatis. It has also led to the discovery of a new variant Chlamydia strain in Sweden, which was not detected by some commercial C. trachomatis diagnostic platforms. After a brief history and comparison of the various Chlamydia typing methods, the applications of the current techniques are described and future endeavors to extend scientific understanding are formulated. High-resolution typing will likely help to further unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the wide clinical spectrum of chlamydial disease.

  10. Urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasma is significantly lower than to Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Reinton, Nils; Randjelovic, Ivana; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-07-01

    A non-syndromic approach to treatment of people with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) requires identification of pathogens and understanding of the role of those pathogens in causing disease. The most commonly detected and isolated micro-organisms in the male urethral tract are bacteria belonging to the family of Mycoplasmataceae, in particular Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. To better understand the role of these Ureaplasma species in NGU, we have performed a prospective analysis of male patients voluntarily attending a drop in STI clinic in Oslo. Of 362 male patients who were tested for NGU using microscopy of urethral smears, we found the following sexually transmissible micro-organisms: 16% Chlamydia trachomatis, 5% Mycoplasma genitalium, 14% U. urealyticum, 14% U. parvum and 5% Mycoplasma hominis. We found a high concordance in detecting in turn U. urealyticum and U. parvum using 16s rRNA gene and ureD gene as targets for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Whilst there was a strong association between microscopic signs of NGU and C. trachomatis infection, association of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum infections in turn were found only in patients with severe NGU (>30 polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMNL/high powered fields, HPF). U. parvum was found to colonise a high percentage of patients with no or mild signs of NGU (0-9 PMNL/HPF). We conclude that urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasmas is less severe than to C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in most patients and that testing and treatment of ureaplasma-positive patients should only be considered when other STIs have been ruled out.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  12. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  13. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgolino Helaine A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Results Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%, and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%. Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2% and Central (47.6% regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13% countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5% belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F

  14. Utility of pooled urine specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men attending public sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai, India, by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindan, Christina; Mathur, Meenakshi; Kumta, Sameer; Jerajani, Hermangi; Gogate, Alka; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne

    2005-04-01

    Pooling urogenital specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by nucleic acid amplification tests is an attractive alternative to individual testing. As pooling can reduce the costs of testing as well as labor, it has been advocated for use in resource-poor settings. However, it has neither been widely adopted nor evaluated for use in developing countries. We evaluated the practical use of pooling first-catch urine (FCU) specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae from 690 men in Mumbai, India, by PCR. FCU, urethral smears, and swabs were collected from men seen at two sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. All laboratory testing was done at the Lokmanya Tilak General Hospital. Gram stain smears and culture isolation for N. gonorrhoeae were performed. Each FCU was tested individually and in pools using the Roche Amplicor PCR for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae with an internal control for inhibition. Specimen pools consisted of aliquots from five consecutively processed FCUs combined into an amplification tube. An optical density reading of > or =0.20 indicated a pool for which subsequent testing of individual samples was required. Prevalence by PCR on single specimens was 2.2% (15/690) for C. trachomatis and 5.4% (37/690) for N. gonorrhoeae. Compared to individual FCU results, pooling for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae had an overall sensitivity of 96.1% (50/52). Specificity was 96.5% (83/86) in that three pools required single testing that failed to identify a positive specimen. Pooling missed two positive specimens, decreased the inhibition rate, and saved 50.3% of reagent costs. In this resource-limited setting, the use of pooling to detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by PCR proved to be a simple, accurate, and cost-effective procedure compared to individual testing.

  15. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  16. Velocity effect on aptamer-based circulating tumor cell isolation in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Tan, Jifu; Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-tae; Liu, Yaling; Iqbal, Samir M

    2011-12-01

    The isolation and detection of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been one of the focuses of intense research recently. In a microfluidic device, a number of factors can influence the enrichment capability of surface-bound probe molecules. This article analyzes the important factor of flow velocity in a microfluidic channel. The competition of surface-grafted anti-EGFR aptamers to bind the overexpressed EGFR on cell membranes against the drag force from the fluid flow is an important efficiency determining factor. The flow rate variations are applied both in experiments and in simulation models to study their effects on CTC capture efficiency. A mixture of mononuclear cells and human Glioblastoma cells is used to isolate cancer cells from the cellular flow. The results show interdependence between the adhesion probability, isolation efficiency, and flow rate. This work can help in designing flow-through lab-on-chip devices that use surface-bound probe affinities against overexpressed biomarkers for cell isolation. This work demonstrates that microfluidic based approaches have strong potential applications in CTC detection and isolation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis & herpes simplex virus in males with urethritis & females with cervicitis attending STD clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, J; Madhavan, H N; Therese, K L; Rinku, J P; Narendar, K P

    2002-08-01

    Cervicitis and urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis are common sexually transmitted diseases. However, there is a paucity of information on urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) from India. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find out the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HSV associated urethritis in males and mucopurulent cervicitis in females attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. Twenty five endocervical swabs from 25 women with mucopurulent cervicitis and 75 urethral swabs from 72 males with urethritis were processed for the detection of C. trachomatis and HSV by antigen detection by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), culture and PCR. Among the 25 women, one (4.0%) was positive for C. trachomatis and 3 (12.0%) were positive for HSV by PCR. FAT and culture were negative. Nine (12.0%) of the 75 urethral swabs were positive for C. trachomatis and 5 (6.6%) were positive for HSV by PCR. Among the 9 positive by PCR for C. trachomatis, 3 (4.0%) were positive by FAT. Cultures for both organisms were negative. Endocervicitis and male urethritis due to C. trachomatis and HSV are not uncommon among high-risk individuals. The diagnosis could be established mainly by PCR.

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  1. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH

    1994-01-01

    . trachomatis cysteine rich outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in 10 patients. Thus 40% of the patients presented antibodies specific for C. trachomatis. There was no correlation between acute reactive arthritis and antibodies to heat-shock proteins GroEL, GroES and DnaK....

  2. Survey, Culture, and Genome Analysis of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Tibetan Boarding Primary Schools in Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Le; Lu, Xinxin; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, Tao; Luo, Shengdong; Sun, Zhihui; Duan, Qing; Wang, Ningli; Song, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is an ancient human disease. Its existence in China can be traced back to as early as the twenty-seventh century BC. In modern China, the overall prevalence of trachoma has dramatically reduced, but trachoma is still endemic in many areas of the country. Here, we report that 26 (8%) of 322 students from two rural boarding schools of Qinghai province, west China, were identified as having ocular C. trachomatis infection; and 15 ocular C. trachomatis strains were isolated from these trachoma patients. Chlamydiae in 37 clinical samples were genotyped as type B based on ompA gene analyses. Three ompA variants with one or two in-between SNP differences in the second or fourth variable domain were found. C. trachomatis strains QH111L and QH111R were from the same patient's left and right conjunctival swabs, respectively, but their ompA genes have a non-synonymous base difference in the second variable domain. Moreover, this SNP only exists in this single sample, suggesting QH111L is a newly emerged ompA variant. Interestingly, chromosomal phylogeny analysis found QH111L clusters between a branch of two type B strains and a branch of both A and C strains, but is significantly divergent from both branches. Comparative chromosome analysis found that compared to sequences of reference B/TZ1A828/OT strain, 12 of 22 QH111L's chromosomal genes exhibiting more than nine SNPs have the best homology with reciprocal genes of UGT strains while 9 of 22 genes are closest to those of type C strains. Consistent with findings of UGT-type genetic features in the chromosome, the QH111L plasmid appears to be intermediate between UGT and classical ocular plasmids due to the existence of UGT-type SNPs in the QH111L plasmid. Moreover, the QH111L strain has a unique evolutionarily older cytotoxin region compared to cytotoxin regions of other C. trachomatis strains. The genome analyses suggest that the QH111L strain is derived from

  3. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  4. Discovering and differentiating new and emerging clonal populations of Chlamydia trachomatis with a novel shotgun cell culture harvest assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Mead, Sally; Liu, Jessica; Dean, Deborah

    2008-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Plaque assays have been used to clonally segregate laboratory-adapted C. trachomatis strains from mixed infections, but no assays have been reported to segregate clones from recent clinical samples. We developed a novel shotgun cell culture harvest assay for this purpose because we found that recent clinical samples do not form plaques. Clones were strain-typed by using outer membrane protein A and 16S rRNA sequences. Surprisingly, ocular trachoma reference strain A/SA-1 contained clones of Chlamydophila abortus. C. abortus primarily infects ruminants and pigs and has never been identified in populations where trachoma is endemic. Three clonal variants of reference strain Ba/Apache-2 were also identified. Our findings reflect the importance of clonal isolation in identifying constituents of mixed infections containing new or emerging strains and of viable clones for research to more fully understand the dynamics of in vivo strain-mixing, evolution, and disease pathogenesis.

  5. Imprinted NanoVelcro Microchips for Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Fetal Trophoblasts: Toward Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Shuang; Chen, Jie-Fu; Song, Min; Zhu, Yazhen; Jan, Yu Jen; Chen, Szu Hao; Weng, Tzu-Hua; Ling, Dean-An; Chen, Shang-Fu; Ro, Tracy; Liang, An-Jou; Lee, Tom; Jin, Helen; Li, Man; Liu, Lian

    2017-01-01

    Circulating fetal nucleated cells (CFNCs) in maternal blood offer an ideal source of fetal genomic DNA for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD). We developed a class of nanoVelcro microchips to effectively enrich a subcategory of CFNCs, i.e., circulating trophoblasts (cTBs) from maternal blood, which can then be isolated with single-cell resolution by a laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique for downstream genetic testing. We first established a nanoimprinting fabrication process to...

  6. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  7. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  9. Affinity isolation of antigen-specific circulating B cells for generation of phage display-derived human monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A method is described for affinity isolation of antigen-specific circulating B cells of interest for subsequent generation of immune antibody phage display libraries. This approach should overcome the problem of low yields of monoclonal antibodies of interest in the libraries generated from...... peripheral blood lymphocytes caused by the low abundance of antigen-specific B cells in the circulation. The preselection of B cells is based on the specificity of the surface Ig receptor and is accomplished using the antigen of interest conjugated to magnetic beads. This method should significantly increase...... the frequency of antibody phage particles of interest in the library and allow for efficient isolation monoclonal antibodies with the predefined specificity....

  10. Microfluidic flow fractionation device for label-free isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung-A; Kwon, Kiho; Han, Hyunju; Kim, Seung-Il; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2013-02-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are dissociated from primary tumor and circulate in peripheral blood. They are regarded as the genesis of metastasis. Isolation and enumeration of CTCs serve as valuable tools for cancer prognosis and diagnosis. However, the rarity and heterogeneity of CTCs in blood makes it difficult to separate intact CTCs without loss. In this paper, we introduce a parallel multi-orifice flow fractionation (p-MOFF) device in which a series of contraction/expansion microchannels are placed parallel on a chip forming four identical channels. CTCs were continuously isolated from the whole blood of breast cancer patients by hydrodynamic forces and cell size differences. Blood samples from 24 breast cancer patients were analyzed (half were from metastatic breast cancer patients and the rest were from adjuvant breast cancer patients). The number of isolated CTCs varied from 0 to 21 in 7.5 ml of blood. Because our devices do not require any labeling processes (e.g., EpCAM antibody), heterogeneous CTCs can be isolated regardless of EpCAM expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  12. Conjuntivitis folicular por Chlamydia trachomatis: frecuencia y pruebas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Muñoz Z

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa infecciosa de ceguera en el mundo, que empieza como conjuntivitis folicular. En el Perú se han realizado pocos estudios, debido a su dificultad diagnóstica. Se realizó un estudio en 55 pacientes de 18 a 68 años con diagnóstico de conjuntivitis folicular atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oftalmología (Lima, Perú durante los años 2005 y 2006, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y evaluar la utilidad de la tinción de Giemsa y la inmunofluorescencia directa (IFD para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis en relación con el cultivo celular. La frecuencia de C. trachomatis en muestras de secreciones de conjuntivitis folicular fue de 13% (7/55 por cultivo celular, 20% (11/55 por IFD y de 9%(5/55 por Giemsa; los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron la presencia de secreciones y fotofobia. Todos los casos fueron varones y manifestaron no tener antecendentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual previas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 42,9 y 85,7 % y una especificidad de 98,8 y 89,6% para la tinción Giemsa e IFD respectivamente.

  13. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchant, Olivia; Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-11-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.

  14. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epide...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Greece: first prevalence study using nucleic acid amplification tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levidiotou, S; Vrioni, G; Papadogeorgaki, H; Avdeliodi, K; Kada, H; Kaparos, G; Kouskouni, E; Fragouli, E; Legakis, N J

    2005-03-01

    The present retrospective study was initiated to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to assess the risk factors for infection in adult women and men presenting to general practitioners, gynecologists, dermatologists, and family-planning centers in Greece. The study was carried out in four different Greek hospital centers using highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques. Altogether, 16,834 women and 1,035 men were enrolled from October 1998 to April 2004. Two types of specimens were collected from each patient: cervical swabs from women, urethral swabs from men, and first-catch urine from women and men. All specimens were examined with the Cobas Amplicor C. trachomatis polymerase chain reaction assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA) or the LC x C. trachomatis ligase chain reaction assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Demographic and behavioral data were collected by clinicians using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 704 (3.9%) patients were infected with C. trachomatis. The prevalence among female patients was 3.5% and that among male patients 11.2%. Among infected patients, 88% were under 30 years of age, 71% reported more than one sexual partner, and 91% reported a new sexual partner within the last year. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in Greece is low. Young age and new and multiple sexual partners within the last year were factors consistently associated with an increased risk of chlamydial infection.

  16. In-house polymerase chain reaction for affordable and sustainable Chlamydia trachomatis detection in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Joanne; Wang, Xiaohui; Gayadeen, Helen; Ramsewak, Samuel; Ammons, David

    2007-11-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative to the more costly commercial test for detection of asymptomatic infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and to provide much needed demographic data on infection indicators within the Trinidad and Tobago public health care system. An inexpensive in-house nested-PCR with an Internal Amplification Control was used to detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine samples collected from 273 apparently healthy, pregnant women from March-September 2004 in Trinidad, West Indies. Demographic information on participants was collected and subjected to statistical analyses. C. trachomatis was detected in 57/273 (21%) samples, of which 5 (2%) were also positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Infection correlated well with certain demographic parameters, with the highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection found among pregnant women that were single or of African descent. Given the lack of commercial tests in Trinidad, in-house PCR is an inexpensive alternative that can be used to detect asymptomatic infections of C. trachomatis and to provide demographic information needed for interventions by the public health care system.

  17. Hypervirulent Chlamydia trachomatis Clinical Strain Is a Recombinant between Lymphogranuloma Venereum (L2) and D Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wan, Raymond; Ojcius, David M.; Pettengill, Matthew A.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Chang, Alexander; Hsu, Ray; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a diversity of severe and debilitating diseases worldwide. Sporadic and ongoing outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) support the need for research on virulence factors associated with these organisms. Previous analyses have been limited to single genes or genomes of laboratory-adapted reference strain L2/434 and outbreak strain L2b/UCH-1/proctitis. We characterized an unusual LGV strain, termed L2c, isolated from an MSM with severe hemorrhagic proctitis. L2c developed nonfusing, grape-like inclusions and a cytotoxic phenotype in culture, unlike the LGV strains described to date. Deep genome sequencing revealed that L2c was a recombinant of L2 and D strains with conserved clustered regions of genetic exchange, including a 78-kb region and a partial, yet functional, toxin gene that was lost with prolonged culture. Indels (insertions/deletions) were discovered in an ftsK gene promoter and in the tarp and hctB genes, which encode key proteins involved in replication, inclusion formation, and histone H1-like protein activity, respectively. Analyses suggest that these indels affect gene and/or protein function, supporting the in vitro and disease phenotypes. While recombination has been known to occur for C. trachomatis based on gene sequence analyses, we provide the first whole-genome evidence for recombination between a virulent, invasive LGV strain and a noninvasive common urogenital strain. Given the lack of a genetic system for producing stable C. trachomatis mutants, identifying naturally occurring recombinants can clarify gene function and provide opportunities for discovering avenues for genomic manipulation. PMID:21540364

  18. Deep comparative genomics among Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum isolates highlights genes potentially involved in pathoadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Vítor; Gomes, João Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a human sexually transmitted disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (serovars L1-L3). LGV clinical manifestations range from severe ulcerative proctitis (anorectal syndrome), primarily caused by the epidemic L2b strains, to painful inguinal lymphadenopathy (the typical LGV bubonic form). Besides potential host-related factors, the differential disease severity and tissue tropism among LGV strains is likely a function of the genetic backbone of the strains. We aimed to characterize the genetic variability among LGV strains as strain- or serovar-specific mutations may underlie phenotypic signatures, and to investigate the mutational events that occurred throughout the pathoadaptation of the epidemic L2b lineage. By analyzing 20 previously published genomes from L1, L2, L2b and L3 strains and two new genomes from L2b strains, we detected 1497 variant sites and about 100 indels, affecting 453 genes and 144 intergenic regions, with 34 genes displaying a clear overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations. Effectors and/or type III secretion substrates (almost all of those described in the literature) and inclusion membrane proteins showed amino acid changes that were about fivefold more frequent than silent changes. More than 120 variant sites occurred in plasmid-regulated virulence genes, and 66% yielded amino acid changes. The identified serovar-specific variant sites revealed that the L2b-specific mutations are likely associated with higher fitness and pointed out potential targets for future highly discriminatory diagnostic/typing tests. By evaluating the evolutionary pathway beyond the L2b clonal radiation, we observed that 90.2% of the intra-L2b variant sites occurring in coding regions involve nonsynonymous mutations, where CT456/tarp has been the main target. Considering the progress on C. trachomatis genetic manipulation, this study may constitute an important contribution for prioritizing

  19. Severe Sepsis and Acute Myocardial Dysfunction in an Adolescent with Chlamydia Trachomatis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashley M; Roden, R Claire; Matson, Steven C; Wallace, Grant M; Lange, Hannah L H; Bonny, Andrea E

    2018-04-01

    Although generally asymptomatic, severe Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections have been documented. C. trachomatis has been associated with myocarditis as well as sepsis. A 19-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus developed sudden-onset mental status change and shock after resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. Abdominal and pelvic imaging showed uterine and adnexal inflammation, and pelvic examination confirmed a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. The patient was intubated, required vasopressor support, and developed severe biventricular myocardial dysfunction. Infectious myocarditis workup was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing from vaginal discharge was positive for C. trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis and negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. C. trachomatis should be considered in the workup of septic shock, particularly in populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factores de riesgo y secuelas reproductivas asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres infértiles Risk factors and reproductive sequelae associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra-Infante

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la información clínica y el estilo de vida sexual en dos grupos de mujeres con y sin infección por Chlamydia trachomatis que asisten a la clínica de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De febrero a noviembre de 1998, se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad. En el estudio se incluyó a pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad, tratados en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, de la Ciudad de México, durante 1988. Las muestras endocervicales de 309 mujeres, que incluyeron a 77 con infección y a 232 sin infección, fueron examinadas para Chlamydia trachomatis, usando inmunofluorescencia directa. Los cultivos vaginales fueron obtenidos antes de iniciar el tratamiento. También se investigó la presencia de otros agentes infecciosos de transmisión sexual y la información demográfica, de conducta sexual, histórica y clínica fue recopilada de cada paciente. Los datos clínicos y ginecológicos de ambos grupos fueron comparados por ji2. La magnitud de las asociaciones fueron establecidas por razón de momios en análisis bivariados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer los efectos confusores en relación con los factores analizados. Las diferencias fueron consideradas estadísticamente significativas si pOBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and sexual lifestyle characteristics associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women diagnosed with infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study subjects were women with an infertility diagnosis attending the infertility clinic at the National Institute of Perinatology. Endocervical specimens from 309 women were examined for Chlamydia trachomatis using the direct immunofluorescence method. Vaginal culture samples were taken before initiating treatment. The presence of other sexually-transmitted infections was also assessed. Demographic, sexual

  1. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  2. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 10 5 C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice ( P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) ( P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 10 4 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 10 5 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z; Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Schlaff, William D; Barnhart, Kurt T; Casson, Peter R; Christman, Gregory M; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Geisler, William M; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-12-01

    To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) seropositivity, as detected by the C. trachomatis elementary body (EB)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EB ELISA] predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Cohort study. Outpatient clinics. In all, 1,250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II; and the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Sera were analyzed for anti-C. trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG3 antibodies, using a research C. trachomatis EB ELISA. The optical density (OD)405 readings of ≥ 0.35 and ≥ 0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. A total of 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-C. trachomatis IgG3. They tended to be nonwhite and smokers. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (risk ratio [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of hysterosalpingography-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had a ×2.7 risk (95% CI 1.40-5.34) of ectopic pregnancy. Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is associated with a lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women have as high as 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PPCOSII: NCT00719186 and AMIGOS: NCT01044862. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. [corrected]. The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a membrane-bound inclusion that acquires host sphingomyelin (SM, a process that is essential for replication as well as inclusion biogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that SM is acquired by a Brefeldin A (BFA-sensitive vesicular trafficking pathway, although paradoxically, this pathway is dispensable for bacterial replication. This finding suggests that other lipid transport mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host SM. In this work, we interrogated the role of specific components of BFA-sensitive and BFA-insensitive lipid trafficking pathways to define their contribution in SM acquisition during infection. We found that C. trachomatis hijacks components of both vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking pathways for SM acquisition but that the SM obtained from these separate pathways is being utilized by the pathogen in different ways. We show that C. trachomatis selectively co-opts only one of the three known BFA targets, GBF1, a regulator of Arf1-dependent vesicular trafficking within the early secretory pathway for vesicle-mediated SM acquisition. The Arf1/GBF1-dependent pathway of SM acquisition is essential for inclusion membrane growth and stability but is not required for bacterial replication. In contrast, we show that C. trachomatis co-opts CERT, a lipid transfer protein that is a key component in non-vesicular ER to trans-Golgi trafficking of ceramide (the precursor for SM, for C. trachomatis replication. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis recruits CERT, its ER binding partner, VAP-A, and SM synthases, SMS1 and SMS2, to the inclusion and propose that these proteins establish an on-site SM biosynthetic

  6. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C. A.; Cartwright, C. P.; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J.; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T.; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians. PMID:20668135

  7. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P; Welsch, J; Holden, J; Ho, S Y; Webb, E M; Anderson, C; Bertuzis, R; Zhang, L; Miller, T; Leckie, G; Abravaya, K; Robinson, J

    2010-09-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians.

  8. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Herrmann, Björn; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s,

  9. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  11. Prevalence of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who visited obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Tee Cian; Wong, Won Fen; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Shankar, Esaki M; Gupta, Rishien; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Hassan, Jamiyah; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-03-18

    The 7.5 kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis-infected patients. A total of 180 female patients of child bearing age (mean 30.9 years old, IQR:27-35) with gynecological complications and subfertility issues, who visited Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited for the study. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among these patients was alarmingly high at 51.1% (92/180). Of the 92 chlamydia-infected patients, 93.5% (86/92) were infected with plasmid-bearing (+) C. trachomatis while the remaining 6.5% (6/92) were caused by the plasmid-free (-) variant. Our data showed that genital C. trachomatis infection was associated with infertility issues, inflammation in the reproductive tract (mucopurulent cervicitis or endometriosis), irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, no statistical significance was detected among patients with plasmid (+) versus plasmid (-) C. trachomatis infection. Interestingly, plasmid (+) C. trachomatis was detected in all patients with PCOS, and the plasmid copy numbers were significantly higher among PCOS patients, relative to non-PCOS patients. Our findings show a high incidence of C. trachomatis infection among women with infertility or gynecological problems in Malaysia. However, due to the low number of plasmid (-) C. trachomatis cases, a significant role of the plasmid in causing virulence in human requires further investigation of a larger cohort.

  12. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Panizza Jalkh

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection.

  14. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ureaplasma-positive healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in a community hospital in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Megumi; Matsuo, Junji; Abe, Kiyotaka; Minami, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-02

    Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the genital tract, have also now been recognized as contributors to urogenital infection. However, whether the presence of either U. parvum or U. urealyticum is related to that of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract remains unknown. We therefore attempted to estimate by PCR the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum in endocervical samples obtained from healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in Sapporo, Japan. The samples were taken from 303 apparently healthy women, and the extracted DNAs (n = 280) were used for PCR detection targeting C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by Fisher's exact test. PCR detection revealed that the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum was 14.3% (40/280), 41.7% (117/280) and 8.9% (25/280), respectively. C. trachomatis ompA genotype D was most frequently identified. Surprisingly, either C. trachomatis or Ureaplasma spp. was detected in almost half of the healthy women. Mixed infection of C. trachomatis with either U. parvum or U. urealyticum was also observed in 9.2% (26/280) of the women. There was a significant association between C. trachomatis and either U. parvum (p = 0.023) or Ureaplasma total (p = 0.013), but not U. urealyticum (p = 0.275). This study demonstrated that the presence of Ureaplasma had a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women, suggesting that mixed infection is an important factor in bacterial pathogenesis in the genital tract.

  15. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  16. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-01-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010–April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants. PMID:27767927

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the general population of women in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Asma; Abdul-Rahim, Hanan; Alabsi, Enas; Bsaisu, Haneen N; Haddad, Pascale; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-11-01

    The Arabian Gulf region has limited epidemiological data related to sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among general population women in Doha, Qatar. Endocervical swabs were collected from healthy women attending primary healthcare centres in Doha, June-December 2008. The specimens were tested for C trachomatis by a commercially available PCR-based assay. Data on basic socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and sexual behaviour were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of C trachomatis and of background variables were stratified by nationality, Qatari nationals versus non-Qatari residents. A total of 377 women were enrolled in the study, out of whom 351 (37.9% Qataris, 62.1% non-Qataris) were tested for the presence of C trachomatis in their specimens. The mean age of participants was 41.2 years, and the vast majority (93%, 95% CI 90.3 to 95.7) were married. The mean age at sexual debut was significantly lower among Qatari women compared with non-Qatari women (19.2 vs 22.2 years, respectively pnationals and expatriate residents. The higher prevalence may reflect, in part, the limited access to and use of chlamydia screening and management.

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

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    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  19. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  20. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    ]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients in order to investigate changes in the protein expression of C. trachomatis serovar A and L2 caused by treatment with IFN-gamma. In contrast to what was observed in C. trachomatis L2, our results showed that, in C. trachomatis A, down...

  1. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  2. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, P

    2008-01-01

    . There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive....... The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infections was high among the abortion-seeking patients....

  3. Lactobacilli inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through lactic acid but not H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C

  4. Environmental Isolation of Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus After Interruption of Wild Poliovirus Transmission - Nigeria, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsano, Andrew; Damisa, Eunice; Shuaib, Faisal; Nganda, Gatei Wa; Enemaku, Ogu; Usman, Samuel; Adeniji, Adekunle; Jorba, Jaume; Iber, Jane; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Nnadi, Chimeremma; Wiesen, Eric

    2016-08-05

    In September 2015, more than 1 year after reporting its last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in July 2014 (1), Nigeria was removed from the list of countries with endemic poliovirus transmission,* leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan as the only remaining countries with endemic WPV. However, on April 29, 2016, a laboratory-confirmed, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolate was reported from an environmental sample collected in March from a sewage effluent site in Maiduguri Municipal Council, Borno State, a security-compromised area in northeastern Nigeria. VDPVs are genetic variants of the vaccine viruses with the potential to cause paralysis and can circulate in areas with low population immunity. The Nigeria National Polio Emergency Operations Center initiated emergency response activities, including administration of at least 2 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to all children aged <5 years through mass campaigns; retroactive searches for missed cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and enhanced environmental surveillance. Approximately 1 million children were vaccinated in the first OPV round. Thirteen previously unreported AFP cases were identified. Enhanced environmental surveillance has not resulted in detection of additional VDPV isolates. The detection of persistent circulation of VDPV2 in Borno State highlights the low population immunity, surveillance limitations, and risk for international spread of cVDPVs associated with insurgency-related insecurity. Increasing vaccination coverage with additional targeted supplemental immunization activities and reestablishment of effective routine immunization activities in newly secured and difficult-to-reach areas in Borno is urgently needed.

  5. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia and Posterior Circulation Infarction in Patients with Isolated Vertigo with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao Pei; Lu, Gui Feng; Zhang, Jie Wen; Zhang, Shu Ling; Ma, Qian Kun; Yin, Suo

    2017-02-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate the prevalence of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) in a population with isolated vertigo in association with stroke risk factors, to determine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for posterior circulation infarction (PCI). We sequentially enrolled 245 patients with isolated vertigo with at least 1 vascular risk factor, who were divided into PCI and non-PCI groups, according to present signs of acute infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography and cervical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to screen for VAH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant risk factors for PCI. VAH was found in 64 of 245 patients (26%). VAH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.17-6.23, P = .020), median stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR = 7.09, 95%CI = 2.54-19.79, P vertigo with PCI complicated by VAH was mainly small-artery occlusion. Our findings suggest that VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI in patients with isolated vertigo with confirmed risk from stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  7. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Chilean Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

  10. Prevalence of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who visited obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeow, Tee Cian; Wong, Won Fen; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Shankar, Esaki M.; Gupta, Rishien; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Hassan, Jamiyah; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Background The 7.5?kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis?infected patie...

  11. Molecular typing of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Haiyan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, China is the second place with high burden of tuberculosis (TB. To explore the characteristics of the pathogens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB circulating in this area is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of the strains. Recent developments in molecular biology have allowed prompt identification and tracking specific strains of MTB spreading through the population. Methods Spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR were performed in combination to yield specific genetic profiles of 260 MTB strains isolated from 30 counties of Jiangsu province in China between June and July 2010. The spoligotyping results were in comparison to the world Spoligotyping Database of Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe (SpolDB4. Drug susceptibility test (DST was performed on all strains by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture media. Results Based on the spoligotyping method, 246 strains displayed known patterns and 14 were absent in the database. Predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing family (80.4%. By using the 24-loci VNTR typing scheme, 224 different patterns were identified, including 20 clusters and 204 unique patterns. The largest clade comprised 195 strains belonging to the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR demonstrated maximal discriminatory power. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between Beijing family strains and drug-resistant phenotypes. The Beijing family strains presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistant TB, with the OR (95% CI of 11.07(1.45-84.50. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that Beijing family isolates were the most prevalent strains circulating in Jiangsu province of China. The utility of spoligotyping in combination with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR might be a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of MTB

  12. Natural Products for the Treatment of Trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Potroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical disease (NTD trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs. Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Coinfection in Male Patients with Urethritis in Greece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogeorgakis, Helen; Pittaras, Theodore E.; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Katsambas, Andreas; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection was studied in a group of 100 C. trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece. The serovar distribution revealed that apart from the predominant worldwide types E and F, the relatively uncommon type G is also prevalent. Gonococcal coinfection was frequent (30%) and was associated with genovariant Ja (75%, P = 0.008). PMID:20357220

  14. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  15. Phylogenetic Studies of the Three RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes of South American CTV Isolates Reveal the Circulation of a Novel Genetic Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Benítez-Galeano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV is the most economically important virus of citrus worldwide. Genetic diversity and population structure of CTV isolates from all citrus growing areas from Uruguay were analyzed by RT-PCR and cloning of the three RNA silencing suppressor genes (p25, p20 and p23. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of three known genotypes (VT, T3, T36 in the country, and the presence of a new genetic lineage composed by isolates from around the world, mainly from South America. Nucleotide and amino acid identity values for this new genetic lineage were both higher than 97% for the three analyzed regions. Due to incongruent phylogenetic relationships, recombination analysis was performed using Genetic Algorithms for Recombination Detection (GARD and SimPlot software. Recombination events between previously described CTV isolates were detected. High intra-sample variation was found, confirming the co-existence of different genotypes into the same plant. This is the first report describing: (1 the genetic diversity of Uruguayan CTV isolates circulating in the country and (2 the circulation of a novel CTV genetic lineage, highly present in the South American region. This information may provide assistance to develop an effective cross-protection program.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, A; Nassirou, B; Kadri, B; Moussa, F; Munoz, B E; Opong, E; West, S K

    2007-01-01

    To determine the association of personal and household risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. 12 villages were randomly selected. A census of all households was carried out, and 651 children aged 1-5 years were randomly selected and examined. Household and personal characteristics were determined, trachoma was clinically assessed and a swab for ocular C trachomatis infection was taken. The prevalence of trachoma was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 47%) and of infection was 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%). Children aged 3-5 years had a stronger association of clinical signs with infection, compared with those aged 1-2 years. Those with unclean faces were three times more likely to have clinical trachoma or ocular C trachomatis infection, compared with those with clean faces (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.3), respectively). 75% of compounds were within 30 min of a water source. Flies on the face were a risk factor for trachoma but not for C trachomatis infection. The different association of clinical signs with infection in younger versus older children may be an age-dependent difference in the duration of clinical disease. In Niger, unclean faces are a major risk factor for trachoma. The ready availability of water for washing suggests that further research on the effect of a strong health education campaign promoting clean children is warranted in this area.

  18. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  19. The Role of Surinamese Migrants in the Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective

  20. A magnetic micropore chip for rapid (<1 hour) unbiased circulating tumor cell isolation and in situ RNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jina; Bhagwat, Neha; Yee, Stephanie S; Black, Taylor; Redlinger, Colleen; Romeo, Janae; O'Hara, Mark; Raj, Arjun; Carpenter, Erica L; Stanger, Ben Z; Issadore, David

    2017-09-12

    The use of microtechnology for the highly selective isolation and sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells has shown enormous promise. One challenge for this technology is that the small feature sizes - which are the key to this technology's performance - can result in low sample throughput and susceptibility to clogging. Additionally, conventional molecular analysis of CTCs often requires cells to be taken off-chip for sample preparation and purification before analysis, leading to the loss of rare cells. To address these challenges, we have developed a microchip platform that combines fast, magnetic micropore based negative immunomagnetic selection (>10 mL h -1 ) with rapid on-chip in situ RNA profiling (>100× faster than conventional RNA labeling). This integrated chip can isolate both rare circulating cells and cell clusters directly from whole blood and allow individual cells to be profiled for multiple RNA cancer biomarkers, achieving sample-to-answer in less than 1 hour for 10 mL of whole blood. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we applied our device to the circulating tumor cell based diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We used a genetically engineered lineage-labeled mouse model of pancreatic cancer (KPCY) to validate the performance of our chip. We show that in a cohort of patient samples (N = 25) that this device can detect and perform in situ RNA analysis on circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer, even in those with extremely sparse CTCs (<1 CTC mL -1 of whole blood).

  1. Selective isolation and noninvasive analysis of circulating cancer stem cells through Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Hossain, Md Khaled; Lee, Jin-Ho; Han, Jiyou; Lee, Hun Joo; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Bum; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-15

    Circulating cancer stem cells (CCSCs), a rare circulating tumor cell (CTC) type, recently arose as a useful resource for monitoring and characterizing both cancers and their metastatic derivatives. However, due to the scarcity of CCSCs among hematologic cells in the blood and the complexity of the phenotype confirmation process, CCSC research can be extremely challenging. Hence, we report a nanoparticle-mediated Raman imaging method for CCSC characterization which profiles CCSCs based on their surface marker expression phenotypes. We have developed an integrated combinatorial Raman-Active Nanoprobe (RAN) system combined with a microfluidic chip to successfully process complete blood samples. CCSCs and CTCs were detected (90% efficiency) and classified in accordance with their respective surface marker expression via completely distinct Raman signals of RANs. Selectively isolated CCSCs (93% accuracy) were employed for both in vitro and in vivo tumor phenotyping to identify the tumorigenicity of the CCSCs. We utilized our new method to predict metastasis by screening blood samples from xenograft models, showing that upon CCSC detection, all subjects exhibited liver metastasis. Having highly efficient detection and noninvasive isolation capabilities, we have demonstrated that our RAN-based Raman imaging method will be valuable for predicting cancer metastasis and relapse via CCSC detection. Moreover, the exclusion of peak overlapping in CCSC analysis with our Raman imaging method will allow to expand the RAN families for various cancer types, therefore, increasing therapeutic efficacy by providing detailed molecular features of tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  4. Classification of large circulating tumor cells isolated with ultra-high throughput microfluidic Vortex technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, James; Yu, Victor; Dhar, Manjima; Renier, Corinne; Matsumoto, Melissa; Heirich, Kyra; Garon, Edward B.; Goldman, Jonathan; Rao, Jianyu; Sledge, George W.; Pegram, Mark D.; Sheth, Shruti; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Sollier, Elodie; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are emerging as rare but clinically significant non-invasive cellular biomarkers for cancer patient prognosis, treatment selection, and treatment monitoring. Current CTC isolation approaches, such as immunoaffinity, filtration, or size-based techniques, are often limited by throughput, purity, large output volumes, or inability to obtain viable cells for downstream analysis. For all technologies, traditional immunofluorescent staining alone has been employed to distinguish and confirm the presence of isolated CTCs among contaminating blood cells, although cells isolated by size may express vastly different phenotypes. Consequently, CTC definitions have been non-trivial, researcher-dependent, and evolving. Here we describe a complete set of objective criteria, leveraging well-established cytomorphological features of malignancy, by which we identify large CTCs. We apply the criteria to CTCs enriched from stage IV lung and breast cancer patient blood samples using the High Throughput Vortex Chip (Vortex HT), an improved microfluidic technology for the label-free, size-based enrichment and concentration of rare cells. We achieve improved capture efficiency (up to 83%), high speed of processing (8 mL/min of 10x diluted blood, or 800 μL/min of whole blood), and high purity (avg. background of 28.8±23.6 white blood cells per mL of whole blood). We show markedly improved performance of CTC capture (84% positive test rate) in comparison to previous Vortex designs and the current FDA-approved gold standard CellSearch assay. The results demonstrate the ability to quickly collect viable and pure populations of abnormal large circulating cells unbiased by molecular characteristics, which helps uncover further heterogeneity in these cells. PMID:26863573

  5. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  6. [Human papilloma virus and Chlamydia trachomatis by number of sexual partners and time of sexual activity on university students in the Region of La Araucanía, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Angélica; Lagos, Nicole; Montenegro, Sonia; Orellana, Juan José; Vásquez, Ana María; Moreno, Sergio; Liempi, Sandra; Guzmán, Pablo; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2016-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among teenagers and young people, with risk factors: active sex life and multiple partners. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may favor HPV infection and this, the development of cervical cancer. Both infections can lead to consequences on sexual and reproductive health. To determine frequency of HPV and C. trachomatis in asymptomatic university women less than 25 years, associating them with number of sexual partners (n°SxP) and time of sexual activity (TSxA). Material andMethods: 151 cervical samples for HPV and C. trachomatis, were processed by conventional and in real time reaction polymerase chain. HPV 21, 8%, C. trachomatis 11, 2% and co-infection (HPV/C.trachomatis), 4.6%. Aimong HPV +, 80, 6% showed high risk HPV. The n°SxP was strongly associated with HPV. Aimong young coinfected HPV/C. trachomatis, 71.4% had 3 or more PSx. Chlamydia trachomatis was more frequent (64,7%) that HPV within range of 3-5 years according to the TSxA, Discussion: A high prevalence of HPV and C. trachomatis was observed. Young women with coinfection HPV/C. trachomatis could be a high-risk group need to monitor their infections. It suggests the implementation of university programs in education, counseling and prevention in sexual health.

  7. Characterization of two conformational epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK immunogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Mygind, P; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    this protein. By use of recombinant DNA techniques, we located the epitopes for two MAbs in the C-terminal variable part. Although the antibodies reacted in an immunoblot assay, it was not possible to map the epitopes completely by use of 16-mer synthetic peptides displaced by one amino acid corresponding......Chlamydia trachomatis DnaK is an important immunogen in chlamydial infections. DnaK is composed of a conserved N-terminal ATP-binding domain and a variable C-terminal peptide-binding domain. To locate the immunogenic part of C. trachomatis Dnak, we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against...... with the two antibodies. The epitopes were found not to overlap. To obtain DnaK fragments recognized by the antibodies with the same affinity as native C. trachomatis DnaK, it was necessary to express, respectively, regions of 127 and 77 amino acids. The MAbs described in this study thus recognized...

  8. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  9. Nonactivated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles promote the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A; Janovák, L; Lantos, I; Endrész, V; Sebők, D; Szabó, T; Dékány, I; Deák, J; Rázga, Z; Burián, K; Virok, D P

    2017-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of this study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the TiO 2 NPs. Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV-2 were treated with nonactivated TiO 2 NPs, silver NPs and silver decorated TiO 2 NPs before infection of HeLa and Vero cells. Their intracellular growth was monitored by quantitative PCR. Unexpectedly, the TiO 2 NPs (100 μg ml -1 ) increased the growth of C. trachomatis by approximately fourfold, while the HSV-2 replication was not affected. Addition of TiO 2 to silver NPs decreased their antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis up to 27·92-fold. In summary, nonactivated TiO 2 NPs could increase the replication of C. trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver NPs. The food industry or drug delivery use of TiO 2 NPs could enhance the growth of certain intracellular pathogens and potentially worsen disease symptoms, a feature that should be further investigated. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (p<0.0001. El nivel socioeconómico bajo fue más frecuentemente observado en prostitutas C. trachomatis positivas (39/41, 95.1% que en las negativas (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos una prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis de 16.6%, la cual se asoció a una actividad sexual de las prostitutas en diversas entidades federativas, y se pudo observar que el padecimiento tiende a presentarse más frecuentemente en mujeres de un nivel socioeconómico bajo.

  11. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women seen at the lower genital tract pathology clinic, Jundiaí School of Medicine, Brazil

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    João Bosco Ramos Borges

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis ina population with a high risk of sexually transmitted diseases and tocompare data of the literature and the relationship of infection withthe presence of human papilloma virus induced lesions. Methods:A total of 28 hybrid capture tests for C. trachomatis were collectedfrom patients referred to the Municipal Health Division of the city ofJundiaí (SP for the lower genital tract pathology. The results werecompared with findings in the literature, and with the test resultsfrom a general population of the city of Jundiaí. Results: Of the 28tests, 3 (10.7% were positive. We did not find a positive associationbetween C. trachomatis infection and the presence or aggravationof intraepithelial cervical cancer. Conclusion: Our findings showed ahigh prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in the population studied,but no association with human papilloma virus infection. Because thenumber of patients assessed was small, it is difficult to generalizefrom our findings. We suggest there is a need to expand screeningprograms for C. trachomatis, mainly in symptomatic patients and inthose patients with cervical changes.

  12. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  13. In-house polymerase chain reaction for affordable and sustainable Chlamydia trachomatis detection in Trinidad and Tobago Sistema autóctono para la detección asequible y sustentable de Chlamydia trachomatis por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en Trinidad y Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Rampersad

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide a preliminary assessment of in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative to the more costly commercial test for detection of asymptomatic infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and to provide much needed demographic data on infection indicators within the Trinidad and Tobago public health care system. METHODS: An inexpensive in-house nested-PCR with an Internal Amplification Control was used to detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine samples collected from 273 apparently healthy, pregnant women from March-September 2004 in Trinidad, West Indies. Demographic information on participants was collected and subjected to statistical analyses. RESULTS: C. trachomatis was detected in 57/273 (21% samples, of which 5 (2% were also positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Infection correlated well with certain demographic parameters, with the highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection found among pregnant women that were single or of African descent. CONCLUSIONS: Given the lack of commercial tests in Trinidad, in-house PCR is an inexpensive alternative that can be used to detect asymptomatic infections of C. trachomatis and to provide demographic information needed for interventions by the public health care system.OBJETIVOS: Hacer una evaluación preliminar de un sistema autóctono para la detección de la infección asintomática por Chlamydia trachomatis mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP, como alternativa a los costosos sistemas comerciales, y ofrecer datos demográficos muy necesarios relacionados con los indicadores de esta infección en el sistema de salud pública de Trinidad y Tobago. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un sistema autóctono y económico de RCP anidada con control interno de la amplificación para la detección de C. trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae en muestras de orina de 273 mujeres embarazadas asintomáticas, entre marzo y septiembre de 2004 en Trinidad y Tobago, Indias

  14. [The physiology of the isolated dog pancreas--the influence of the actual blood glucose level on the blood circulation in the pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempfling, H; Husemann, B

    1975-06-01

    1. Glucose loading tests were undertaken on isolated pancreas or pancreas-duodenal preparations. 2. In 75% of cases a vasodilatation can be observed which leads to enhanced blood circulation under constant pressure in the isolated organ. 3. This vasodilatation persists until the level of blood sugar has normalized. 4. The experiment being carried out on an isolated organ, external factors such as the vagus nerve, do not become active.

  15. Isolation of circulating tumor cells by a magnesium-embedded filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Kang, Dongyang; Xu, Lei; Park, Jungwook; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Tai, Yu-Chong; Xu, Tong; Xu, Yucheng; Chang, Jay Han-Chieh; Goldkorn, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cancer cells that are shed by tumors into the bloodstream and that can be valuable biomarkers for various types of cancers. However, CTCs captured on the filter could not be released easily using the existing CTC analysis platforms based on size. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel magnesium (Mg)-embedded cell filter for capture, release and isolation of CTCs. The CTC-filter consists of a thin Ebeam-deposited Mg layer embedded between two parylene-C (PA-C) layers with designed slots for filtration and CTC capture. Thin Mg film has proved highly biocompatible and can be etched in saline, PBS and Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM) etc, properties that are of great benefit to help dissociate the filter and thus release the cells. The finite element method (FEM) analysis was performed on the Mg etching process in DMEM for the structure design. After the filtration process, the filter was submerged in DMEM to facilitate Mg etching. The top PA-C filter pieces break apart from the bottom after Mg completely dissolves, enabling captured CTCs to detach. The released CTC can be easily aspirated into a micropipette for further analysis. Thus, the Mg-embedded cell filter provides a new and effective approach for CTCs isolation from the filter, making this a promising new strategy for cancer detection. (paper)

  16. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG seropositivity is associated with lower natural conception rates in ovulatory subfertile women without visible tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Land, J. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Steures, P.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van der Steeg, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and subsequent tubal damage is widely recognized. As such, C. trachomatis antibody (CAT) testing can be used to triage women for immediate tubal testing with hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy. However, once invasive tubal testing has

  18. Isolating the atmospheric circulation response to Arctic sea-ice loss in the coupled climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Paul; Blackport, Russell

    2017-04-01

    In the coupled climate system, projected global warming drives extensive sea-ice loss, but sea-ice loss drives warming that amplifies and can be confounded with the global warming process. This makes it challenging to cleanly attribute the atmospheric circulation response to sea-ice loss within coupled earth-system model (ESM) simulations of greenhouse warming. In this study, many centuries of output from coupled ocean/atmosphere/land/sea-ice ESM simulations driven separately by sea-ice albedo reduction and by projected greenhouse-dominated radiative forcing are combined to cleanly isolate the hemispheric scale response of the circulation to sea-ice loss. To isolate the sea-ice loss signal, a pattern scaling approach is proposed in which the local multidecadal mean atmospheric response is assumed to be separately proportional to the total sea-ice loss and to the total low latitude ocean surface warming. The proposed approach estimates the response to Arctic sea-ice loss with low latitude ocean temperatures fixed and vice versa. The sea-ice response includes a high northern latitude easterly zonal wind response, an equatorward shift of the eddy driven jet, a weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex, an anticyclonic sea level pressure anomaly over coastal Eurasia, a cyclonic sea level pressure anomaly over the North Pacific, and increased wintertime precipitation over the west coast of North America. Many of these responses are opposed by the response to low-latitude surface warming with sea ice fixed. However, both sea-ice loss and low latitude surface warming act in concert to reduce storm track strength throughout the mid and high latitudes. The responses are similar in two related versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research earth system models, apart from the stratospheric polar vortex response. Evidence is presented that internal variability can easily contaminate the estimates if not enough independent climate states are used to construct them

  19. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  20. [Performance of a standardized interrogation to improve the screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandcolin, S; de Hauteclocque, A; Lafoscade, A; Fritel, X

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the performance of a standardized interrogation tool facilitating the detection and screening of patients for the Chlamydia trachomatis infection, to estimate the prevalence of the infection in the family planning population studied. Prospective observational study, including the patients who had a consultation in the abortion center in the CHU of Poitiers. A sampling of the cervix was systematically carried out after the standardized interrogation in search of four clinical signs. The samples were analyzed by genetic amplification. Three hundred and eighty-six women were included and 56 (14.5 %) infections were identified. The medical history questionnaire was relatively effective for 2 or 3 clinical signs. The positive predictive value (PPV) was respectively 34.8 % and 53.8 % and was very relevant for 4 clinical signs with PPV at 83.3 % [CI 95 %: 74-93 %]. Among the infected women, 48.2 % had no clinical sign revealed by the medical history questionnaire. The presence of any clinical sign was strongly associated with the C. trachomatis infection (Pinterrogation are all significantly associated with the C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  2. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide on the circulation of animals as well as on the contractility of isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laszt, L; Schaad, R

    1974-01-01

    In support of earlier work on exhaust gases experiments were carried out to determine the acute effects of sulphur dioxide on the circulation of the cat and dog. Inhalation of SO/sub 2/ during 30 min at concentrations of up to 1000 ppm caused no circulatory reaction. Such a reaction first appeared after infusion of larger quantities of SO/sub 2/. The action of sulphur dioxide on systemic and pulmonar circulation is different. A difference was also observed for the contractility of the corresponding isolated vessels.

  3. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  4. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as Determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, K.; Smith, J. S.; Aslanzadeh, J.; Snook, J.; Hill, C. S.; Gaydos, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis. PMID:22622447

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  6. Evaluation of the new AmpliSens multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Nilsson, Christian S; Johansson, Emma; Falk, My; Fredlund, Hans; Van Dam, Alje; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2 assay, APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasma genitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n = 209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n = 498) and males (n = 554), consecutive attendees (n = 1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C. trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M. genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N. gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T. vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N. gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M. genitalium detection. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  8. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  9. Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the provinces of Novara and VCO: one year of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Andreoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the most common sexually transmitted diseases.The lack of growth of these microorganisms on common media and the roundabout research by immunofluorescence, has meant that, until now, these special-lived intracellular microorganisms have played a role probably underestimated in cases of infections affecting the sexual organs.The introduction of molecular biology has made possible their research in a much more simple, reliable and standardized methods. The study was carried out on endocervical samples, male urethral swabs and urine samples of men and women, determining the C. trachomatis DNA amplified using the BD ProbeTec ET system. This system uses technology SDA (Strand Displacement Amplification - Elongationcrowding of the blanks. The study was conducted from June 2008 to june 2009. Symptomatic and asyntptomatic patients residents in the provinces of Novara and the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola were considered. In this period 784 determinations were made in molecular biology. Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 26 cases equal to a percentage of 3.32%. While considering these preliminary data, however, we can estimate the rate of detection of C. trachomatis as a good starting point, because we have the impression that improved procedures particularly relate to the techniques for sampling and for storage and transport of the sample, can undoubtedly lead to much higher percentages.

  10. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  11. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M.I.; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; van Dorsten, L.; Azzawi, R.; van Zuilekom, H.I.; Peters, P.P.; van Opzeeland, F.J.; Dijk, L..; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verwey, P.J.; van Duijnhoven, W.G.; van den Bosch, J.F.; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis: um importante agente de infecções respiratórias em lactentes de famílias de baixa renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lucia Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de infecção do trato respiratório inferior (ITRI por Chlamydia trachomatis em lactentes internados e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e radiológicas da doença. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo do tipo corte transversal, realizado durante um período de 12 meses. Foram incluídos todos os lactentes de até 6 meses internados consecutivamente no Centro Pediátrico Professor Hosannah de Oliveira da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Salvador, BA, com diagnóstico clínico ou clínico-radiológico de ITRI. O diagnóstico de infecção por C. trachomatis foi realizado através da pesquisa de anticorpos da classe IgM, utilizando-se o ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. A prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis foi determinada, e foram calculadas as razões de prevalência para essa infecção e variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Cento e cinquenta e um lactentes realizaram sorologia para C. trachomatis, das quais 15 (9,9% foram positivas. A infecção por C. trachomatis ocorreu unicamente entre os menores de 5 meses, principalmente naqueles menores de 2 meses. Três crianças com infecção por C. trachomatis nasceram de parto cesáreo. Conjuntivite e eosinofilia ocorreram em 33,3% dos casos. As radiografias de tórax se mostraram alteradas em 92% dos casos. Demonstrou-se associação da infecção por C. trachomatis com duração de internação superior a 15 dias (p = 0,0398 e com oxigenoterapia (p = 0,0484. CONCLUSÕES: Houve alta prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis na população estudada. A infecção por esta bactéria foi associada a uma forma mais grave da doença, demonstrando a importância de se investigar essa infecção na gestante de forma a evitar o adoecimento de recém-nascidos.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multinucleation during C. trachomatis infections is caused by the contribution of two effector pathways.

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    Heather M Brown

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen and the second leading cause of sexually transmitted infections in the US. Infections cause significant morbidity and can lead to serious reproductive sequelae, including an epidemiological link to increased rates of reproductive cancers. One of the overt changes that infected cells exhibit is the development of genomic instability leading to multinucleation. Here we demonstrate that the induction of multinucleation is not conserved equally across chlamydial species; C. trachomatis L2 caused high levels of multinucleation, C. muridarum intermediate levels, and C. caviae had very modest effects on multinucleation. Our data show that at least two effector pathways together cause genomic instability during infection leading to multinucleation. We find that the highly conserved chlamydial protease CPAF is a key effector for one of these pathways. CPAF secretion is required for the loss of centrosome duplication regulation as well as inducing early mitotic exit. The second effector pathway involves the induction of centrosome position errors. This function is not conserved in three chlamydial species tested. Together these two pathways contribute to the induction of high levels of genomic instability and multinucleation seen in C. trachomatis infections.

  15. T Lymphocyte Immunity in Host Defence against Chlamydia trachomatis and Its Implication for Vaccine Development

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    X Yang

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes several significant human infectious diseases, including trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis and salpingitis, and is an important cofactor for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Until very recently, over three decades of research effort aimed at developing a C trachomatis vaccine had failed, due mainly to the lack of a precise understanding of the mechanisms for protective immunity. Although most studies concerning protective immunity to C trachomatis have focused on humoral immune responses, recent studies have clearly shown that T helper-1 (Th1-like CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses play the dominant role in protective immunity. These studies suggest a paradigm for chlamydial immunity and pathology based on the concept of heterogeneity (Th1/Th2 in CD4 T cell immune responses. This concept for chlamydial immunity offers a rational template on which to base renewed efforts for development of a chlamydial vaccine that targets the induction of cell-mediated Th1 immune responses.

  16. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men with urethritis in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sweih, N A; Khan, S; Rotimi, V O

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis and gonorrhoea are the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Data on these infections are scanty in the Islamic world, especially Kuwait. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men with symptomatic urethritis in Kuwait. Men with urethral discharge seen and managed at eight governmental hospitals were recruited into the study. A pair of urethral swab and first-voided urine sample were taken from the patients and sent immediately to the laboratory where they were processed using strand displacement nucleic acid amplification kits (SDA; ProbeTec, Becton Dickinson); one pair per patient was studied. A total of 426 symptomatic men were studied, out of whom 155 (36.4%) were infected by either C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, or both. The overall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 12.4% and 23.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence between Kuwaiti men and non-Kuwaitis (P>0.05). Infection rates were much lower in married men than unmarried men. Men in the age range of 21-35 years were more vulnerable to both infections. The findings show that N. gonorrhoeae and, to a lesser extent, C. trachomatis are common in men with urethritis in Kuwait. Appropriate preventive strategies that conform to Islamic rules and values should be of highest priority of the policymakers. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of Fusion of Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions at 32°C Correlates with Restricted Export of IncA

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, K. A.; Fischer, E.; Hackstadt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that develops within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The inclusion is nonfusogenic with lysosomes but intercepts lipids from a host cell exocytic pathway. Initiation of chlamydial development is concurrent with modification of the inclusion membrane by a set of C. trachomatis-encoded proteins collectively designated Incs. One of these Incs, IncA, is functionally associated with the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Incl...

  18. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  19. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...... technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear...

  20. Custo-efetividade do rastreamento da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em mulheres brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Tomazzini Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução: A importância da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis não está relacionada apenas à sua elevada frequência, mas principalmente pelas graves repercussões no aparelho genital feminino. Apenas 30% das pacientes infectadas apresentam sintomas e só 40% terão sinais que possam evidenciar sua presença. Cerca de 70% dos casos de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis são assintomáticos e acabam não sendo diagnosticados, havendo, portanto a necessidade de programa de rastreamento para di...

  1. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  2. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Iranian males and females and to find out the effect of this bacterium on fertility potential and its association with urogenital symptoms. We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using keywords 'Chlamydia', 'Chlamydia trachomatis', 'prevalence', 'incidence', 'frequency', 'epidemiology' and 'Iran'. Finally, after some exclusion, 34 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each group. C. trachomatis prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 0 to 32.7% and 0 to 23.3%, respectively (95% CI). The pooled prevalence of the bacterium in the female population was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.6-14.2%) and in men was 10.9% (95% CI: 7.6-15.4%). A high level of heterogeneity was seen for both men (I(2)  = 77.4%; P females analysis of symptomatic/infertile group with asymptomatic/fertile group in females, the overall OR was above 1 and the overall P-value was below zero. This bacterium may play a role in female infertility or be associated with clinical manifestations; thus, planning national programmes for adequate diagnosis of genital infections caused by this pathogen is necessary. Furthermore, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected people can reduce consequent complications.

  3. Laser therapy in women genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection complicated with PID and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzan, Daniela; Paiusan, Lucian; Smeu, Claudia-Ramona

    2018-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections with more than 50 million new cases occurred globally every year. Underdiagnosed and untreated, it can generate long term severe complications including PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Among 20 patients diagnosed with PID and infertility in our medical office during one year, we selected a study group of 10 patients with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection. The diagnostic methods used were anamnesis, clinical examination, Pap smear, bacteriological and serological tests, ultra sound examination. The group of patients selected was monitored for one year. The treatment took into account general measures for both partners and specific measures (antibiotic treatment and focused laser therapy). The initial group was split in two, group A treated only with antibiotics and group B treated with both antibiotics and laser therapy. All the 5 patients of group B presented an improvement of the clinical manifestations and 3 of them ended up with pregnancy. On the other hand, in group B, only one patient manifested total disappearance of pains and the infertility persisted for all. It is noteworthy that the association of laser therapy in the treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis infection has brought significant improvement in the inflammatory processes of internal genitalia (PID) and in the fertility of the couple.

  4. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  5. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  6. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens: kerman city, PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes genital disease and the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. The most frequent risk factors associated with chlamydial infection are related to sexual behavior, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Presenting primarily as urtheritis in men and cervicitis in women, CT a major cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility in women, eye and lung infection in newborns and other manifestations. Identification of CT-infected patients may prevent its spread and thereby reduce the high morbidity associated with CT infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. trachomatis by PCR in genital samples from patients in the city of Kerman.Methods: A total of 130 genital samples including 64 endocervical and 66 urethral swab samples were collected by physicians. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using a commercial DNA extraction kit. PCR primers specific for a conserved region of the C. trachomatis omp2 gene, encoding an outer membrane protein, were used for amplification.  Results: A total of 9.2% (6.25% of cervicitis and 12.1% of urethritis of the samples were found positive for CT using this PCR method. Conclusions:  The present study shows a high prevalence of CT infection, especially in men with urethritis. Such patients should be referred to genitourinary clinics for treatment and partner notification. Given its worldwide prevalence, further CT studies on more populations are needed to assess potential public health implications of these infections.

  7. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction

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    Kiarash Ghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning for appropriate preventive measures against Chlamydia trachomatis, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, requires knowledge of prevalence of infection so that interventions can be targeted in a cost-effective manner. This study was performed on 178 male patients presenting with urethritis in the Mashhad province to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Northeast Iran. A cotton swab and first voided urine specimen were collected according to standard procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests were used for the detection of C. trachomatis in the specimens collected and the results were analyzed using SPSS program. Results showed that 10.6% of male patients in this group were infected with C. trachomatis. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in the Northeast Iran is high and suggests that Chlamydia screening as a routine part of STD investigations is highly necessary in this area.

  8. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  10. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans

    2002-01-01

    chlamydial diseases, was investigated using a proteomics approach. Based on silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), gels with purified elementary bodies (EB) and auto-radiography of gels with 35S-labeled C. trachomatis proteins up to 700 protein spots were detectable...

  11. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en usuarias de dos clínicas de planificación familiar Chlamydia trachomatis infection in users of two family planning clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Canto-de Cetina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres que acuden a dos clínicas de planificación familiar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 1 100 mujeres sexualmente activas, aparentemente sanas, de Mérida, Yucatán, México, quienes acudieron a dos clínicas de planificación familiar en el periodo comprendido de enero a diciembre de 1998. Las mujeres incluidas en el estudio tuvieron entre 15 y 45 años de edad, y habían estado libres de tratamiento antibacteriano al menos durante el mes previo a su inclusión. Se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La detección de bacterias fue realizada por el método inmunoenzimático de marca Wellcozyme. Los datos fueron procesados en el programa EPI Info. Como métodos estadísticos se utilizaron la prueba de Z, ji cuadrada y como medida de asociación, la razón de prevalencias. RESULTADOS: Setenta y cuatro mujeres (6.7 % fueron positivas a infección por Chlamydia trachomatis. Cerca de 50% de las mujeres estuvo asintomática. No se encontró diferencia estadística entre la proporción de mujeres con y sin Chlamydia que tuvieron síntomas vulvovaginales; por el contrario, los cambios relacionados con cervicitis fueron más frecuentes en las pacientes infectadas. C trachomatis fue más frecuente en usuarias de anticonceptivos orales (8.3% comparadas con mujeres que no tenían método anticonceptivo (5.4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio confirman la alta prevalencia de infecciones asintomáticas y pone énfasis en la importancia de un diagnóstico oportuno para evitar secuelas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending two family planning clinics in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January to December 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 100 sexually active women between 15 and 45 years of age. Study subjects had not received

  12. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  13. Golgi-associated Rab14, a new regulator for Chlamydia trachomatis infection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, Anahí; Leiva, Natalia; Damiani, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causing agent of the most frequent bacterial sexually-transmitted diseases worldwide and is an underlying cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases and cervical cancer. It is an obligate intracellular bacterium that establishes a close relationship with the Golgi complex and parasites the biosynthetic machinery of host cells. In a recent study, we have demonstrated that Rab14, a newly-described Golgi-associated Rab, is involved in the delivery of sphingolipids to the growing bacteria-containing vacuole. The interference with Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways delays chlamydial inclusion enlargement, decreases bacterial lipid uptake, negatively impact on bacterial differentiation, and reduces bacterial progeny and infectivity. C. trachomatis manipulation of host trafficking pathways for the acquisition of endogenously-biosynthesized nutrients arises as one of the characteristics of this highly evolved pathogen. The development of therapeutic strategies targeted to interfere with bacterium-host cell interaction is a new challenge for pharmacological approaches to control chlamydial infections.

  14. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

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    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  15. Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Mansur, Simone Brutman; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2016-06-08

    The recent association of Zika virus with cases of microcephaly has sparked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for mechanisms to combat the Zika vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial endosymbiont of insect, has recently garnered attention as a mechanism for arbovirus control. Here we report that Aedes aegypti harboring Wolbachia are highly resistant to infection with two currently circulating Zika virus isolates from the recent Brazilian epidemic. Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes displayed lower viral prevalence and intensity and decreased disseminated infection and, critically, did not carry infectious virus in the saliva, suggesting that viral transmission was blocked. Our data indicate that the use of Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes could represent an effective mechanism to reduce Zika virus transmission and should be included as part of Zika control strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of Fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  17. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hansen, Mette S; Zakariassen, Hannah; Olsen, Anja W; Andersen, Peter; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2017-06-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs. diestrus, on the establishment of a C. trachomatis infection in the minipig. Targeting the upper genital tract (transcervical inoculation) resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 7 days) compared to vaginal inoculation (3-5 days). When comparing intrauterine inoculation during estrus and diestrus, inoculation during diestrus resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest that for implementation of an optimal model of C. trachomatis in minipigs, inoculation should bypass the cervix and preferable be performed during diestrus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  19. How robust is the atmospheric circulation response to Arctic sea-ice loss in isolation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, P. J.; Hay, S. E.; Blackport, R.; McCusker, K. E.; Oudar, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is now apparent that active dynamical coupling between the ocean and atmosphere determines a good deal of how Arctic sea-ice loss changes the large-scale atmospheric circulation. In coupled ocean-atmosphere models, Arctic sea-ice loss indirectly induces a 'mini' global warming and circulation changes that extend into the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Ocean-atmosphere coupling also amplifies by about 50% Arctic free-tropospheric warming arising from sea-ice loss (Deser et al. 2015, 2016). The mechanisms at work and how to separate the response to sea-ice loss from the rest of the global warming process remain poorly understood. Different studies have used distinctive numerical approaches and coupled ocean-atmosphere models to address this problem. We put these studies on comparable footing using pattern scaling (Blackport and Kushner 2017) to separately estimate the part of the circulation response that scales with sea-ice loss in the absence of low-latitude warming from the part that scales with low-latitude warming in the absence of sea-ice loss. We consider well-sampled simulations from three different coupled ocean-atmosphere models (CESM1, CanESM2, CNRM-CM5), in which greenhouse warming and sea-ice loss are driven in different ways (sea ice albedo reduction/transient RCP8.5 forcing for CESM1, nudged sea ice/CO2 doubling for CanESM2, heat-flux forcing/constant RCP8.5-derived forcing for CNRM-CM5). Across these different simulations, surprisingly robust influences of Arctic sea-ice loss on atmospheric circulation can be diagnosed using pattern scaling. For boreal winter, the isolated sea-ice loss effect acts to increase warming in the North American Sub-Arctic, decrease warming of the Eurasian continent, enhance precipitation over the west coast of North America, and strengthen the Aleutian Low and the Siberian High. We will also discuss how Arctic free tropospheric warming might be enhanced via midlatitude ocean surface warming induced by sea-ice loss

  20. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted bacteria in semen of male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia: the effect on semen parameters and spermatozoa apoptosis markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Sellami

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR. Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%, 5 (5.8%, 5 (5.8% and 3 (3.5% male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%. The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a] of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62. Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C

  1. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify

  2. Does typing of Chlamydia trachomatis using housekeeping multilocus sequence typing reveal different sexual networks among heterosexuals and men who have sex with men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Ende, Arie; Pannekoek, Yvonne

    2016-04-18

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomatis, several schemes of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have been developed. We investigated the clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals using the MLST scheme based on 7 housekeeping genes (MLST-7) adapted for clinical specimens and a high-resolution MLST scheme based on 6 polymorphic genes, including ompA (hr-MLST-6). Specimens from 100 C. trachomatis infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and 100 heterosexual women were randomly selected from previous studies and sequenced. We adapted the MLST-7 scheme to a nested assay to be suitable for direct typing of clinical specimens. All selected specimens were typed using both the adapted MLST-7 scheme and the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from MSM and heterosexuals was assessed using minimum spanning tree analysis. Sufficient chlamydial DNA was present in 188 of the 200 (94 %) selected samples. Using the adapted MLST-7 scheme, full MLST profiles were obtained for 187 of 188 tested specimens resulting in a high success rate of 99.5 %. Of these 187 specimens, 91 (48.7 %) were from MSM and 96 (51.3 %) from heterosexuals. We detected 21 sequence types (STs) using the adapted MLST-7 and 79 STs using the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Minimum spanning tree analyses was used to examine the clustering of MLST-7 data, which showed no reflection of separate transmission in MSM and heterosexual hosts. Moreover, typing using the hr-MLST-6 scheme identified genetically related clusters within each of clusters that were identified by using the MLST-7 scheme. No distinct transmission of C. trachomatis could be observed in MSM and heterosexuals using the adapted MLST-7 scheme in contrast to using the hr-MLST-6. In addition, we compared clustering of both MLST schemes and

  3. Prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo de infecciones transmisibles sexualmente en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Occhionero

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis es considerada en la actualidad una de las causas más frecuentes de infecciones transmisibles sexualmente (ITS a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente al grupo de jóvenes menores de 25 años. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de la infección por C. trachomatis en alumnos ingresantes a la Universidad Nacional del Sur (Bahía Blanca, Argentina y evaluar los factores de riesgo para la adquisición de ITS. Participaron en el estudio 204 jóvenes de edad media de 19 años, que remitieron una muestra de orina de primera micción y respondieron a una encuesta anónima. La investigación de C. trachomatis se realizó sobre 114 muestras válidas mediante una técnica de amplificación génica, cuyo blanco molecular es el gen ompA. Se detectaron 4 casos de infección por C. trachomatis, lo que implicó una prevalencia del 3,5 %. Los factores de riesgo que demostraron estar asociados con la adquisición de esta ITS fueron un historial de 7 o más parejas desde el comienzo de las relaciones sexuales y el contacto con una nueva pareja sexual en los últimos 4 meses. La prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis reflejó una moderada circulación de este microorganismo en la población estudiada. Si bien algunos aspectos revelados en las encuestas sugieren una población de bajo riesgo para la adquisición de ITS en general, otros datos evidencian lo contrario y alertan sobre la necesidad de incrementar la vigilancia y desarrollar acciones de concienciación y prevención en esta población.

  4. Relationship between serum Chlamydia trachomatis antibody titer and tubal block in infertile Egyptian women

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    Ahmed Khairy Makled

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: ELISA can be used as a simple, noninvasive screening test for C. trachomatis IgG antibodies, with a high predictive value for tubal occlusion in infertile Egyptian women, however larger studies are needed to confirm our results.

  5. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo; su edad promedio era 28 años. Utilizando el inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA se buscó la C. trachomatis y se hallaron frecuencias de infección de 5.4 y 17.4% en el primero y el segundo grupos, respectivamente; tal diferencia fue significativa (p < 0.005. Mediante exámenes directos y cultivos se demostraron las siguientes frecuencias de infección en las pacientes de consulta ginecológica y en las del Centro Venereológico, en su orden: Gardenerella vaginalis en 33.5% y 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en 0.6 y 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis en 5.4 y 4.5%, Candida spp. en 13.2 y 10.2%. No hubo entre estas tasas diferencias significativas. Se observó relación entre la positividad para C. trachomatis y las entidades usualmente asociadas con ella: en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico la frecuencia de cervicitis fue 39% en las infectadas por C. trachomatis y 11.5% en las no Infectadas (p < 0.01; en las de la consulta ginecológica hubo Enfermedad Pélvica inflamatoria en 4 de las 9 Infectadas (44.4% y en sólo 11 de las 158 no infectadas (7% (Prueba de Fisher p = 0.004. El uso de anticonceptivos orales tuvo asociación significativa (p < 0.01 con la infección por Chlamydia en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico pero no en las de la consulta ginecológica; en efecto: 28.8% de las mujeres del Centro que utilizaban estos anticonceptivos y ninguna de las que no recurran a ellos resultaron positivas para esta bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis fue la bacteria más frecuentemente

  6. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

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    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis induces an upregulation of molecular biomarkers podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1, osteopontin and inflammatory cytokines in human mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Anna; Buommino, Elisabetta; Domenico, Marina Di; Feola, Antonia; Brunetti-Pierri, Raffaella; Rizzo, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent infection of the genital tract in women worldwide. C. trachomatis has a tendency to cause persistent infection and induce a state of chronic inflammation, which has been reported to play a role in carcinogenesis. We report that persistent C. trachomatis infection increases the expression of inflammatory tumour cytokines and upregulates molecular biomarkers such as podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1 and osteopontin in primary cultures of mesothelial cells (Mes1) and human mesothelioma cells (NCI). Infection experiments showed that Mes1 and NCI supported the growth of C. trachomatisin vitro, and at an m.o.i. of 4, the inclusion-forming units/cell showed many intracellular inclusion bodies after 3 days of infection. However, after 7 days of incubation, increased proliferative and invasive activity was also observed in Mes1 cells, which was more evident after 14 days of incubation. ELISA analysis revealed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α release in Mes1 cells infected for a longer period (14 days). Finally, real-time PCR analysis revealed a strong induction of podoplanin, Wilms' tumour gene 1 and osteopontin gene expression in infected Mes1 cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inflammatory response elicited by C. trachomatis persistent infection and the role played by inflammation in cell proliferation, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and molecular biomarkers of cancer. The results of this study suggest that increased molecular biomarkers of cancer by persistent inflammation from C. trachomatis infection might support cellular transformation, thus increasing the risk of cancer.

  8. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

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    Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  9. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  10. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

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    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  11. Realisation of microstrip junction circulator using LTCC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, V; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    An integrated circulator based on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) tapes and LTCC compatible ferrite tapes has been developed for the first time and its performance has been verified experimentally. The insertion loss is less than 2 dB and the isolation is better than 25 dB with a centre f...... frequency of 7.45 GHz. These results are in good agreement with simulations and offer a route towards integrated LTCC microwave circulators.......An integrated circulator based on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) tapes and LTCC compatible ferrite tapes has been developed for the first time and its performance has been verified experimentally. The insertion loss is less than 2 dB and the isolation is better than 25 dB with a centre...

  12. Utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi

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    Agrawal S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi , India Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs / HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak was detected in 11 cases (36.67% when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors.

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    Vítor Borges

    Full Text Available Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC, and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166 through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1. This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to

  14. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  15. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  16. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as

  18. Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Morre, S.A.; Pol, R; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    50% contained both serovars D and E. The nested VD2 PCR-RLB developed is a simple, fast, and specific method for the identification of individual urogenital C. trachomatis serovars previously detected by using plasmid PCR. Moreover, it is an appropriate method for studying multiple C. trachomatis

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila abortus induce the expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in cells of the human female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean; Fleming, Diana; Fitch, Paul; Kelly, Rodney; Entrican, Gary

    2008-09-01

    C. trachomatis and C. abortus are related Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause reproductive failure due to infertility (C. trachomatis) or abortion (C. abortus). These organisms target epithelial cells in the reproductive tract and/or placenta, but the innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection or pathology and disease are poorly understood. SLPI is an innate immune molecule which protects mucosal surfaces from infection and injury. C. trachomatis and C. abortus were found to induce SLPI mRNA and peptide expression in HeLa (cervical epithelium) and JEG-3 cells (trophoblast) respectively. Both cell lines constitutively expressed SLPI and, although infection enhanced this expression, killed organisms did not. These data demonstrate that Chlamydia/Chlamydophila grow in cells that express SLPI, suggesting that SLPI does not exert antimicrobial effects against these organisms. However, SLPI has multiple functions, and we speculate that it may play a role in controlling tissue inflammation and pathology.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellinga Akke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche. To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%. Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms were identified as target areas for health promotion strategies

  2. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Bordetella pertussis Isolates Circulating in Europe from 1998 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Abdolreza; Hallander, Hans O.; Dalby, Tine; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Guiso, Nicole; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; von Könnig, Carl Heinz Wirsing; Riffelmann, Marion; Mooi, Frits R.; Sandven, Per; Lutyńska, Anna; Fry, Norman K.; Mertsola, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates were collected during three periods, i.e., 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), and 2007 to 2009 (n = 140), from nine countries with distinct vaccination programs, i.e., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed according to standardized recommendations for epidemiological typing of B. pertussis. There were 81 different PFGE profiles, five of which (BpSR3, BpSR5, BpSR10, BpSR11, and BpSR12) were observed in 61% of the 396 isolates and shown to be predominant in almost all countries. The major profile, BpSR11, showed a decreasing trend from 25% to 30% in 1998 to 2005 to 13% in 2007 to 2009, and there were increases in BpSR3 and BpSR10 from 0% and 8% to 21% and 22%, respectively. One difference between these profiles is that BpSR11 contains isolates harboring the fim3-2 allele and BpSR3 and BpSR10 contain isolates harboring the fim3-1 allele. The total proportion of the five predominant profiles increased from 44% in 1998 to 2001 to 63% in 2004 to 2005 to 70% in 2007 to 2009. In conclusion, common PFGE profiles were identified in B. pertussis populations circulating in European countries with different vaccination programs and different vaccine coverages. These prevalent isolates contain the novel pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3 allele. However, there is evidence for diversifying selection between ptxP3 strains characterized by distinct PFGE profiles. This work shows that, even within a relatively short time span of 10 years, successful isolates which spread through Europe and cause large shifts in B. pertussis populations may emerge. PMID:23175253

  3. Nanostructure Embedded Microchips for Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that break away from either a primary tumor or a metastatic site and circulate in the peripheral blood as the cellular origin of metastasis. With their role as a “tumor liquid biopsy”, CTCs provide convenient access to all disease sites, including that of the primary tumor and the site of fatal metastases. It is conceivable that detecting and analyzing CTCs will provide insightful information in assessing the disease status without the flaws and limitations encountered in performing conventional tumor biopsies. However, identifying CTCs in patient blood samples is technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance of CTCs among a large number of hematologic cells. To address this unmet need, there have been significant research endeavors, especially in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and bioengineering, devoted to developing CTC detection, isolation, and characterization technologies. Inspired by the nanoscale interactions observed in the tissue microenvironment, our research team at UCLA pioneered a unique concept of “NanoVelcro” cell-affinity substrates, in which CTC capture agent-coated nanostructured substrates were utilized to immobilize CTCs with high efficiency. The working mechanism of NanoVelcro cell-affinity substrates mimics that of Velcro: when the two fabric strips of a Velcro fastener are pressed together, tangling between the hairy surfaces on two strips leads to strong binding. Through continuous evolution, three generations (gens) of NanoVelcro CTC chips have been established to achieve different clinical utilities. The first-gen NanoVelcro chip, composed of a silicon nanowire substrate (SiNS) and an overlaid microfluidic chaotic mixer, was created for CTC enumeration. Side-by-side analytical validation studies using clinical blood samples suggested that the sensitivity of first-gen NanoVelcro chip outperforms that of FDA-approved CellSearch. In conjunction with

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurašin, Branimir; Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-04-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados a la infección vaginal por Chlamydia trachomatis Risk factors associated with vaginal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Inés Infante Tavío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, a fin de identificar la posible asociación causal entre algunos factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de infección vaginal por Chlamydia trachomatis en féminas provenientes de la consulta de Infertilidad del Policlínico Docente "José Martí Pérez" del municipio Santiago de Cuba, desde junio hasta diciembre de 2010. En el estudio se incluyeron 25 casos y se seleccionaron 3 controles por cada uno, mientras que para los cálculos estadísticos se aplicaron la razón de productos cruzados y el intervalo de confianza. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección vaginal por esta bacteria fueron: tener historia previa de infección de transmisión sexual y mantener una conducta sexual riesgosa.A case-control study was carried out in order to identify the potential causative association between some risk factors and the occurrence of vaginal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in females from the Infertility Department of "José Martí Pérez" Teaching Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba municipality, from June to September 2010. Twenty five cases were included in the study and 3 controls were selected for each, while for the statistical calculations odds ratio and confidence interval were used. History of sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual conduct were the risk factors associated with vaginal infection by this bacterium.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  7. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis Hypothetical Protein CT263 Supports That Menaquinone Synthesis Occurs through the Futalosine Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Michael L.; Thomas, Keisha; Yuan, Hongling; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Schramm, Vern L.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. Genomic sequencing of Chlamydia indicated this medically important bacterium was not exclusively dependent on the host cell for energy. In order for the electron transport chain to function, electron shuttling between membrane-embedded complexes requires lipid-soluble quinones (e.g. menaquionone or ubiquinone). The sources or biosynthetic pathways required to obtain these electron carriers within C. trachomatis are poorly understood. The 1.58Å crystal structure of C. trachomatis hypothetical protein CT263 presented here supports a role in quinone biosynthesis. Although CT263 lacks sequence-based functional annotation, the crystal structure of CT263 displays striking structural similarity to 5′-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN) enzymes. Although CT263 lacks the active site-associated dimer interface found in prototypical MTANs, co-crystal structures with product (adenine) or substrate (5′-methylthioadenosine) indicate that the canonical active site residues are conserved. Enzymatic characterization of CT263 indicates that the futalosine pathway intermediate 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine (kcat/Km = 1.8 × 103 m−1 s−1), but not the prototypical MTAN substrates (e.g. S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5′-methylthioadenosine), is hydrolyzed. Bioinformatic analyses of the chlamydial proteome also support the futalosine pathway toward the synthesis of menaquinone in Chlamydiaceae. This report provides the first experimental support for quinone synthesis in Chlamydia. Menaquinone synthesis provides another target for agents to combat C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25253688

  8. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  9. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  10. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  11. Prevalencia de infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae en adolescentes de colegios de la provincia de Sabana Centro, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Paredes; Yenny Milena Gómez; Ana Marcela Torres; Marcela Fernández; María Belén Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Introducción. Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae son las dos infecciones bacterianas de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo, principalmente en menores de 25 años, en cuya salud sexual, reproductiva y materno-infantil producen secuelas. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de las infecciones por C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae entre adolescentes en colegios de la provincia de Sabana Centro, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estu...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection.......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...

  13. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O

    2017-01-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim...... resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest...

  14. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Murtada A; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2012-01-01

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml −1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (∼200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( − 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations −1 to eukaryotic cells (>95% viable cells) over a 24–72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (∼98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml −1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml −1 ) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml −1 ) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis. (paper)

  15. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. Aim: To study the

  16. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  17. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Bouter, Lex M.; van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  18. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  19. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  20. Etude séro-epidémiologique de trois infections sexuellement transmissibles (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Hépatite B, Syphilis): cas de l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essome, Marie Chantal Ngonde; Nsawir, Bonglaisin Julius; Nana, Rodrigue Dongang; Molu, Patrick; Mohamadou, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les infections sexuellement transmissibles sévissent toujours dans les pays en voie de développement et particulièrement au Cameroun. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer la distribution des infections sexuellement transmissibles suivantes: l’hépatite virale B, le Chlamydia trachomatis et de la syphilis dans une population de femmes venant consulter spontanément à l’Hôpital de District de Nkoldongo à Yaoundé, d’évaluer d’éventuelles coïnfections entre ces trois affections et de ressortir les connaissances de ces femmes sur leur mode de transmission sexuelle. Méthodes Notre étude prospective et descriptive a porté sur 182 femmes dont l’âge variait entre 18 et 48 ans. Les femmes ont été testées sérologiquement pour le Chlamydia trachomatis par une méthode ELISA (kit des laboratoires General Biological Corp). L’hépatite virale B a été dépistée par une méthode immunochromatographique (kit des laboratoires Human) et la syphilis par une méthode d’agglutination en ce qui concerne le RPR (Kit des laboratoires Biocentric) et le TPHA (kit des laboratoires Human). Résultats Nos résultats ont montré que: la distribution du Chlamydia trachomatis, de l’hépatite virale B et la syphilis a été respectivement de 22,52%, 4,39%, 0,54%.De plus, nous avons observé une coinfection Chlamydia trachomatis hépatite virale B avec un taux de 2,74%. Par ailleurs la réinfection au Chlamydia trachomatis a été rencontrée dans 4,94% de cas. S’agissant du mode de transmission de ces affections 67,57% et 70,87% de femmes ne connaissaient pas la voie de transmission sexuelle pour le Chlamydia trachomatis et pour l’hépatite virale B respectivement, tandis que 91,2 % des femmes connaissaient la voie de transmission sexuelle pour la syphilis. Conclusion Le diagnostic d’une infection à Chlamydia trachomatis chez une patiente doit susciter le dépistage de l’hépatite virale B. Introduction Sexually transmitted infections

  1. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    lymphogranuloma venereum (caused by serotypes L1, L2, and L3). Endemic trachoma leads to blindness, whereas inclusion conjunctivitis is associated with the...infection caused by C. trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum , is characterized by a swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area. This can lead to

  2. Comparison among performances of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Yasuda, M; Uno, M; Tada, K; Iwata, H; Komeda, H; Maeda, S; Latila, V; Saito, I; Kawada, Y

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performances of a ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays (Chlamydiazyme and IDEIA) in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. We compared the results of testing urine specimens by these assays with those of urethral swab culture by examining samples from 131 men with nongonococcal urethritis. Discrepant results were analyzed by testing urethral swab specimens for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay. After the resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of urethral swab culture was 85.3%, whereas those of the LCR assay, Chlamydiazyme, and IDEIA with urine specimens were 94.1, 82.4, and 94.1%, respectively. The LCR assay and IDEIA were more sensitive than was urethral swab culture. In addition, the LCR assay, with a sensitivity equal to that of IDEIA, was more specific. Overall, the LCR assay proved to be superior to the enzyme immunoassays in detecting C. trachomatis in urine specimens. Testing urine specimens by LCR assay should be a helpful alternative method for diagnosing C. trachomatis urethral infection in men with nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:8784574

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in adolescents in Northern Italy: an observational school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Matteelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Methods Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. Results A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible. Overall 2,059 students (75.8 % were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner, and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4. Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %. No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1.7 % (95 % CI: 1.2–2.4 among sexually active students, and no statistical difference between females and males (1.9 and 1.4 %, respectively. Inconsistent condom use (odds ratio, OR = 5.5 and having had more than one sexual partner during the previous 6 months (OR = 6.8 were associated with an increased risk of Chlamydia infection at multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among sexually active adolescents in Northern Italy was low, despite a high proportion of students who engage in risky sexual behaviour. No cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection were identified.

  4. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J; Buckner, Lyndsey R; Sherchand, Shardulendra P; Chang, Theresa L; Zea, Arnold H; Martin, David H; Belland, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis.

  5. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  7. Epidemiological studies on urogenital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and its sequelae for human fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, Gijsbertus Joannes Henri Marie

    1990-01-01

    During the 20th century much of the pathogenic properties of Chlamydía trachomatis have become clear. Its epidemiological behavior as a sexually transmitted agent has also been elucidated to a great extent. In the western hemisphere, of which The Netherlands is a part, it may be assumed that about

  8. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  9. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  10. CtGEM typing: Discrimination of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains and major evolutionary lineages by high resolution melting analysis of two amplified DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Philip M; Andersson, Patiyan; Wilson, Judith; Buckley, Cameron; Lilliebridge, Rachael; Harris, Tegan M; Kleinecke, Mariana; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Lambert, Stephen B; Whiley, David M; Holt, Deborah C

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infects the urogenital tract (UGT) and eyes. Anatomical tropism is correlated with variation in the major outer membrane protein encoded by ompA. Strains possessing the ocular ompA variants A, B, Ba and C are typically found within the phylogenetically coherent "classical ocular lineage". However, variants B, Ba and C have also been found within three distinct strains in Australia, all associated with ocular disease in children and outside the classical ocular lineage. CtGEM genotyping is a method for detecting and discriminating ocular strains and also the major phylogenetic lineages. The rationale was facilitation of surveillance to inform responses to C. trachomatis detection in UGT specimens from young children. CtGEM typing is based on high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of two PCR amplified fragments with high combinatorial resolving power, as defined by computerised comparison of 65 whole genomes. One fragment is from the hypothetical gene defined by Jali-1891 in the C. trachomatis B_Jali20 genome, while the other is from ompA. Twenty combinatorial CtGEM types have been shown to exist, and these encompass unique genotypes for all known ocular strains, and also delineate the TI and T2 major phylogenetic lineages, identify LGV strains and provide additional resolution beyond this. CtGEM typing and Sanger sequencing were compared with 42 C. trachomatis positive clinical specimens, and there were no disjunctions. CtGEM typing is a highly efficient method designed and tested using large scale comparative genomics. It divides C. trachomatis into clinically and biologically meaningful groups, and may have broad application in surveillance.

  11. Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J; Chang, Theresa L

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen basedenzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14% cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMPPCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48. Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  13. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  14. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  15. Characteristics of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies specific to Сhlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein (HSP-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study sensitivity and specificity of the developed ELISA set for the identification of IgG antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis HSP-60 (using biotinylated tyramine-based signal amplification system. The study was conducted using a panel of characterized sera, as well as two reference ELISA sets of similar purpose. According to the results of ELISA informative value parameters, the ELISA we have developed showed the highest specificity and sensitivity parameters (no false negative or false positive results were registered. In 4 out of 15 intralaboratory panel serum samples initially identified as negative, anti-HSP-60 IgG-antibodies test result in reference ELISA sets upon dilution changed from negative to positive. The nature of titration curves of false negative sera and commercial monoclonal antibodies А57-В9 against C. trachomatis HSP-60 after incubation for 24 h was indicative of the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in these samples. Upon sera dilution, idiotypic-anti-idiotypic complexes dissociated, which caused the change of test result. High informative value of the developed ELISA set for identification of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis HSP-60 has been proven. Anti-idiotypic antibodies possessing C. trachomatis anti-HSP-60 activity and being one of the causes of false negative results of the relevant ELISA-based tests have been identified in blood sera of individuals infected with chlamydial genitourinary infection agents.

  16. Independent inactivation of arginine decarboxylase genes by nonsense and missense mutations led to pseudogene formation in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 and D strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham David E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia have reduced genomes that reflect their obligately parasitic lifestyle. Despite their different tissue tropisms, chlamydial strains share a large number of common genes and have few recognized pseudogenes, indicating genomic stability. All of the Chlamydiaceae have homologs of the aaxABC gene cluster that encodes a functional arginine:agmatine exchange system in Chlamydia (Chlamydophilapneumoniae. However, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 strains have a nonsense mutation in their aaxB genes, and C. trachomatis serovar A and B strains have frameshift mutations in their aaxC homologs, suggesting that relaxed selection may have enabled the evolution of aax pseudogenes. Biochemical experiments were performed to determine whether the aaxABC genes from C. trachomatis strains were transcribed, and mutagenesis was used to identify nucleotide substitutions that prevent protein maturation and activity. Molecular evolution techniques were applied to determine the relaxation of selection and the scope of aax gene inactivation in the Chlamydiales. Results The aaxABC genes were co-transcribed in C. trachomatis L2/434, during the mid-late stage of cellular infection. However, a stop codon in the aaxB gene from this strain prevented the heterologous production of an active pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase. Replacing that ochre codon with its ancestral tryptophan codon rescued the activity of this self-cleaving enzyme. The aaxB gene from C. trachomatis D/UW-3 was heterologously expressed as a proenzyme that failed to cleave and form the catalytic pyruvoyl cofactor. This inactive protein could be rescued by replacing the arginine-115 codon with an ancestral glycine codon. The aaxC gene from the D/UW-3 strain encoded an active arginine:agmatine antiporter protein, while the L2/434 homolog was unexpectedly inactive. Yet the frequencies of nonsynonymous versus synonymous nucleotide substitutions show no signs of relaxed

  17. Development of a rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) Model in Rhesus macaques using Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Tara R; Morris, Monica; Ellis, Shanon; Kelley, Kristen; Phillips, Christi; Ritter, Jana; Jones, Tara; Nachamkin, Eli; Chen, Cheng Y; Hong, Jaeyoung; Kang, Joseph; Patton, Dorothy; McNicholl, Janet; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N

    2017-10-01

    Rectal STI coinfection models enhance the understanding of rectal HIV transmission risk factors. Rhesus macaques (n=9) were exposed to one of three rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) challenges: C. trachomatis L 2 (CT-L 2 ); C. trachomatis serovar E (CT-E), followed by CT-L 2 ; or CT-E, treatment/clearance, then CT-L 2 . Infections were monitored by PCR. Weekly blood and rectal secretion/lavage samples were collected for cytokine analyzes and/or epithelial sloughing, occult, and overt blood determinations. Chlamydial infections were successfully established in each animal, with varying degrees of persistence. Mucosal IL-1beta was upregulated in animals consecutively infected with CT-E then CT-L 2 (P=.05). Epithelial sloughing was also significantly increased post-infection in this group (P=.0003). This study demonstrates successful rectal infection of rhesus macaques with CT-E and CT-L 2 and describes measures of assessing rectal inflammation and pathology. Different infection strategies yield varying inflammatory and pathologic outcomes, providing well-described models for future SIV/SHIV susceptibility studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  19. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  20. A porous media calculation for the isolation condenser heat transfer and circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakko, Miettinen; Ismo, Karppinen

    2003-01-01

    In the development of advanced light water reactors, thermohydraulic phenomena are versatile in comparison with the present concepts. The new features include, for example, passive safety systems, where energy transport takes place by natural circulation instead of forced flow. In the isolation condenser, the steam generated in the reactor vessel is conduced into the heat transfer tubes. The tube bundle has been submerged into a large water pool, where the heat flux through the tube wall initially is heating the subcooled water, but rather soon boiling take place. The temperature differences and void fraction in the pool create large two-phase circulation. For modeling of the entire condenser a combined application of two types of simulation models has been selected. For the whole geometry, a porous media solution has been developed, where the existence of the heat transfer tubes in the water pool and their heat generation is described by the porous media approach. The 3-dimensional solution of two-phase equations is based on the drift-flux formalism. The condensation and liquid film generation inside the heat transfer tube is modelled using a 1-dimensional model considering the steam core, liquid film and heat transfer tube. The heat flux through the tube wall defines the boundary conditions for the water pool. Parallel to the porous media development for the entire process facility, the phase change models have been improved for Fluent 6 mixture model, and the code is used for analysing in detail the heat transfer around the tubing. The purpose in the analyses is to obtain more detailed information of the flow field and vapour distribution around the tube bundle. By combining the porous media model for the entire facility, with the CFD models for the two-phase flow details around the heat transfer tubes and experimental studies the most important mechanisms around the condensation pool can be gathered. In this context the porous media model is considered. (author)

  1. Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis-specific, commercial, real-time PCR for use with ocular swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Harry; Holland, Martin J; Last, Anna R; Burton, Matthew J; Burr, Sarah E

    2018-02-20

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is caused by conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Trachoma is diagnosed clinically by observation of conjunctival inflammation and/or scarring; however, there is evidence that monitoring C. trachomatis infection may be required for elimination programmes. There are many commercial and 'in-house' nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA, but the majority have not been validated for use with ocular swabs. This study evaluated a commercial assay, the Fast-Track Vaginal swab kit, using conjunctival samples from trachoma-endemic areas. An objective, biostatistical-based method for binary classification of continuous PCR data was developed, to limit potential user-bias in diagnostic settings. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay was run on 210 ocular swab samples from Guinea-Bissau and Tanzania. Fit of individual amplification curves to exponential or sigmoid models, derivative and second derivative of the curves and final fluorescence value were examined for utility in thresholding for determining positivity. The results from the Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay were evaluated against a commercial test (Amplicor CT/NG) and a non-commercial test (in-house droplet digital PCR), both of whose performance has previously been evaluated. Significant evidence of exponential amplification (R 2  > 0.99) and final fluorescence > 0.15 were combined for thresholding. This objective approach identified a population of positive samples, however there were a subset of samples that amplified towards the end of the cycling protocol (at or later than 35 cycles), which were less clearly defined. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay showed good sensitivity against the commercial (95.71) and non-commercial (97.18) tests. Specificity was lower against both (90.00 and 96.55, respectively). This study defined a simple, automated protocol for binary classification of continuous, real-time q

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Based on Data Collected by a Network of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to STIs that are widespread yet often asymptomatic and to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of these infections in Italy, in 2009 the "Centro Operativo AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di SanitÁ", in collaboration with the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI, Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani), launched the sentinel STIs surveillance system based on a network of 13 clinical microbiology laboratories.The main objective of the surveillance was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections among individuals attending microbiology laboratories in Italy.

  3. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  4. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Achchhe L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274 and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4% and sensitivity (97.1% of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate

  6. Evaluation of Copan FLOQSwab for the molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Abbott RealTime CT PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, L; Vanscheeuwijck, C; Traen, A; Bingé, L; Ryckaert, I; Padalko, E

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated Copan FLOQSwabs next to Abbott swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by Abbott RealTime PCR. We collected 1062 paired swabs from female sex workers. The study was divided in two arms, according to the order of swab collection. If the Abbott swab was collected first, 501 couples were concordant and two discordant (Abbott negative and Copan positive). If the Copan swab was collected first, 537 couples were concordant and 10 discordant (eight Abbott negative and Copan positive and two Abbott positive and Copan negative). All discordant samples contained low levels of C. trachomatis. Technical issues lead to retesting of 64 Copan and 21 Abbott swabs. Our results show that Copan FLOQSwabs can be used interchangeably with Abbott swabs. While appearing to have an advantage in detecting more positive samples, the use of Copan swabs led to a higher retesting rate due to technical errors.

  7. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  8. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  9. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Birgit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1 -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies.

  10. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Anke; Henrich, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1) -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H) -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies. PMID:18447917

  11. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor...

  12. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of

  13. Development and characterization of highly informative ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to Сhlamydia trachomatis

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    O. Yu. Galkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was developing of highly informative an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies against to Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as comparative characterization of developed assay using standardized control materials. The study was conducted using: monoclonal antibodies (McAbs to human IgA and IgG; recombinant Ch. trachomatis proteins – Pgp3, major outer membrane protein (MOMP; two panels of characterized sera and four reference ELISA kits. The study of immunochemical activity of peroxidase conjugates of McAbs was performed in comparison with conjugates of commercial analogues: anti-IgG McAb 2A11 and anti-IgA McAb AD3. About half of the conjugates from the received McAbs panel were more active compared to the reference antibody conjugates. It was quite justified to use the conjugates of antibodies that interact with different antigenic determinants. When IgG antibodies were detected to MOMP, it was justified 1.14-1.56 times more; when IgA antibodies were detected to MOMP, it was justified 1.16-1.37 times more. ELISA for detecting IgG/IgA antibodies to MOMP and Pgp3 of Ch. trachomatis were evaluated using appropriately described serum panels OCO-42-28-313-00 and OCO-42-28-314-00. Comparative studies of the developed ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to the MOMP and Pgp3 of Ch. trachomatis showed their prominent advantage over the commercial analogues, which more clearly demonstrates the difference in the ratio of average values of optical density of positive and negative samples of the described panel of sera: this indicator for commercial kits was 1.36-3.59 times less.

  14. Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections

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    Nahid Arianpour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

  15. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

    2013-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ≥ 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable.

  16. Genomic analyses of the Chlamydia trachomatis core genome show an association between chromosomal genome, plasmid type and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; van der Ende, Arie; Harrison, Odile B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) plasmid has been shown to encode genes essential for infection. We evaluated the population structure of Ct using whole-genome sequence data (WGS). In particular, the relationship between the Ct genome, plasmid and disease was investigated. Results: WGS data

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in asymptomatic family planning patients in rural New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, T A; Ebenezer, M R

    1989-01-01

    We tested 98 asymptomatic women seen in state-funded contraception clinics in rural New Mexico. A fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody stain revealed Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 25% of asymptomatic unmarried women and 3% of married women (P = .03). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in only one woman. As in urban clinics providing contraception, the prevalence of gonorrhea is rare in rural New Mexico, but chlamydial infections are common in young unmarried women.

  18. Characterization and identification of early proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, PM

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of early proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By pulse-label experiments, the synthesis of seven proteins was observed at 2 to 8 h postinfection before the major outer membrane protein was detected at 8 to 10 h after...

  19. Global survey of mRNA levels and decay rates of Chlamydia trachomatis trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita; Borges, Vítor; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum) strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i ) 60-70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" for all strains; ii ) the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii ) the median of the half-life time (t 1/2 ) values of transcripts were 15-17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts' stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv ) transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C. trachomatis strain and did not correlate with steady-state expression levels; v ) only at very few instances (essentially at gene functional category level) was possible to unveil dissimilarities potentially underlying phenotypic differences between biovars. In summary, the unveiled transcriptomic scenario, marked by a general lack of correlation between transcript production and degradation and a huge inter-transcript heterogeneity in decay rates, likely reflects the challenges underlying the unique biphasic developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and its intricate interactions with the human host, which probably exacerbate the complexity of the bacterial transcription regulation.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associated risk factors in a low-income marginalized urban population in coastal Peru Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo R. León

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection prevalence and associated risk factors among a low-income marginalized urban population in Peru. METHODS: Between April 2003 and April 2005, men and women at high-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were recruited from low-income urban areas in three coastal cities in Peru (Chiclayo, Lima, and Trujillo. Consenting participants were studied using a sero-epidemiologic survey. Urine and vaginal swabs collected from men and women were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR (COBAS® AMPLICOR (CT/NG Test, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA for CT. RESULTS: Among the 2 440 participants recruited for the study (2 145 men and 295 women, overall prevalence of CT infection was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.6-7.6%: 5.5% (95% CI, 4.5-6.5% in men and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.7-27.1% in women. Chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with HIV infection and dysuria in men. Among women, chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with number of sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: CT infection was common among high-risk men and women in urban coastal Peru. Because chlamydial infection is associated with complications related to female reproduction, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, interventions to prevent and treat infection and studies to determine the feasibility of population-based screening for CT should be conducted among the high-risk female population.OBJETIVOS: Estimar la prevalencia de la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y los factores de riesgo asociados en una población marginal urbana de bajos ingresos de Perú. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 2003 y abril de 2005 se captaron hombres y mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual, en áreas urbanas de bajos ingresos de tres ciudades costeras de Perú (Chiclayo, Lima y Trujillo. Los participantes que aceptaron colaborar

  1. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

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    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  2. Cytokinesis is blocked in mammalian cells transfected with Chlamydia trachomatis gene CT223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Sara K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chlamydiae alter many aspects of host cell biology, including the division process, but the molecular biology of these alterations remains poorly characterized. Chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are likely candidates for direct interactions with host cell cytosolic proteins, as they are secreted to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the cytosol. The inc gene CT223 is one of a sequential set of orfs that encode or are predicted to encode Inc proteins. CT223p is localized to the inclusion membrane in all tested C. trachomatis serovars. Results A plasmid transfection approach was used to examine the function of the product of CT223 and other Inc proteins within uninfected mammalian cells. Fluorescence microscopy was used to demonstrate that CT223, and, to a lesser extent, adjacent inc genes, are capable of blocking host cell cytokinesis and facilitating centromere supranumeracy defects seen by others in chlamydiae-infected cells. Both phenotypes were associated with transfection of plasmids encoding the carboxy-terminal tail of CT223p, a region of the protein that is likely exposed to the cytosol in infected cells. Conclusion These studies suggest that certain Inc proteins block cytokinesis in C. trachomatis-infected cells. These results are consistent with the work of others showing chlamydial inhibition of host cell cytokinesis.

  3. Antibody signature of spontaneous clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection and partial resistance against re-challenge in a nonhuman primate trachoma model.

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    Laszlo Kari

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of trachoma the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Here, we investigate whether protracted clearance of a primary infection in nonhuman primates is attributable to antigenic variation or related to the maturation of the anti-chlamydial humoral immune response specific to chlamydial antigens.Genomic sequencing of organisms isolated throughout the protracted primary infection revealed that antigenic variation was not related to the inability of monkeys to efficiently resolve their infection. To explore the maturation of the humoral immune response as a possible reason for delayed clearance, sera were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation using intrinsically radio-labeled antigens prepared under non-denaturing conditions. Antibody recognition was restricted to the antigenically variable major outer membrane protein (MOMP and a few antigenically conserved antigens. Recognition of MOMP occurred early post-infection and correlated with reduction in infectious ocular burdens but not with infection eradication. In contrast, antibody recognition of conserved antigens, identified as PmpD, Hsp60, CPAF and Pgp3, appeared late and correlated with infection eradication. Partial immunity to re-challenge was associated with a discernible antibody recall response against all antigens. Antibody recognition of PmpD and CPAF was destroyed by heat treatment while MOMP and Pgp3 were partially affected, indicating that antibody specific to conformational epitopes on these proteins may be important to protective immunity.Our findings suggest that delayed clearance of chlamydial infection in NHP is not the result of antigenic variation but rather a consequence of the gradual maturation of the C. trachomatis antigen-specific humoral immune response. However, we cannot conclude that antibodies specific for these proteins play the primary role in host protective immunity as they could be surrogate markers of T cell

  4. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, C Y William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic 112 GRQGRL 117 and velogenic 112 RRQKRF 117 along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks

  6. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  7. Local circulating clones of Staphylococcus aureus in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Barba, Pedro; Ortega-Paredes, David; Mora, Marcelo; Rivadeneira, Sebastián

    The spread of pandemic Staphylococcus aureus clones, mainly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), must be kept under surveillance to assemble an accurate, local epidemiological analysis. In Ecuador, the prevalence of the USA300 Latin American variant clone (USA300-LV) is well known; however, there is little information about other circulating clones. The aim of this work was to identify the sequence types (ST) using a Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis 14-locus genotyping approach. We analyzed 132 S. aureus strains that were recovered from 2005 to 2013 and isolated in several clinical settings in Quito, Ecuador. MRSA isolates composed 46.97% (62/132) of the study population. Within MRSA, 37 isolates were related to the USA300-LV clone (ST8-MRSA-IV, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] +) and 10 were related to the Brazilian clone (ST239-MRSA-III, PVL-). Additionally, two isolates (ST5-MRSA-II, PVL-) were related to the New York/Japan clone. One isolate was related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-MRSA-IV, PVL-), one isolate (ST45-MRSA-II, PVL-) was related to the USA600 clone, and one (ST22-MRSA-IV, PVL-) was related to the epidemic UK-EMRSA-15 clone. Moreover, the most prevalent MSSA sequence types were ST8 (11 isolates), ST45 (8 isolates), ST30 (8 isolates), ST5 (7 isolates) and ST22 (6 isolates). Additionally, we found one isolate that was related to the livestock associated S. aureus clone ST398. We conclude that in addition to the high prevalence of clone LV-ST8-MRSA-IV, other epidemic clones are circulating in Quito, such as the Brazilian, Pediatric and New York/Japan clones. The USA600 and UK-EMRSA-15 clones, which were not previously described in Ecuador, were also found. Moreover, we found evidence of the presence of the livestock associated clone ST398 in a hospital environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid examination and high-risk human papillomavirus infection, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Andrew J; Toliman, Pamela J; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombuk, Benny; Kombati, Zure; Vallely, Lisa M; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M

    2018-01-30

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated burdens of cervical cancer globally but currently has no national cervical screening program. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is a low-cost screening strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization that has been adopted in many low-resource settings but not previously evaluated in PNG. To evaluate the association between VIA examination findings and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection; and the impact of concomitant genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis on the interpretation of VIA findings. A prospective clinical cohort study among women aged 30-59 years attending Well Woman Clinics in PNG. Main outcome measures were VIA examination findings and laboratory-confirmed hrHPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis. A total of 614 women were enrolled, of whom 87.5% (537/614) underwent VIA, and 12.5% (77/614) did not due to pre-existing cervicitis or inability to visualise the transformation zone. Among the 537 women who underwent VIA, 21.6% were VIA positive, 63.7% VIA negative, and 14.7% had indeterminate findings. The prevalence of hrHPV infection (n = 614) was 14.7%; C. trachomatis, 7.5%; N. gonorrhoeae, 8.0%; and T. vaginalis, 15.0%. VIA positive women were more likely to have HPV16 (odds ratio: 5.0; 95%CI: 1.6-15.6; P = 0.006) but there was no association between HPV18/45, all hrHPV types (combined), C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis. VIA positivity was associated with HPV16, but not with other hrHPV infections, nor with genital C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis in this setting. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Mapping of Chlamydia trachomatis proteins by immobiline-polyacrylamide two-dimensional electrophoresis: spot identification by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bini, L; Sanchez-Campillo, M; Santucci, A

    1996-01-01

    Proteins from purified elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on nonlinear wide-range immobilized pH gradients in the first dimension and polyacrylamide gradient gels in the second dimension. The maps obtained with this system are highly...

  10. An optimized, fast-to-perform mouse lung infection model with the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis for in vivo screening of antibiotics, vaccine candidates and modified host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutow, Pavel; Wask, Lea; Bothe, Miriam; Fehlhaber, Beate; Laudeley, Robert; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and neonatal pneumonia as complications. The duration of urogenital mouse models with the strict mouse pathogen C. muridarum addressing vaginal shedding, pathological changes of the upper genital tract or infertility is rather long. Moreover, vaginal C. trachomatis application usually does not lead to the complications feared in women. A fast-to-perform mouse model is urgently needed to analyze new antibiotics, vaccine candidates, immune responses (in gene knockout animals) or mutants of C. trachomatis. To complement the valuable urogenital model with a much faster and quantifiable screening method, we established an optimized lung infection model for the human intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis serovar D (and L2) in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated its usefulness by sensitive determination of antibiotic effects characterizing advantages and limitations achievable by early or delayed short tetracycline treatment and single-dose azithromycin application. Moreover, we achieved partial acquired protection in reinfection with serovar D indicating usability for vaccine studies, and showed a different course of disease in absence of complement factor C3. Sensitive monitoring parameters were survival rate, body weight, clinical score, bacterial load, histological score, the granulocyte marker myeloperoxidase, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis under field conditions in The Gambia and Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Harding-Esch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs of active trachoma are often present in the absence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in low prevalence and mass treated settings. Treatment decisions are currently based on the prevalence of clinical signs, and this may result in the unnecessary distribution of mass antibiotic treatment. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care (POC test, developed for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis, in low prevalence settings of The Gambia and Senegal.Three studies were conducted, two in The Gambia and one in Senegal. Children under the age of 10 years were screened for the clinical signs of trachoma. Two ocular swabs were taken from the right eye. The first swab was tested by the POC test in the field and the result independently graded by two readers. The second swab was tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by Amplicor Polymerase Chain Reaction. In Senegal, measurements of humidity and temperature in the field were taken. A total of 3734 children were screened, 950 in the first and 1171 in the second Gambian study, and 1613 in Senegal. The sensitivity of the prototype POC test ranged between 33.3-67.9%, the specificity between 92.4-99.0%, the positive predictive value between 4.3-21.0%, and the negative predictive value between 98.0-99.8%. The rate of false-positives increased markedly at temperatures above 31.4°C and relative humidities below 11.4%.In its present format, this prototype POC test is not suitable for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis as its specificity decreases in hot and dry conditions: the environment in which trachoma is predominantly found. In the absence of a suitable test for infection, trachoma diagnosis remains dependent on clinical signs. Under current WHO recommendations, this is likely resulting in the continued mass treatment of non-infected communities.

  12. Global survey of mRNA levels and decay rates of Chlamydia trachomatis trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i 60–70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in “Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis” for all strains; ii the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii the median of the half-life time (t1/2 values of transcripts were 15–17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts’ stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C. trachomatis strain and did not correlate with steady-state expression levels; v only at very few instances (essentially at gene functional category level was possible to unveil dissimilarities potentially underlying phenotypic differences between biovars. In summary, the unveiled transcriptomic scenario, marked by a general lack of correlation between transcript production and degradation and a huge inter-transcript heterogeneity in decay rates, likely reflects the challenges underlying the unique biphasic developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and its intricate interactions with the human host, which probably exacerbate the complexity of the bacterial transcription regulation.

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Have Sex with Women Using Multilocus VNTR Analysis-ompA Typing in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Qin

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in China. Although C. trachomatis genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing, currently available methods have limited resolutions. This study used a high-resolution genotyping method, namely, multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis with ompA sequencing (MLVA-ompA, to investigate the local epidemiology of C. trachomatis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Guangzhou, China.Rectal specimens from MSM and urethral specimens from MSW were collected between January 2013 and July 2014 at the Guangdong Provincial Center STD clinic. The specimens were sent to the laboratory for analyses. All specimens that were tested positive for C. trachomatis by the commercial nucleic acid amplification tests were genotyped by MLVA-ompA.Fifty-one rectal specimens from MSM and 96 urethral specimens from MSW were identified with C. trachomatis. One hundred and forty-four of the 147 specimens were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Rectal specimens from MSM were divided into four ompA genotypes and urethral specimens from MSW into nine genotypes. No mixed infections were found among all specimens. The most frequent genotypes were D, G, J, E and F. All specimens were further divided into 46 types after ompA genotyping was combined with MLVA. Genotypes D-8.7.1 and G-3.4a.3 were the most frequent among MSM, whereas genotypes D-3.4a.4, E-8.5.1, F-8.5.1, and J-3.4a.2 were the most frequent subtypes among MSW. The discriminatory index D was 0.90 for MLVA, 0.85 for ompA, and 0.95 for MLVA-ompA.The most prevalent MLVA-ompA genotypes were significantly different between MSM and MSW from Guangzhou, China. Moreover, MLVA-ompA represented a more favorable degree of discrimination than ompA and could be a reliable complement for ompA for the routine

  14. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  15. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  16. Importation and co-circulation of multiple serotypes of dengue virus in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Edward C; Tio, Phaik-Hooi; Perera, David; Muhi, Jamail; Cardosa, Jane

    2009-07-01

    Although dengue is a common disease in South-East Asia, there is a marked absence of virological data from the Malaysian state of Sarawak located on the island of Borneo. From 1997 to 2002 we noted the co-circulation of DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 in Sarawak. To determine the origins of these Sarawak viruses we obtained the complete E gene sequences of 21 isolates. A phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple entries of DENV-2 and DENV-4 into Sarawak, such that multiple lineages co-circulate, yet with little exportation from Sarawak. Notably, all viral isolates were most closely related to those circulating in different localities in South-East Asia. In sum, our analysis reveals a frequent traffic of DENV in South-East Asia, with Sarawak representing a local sink population.

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among women in sub-Saharan Africa: A structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; Verweij, Stephan P; Struthers, Helen E; Ouburg, Sander; McIntyre, James A; Morré, Servaas A; Peters, Remco Ph

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitute major public health problems among women, but the burden of infection in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly documented. We conducted a structured review of the prevalence and incidence of genital, oral and anal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection in women in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science over a 10-year period for studies on epidemiology of genital, oral and anal chlamydial infection and gonorrhoea in women in all countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed geographic and demographic differences in prevalence and incidence of infection; weighted mean prevalence estimates were calculated with a random-effect model. A total of 102 study results were included, with data available for 24/49 of sub-Saharan countries. The weighted prevalence of chlamydial infection was lower among women in community-based studies (3.9%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1%) than for women recruited at primary healthcare facilities (6.0%; 95% CI: 4.2-8.4%, p sub-Saharan Africa. Better control strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of infection and to prevent long-term complications of these infections.

  18. Innate immunity is sufficient for the clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the female mouse genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, Gail L; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, mouse and human strains, respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human hosts, there have been no animal model findings to directly support this conclusion. Here, we infected C57BL/6 and adaptive immune-deficient Rag1(-/-) female mice with these strains and evaluated their ability to spontaneously resolve genital infection. Predictably, C57BL/6 mice spontaneously cleared infection caused by both chlamydial strains. In contrast, Rag1(-/-) mice which lack mature T and B cell immunity but maintain functional innate immune effectors were incapable of resolving C. muridarum infection but spontaneously cleared C. trachomatis infection. This distinct dichotomy in adaptive and innate immune-mediated clearance between mouse and human strains has important cautionary implications for the study of natural immunity and vaccine development in the mouse model. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increase in sexual risk behavior and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among adolescents in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.

  20. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Naila, E-mail: naila.nrlpd@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  1. Circulating Tumor Cells Versus Circulating Tumor DNA in Colorectal Cancer: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Carlyn Rose C; Zhou, Lanlan; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2016-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are emerging noninvasive multifunctional biomarkers in liquid biopsy allowing for early diagnosis, accurate prognosis, therapeutic target selection, spatiotemporal monitoring of metastasis, as well as monitoring response and resistance to treatment. CTCs and ctDNA are released from different tumor types at different stages and contribute complementary information for clinical decision. Although big strides have been taken in technology development for detection, isolation and characterization of CTCs and sensitive and specific detection of ctDNA, CTC-, and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies may not be widely adopted for routine cancer patient care until the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of these tests are validated and more standardized protocols are corroborated in large, independent, prospectively designed trials. This review covers CTC- and ctDNA-related technologies and their application in colorectal cancer. The promise of CTC-and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies is envisioned.

  2. Molecular characterization of canine distemper vi- rus circulating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2OIE Collaborating Centre for Diseases at Animal and Human Interface, FAO Reference Centre for Rabies, Viale ... Asia-1 lineage canine distemper virus is circulating in outbreak. .... jected to cell culture on Vero cell lines for virus isolation.

  3. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor - Development of natural circulation analysis code for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Park, Ik Gyu; Kim, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Tae Wan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the natural circulation characteristics of integral type reactors and to develope the natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors. This study is focused on the asymmetric 3-dimensional flow during natural circulation such as 1/4 steam generator section isolation and the inclination of the reactor systems. Natural circulation experiments were done using small-scale facilities of integral reactor SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). CFX4 code was used to investigate the flow patterns and thermal mixing phenomena in upper pressure header and downcomer. Differences between normal operation of all steam generators and the 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data for RETRAN-03/INT code validation. RETRAN-03 code was modified for the development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was named as RETRAN-03/INT. 3-dimensional analysis models for asymmetric flow in integral type reactors were developed using vector momentum equations in RETRAN-03. Analysis results using RETRAN-03/INT were compared with experimental and CFX4 analysis results and showed good agreements. The natural circulation characteristics obtained in this study will provide the important and fundamental design features for the future small and medium integral reactors. (author). 29 refs., 75 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Circulating cell-free DNA and circulating tumor cells, the "liquid biopsies" in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianliang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yajuan; Qing, Chen

    2017-11-13

    Limited understanding of ovarian cancer (OC) genome portrait has hindered the therapeutic advances. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes is becoming increasingly attainable with circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerging as "liquid biopsies". They represent non-invasive biomarkers and are viable, as they can be isolated from human plasma, serum and other body fluids. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor DNA (ct-DNA) and CTCs offer unique potentials to better understand the biology of metastasis and resistance to therapies. The liquid biopsies may also give innovative insights into the process of rapid and accurate identification, resistant genetic alterations and a real time monitoring of treatment responses. In addition, liquid biopsies are shedding light on elucidating signal pathways involved in invasiveness and metastasis competence; but the detection and molecular characterization of ct-DNA and CTCs are still challenging, since they are rare, and the amount of available samples are very limited. This review will focus on the clinical potential of ct-DNA and CTCs in both the early and advanced diagnosis, prognosis, and in the identification of resistance mutations in OC.

  5. Dendrimer-conjugated peptide vaccine enhances clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Ingrid S; Zhong, Qian; Hali, Mirabela; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Padilha, Francine F; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

    2017-07-15

    Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness. In spite of the prevalence of this infectious agent and the many previous vaccine-related studies, there is no vaccine commercially available. The carrier system proposed consists of generation 4, hydroxyl-terminated, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G4OH), to which a peptide mimic of a chlamydial glycolipid antigen-Peptide 4 (Pep4, AFPQFRSATLLL) was conjugated through an ester bond. The ester bond between G4OH and Pep4 is expected to break down mainly in the intracellular environment for antigen presentation. Pep4 conjugated to dendrimer induced Chlamydia-specific serum antibodies after subcutaneous immunizations. Further, this new vaccine formulation significantly protected immunized animals from vaginal challenge with infectious Chlamydia trachomatis, and it reduced infectious loads and tissue (genital tract) damage. Pep4 conjugated to G4OH or only mixed with peptide provided enhanced protection compared to Pep4 and adjuvant (i.e. alum), suggesting a potential adjuvant effect of the PAMAM dendrimer. Combined, these results demonstrate that hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimer is a promising polymeric nanocarrier platform for the delivery of peptide vaccines and this approach has potential to be expanded to other infectious intracellular bacteria and viruses of public health significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Prevalence of asymptomatic urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and associated risk factors among males living with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection. Methods We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections and who have been evaluated between May and August 2015 in a follow-up visit at the Immunology Outpatient Clinic of a Brazilian University Hospital. Results Four asymptomatic patients were positive for C. trachomatis and were considered asymptomatic carriers of urethritis. Prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p = 0.015. Conclusion The presence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection is a challenge in clinical practice. We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring on previous sexual behavior to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests to detect STI pathogens should be performed to discard these conditions. The development of rapid tests for this purpose should also be encouraged.

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and associated risk factors among males living with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Motta, Heloisa Loureiro de Sá Neves; Souza, Erik Friedrich Alex de; Cardoso, Pedro Afonso Nogueira Moises; Pilotto, José Henrique; Eyer-Silva, Walter Araujo; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio Pereira; Santos, Mônica Soares Dos; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida

    2018-03-08

    The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection. We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections and who have been evaluated between May and August 2015 in a follow-up visit at the Immunology Outpatient Clinic of a Brazilian University Hospital. Four asymptomatic patients were positive for C. trachomatis and were considered asymptomatic carriers of urethritis. Prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p = 0.015). The presence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection is a challenge in clinical practice. We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring on previous sexual behavior to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests to detect STI pathogens should be performed to discard these conditions. The development of rapid tests for this purpose should also be encouraged.

  8. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  9. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

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    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  10. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Liu, Qiaorong; Qiao, Mingming; Deng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xizhao; Sun, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1) have been continuously isolated in China in recent years. Complete genome sequences of these isolates are important to investigate the prevalence and evolution of Chinese PRRSV 1. Herein, we describe the isolation of a novel PRRSV 1 isolate, denominated HLJB1, in the Heilongjiang province of China. Complete genome sequencing of HLJB1 showed that it shares 90.66% and 58.21% nucleotide identities with PRRSV 1 and 2 prototypic strains Lelystad virus and ATCC VR-2332, respectively. HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates. Whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese PRRSV 1 isolates are clustered in pan-European subtype 1 and can be divided into four subgroups. HLJB1 resides in the subgroup of BJEU06-1-like isolates but is also closely related to the Amervac-like isolates. Additionally, recombination analyses suggested that HLJB1 is a recombinant from the Amervac vaccine and the BJEU06-1 isolate. To our best knowledge, our results provide the first genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains. These findings are also beneficial for studying the origin and evolution of PRRSV 1 in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

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    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  12. Clinical relevance and biology of circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer patients die due to metastases, and the early onset of this multistep process is usually missed by current tumor staging modalities. Therefore, ultrasensitive techniques have been developed to enable the enrichment, detection, isolation and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that the presence of these cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis related to metastatic progression in the bone and other organs. This review focuses on investigations regarding the biology and clinical relevance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. PMID:22114869

  13. A passive dual-circulator based transmit/receive switch for use with reflection resonators in pulse EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V. S.; Epel, Boris; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect the low noise amplifier (LNA) in the receive arm of a pulsed 250 MHz EPR bridge, it is necessary to install as much isolation as possible between the power exciting the spin system and the LNA when high power is present in the receive arm of the bridge, while allowing the voltage induced by the magnetization in the spin sample to be passed undistorted and undiminished to the LNA once power is reduced below the level that can cause a LNA damage. We discuss a combination of techniques to accomplish this involving the power-routing circulator in the bridge, a second circulator acting as an isolator with passive shunt PIN diodes immediately following the second circulator. The low resistance of the forward biased PIN diode passively generates an impedance mismatch at the second circulator output port during the high power excitation pulse and resonator ring down. The mismatch reflects the high power to the remaining port of the second circulator, dumping it into a system impedance matched load. Only when the power diminishes below the diode conduction threshold will the resistance of the PIN diode rise to a value much higher than the system impedance. This brings the device into conduction mode. We find that the present design passively limits the output power to 14 dBm independent of the input power. For high input power levels the isolation may exceed 60 dB. This level of isolation is sufficient to fully protect the LNA of pulse EPR bridge. PMID:20052312

  14. ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY THAT INFLUENCE THE DISTRIBUTION AND SPREAD OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS WITHIN THE FEMALE GENITAL TRACT : A NEW PARADIGM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, J. M.; Morre, S. A.; Land, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Critical to evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine candidates is the availability of appropriate animal models. At a minimum, models must mimic the essential features of transmission and disease progression that contribute to the severe outcomes associated with upper genital tract infection.

  15. Lymphogranuloma venereum rates increased and Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes changed among men who have sex with men in Sweden 2004-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Carlsson, Ola; Airell, Åsa; Strömdahl, Susanne; Bratt, Göran; Herrmann, Björn

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing of 168 C. trachomatis cases from MSM in 2015 resulted in 29 sequence types, of which 3 accounted for 49 % of cases. The increased rates and different genotypes of LGV indicate that more concern for high-risk taking MSM is needed to avoid further spread of this invasive infection.

  16. Measuring Trachomatous Inflammation-Intense (TI) When Prevalence Is Low Provides Data on Infection With Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Andrea I; Muñoz, Beatriz E; Mkocha, Harran; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Quinn, Thomas; West, Sheila K

    2017-02-01

    Clinical trachoma is the current measure of effectiveness of antibiotic and environmental improvements in trachoma endemic communities. Impact assessments measure only trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) is not used for decisions on stopping mass drug administration (MDA) or achieving intervention goals. We tested the supposition that TI was not associated with Chlamydia trachomatis when disease prevalence is low. In 35 communities undergoing MDA as part of a larger project, 110 children ages 1 to 9 years were randomly selected in each community for surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Both eyelids were graded for TF and TI, and a swab for detection of C. trachomatis infection was taken. Overall TF prevalence was 5% at baseline. Cases of TI alone constituted 15% of trachoma; 37% of TI cases had infection. At 6 and 12 months, the proportion of trachoma cases that had TI only was 13% and 20%; infection rates were similar to the rates in cases with TF alone. Despite low prevalence of trachoma, infection rates for TF alone and TI alone were similar at each time point. The exclusion of cases of TI alone when reporting trachoma prevalence discards additional information on infection. Trachomatous inflammation-intense could be considered as part of impact surveys.

  17. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Madrid, Spain: co-circulation of two variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, M; Puerta, T; Menéndez, B; González-Alba, J M; Rodríguez, C; Hellín, T; Vera, M; González-Sainz, F J; Clavo, P; Villa, M; Cantón, R; Del Romero, J; Galán, J C

    2014-03-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreak described in the Netherlands in 2003, increased the interest in the genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis. Although international surveillance programmes were implemented, these studies slowly decreased in the following years. Now data have revealed a new accumulation of LGV cases in those European countries with extended surveillance programmes. Between March 2009 and November 2011, a study was carried out to detect LGV cases in Madrid. The study was based on screening of C. trachomatis using commercial kits, followed by real-time pmpH-PCR discriminating LGV strains, and finally ompA gene was sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction. Ninety-four LGV infections were identified. The number of cases increased from 10 to 30 and then to 54 during 2009-2011. Incidence of LGV was strongly associated with men who have sex with men; but in 2011, LGV cases were described in women and heterosexual men. Sixty-nine patients were also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, with detectable viral loads at the moment of LGV diagnosis, suggesting a high-risk of co-transmission. In fact, in four patients the diagnosis of HIV was simultaneous with LGV infection. The conventional treatment with doxycycline was prescribed in 75 patients, although in three patients the treatment failed. The sequencing of the ompA gene permitted identification of two independent transmission nodes. One constituted by 25 sequences identical to the L2b variant, and a second node including 37 sequences identical to L2. This epidemiological situation characterized by the co-circulation of two LGV variants has not been previously described, reinforcing the need for screening and genotyping of LGV strains. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  19. Plasma biomarker discovery in preeclampsia using a novel differential isolation technology for circulating extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Hian; Tan, Soon Sim; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lee, Wai Kheong Ryan; Ng, Mor Jack; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2014-10-01

    To circumvent the complex protein milieu of plasma and discover robust predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia (PE), we investigate if phospholipid-binding ligands can reduce the milieu complexity by extracting plasma extracellular vesicles for biomarker discovery. Cholera toxin B chain (CTB) and annexin V (AV) which respectively binds GM1 ganglioside and phosphatidylserine were used to isolate extracellular vesicles from plasma of PE patients and healthy pregnant women. The proteins in the vesicles were identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibody array, and mass spectrometry. CTB and AV were found to bind 2 distinct groups of extracellular vesicles. Antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that PE patients had elevated levels of CD105, interleukin-6, placental growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1, and atrial natriuretic peptide in cholera toxin B- but not AV-vesicles, and elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, pro-calcitonin, S100b, tumor growth factor β, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, brain natriuretic peptide, and placental growth factor in both cholera toxin B- and AV-vesicles. CD9 level was elevated in cholera toxin B-vesicles but reduced in AV vesicles of PE patients. Proteome analysis revealed that in cholera toxin B-vesicles, 87 and 222 proteins were present only in PE patients and healthy pregnant women respectively while in AV-vesicles, 104 and 157 proteins were present only in PE and healthy pregnant women, respectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that CTB and AV bind unique extracellular vesicles, and their protein cargo reflects the disease state of the patient. The successful use of these 2 ligands to isolate circulating plasma extracellular vesicles for biomarker discovery in PE represents a novel technology for biomarker discovery that can be applied to other specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of 99 Tc m -labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods

  1. A FISH-based method for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer circulating tumor cells following CellSearch isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithiof H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Frithiof,1 Kristina Aaltonen,1 Lisa Rydén2,3 1Division of Oncology and Pathology, 2Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, 3Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2 proto-oncogene occurs in 10%–15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene. The aim of this study was to optimize a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based method to quantitatively determine HER-2 amplification in breast cancer CTCs following CellSearch-based isolation and verify the method in patient samples. Methods: Using healthy donor blood spiked with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBr-3 and BT-474, and a corresponding negative control (the HER-2-negative MCF-7 cell line, an in vitro CTC model system was designed. Following isolation in the CellSearch system, CTC samples were further enriched and fixed on microscope slides. Immunocytochemical staining with cytokeratin and 4',6-diamidino-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride identified CTCs under a fluorescence microscope. A FISH-based procedure was optimized by applying the HER2 IQFISH pharmDx assay for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer CTCs. Results: A method for defining the presence of HER-2 amplification in single breast cancer CTCs after CellSearch isolation was established using cell lines as positive and negative controls. The method was validated in blood from breast cancer patients

  2. What Can Radiocarbon Depth Profiles Tell Us About The LGM Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A.; Stewart, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Ferrari, R. M.; Thompson, A. F.; Jansen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Published reconstructions of radiocarbon in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean indicate that there is a mid-depth maximum in radiocarbon age during the last glacial maximum (LGM). This is in contrast to the modern ocean where intense mixing between water masses along shared density surfaces (isopycnals) results in a relatively homogenous radiocarbon profile. A recent study (Ferrari et al. 2014) suggested that the extended Antarctic sea ice cover during the LGM necessitated a shallower boundary between the upper and lower branches of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). This shoaled boundary lay above major topographic features and their associated strong diapycnal mixing, which isolated dense southern-sourced water in the lower branch of the overturning circulation. This isolation would have allowed radiocarbon to decay, and thus provides a possible explanation for the mid-depth radiocarbon age bulge. We test this hypothesis using an idealized, 2D, residual-mean dynamical model of the global overturning circulation. Concentration distributions of a decaying tracer that is advected by the simulated overturning are compared to published radiocarbon data. We test the sensitivity of the mid-depth radiocarbon age to changes in sea ice extent, wind strength, and isopycnal and diapycnal diffusion. The mid-depth radiocarbon age bulge is most likely caused by the different circulation geometry, associated with increased sea ice extent. In particular, with an LGM-like sea ice extent the upper and lower branches of the MOC no longer share isopycnals, so radiocarbon-rich northern-sourced water is no longer mixed rapidly into the southern-sourced water. However, this process alone cannot explain the magnitude of the glacial radiocarbon anomalies; additional isolation (e.g. from reduced air-sea gas exchange associated with the increased sea ice) is required. Ferrari, R., M. F. Jansen, J. F. Adkins, A. Burke, A. L. Stewart, and A. F. Thompson (2014), Antarctic sea

  3. NATBWR: a steady-state model for natural circulation in boiling-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healzer, J.M.; Abdollahian, D.

    1983-02-01

    This report documents the NATBWR steady-state BWR natural-circulation model and activities under EPRI Project RP1561-1 to gather data and predict the natural-circulation operation of the BWR. The report is organized into two parts, with the first part describing the NATBWR model and applications of the model to available BWR natural-circulation data and the second part providing user and programming information about the model. Five different operating BWR's were selected to demonstrate the application of the NATBWR model, one of each type from BWR/1 through BWR/4. For each operating plant, the available natural circulation data has been compared to model predictions. In addition to the data predictions, the behavior of the BWR system at reduced inventory, where the system is isolated and scrammed, and cooling provided by natural circulation has been analyzed. Finally, included as an appendix to Part 1 of this report is a discussion of the stability of the BWR system at natural-circulation conditions

  4. Evaluation of an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Jalel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The OmcB protein is one of the most immunogenic proteins in C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections. This protein is highly conserved leading to serum cross reactivity between the various chlamydial species. Since previous studies based on recombinant proteins failed to identify a species specific immune response against the OmcB protein, this study evaluated an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of C. trachomatis infections. Results Using the ClustalW and Antigenic programs, we have selected two predicted specific and immunogenic regions in the OmcB protein: the N-terminal (Nt region containing three epitopes and the C-terminal (Ct region containing two epitopes with high scores. These regions were cloned into the PinPoint Xa-1 and pGEX-6P-1 expression vectors, incorporating a biotin purification tag and a glutathione-S-transferase tag, respectively. These regions were then expressed in E. coli. Only the pGEX-6P-1 has been found suitable for serological studies as its tag showed less cross reactivity with human sera and was retained for the evaluation of the selected antigens. Only the Ct region of the protein has been found to be well expressed in E. coli and was evaluated for its ability to be recognized by human sera. 384 sera were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis by our in house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and the developed ELISA test. Using the MIF as the reference method, the developed OmcB Ct ELISA has a high specificity (94.3% but a low sensitivity (23.9. Our results indicate that the use of the sequence alignment tool might be useful for identifying specific regions in an immunodominant antigen. However, the two epitopes, located in the selected Ct region, of the 24 predicted in the full length OmcB protein account for approximately 25% of the serological response detected by MIF, which limits the use of the developed ELISA

  5. The vaginal microbiota and its association with Human Papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, Jeanne; Thiébaut, Anne C M; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bébéar, Cécile; Ravel, Jacques; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2018-05-02

    The vaginal microbiota may modulate susceptibility to Human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between these infections and the vaginal microbiota. The search (2000-2016) yielded 1054 articles, of which 39 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The vaginal microbiota was dichotomized into high-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (HL-VMB) and low-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (LL-VMB), using either Nugent score, Amsel's criteria, presence of clue cells or gene sequencing. Measures of association with LL-VMB ranged from 0.6 (95% Confidence Interval 0.3, 1.2) to 2.8 (0.3, 28.0), 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) to 5.2 (1.9, 14.8), 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) to 3.8 (0.4, 36.2), and 0.4 (0.1, 1.5) to 6.1 (2.0, 18.5) for HPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhea and M. genitalium infections respectively. While no clear trend for N. gonorrhea and M. genitalium infections could be detected, our results support a protective role of HL-VMB for HPV and C. trachomatis. Overall, these findings advocate for the use of high-resolution characterization methods for the vaginal microbiota to lay the foundation for its integration in prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  7. Large-scale testing of women in Copenhagen has not reduced the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik Torkil; Kolmos, H J

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a stable, large-scale enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Chlamydia trachomatis testing situation in Copenhagen, and to estimate the impact of introducing a genomic-based assay with higher sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: Over a five-year study period, 25 305-28 505...... and negative predictive values of the Chlamydia test result, new screening strategies for both men and women in younger age groups will be necessary if chlamydial infections are to be curtailed....

  8. Quantifying HER-2 expression on Circulating Tumor Cells by ACCEPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeune, Leonie Laura; van Dalum, Guus; Decraene, C.; Proudhon, C.; Fehm, T.; Neubauer, Hans; Rack, B.; Alunni-fabbroni, Marianna; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Brune, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from blood can be probed for the expression of treatment targets. Immunofluorescence is often used for both the enumeration of CTC and the determination of protein expression levels related to treatment targets. Accurate and reproducible assessment of such

  9. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection under the SAFE strategy in Amhara, Ethiopia, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott D; Stewart, Aisha E P; Zerihun, Mulat; Sata, Eshetu; Gessese, Demelash; Melaku, Berhanu; Endeshaw, Tekola; Chanyalew, Melsew; Chernet, Ambahun; Bayissasse, Belay; Moncada, Jeanne; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M; King, Jonathan D; Tadesse, Zerihun; Callahan, E Kelly

    2018-05-05

    WHO recommendations for starting and stopping mass antibiotic distributions are based on a clinical sign of trachoma, which is indirectly related to actual infection with the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. This study aimed to understand the effect of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement) interventions on ocular chlamydia in Amhara, Ethiopia by describing the infection prevalence in a population-based sample of children ages 1-5 years. Population-based trachoma surveys were conducted in all districts of Amhara, from 2011 to 2015 following approximately 5 years of SAFE. Ocular swabs were collected from randomly selected children whose households were included in the surveys to estimate the zonal prevalence of chlamydial infection. The Abbott Realtime PCR assay was used to detect C. trachomatis DNA using the m2000 system. A total of 15,632 samples were collected across the 10 zones of Amhara. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years was 5.7% (95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-7.3), zonal range 1.0% to 18.5%. Chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation intense (TI) among children ages 1-9 were highly correlated at the zonal level, Spearman correlation(r)= 0.93; P<0.001, while chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation follicular (TF) among children ages 1-9 years were moderately correlated, r= 0.57; P=0.084. After 5 years of SAFE there is appreciable ocular chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years, indicating that transmission has not been interrupted, and that interventions should continue. The sign TI was highly correlated with chlamydial infection and can be used as a proxy indicator of infection.

  10. Multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Lin, Jiun-You; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yung

    2010-03-10

    Optical circulators are necessary passive devices applied in optical communication systems. In the design of optical circulators, the implementation of the function of spatial walk-off polarizers is a key technique that significantly influences the performance and cost of a device. This paper proposes a design of a multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers. To show the feasibility of the design, a prototype of a six-port optical circulator was fabricated. The insertion losses are 0.94-1.49 dB, the isolations are 25-51 dB, and return losses are 27.72 dB.

  11. Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: Randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Götz (Hannelore); M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); A. Luijendijk (Ad); I.V.F. van den Broek (Ingrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4-5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed

  12. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  13. Quantitative monitoring of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle using GFP-expressing bacteria, microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vromman

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. These pathogens develop inside host cells through a biphasic cycle alternating between two morphologically distinct forms, the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. Recently, C. trachomatis strains stably expressing fluorescent proteins were obtained. The fluorochromes are expressed during the intracellular growth of the microbe, allowing bacterial visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Whether they are also present in the infectious form, the elementary body, to a detectable level has not been studied. Here, we show that a C. trachomatis strain transformed with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulates sufficient quantities of the probe in elementary bodies for detection by microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of single bacteria was detected. The precise kinetics of bacterial entry were determined by microscopy using automated procedures. We show that during the intracellular replication phase, GFP is a convenient read-out for bacterial growth with several advantages over current methods. In particular, infection rates within a non-homogenous cell population are easily quantified. Finally, in spite of their small size, individual elementary bodies are detected by flow cytometers, allowing for direct enumeration of a bacterial preparation. In conclusion, GFP-expressing chlamydiae are suitable to monitor, in a quantitative manner, progression throughout the developmental cycle. This will facilitate the identification of the developmental steps targeted by anti-chlamydial drugs or host factors.

  14. Unusual Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein-Based Fusion Antigen CTH522 Into Protein Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Karlsen, Kasper; Jensen, Pernille

    2018-01-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic but is a c......Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic...... but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials. It consists of a truncated......-defined secondary structural elements, and no thermal transitions were measurable. Chemical unfolding resulted monomers that upon removal of the denaturant self-assembled into higher order structures, comparable to the structure of the native protein. The conformation of CTH522 in nanoparticles is thus not entirely...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis-induced Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekabe, Cyril Jabea; Kehbila, Jules; Njim, Tsi; Kadia, Benjamin Momo; Tendonge, Celestine Ntemlefack; Monekosso, Gottlieb Lobe

    2017-01-03

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is defined as perihepatitis associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydia trachomatis is one of its most common aetiologies. This syndrome usually presents with right upper quadrant abdominal pain mimicking other hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal pathologies, hence, posing a diagnostic dilemma in settings with limited diagnostic tools. A 32 year old African female presented with acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vaginal discharge, for which she had previously received treatment in another health center with no improvement. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. Five days after treatment with oral doxycycline, the patient showed marked clinical improvement. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a common cause of right upper quadrant pain which is often under diagnosed in poor communities. Hence, it should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain, especially in females of reproductive age.

  16. In vitro culture and characterization of human lung cancer circulating tumor cells isolated by size exclusion from an orthotopic nude-mouse model expressing fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolostova, Katarina; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M; Bobek, Vladimir

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an animal model and recently introduced size-based exclusion method for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolation. The methodology enables subsequent in vitro CTC-culture and characterization. Human lung cancer cell line H460, expressing red fluorescent protein (H460-RFP), was orthotopically implanted in nude mice. CTCs were isolated by a size-based filtration method and successfully cultured in vitro on the separating membrane (MetaCell®), analyzed by means of time-lapse imaging. The cultured CTCs were heterogeneous in size and morphology even though they originated from a single tumor. The outer CTC-membranes were blebbing in general. Abnormal mitosis resulting in three daughter cells was frequently observed. The expression of RFP ensured that the CTCs originated from lung tumor. These readily isolatable, identifiable and cultivable CTCs can be used to characterize individual patient cancers and for screening of more effective treatment.

  17. Widely Tunable On-Chip Microwave Circulator for Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin J.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Moores, Bradley A.; Vale, Leila R.; Mates, J. A. B.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lalumière, Kevin; Blais, Alexandre; Lehnert, K. W.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of an on-chip microwave circulator with a widely (GHz) tunable operation frequency. Nonreciprocity is created with a combination of frequency conversion and delay, and requires neither permanent magnets nor microwave bias tones, allowing on-chip integration with other superconducting circuits without the need for high-bandwidth control lines. Isolation in the device exceeds 20 dB over a bandwidth of tens of MHz, and its insertion loss is small, reaching as low as 0.9 dB at select operation frequencies. Furthermore, the device is linear with respect to input power for signal powers up to hundreds of fW (≈103 circulating photons), and the direction of circulation can be dynamically reconfigured. We demonstrate its operation at a selection of frequencies between 4 and 6 GHz.

  18. Isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c circulating in Uruguay Isolamento e caracterização da cepa tipo 2c do parvovirus canino circulante no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Blanc Pintos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research reports the first CPV-2c isolation in cell culture (canine fibroma cell line A-72 in Uruguay. The isolates were obtained from 13 rectal swabs of Uruguayan dogs with parvovirosis. Samples were submitted to PCR with two sets of primers, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, partial sequencing of the gene encoding for VP2 capsid protein and phylogenetic characterization. The strain isolated was confirmed as CPV-2c. These results contribute to a better knowledge of CPV strains circulating in Uruguay and promote an evaluation of the efficacy of heterologous vaccines used to protect against the circulating strains.Este trabalho relata o primeiro isolamento do CPV-2c em cultura de células (linhagem celular de fibroma canino A-72, no Uruguai. Os isolados foram obtidos a partir de 13 suabes retais de cães uruguaios com parvovirose. As amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR com dois pares de primers, polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição (RFLP, sequenciamento parcial do gene que codifica a proteína capsidial VP2 e caracterização filogenética. A cepa isolada foi confirmada como CPV-2c. Os resultados contribuem para um melhor conhecimento das cepas do CPV circulantes no Uruguai e incitam uma maior investigação sobre a eficácia das vacinas produzidas com cepas heterólogas utilizadas atualmente para proteger contra cepas circulantes.

  19. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  20. Asociación de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis con el diagnóstico de cervicitis aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Lorena Castillo Gutiérrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sra. Editora: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual se consideran un problema de salud pública en el mundo debido a su creciente incidencia y elevada morbimortalidad. Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis son las más comunes y costosas de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual bacterianas. En los estudios llevados a cabo en diferentes países se han encontrado prevalencias de C. trachomatis entre 1.7% y 25%, siendo más alta en la población menor de 25 años. La infección por clamidia genital causa cervicitis y salpingitis en mujeres, y uretritis y conjuntivitis tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Sin embargo, las infecciones por clamidia suelen producir pocos o ningún síntoma (en aproximadamente el 70% de las mujeres y el 50% de los hombres y pueden permanecer sin ser detectadas y sin tratamiento. Si no se trata, esta infección de transmisión sexual puede progresar y causar complicaciones con graves consecuencias sobre la salud reproductiva de las mujeres, incluida la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica (EPI que puede conducir al embarazo ectópico y a la infertilidad de las trompas.

  1. Synthetic positive controls for ELISA test kits for detection of IgA and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Galkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most informative and versatile method of serological diagnostics. The possibility of detecting by ELISA specific antibodies of different classes allow to differentiate primary infectious process and its remission, exacerbation and chronic disease (holding of differential diagnosis. This approach is implemented in the methodology for evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response against the causative agent of urogenital chlamydiosis. As with other infections immediately after Chlamydia trachomatis infection the specific IgM antibodies are formed, and subsequently basic projective antibodies of IgG class are synthesized. However, at exacerbation of chronic urogenital chlamydiosis specific IgA antibodies can be synthesized. That is why comprehensive evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response to Ch. trachomatis involves plasma testing of specific antibodies of all three classes. The essential problem in the production of ELISA diagnostic kits is obtaining of positive control. The classic version of positive control is human blood plasma containing specific antibodies. But specific IgM- and IgA-positive sera are deficit raw materials. This fact can significantly limit the production of diagnostic kits, especially in case of large-scale manufacture. We have suggested methodological approach to use of synthetic positive controls in indirect ELISA kits based on conjugate of normal human IgM (IgA and monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein of Ch. trachomatis. It was found that it’s possible to realize such task by means of NHS ester-maleimide-mediated conjugation (by sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate and reductive amination-mediated conjugation (by sodium periodate. It was found that synthetic positive controls obtained by different methods are characterized by higher titer compared to IgM- and IgA-positive high

  2. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  3. Normothermal or Hypothermal Extracorporeal Circulation Regimens in Patients with Acquired Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypothermal extracorporeal circulation has been used in cardiosurgery over 50 years. However, recent trials have not shown its predominant effect on the protection of the brain, lung, and myocardium in patients during surgery. We have presumed that when normothermal extracorporeal circulation used in patients with acquired heart disease, its pathophysiological effect on the body is comparable with that of hypothermal extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. One hundred and forty patients who were to undergo acquired heart disease correction were randomized into two equal groups: that using hypothermal or normothermal extracorporeal circulation. Perioperative troponin I and NT-proBNP concentrations, postoperative clinical course, and hospital morbidity and mortality rates were estimated. Results. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of troponin I and NT-proBNP at the study stages. In the normothermal extracorporeal circulation group patients with isolated aortic stenosis, the concentration of troponin I was higher than that in the hypothermal extracorporeal circulation group. Analyzing the postoperative course indicated that the duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in the hypothermal extracorporeal circulation group than in the normothermal extracorporeal circulation group. There were no differences in hospital complications and mortality rates. Conclusion. Hypothermal versus normothermal extracorporeal circulation in the correction of acquired heart diseases has no predominant effect on tro-ponin I and NT-proBNP concentrations, postoperative clinical course, and hospital complications and mortality rates. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, hypothermia, acquired heart disease, troponin I, NT-proBNP.

  4. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); G.T. Noordhoek; P.E. Klapper; J. Reid; J. Schirm; G.M. Cleator; M. Ieven; G. Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples,

  5. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Doorn, L.J. van; Kleter, B.; Koning, M.N. de; Munckhof, H.A. van den; Morre, S.A.; Harmsel, B. ter; Weiderpass, E.; Harbers, G.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Quint, W.G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT

  6. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  7. Microfluidic Platform for Circulating Tumor Cells Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueras-Mari, I.; Rodriguez-Trujillo, L.; Samitier-Marti, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are released from primary tumors into the bloodstream and transported to distant organs, promoting metastasis, which is known to be responsible for most cancer‐related deaths. Currently tumors are not found until symptoms appear or by chance when the patient undergoes a medical test, which in both situations can be too late. Once a tumor is found it is studied from tissue samples obtained directly from the patient in an invasive way. This invasive procedure is known as biopsy and apart from being invasive, it is costly, time consuming and can sometimes be painful and even risky for the patients’ health condition. Therefore, CTCs detection in blood also addressed as “liquid biopsy” would be very useful because by running routine blood analysis CTCs could be detected and collected suggesting tumor presence. However, due to the scarce presence in blood of these cells and to the huge amount of contamination from other cellular components a perfect method providing good capture and purity of CTCs has not been developed yet. In this project, a spiral size sorter microfluidic device has been manufactured and tested in order to determine its performance and limitations. Device performance was tested with different dilutions of healthy donor blood samples mixed with 30 micron particles simulating CTCs. The results obtained from these experiments show very good CTC recovery of up to 100% and the depletion of blood cellular components is around 99.9%. (Author)

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H3N2 circulating in Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season

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    Boyalska O. G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses circulating in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season. To make comparison of the HA and NA genes sequences of the Zhytomyr region isolates with the HA and NA genes sequences of influenza viruses circulating in the world. Methods. Laboratory diagnosis was conducted by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. Results. For the first time the genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses isolated in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season, coding hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were compared with their orthologs. According to the results of this comparison the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Additionally, the amino acid substitutions of the influenza viruses circulating in Ukraine and worldwide were analyzed. Conclusions. The nucleotide sequences of the influenza A(H3N2 viruses genes HA and NA isolated in the Zhytomyr region were identified. Based on the nucleotide sequences of HA and NA we constructed the influenza virus phylogenetic tree demonstrating that the virus isolated in the Zhytomyr region was closely related to the Ukrainian isolate from Kharkov and in the world to the isolates from Germany, Romania, Italy.

  9. Did L Strains Responsible for Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis Spread Among People With Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in France in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Arabella; Vernay-Vaisse, Chantal; Janier, Michel; Le Hen, Isabelle; Charlois, Cécile; Dhotte, Philippe; Decré, Dominique; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 1802 nonrectal Chlamydia trachomatis-positive specimens to determine if the L strains responsible for rectal Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men could spread to the heterosexual population. No evidence for Lymphogranuloma venereum transmission among heterosexuals in France was observed in 2013. L2b strains seem to be restricted to the men who have sex with men population.

  10. Application of virtual phase-shifting speckle-interferometry for detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.

    2018-04-01

    Method of phase-shifting speckle-interferometry has been used as a new tool with high potency for modern bioinformatics. Virtual phase-shifting speckle-interferometry has been applied for detection of polymorphism in the of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene. It has been shown, that suggested method is very sensitive to natural genetic mutations as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Effectiveness of proposed method has been compared with effectiveness of the newest bioinformatic tools, based on nucleotide sequence alignment.

  11. Identification of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated Chlamydia trachomatis serovars by fluorescence in situ hybridisation--a proof-of-principle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Essig, Andreas; Poppert, Sven

    2014-04-01

    We describe a proof-of-principle evaluation of a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) procedure to identify Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3, the causative agents of lymphogranuloma venereum, in cell cultures based on newly designed DNA probes. Rapid and easy-to-perform FISH could facilitate the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum without nucleic acid amplification or serotyping, but requires broader evaluation studies, for example, in tropical high-endemicity regions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Web-Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing : A Use Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Kevin; Hoebe, Christian; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne; van Bergen, Jan; Hamilton, Robert; van der Sande, Marianne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole

    BACKGROUND: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. METHODS: Two STI clinic nurses

  13. The Cervicovaginal Microbiota in Women Notified for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: A Case-Control Study at the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Charlotte; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Houdt, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence suggests that the cervicovaginal microbiota (CVM) plays an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods. We included 98 women

  14. Isolation and characterization of a replication-competent molecular clone of an HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF33_01B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Keng Tee

    Full Text Available A growing number of emerging HIV-1 recombinants classified as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs have been identified in Southeast Asia in recent years, establishing a molecular diversity of increasing complexity in the region. Here, we constructed a replication-competent HIV-1 clone for CRF33_01B (designated p05MYKL045.1, a newly identified recombinant comprised of CRF01_AE and subtype B. p05MYKL045.1 was reconstituted by cloning of the near full-length HIV-1 sequence from a newly-diagnosed individual presumably infected heterosexually in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The chimeric clone, which contains the 5' LTR (long terminal repeat region of p93JP-NH1 (a previously isolated CRF01_AE infectious clone, showed robust viral replication in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This clone demonstrated robust viral propagation and profound syncytium formation in CD4+, CXCR4-expressing human glioma NP-2 cells, indicating that p05MYKL045.1 is a CXCR4-using virus. Viral propagation, however, was not detected in various human T cell lines including MT-2, M8166, Sup-T1, H9, Jurkat, Molt-4 and PM1. p05MYKL045.1 appears to proliferate only in restricted host range, suggesting that unknown viral and/or cellular host factors may play a role in viral infectivity and replication in human T cell lines. Availability of a CRF33_01B molecular clone will be useful in facilitating the development of vaccine candidates that match the HIV-1 strains circulating in Southeast Asia.

  15. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva Infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in Cuban women at reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia y los factores asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva. Se realizó un estudio transversal en mujeres que asistieron a consultas de ginecología, infertilidad y terminación del embarazo en Ciudad de La Habana. Se obtuvieron muestras de exudado endocervical de 224 mujeres, mediante la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Adicionalmente se aplicó un cuestionario sobre algunos aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de conducta sexual. Los datos se analizaron con el uso de los métodos de Chi cuadrado y razón de ventajas. La frecuencia total de la infección fue de 6,9. Hubo 6 asociaciones significativas: edad menor de 25 años (14,5, que fuera soltera (13,4; no refiriera síntomas de infección ginecológica (14,0; no tuviera antecedentes de enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica (10,1 ni de infecciones de transmisión sexual (12,3 y que hubiera tenido más de una pareja sexual en los últimos 3 meses. Se concluye que estos resultados demuestran que la infección se presenta con mayor frecuencia en las mujeres adolescentes y adultas jóvenes, solteras, asintomáticas y con conductas sexuales de riesgo.The aim of this article was to determine the frequency and factors associated with the infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis at reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women that visited the offices of gynecology, infertility and full pregnancy, in Havana City. Endocervical smear samples from 224 women were obtained and processed by polymerase chain reaction. A questionnaire was applied on some sociodemographic, clinical and sexual behavior aspects. Data were analyzed by the Chi square test and odds ratio. The total frequency of infection was 6.9. Six significant associations were found: age under 25 (14.5, being single (13.4, referring no symptoms of gynecological infection (14.0, having no

  16. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  17. A Web-Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing: A Use Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Kevin; Hoebe, Christian; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne; van Bergen, Jan; Hamilton, Robert; van der Sande, Marianne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT

  18. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion membrane protein CT850 interacts with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Lutter, Erika I; Barger, Alexandra C; Dooley, Cheryl A; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-06-26

    Chlamydia trachomatis actively subverts the minus-end directed microtubule motor, dynein, to traffic along microtubule tracks to the Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC) where it remains within a membrane bound replicative vacuole for the duration of its intracellular development. Unlike most substrates of the dynein motor, disruption of the dynactin cargo-linking complex by over-expression of the p50 dynamitin subunit does not inhibit C. trachomatis transport. A requirement for chlamydial protein synthesis to initiate this process suggests that a chlamydial product supersedes a requirement for p50 dynamitin. A yeast 2-hybrid system was used to screen the chlamydia inclusion membrane protein CT850 against a HeLa cell cDNA library and identified an interaction with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1). This interaction was at least partially dependent upon an (R/K-R/K-X-X-R/K) motif that is characteristic of DYNLT1 binding domains. CT850 expressed ectopically in HeLa cells localized at the MTOC and this localization is similarly dependent upon the predicted DYNLT1 binding domain. Furthermore, DYNLT1 is enriched at focal concentrations of CT850 on the chlamydial inclusion membrane that are known to interact with dynein and microtubules. Depletion of DYNLT1 disrupts the characteristic association of the inclusion membrane with centrosomes. Collectively, the results suggest that CT850 interacts with DYNLT1 to promote appropriate positioning of the inclusion at the MTOC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Modulation of the Chlamydia trachomatis In vitro transcriptome response by the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone

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    Symonds Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease in humans. Previous studies in both humans and animal models of chlamydial genital tract infection have suggested that the hormonal status of the genital tract epithelium at the time of exposure can influence the outcome of the chlamydial infection. We performed a whole genome transcriptional profiling study of C. trachomatis infection in ECC-1 cells under progesterone or estradiol treatment. Results Both hormone treatments caused a significant shift in the sub-set of genes expressed (25% of the transcriptome altered by more than 2-fold. Overall, estradiol treatment resulted in the down-regulation of 151 genes, including those associated with lipid and nucleotide metabolism. Of particular interest was the up-regulation in estradiol-supplemented cultures of six genes (omcB, trpB, cydA, cydB, pyk and yggV, which suggest a stress response similar to that reported previously in other models of chlamydial persistence. We also observed morphological changes consistent with a persistence response. By comparison, progesterone supplementation resulted in a general up-regulation of an energy utilising response. Conclusion Our data shows for the first time, that the treatment of chlamydial host cells with key reproductive hormones such as progesterone and estradiol, results in significantly altered chlamydial gene expression profiles. It is likely that these chlamydial expression patterns are survival responses, evolved by the pathogen to enable it to overcome the host's innate immune response. The induction of chlamydial persistence is probably a key component of this survival response.

  1. Leukocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles: a circulating source for fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Romaric; Plawinski, Laurent; Robert, Stéphane; Doeuvre, Loïc; Sabatier, Florence; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Mezzapesa, Anna; Anfosso, Francine; Leroyer, Aurelie S.; Poullin, Pascale; Jourde, Noémie; Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Anglés-Cano, Eduardo; Dignat-George, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently assigned a new fibrinolytic function to cell-derived microparticles in vitro. In this study we explored the relevance of this novel property of microparticles to the in vivo situation. Design and Methods Circulating microparticles were isolated from the plasma of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or cardiovascular disease and from healthy subjects. Microparticles were also obtained from purified human blood cell subpopulations. The plasminogen activators on microparticles were identified by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; their capacity to generate plasmin was quantified with a chromogenic assay and their fibrinolytic activity was determined by zymography. Results Circulating microparticles isolated from patients generate a range of plasmin activity at their surface. This property was related to a variable content of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and/or tissue plasminogen activator. Using distinct microparticle subpopulations, we demonstrated that plasmin is generated on endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, but not on microparticles of platelet or erythrocyte origin. Leukocyte-derived microparticles bear urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor whereas endothelial microparticles carry tissue plasminogen activator and tissue plasminogen activator/inhibitor complexes. Conclusions Endothelial and leukocyte microparticles, bearing respectively tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase-type plasminogen activator, support a part of the fibrinolytic activity in the circulation which is modulated in pathological settings. Awareness of this blood-borne fibrinolytic activity conveyed by microparticles provides a more comprehensive view of the role of microparticles in the hemostatic equilibrium. PMID:22733025

  2. Prolonged Co-circulation of Two Distinct Dengue Virus Type 3 Lineages in the Hyperendemic Area of Medellín, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Marta C.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Dengue virus-3 (DENV-3) has re-emerged in the Western Hemisphere causing significant epidemics of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In an effort to understand the molecular evolution of DENV-3 and their relationships to other DENV-3 circulating in the western hemisphere, we conducted a phylogenetic study on DENV-3 isolates made between 2002 and 2007 in the metropolitan area of Medellín, Colombia. An unexpected co-circulation of two different variants of DENV-3 subtype III during at least 5 years in Medellín was found. In addition, a more complete analysis of DENV-3 viruses isolated in other South American regions revealed the existence of three different subtype III lineages, all derived from independent introductions. This study documents significant genetic diversity of circulating viruses within the same subtype and an unusual capacity of the population of this city to support continuous circulation of multiple variants of dengue virus. PMID:20810837

  3. Construction of physical and genetic maps of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    We constructed the physical map of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by using three restriction endonucleases, NotI (GC[GGCCGC), SgrAI (C(A/G)[CCGG(T/G)G), and Sse8387I (CCTGCA[GG), and we analyzed the fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 25 restriction endonuclease sites and 13...... genes and/or operons were located on the map. The genome size was determined to be 1,045 kb. Neither highly transcribed chlamydia genes nor developmental cycle-specific genes were clustered on the genome....

  4. Bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiodorović Jelica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU is a very common sexually transmitted disease. The etiology of the disease is complex and not completely solved. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal utethritis. Methods. The study group comprised 200 men with symptoms of urethritis. The control group consisted of 60 men without symptoms of urethritis. The diagnosis of nongonococcal infection was made by finding of an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (≥ 5 under the microscope in a sample of Gram-stain of urethral smear (× 1 000 and without evidence of Neisseria. gonorrhoeae in specimens (negative direct microscopy and cell culture. Bacteriological examination included: direct microscopy with the Gramstained and methylblue-stained smears of urethral discharges, and cultivation of specimens under the aerobic/unaerobic conditions. In addition to standard bacterial examination and performinig direct imunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis (bioMerieux, France, urethral smears were also examined for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. The finding of mycoplasmas ≥ 104 CCU/ml was positive. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson χ2 and Student t test. Results. C. trachomatis was predominant bacterial species found in urethra in men with nongonococcal urethritis. It was isolated alone and/or mixed with mycoplasmas and/or other bacteria in 86 (43.0% of examinees. There was statistically significant difference in finding of C. trachomatis between the study group and the control group (p < 0.001. U. urealyticum was found in men with NGU: 30.2% were with C. trachomatis and 36.0% were without C. trachomatis (p > 0.05. In 16 (8.0% men with NGU, C. trachomatis was isolated alone, while in 13.0% examinees it occurred with U

  5. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Nguyen, Co Thach; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang; Le, Quynh Mai

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007-2014). Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009-2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere's influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future.

  6. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

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    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  7. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  8. Design and results of the USA-Mexico Border Human Papillomavirus (HPV, Cervical Dysplasia, and Chlamydia trachomatis Study Diseño y resultados del estudio sobre los papilomavirus humanos (PVH, la displasia cervical y Chlamydia trachomatis en la frontera de Estados Unidos y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Giuliano

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mexico has one of the highest mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer in the world. This is particularly true for the states in northern Mexico that border on the United States of America. In addition, Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do non-Hispanics in the country. Therefore, a binational team was formed to focus on this problem and to determine the risk factors and prevalence of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV infection, the sexually transmitted disease (STD known to cause cervical cancer. Chlamydia trachomatis infection, a common STD and potential HPV cofactor, was also assessed. Methods. Research was conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the border region of two states, Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico, applying a cross-sectional study of women attending clinics for routine gynecologic care. Clinical measurements included Pap smears, HPV infection by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Hybrid Capture (HC, and C. trachomatis status by HC and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA. A total of 2 436 women were enrolled (mean age 33.3 years ± 10.3 years. Results. The overall prevalence of abnormal cytology was 9.3%, with a significant difference in the prevalence in Mexico (11.4% vs. the United States (6.6%. Of the participants, 14.5% of them tested positive for HPV by PCR, with no significant difference between the two countries, in spite of a lower behavioral risk profile for the Mexican women. Overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was found to be greater by HC than by EIA (8.2% vs. 3.0%, and in Mexico higher by both methods. Conclusions. An important accomplishment of the project was the implementation of a quality control program for Pap smear collection, which resulted in a significant reduction in inadequate smears in Mexico. Despite numerous potential logistical barriers, the binational team successfully conducted a large-scale study in the border area and developed an

  9. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Uganda.

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    Denis K Byarugaba

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.

  10. Application of LASCA imaging for detection of disorders of blood microcirculation in chicken embryo, infected by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega; Subbotina, Irina; Filonova, Nadezhda; Zaitsev, Sergey; Saltykov, Yury; Polyanina, Tatiana; Lyapina, Anna; Ulyanov, Sergey; Larionova, Olga; Feodorova, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Methods of t-LASCA and s-LASCA imaging have been firstly adapted to the problem of monitoring of blood microcirculation in chicken embryo model. Set-up for LASCA imaging of chicken embryo is mounted. Disorders of blood microcirculation in embryonated chicken egg, infected by Chlamydia trachomatis, are detected. Speckle-imaging technique is compared with white-light ovoscopy and new method of laser ovoscopy, based on the scattering of coherent light, advantages of LASCA imaging for the early detection of developmental process of chlamydial agent is demonstrated.

  11. Development of a new rapid isolation device for circulating tumor cells (CTCs using 3D palladium filter and its application for genetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yusa

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood of patients with epithelial malignancies provide a promising and minimally invasive source for early detection of metastasis, monitoring of therapeutic effects and basic research addressing the mechanism of metastasis. In this study, we developed a new filtration-based, sensitive CTC isolation device. This device consists of a 3-dimensional (3D palladium (Pd filter with an 8 µm-sized pore in the lower layer and a 30 µm-sized pocket in the upper layer to trap CTCs on a filter micro-fabricated by precise lithography plus electroforming process. This is a simple pump-less device driven by gravity flow and can enrich CTCs from whole blood within 20 min. After on-device staining of CTCs for 30 min, the filter cassette was removed from the device, fixed in a cassette holder and set up on the upright fluorescence microscope. Enumeration and isolation of CTCs for subsequent genetic analysis from the beginning were completed within 1.5 hr and 2 hr, respectively. Cell spike experiments demonstrated that the recovery rate of tumor cells from blood by this Pd filter device was more than 85%. Single living tumor cells were efficiently isolated from these spiked tumor cells by a micromanipulator, and KRAS mutation, HER2 gene amplification and overexpression, for example, were successfully detected from such isolated single tumor cells. Sequential analysis of blood from mice bearing metastasis revealed that CTC increased with progression of metastasis. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of CTCs from the blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer was observed compared with patients without metastasis and healthy volunteers. These results suggest that this new 3D Pd filter-based device would be a useful tool for the rapid, cost effective and sensitive detection, enumeration, isolation and genetic analysis of CTCs from peripheral blood in both preclinical and clinical settings.

  12. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Russia: systematic literature review and multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Thomas, Pierre; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A

    2017-09-29

    A reliable overview of data on the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in Russia is lacking and needed. All the available data on CT prevalence were analyzed in a systematic literature review on CT prevalence in Russia, strengthened with data from the multicenter study among 1263 people in the second-largest Russian megalopolis, St. Petersburg, testing for CT DNA in urethral, anal, cervical and prostate samples. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. The overall average prevalence of genital CT infections in Russian populations ranged from 2.9% to 33%. Risk factors included being symptomatic (P = 0.004; in men P Russia should be considered. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human papilloma virus among women-at risk in the Aegian region of Turkey, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, H; Surucuoglu, S; Yolasigmaz, G; Sen, M; Akcali, S; Dinc, G; Teker, A; Sanlidag, T; Koroğlu, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among Turkish brothel based sex-workers (SWs). A pre-designed questionnaire was administered to 199 SWs to obtain their sexual behaviours and their level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The specimens collected for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and human papillomavirus (HPV) were tested using Gen-Probe PACE 2 and HPV-screening assays, respectively. Aproximately sixty-seven per cent of the SWs knew that condoms afforded protection against HIV/AIDS and 62% reported continued use of condoms. Although most of the SWs had heard about HIV/AIDS, thorough knowledge of transmission and prevention was lacking. The overall estimated rates for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and HPV were 18.6% and 9.7%, respectively. There is a need for further studies to generate more data on the prevalence of STDs and the knowledge of STDs in this population.

  15. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  16. Genetic diversity of drug and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Rojas, Daniela; Fernandez-Morales, Esdras; Zarrabal-Meza, José; Martínez-Cazares, Ma. Teresa; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Fuentes-Domínguez, Javier; Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael; González-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the most important contributors of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America; however, knowledge of the genetic diversity of drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates is limited. Methods In this study, the genetic structure of 112 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the southeastern Mexico was determined by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs. Findings The results show eight major lineages, the most of which was T1 (24%), followed by LAM (16%) and H (15%). A total of 29 (25%) isolates were identified as orphan. The most abundant SITs were SIT53/T1 and SIT42/LAM9 with 10 isolates each and SIT50/H3 with eight isolates. Fifty-two spoligotype patterns, twenty-seven clusters and ten clonal complexes were observed, demonstrating an important genetic diversity of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis isolates in circulation and transmission level of these aggravated forms of tuberculosis. Being defined as orphan or as part of an orphan cluster, was a risk factor for multidrug resistant-tuberculosis (OR 2.5, IC 1.05–5.86 and OR 3.3, IC 1–11.03, respectively). Multiple correspondence analyses showed association of some clusters and SITs with specific geographical locations. Conclusions Our study provides one of the most detailed description of the genetic structure of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains in southeast Mexico, establishing for the first time a baseline of the genotypes observed in resistant isolates circulating, however further studies are required to better elucidate the genetic structure of tuberculosis in region and the factors that could be participating in their dispersion. PMID:29543819

  17. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  18. The L2b real-time PCR targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis used for the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum is not specific to L2b strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, A; Peuchant, O; Hénin, N; Bébéar, C; de Barbeyrac, B

    2016-06-01

    The French Reference Centre for chlamydiae uses two real-time PCRs targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis to differentiate between L strains and variant L2b, responsible for a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Europe. We compared the results obtained for 122 L2b C. trachomatis-positive specimens, using the two real-time PCRs, with the sequencing of the ompA gene. Only 91 specimens were confirmed as L2b. Our results demonstrate that the lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak is no longer dominated by the variant L2b, and that many L-positive specimens were misidentified as L2b with the method used, which raises the question of its specificity. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the genomes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 circulating in the area of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, A D; Grebennikova, T V; Iuzhakov, A G; Aliper, T I; Nepoklonov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of the genomes of the virus of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (VPRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) circulating in the area of the Russian Federation was discussed. The results of this work showed the circulation of the strains of the European genotype VPRRS similar to those found in France and Denmark from 1998 to 2001. The homology of the fragment of one of the genes between the Russian isolates and the vaccine strain Porcilis PRRS (Intervet) was found. It requires further study. The strains representing the North American genotype VPRRS were not found. The PCV-2 genomes fall into three separate goups. One (genotype 2b) is formed by isolates in Malaysia, Brazil, Switzerland, China, Slovakia, UK, USA, isolated during the period from 2004 to the present time. The second group consists of sequences of the viruses isolated in 2000-2012 in Canada, the U.S., China, and South Korea (genotype 2a). The third group is formed by highly pathogenic isolates in 2013 from China (highly pathogenic genotype 2c). The circulation of all three known genotypes of PCV-2: 2a, 2b, and 2c in Russian Federation was demonstrated.

  20. Rotavirus VP7, and VP4 Types circulating in Plateau State Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rotavirus genotypes circulating in Plateau State using RT – PCR. Materials and Methods: Thirty one rotavirus isolates recovered from diarrhoeic stools in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed using nested multiplex RT – PCR technique for the determination of VP7 and VP4 genotypes. Results: VP7 ...

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Momo, Jean Blaise; Besong, Laura; Loul, Sévérin; Njouom, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt) and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa) identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment of the enzootic

  3. Effects of Scirpusin B, a polyphenol in passion fruit seeds, on the coronary circulation of the isolated perfused rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsumoto, Nozomi Gotoh, Shoko Sano, Kenkichi Sugiyama, Tatsuhiko Ito, Yohei Abe, Yumi Katano, Akira Ishihata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Piceatannol, a polyphenol which is contained in passion fruits seed, is a derivative of resveratrol and is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasorelaxing activities. Passion fruits seed also contains a dimer of Piceatannol, Scirpusin B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Scirpusin B on the coronary circulation of the isolated rat heart. Methods: Hearts were isolated from male Fischer 344 rats (5 – 6 months old, and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 (37 °C at constant pressure (75 cmH2O by Langendorff’s method. Piceatannol or Scirpusin B (10, 30 and 100 μM was injected as a bolus into the aortic cannula and coronary flow (CF was continuously measured by the electromagnetic flow meter. In some experiments, rat hearts were pretreated with L-NAME (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or Diclofenac (an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase to reveal the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO and vasodilating prostanoids in the effect of Scirpusin B. Results: Scirpusin B increased CF up to 108.2 % of the initial value, while Piceatannol did not increase CF. In addition; Scirpusin B increased CF concentration-dependently. Pretreatment with L-NAME or Diclofenac significantly attenuated the Scirpusin B-induced coronary vasodilatation. Scirpusin B did not change the heart rate either left ventricular pressure. Conclusion: This study shows that Scirpusin B could increase CF via production of NO and vasodilating prostanoids.

  4. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for

  5. Isolation and enrichment of circulating biomarkers for cancer screening, detection, and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung-A; Kim, Junmoo; Gwak, Hogyeong; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2016-01-21

    Much research has been performed over the past several decades in an attempt to conquer cancer. Tissue biopsy is the conventional method for gathering biological materials to analyze cancer and has contributed greatly to the understanding of cancer. However, this method is limited because it is time-consuming (requires tissue sectioning, staining, and pathological analysis), costly, provides scarce starting materials for multiple tests, and is painful. A liquid biopsy, which analyzes cancer-derived materials from various body fluids using a minimally invasive procedure, is more practical for real-time monitoring of disease progression than tissue biopsy. Biomarkers analyzable through liquid biopsy include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes, circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), miRNA, and proteins. Research on CTCs has been actively conducted because CTCs provide information on the whole cell, unlike the other biomarkers mentioned above. However, owing to the rarity and heterogeneity of CTCs, CTC research faces many critical concerns. Although exosomes and cfDNA have some technical challenges, they are being highlighted as new target materials. That is because they also have genetic information on cancers. Even though the number of exosomes and cfDNA from early stage cancer patients are similar to healthy individuals, they are present in high concentrations after metastasis. In this article, we review several technologies for material analyses of cancer, discuss the critical concerns based on hands-on experience, and describe future directions for cancer screening, detection, and diagnostics.

  6. Trachoma: protective and pathogenic ocular immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Hu

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to Ct provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of Ct infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to Ct remain barriers to vaccine development.

  7. Compact, low-loss and broadband photonic crystal circulator based on a star-type ferrite rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xi

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a compact, low-loss and broadband circulator based on a star-type ferrite rod in two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals. Only one ferrite rod is required to be inserted in our structure. Firstly, the performances of circulator based on the star-type, circle, and square ferrite rod are compared, showing that the circulator with the star-type ferrite rod performs better than the other two ones. And then, based on the star-type ferrite rod circulator, four cases of improvement, in which the background rods around the center ferrite rod are replaced respectively by the backward-triangle, forward-triangle, backward-semicircle, and forward-semicircle rods, are investigated to modulate the coupling between the center magneto-optical micro-cavity and the corresponding waveguides. The results show that, with proper parameters, all the four cases can greatly improve the output properties of the circulator, and different cases have its own advantages. The mechanism behind these improvements is also discussed. Finite-element method is used to calculate the characteristics of the circulator and Nelder-Mead optimization method is employed to obtain the optimized parameters. The ideas presented here are useful for designing broadband, low insertion loss, and high-isolation circulators which have potential application in integrated photonic crystal devices. Keywords: Photonic crystals, Circulator, Magneto-optical material, Photonic crystal waveguides

  8. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high......-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital Ig...

  9. Chlamydial serum IgG, IgA and local IgA antibodies in patients with genital-tract infections measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terho, P.; Meurman, O.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IgG and IgA class antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was developed with C. trachomatis serotype L2 as antigen. The assay was sensitive, reproducible and correlated well with an immunofluorescence test (r = 0.85). Serum IgG antibodies were detected in 79% of Chlamydia isolation-positive versus 43% of isolation-negative male patients with urethritis and serum IgA antibodies in 53% and 21%, respectively. Urethral IgA antibodies, measured from specimens taken for chlamydial isolation, could be detected in 94% and 38%, respectively. From 737 male urethral and 909 female cervical secretions screened for the presence of IgA antibodies, about half were isolation and IgA negative. Only 4% (6/151) of male and 5.4% (2/37) of female isolation-positive specimens were IgA negative. The determination of local IgA antibodies may be used as a screening test in chlamydial genital infections. (author)

  10. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007–2014). Methods Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. Results The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009–2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere’s influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. Discussion The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future. PMID:26798557

  11. Analytical study on thermal-hydraulic behavior of transient from forced circulation to natural circulation in JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masashi; Sudo, Yukio

    1986-01-01

    Transient thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the JRR-3 which is an open-pool type research reactor has been analyzed with the THYDE-P1 code. The focal point is the thermal-hydraulic behaviors related to the core flow reversal during the transition from forced circulation downflow to natural circulation upflow. In the case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), for example, the core flow reversal is expected to occur just after the water pool isolation from the primary cooling loop with a leak. The core flow reversal should cause a sudden increase in fuel temperature and a steep decrease in the departure-from-nucleate-boiling ratio (DNBR) and the phenomenon is, therefore, very important especially for safety design and evaluation of research reactors. Major purposes of the present work are to clarify physical phenomena during the transient and to identify important parameters affecting the peak fuel temperature and the minimum DNBR. The results calculated with THYDE-P1 assuming the sequences of events of the loss-of-offsite power and LOCA help us to understand the phenomena both qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to the safety design and evaluation. (author)

  12. Zero-Sequence Voltage Modulation Strategy for Multiparallel Converters Circulating Current Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Liserre, Marco; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    A zero-sequence circulating current (ZSCC) is typically generated among the multiparallel converters that share the common dc link and ac side without isolated transformers under the space vector modulation (SVM), due to the injected third-order zero-sequence voltage (ZSV). This paper analyzes SVM...... references and filter inductances. The simulation and experimental results based on the parallel converters clearly verify the effectiveness of the proposed control....

  13. A potential of boiling water power reactors with a natural circulation of a coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.; Sokolov, I.N.

    1998-01-01

    The use of the natural circulation of coolant in the boiling water reactors simplifies a reactor control and facilities the service of the equipment components. The moderated core power loads allows the long fuel burnup, good control ability and large water stock set up the enhancement of safety level. That is considered to be very important for isolated regions or small countries. In the paper a high safety level and effectiveness of BWRs with natural circulation are reviewed. The limitations of flow stability and protection measures are being discussed. Some recent efforts in designing of such reactors are described.(author)

  14. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis y anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae en grupos de individuos de la población mexicana Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Mexican populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cravioto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT y Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG en grupos de individuos con diferente riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal multicéntrico efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1993, en el que se estudiaron 945 individuos en edad reproductiva, 585 mujeres y 360 hombres. Según su riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual se clasificaron en grupos de alto y bajo riesgo. Los de alto riesgo incluyeron mujeres infértiles con daño tubario, mujeres con embarazo ectópico o aborto, hombres infértiles, pacientes con VIH/SIDA, hombres homo o bisexuales y trabajadoras del sexo comercial (TSC. Los de bajo riesgo: mujeres primigestas, hombres fértiles y mujeres infértiles sin daño tubario. Se determinó en duplicado IgG e IgA anti-NG y anti-CT en suero, por análisis inmunoenzimático, utilizando como antígeno el pili de NG y la fracción L1 de CT. Se calcularon porcentajes. RESULTADOS: En mujeres la prevalencia para NG fue IgG 13.7% e IgA 14.3%, y para CT fue IgG 11.4% e IgA 4.4%. En hombres, NG 3.3% y 13.3%, respectivamente, y para CT 7.2% y 5.5%, respectivamente. En TSC se encontró NG en 31.2 % y 28.4%, respectivamente, y para CT 25.0% y 5.7%, respectivamente. En mujeres con infertilidad por daño tubario, NG 5.6% y 9.8%, respectivamente, y CT 8.4% y 1.4%, respectivamente. En 110 primigestas jóvenes, NG 4.5% y 10.0%, respectivamente, y CT 3.6% y 9.1%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Estos datos confirman la prevalencia elevada de Neisseria gonorrhoeae y Chlamydia trachomatis en trabajadoras del sexo comercial y en hombres homo/bisexuales, pero no en otros grupos de alto riesgo como las mujeres infértiles, con aborto o embarazo ectópico.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  15. Self-Biased Radiation Hardened Ka-Band Circulators for Size, Weight and Power Restricted Long Range Space Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ferrite control components including circulators and isolators are fundamental building blocks of Transmit/Receive modules (TRM) utilized in high data rate active...

  16. Improved Control Strategy for T-type Isolated DC/DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    T-type isolated DC/DC converters have recently attracted attention due to their numerous advantages, including few components, low cost, and symmetrical operation of transformers. This study proposes an improved control strategy for increasing the efficiency of T-type isolated DC/DC converters....... Under the proposed strategy, the primary circulating current flows through the auxiliary switches (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors) instead of their body diodes in free-wheeling periods. Such feature can reduce conduction losses, thereby improving the efficiency of T-type isolated DC...

  17. Evaluation of the microparticle enzyme immunoassay Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia and the importance of urethral site sampling to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brokenshire, M K; Say, P J; van Vonno, A H; Wong, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women and to compare its performance with endocervical cell culture. Also, to determine whether sampling the urethral site is an important part of chlamydial diagnosis in women. SETTING: The Auckland, Manukau, and Waitakere Sexual Health Clinics, Auckland, New Zealand and the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, ...

  18. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research. PMID:28203204

  19. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime CT new formulation assay with two other commercial assays for detection of wild-type and new variant strains of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Persson, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In an analytical methods comparison study on clinical samples, the Abbott RealTime CT new formulation assay (m2000 real-time PCR) consisting of a duplex PCR targeting different parts of the cryptic plasmid in Chlamydia trachomatis was compared with version 2 of the Roche COBAS(R) TaqMan(R) CT ass...

  20. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  1. Molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus from pharyngeal isolates in Auckland, New Zealand, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Moreland, Nicole J; Carter, Philip; Upton, Arlo; Morgan, Julie; Proft, Thomas; Lennon, Diana; Baker, Michael G; Dunbar, Rod; Fraser, John D

    2014-01-24

    To describe the molecular epidemiology of emm types associated with circulating pharyngeal group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates in Auckland, New Zealand. GAS isolates were collected over a 10-day period from a community pathology provider in Auckland. PCR analysis and sequencing of the emm gene was performed at the Institute of Environmental Science and Research. A total of 52 emm types were identified from 278 GAS isolates. The three most common emm types were emm1, emm89 and emm12. Overall, the experimental 30-valent GAS M protein vaccine covered 19 / 52 (37%) of emm types in our study. Our study provides baseline data on the circulating pharyngeal GAS emm types in Auckland. Future clinical and molecular surveillance of GAS pharyngitis is essential in the context of ongoing GAS vaccine development.

  2. STUDY OF UROGENITAL TRACT MICROFLORA OF DNEPROPETROVSK FEMALES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharova S.Y.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified the pathogens from the urogenital tract in 100 women of 26-55 years in Diagnostic Center of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy by polymerase chain reaction. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by HPV of high and low cancer risk - HSV type 1+2, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Candida yeast species. The most abundant pathogens from the urogenital tract were HPV, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  3. Improvement in understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho; Cleveland, John; Aksan, Nusret

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phenomena influencing natural circulation in passive systems. ► Behaviour in large pools of liquid. ► Effect of non-condensable gas on condensation heat transfer. ► Behaviour of containment emergency systems. ► Natural circulation flow and pressure drop in various geometries. - Abstract: The IAEA has organized a coordinated research project (CRP) on “Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling, and Reliability of Passive Systems That Utilize Natural Circulation.” Specific objectives of CRP were to (i) establish the status of knowledge: reactor start-up and operation, passive system initiation and operation, flow stability, 3-D effects, and scaling laws, (ii) investigate phenomena influencing reliability of passive natural circulation systems, (iii) review experimental databases for the phenomena, (iv) examine the ability of computer codes to predict natural circulation and related phenomena, and (v) apply methodologies for examining the reliability of passive systems. Sixteen institutes from 13 IAEA Member States have participated in this CRP. Twenty reference advanced water cooled reactor designs including evolutionary and innovative designs were selected to examine the use of natural circulation and passive systems in their designs. Twelve phenomena influencing natural circulation were identified and characterized: (1) behaviour in large pools of liquid, (2) effect of non-condensable gases on condensation heat transfer, (3) condensation on the containment structures, (4) behaviour of containment emergency systems, (5) thermo-fluid dynamics and pressure drops in various geometrical configurations, (6) natural circulation in closed loop, (7) steam liquid interaction, (8) gravity driven cooling and accumulator behaviour, (9) liquid temperature stratification, (10) behaviour of emergency heat exchangers and isolation condensers, (11) stratification and mixing of boron, and (12) core make-up tank behaviour. This paper summarizes the

  4. Genetic characterization of influenza A viruses circulating in pigs and isolated in north-east Spain during the period 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratelli, Massimiliano; Córdoba, Lorena; Pérez, Lester J; Maldonado, Jaime; Fraile, Lorenzo; Núñez, José I; Montoya, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Swine influenza virus is one of the most important pathogens involved in the swine respiratory disease complex. Recent serological surveys showed a high prevalence of swine influenza strains belonging to the H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulating in pigs in Spain. However, little is known about their genome sequence. Five swine influenza strains were isolated from some unrelated outbreaks occurred during 2006-2007, and their complete genome sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to the lineages "Avian-Like" H1N1, "Human-Like" H3N2, and "Human-Like" H1N2, showing tight relationships with early or contemporary strains described in Europe. Notably, one virus of the H1N2 subtype showed genetic and antigenic divergence with the European contemporary strains or vaccinal strains of the same subtype, suggesting that some local and divergent clusters of the virus may pass unnoticed in routinary subtyping. Finally, analysis on the entire pattern of genome segments suggested that a second reassortment event could have influenced the evolution of that divergent H1N2 strain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and simulation of self-biased circulators in the ultra high frequency band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianwei; Geiler, Anton; Mistry, Perhaad; Kaeli, David R.; Harris, Vincent G.; Vittoria, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models were developed to design self-biased Y-junction circulators operating at ultra high frequency (UHF). The proposed circulator designs consist of insulating nanowires of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) embedded in high permittivity barium–strontium titanate (BSTO) substrates. A design with as many as 10 5 or greater wires may be considered in its entirety to determine the electromagnetic scattering S-parameters of a circulator design, thus helping to mitigate the computational limitations of the available finite element method (FEM) tools. The approach seeks to represent the nanowires and the BSTO substrate by an equivalent medium with effective properties inclusive of the average saturation magnetization, dynamic demagnetizing fields, and permittivity. The effective medium approach was validated in comparison with the FEM models. Using the proposed approach, a self-biased junction circulator consisting of YIG nanowires embedded in a BSTO substrate was designed and simulated in which the center frequency insertion loss was calculated to be as low as 0.16 dB with isolation of −42.3 dB at 1 GHz. The 20 dB bandwidth was calculated to be 50 MHz. These results suggest that practical self-biased circulators at the UHF band are feasible. - Highlights: ► Presented a self-biased Y-junction circulator topology on composite substrate with YIG nanowires and high permittivity BSTO. ► Developed an equivalent model to characterize the composite substrate. ► Designed a self-biased junction circulator consisting of YIG nanowires embedded in a BSTO substrate at 1 GHz.

  6. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  7. Susceptibility of influenza viruses circulating in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Tolah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs; mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2% were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25% was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7% were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33 for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs.

  8. Insights into the working mechanism of water filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratli, Jasmin; Pesch, Theresa; Marti, Hanna; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are the major cause for infectious blindness and still represent the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Considering the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy and the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed a reduction of C. trachomatis infectivity after irradiation with water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS). In this study, we aimed to gain further insight into the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels of infected and non-infected HeLa cells following triple dose irradiation at 24, 36 and 40 hours post infection. Subsequently, we examined the influence of cytokines on irradiation and chlamydial infection using a cytokine/chemokine inhibitor (Azelastine) and by IL-6 and IL-8 gene silencing. A triple dose irradiation significantly reduced chlamydial infectivity in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial stress response. The reducing effect was present regardless of the addition of cycloheximide (CHX), a host protein synthesis inhibitor. Chlamydial infection, wIRA/VIS treatment and the combination of both revealed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, Serpin E1). The addition of Azelastine induced the chlamydial stress response in non-irradiated samples. This effect was even more pronounced in wIRA/VIS-treated conditions. Silencing of IL-6 and IL-8 resulted in a lower chlamydial infectivity. However, wIRA/VIS treatment of infected and silenced cells reduced the chlamydial infectivity similar to wIRA/VIS treated control cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS.

  9. The Dynamics of Hadley Circulation Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicholas Alexander

    The Hadley circulation exerts a dominant control on the surface climate of earth's tropical belt. Its converging surface winds fuel the tropical rains, while subsidence in the subtropics dries and stabilizes the atmosphere, creating deserts on land and stratocumulus decks over the oceans. Because of the strong meridional gradients in temperature and precipitation in the subtropics, any shift in the Hadley circulation edge could project as major changes in surface climate. While climate model simulations predict an expansion of the Hadley cells in response to greenhouse gas forcings, the mechanisms remain elusive. An analysis of the climatology, variability, and response of the Hadley circulation to radiative forcings in climate models and reanalyses illuminates the broader landscape in which Hadley cell expansion is realized. The expansion is a fundamental response of the atmosphere to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations as it scales with other key climate system changes, including polar amplification, increasing static stability, stratospheric cooling, and increasing global-mean surface temperatures. Multiple measures of the Hadley circulation edge latitudes co-vary with the latitudes of the eddy-driven jets on all timescales, and both exhibit a robust poleward shift in response to forcings. Further, across models there is a robust coupling between the eddy-driving on the Hadley cells and their width. On the other hand, the subtropical jet and tropopause break latitudes, two common observational proxies for the tropical belt edges, lack a strong statistical relationship with the Hadley cell edges and have no coherent response to forcings. This undermines theories for the Hadley cell width predicated on angular momentum conservation and calls for a new framework for understanding Hadley cell expansion. A numerical framework is developed within an idealized general circulation model to isolate the mean flow and eddy responses of the global atmosphere to

  10. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  11. Isolated intermittent vertigo: A presenting feature of persistent trigeminal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsrinivas Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic carotid – basilar anastomosis when persistent in adult life can present with a variety of neurological symptoms. We present a patient with isolated intermittent vertigo attributable to the embryonic anastomosis and describe the different types of persistent trigeminal artery. A 76-year-old Caucasian man presented with isolated intermittent vertigo and symptoms suggestive of anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Impaired vasomotor reactivity was demonstrated on insonation of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries in this patient with a persistent left trigeminal artery and 75% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA. The symptom of intermittent vertigo resolved with carotid endarterectomy. Decreased flow across the stenotic segment of the ICA which subserved the posterior circulation resulted in basilar insufficiency. Hypoperfusion to the flocculonodular lobe supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is a likely cause for the intermittent vertigo.

  12. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2008-04-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state.

  13. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  14. What Drives the Variability of the Atlantic Water Circulation in the Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lique, C.; Johnson, H. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) layer in the Arctic Basin is isolated from the atmosphere by the overlaying surface layer; yet observations of the AW pan-Arctic boundary current have revealed that the velocities in this layer exhibit significant variations on all timescales. Here, analysis of a global ocean/sea ice model hindcast, complemented by experiments performed with an idealized process model, are used to investigate what controls the variability of AW circulation, with a focus on the role of wind forcing. The AW circulation carries the imprint of wind variations, both remotely over the Nordic and Barents seas where they force variability on the AW inflow to the Arctic Basin, and locally over the Arctic Basin through the forcing of the wind-driven Beaufort gyre, which modulates and transfers the wind variability to the AW layer. Our results further suggest that understanding variability in the large amount of heat contained within the AW layer requires a better understanding of the circulation within both AW and surface layers.

  15. Performance of the multitarget Mikrogen Chlamydia trachomatis IgG ELISA in the prediction of tubal factor infertility (TFI) in subfertile women : Comparison with the Medac MOMP IgG ELISA plus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ess, Eleanne F.; Ouburg, Sander; Spaargaren, Joke; Land, Jolande A.; Morre, Servaas A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG antibody tests for tubal factor infertility (TFI) diagnostics. We evaluated the predictive value for TFI of Medac ELISA plus (MOMP) and multitarget Mikrogen ELISA (MOMP-CPAF-TARP). Based on Medac ELISA plus results, 183 subfertile

  16. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  17. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2008-01-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on co...

  18. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  19. Genotypes and subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus circulating in an endemic area in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Soto, Max Carlos; Bracho, Maria Alma; González-Candelas, Fernando; Huichi-Atamari, Milagros

    2018-01-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still endemic in Abancay, Peru, two decades after vaccination against hepatitis B started in the area, little is known about the diversity and circulation of genotypes and subgenotypes of the virus. To identify the genotypes and subtypes of HBV circulating in Abancay, complete genome sequences of 11 treatment-naive HBV-infected patients were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted with these and additional sequences from GenBank. Genotyping revealed the presence of genotype F in all the samples from Abancay. Subgenotype F1b was dominant and only one isolate belonged to subgenotype F4, which represents the first description of this subgenotype in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most subgenotype F1b isolates from Peru clustered in a subgroup along with two sequences from Argentina, whereas two clusters with two HBV/F1b sequences each were indicative of recent epidemiological linkage, but only one could be verified by independent data. These results suggest that the HBV subgenotype F1b seems to be the predominant subgenotype in Abancay, Peru.

  20. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  1. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Al-Madboly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  2. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa; Gheida, Shereen

    2017-01-01

    We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis . Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  3. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  4. Phylogenetic characterisation of circulating, clinical influenza isolates from Bali, Indonesia: preliminary report from the BaliMEI project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisasmito, W; Budayanti, S N; Aisyah, D N; Gallo Cassarino, T; Rudge, J W; Watson, S J; Kozlakidis, Z; Smith, G J D; Coker, R

    2017-08-23

    Human influenza represents a major public health concern, especially in south-east Asia where the risk of emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses is particularly high. The BaliMEI study aims to conduct a five year active surveillance and characterisation of influenza viruses in Bali using an extensive network of participating healthcare facilities. Samples were collected during routine diagnostic treatment in healthcare facilities. In addition to standard clinical and molecular methods for influenza typing, next generation sequencing and subsequent de novo genome assembly were performed to investigate the phylogeny of the collected patient samples. The samples collected are characteristic of the seasonally circulating influenza viruses with indications of phylogenetic links to other samples characterised in neighbouring countries during the same time period. There were some strong phylogenetic links with sequences from samples collected in geographically proximal regions, with some of the samples from the same time-period resulting to small clusters at the tree-end points. However this work, which is the first of its kind completely performed within Indonesia, supports the view that the circulating seasonal influenza in Bali reflects the strains circulating in geographically neighbouring areas as would be expected to occur within a busy regional transit centre.

  5. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  6. [Discovery of Chlamydia trachomatis in the throat during diagnosis of secondary syphilis in an HIV+ patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, François; Scieux, Catherine; Spindler, Edith; Janier, Michel

    2003-09-20

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) pharyngitis has rarely been described in the literature. Studies in the last decade have shown a prevalence of less than 5%, with more women than men infected in the pharynx. Among homosexual men, only one study, conducted more than 5 years ago, detected the presence of CT in the throat (in one patient out of 13 tested). A 33 year-old homosexual man consulted for cutaneous lesions on the palms and the chest. Infected by HIV, he was taking antiretroviral therapy but no antibiotic prophylaxis. He admitted practising unprotected (insertive and receptive) fellatio with unknown partners. The lesions were those of secondary syphilis but the location of the chancre remained unknown. An enlarged screening for sexually transmitted infections detected the presence, through molecular amplification, of CT in the throat without further localisation (urethra, anus). After intramuscular injection of Extencillin and an 8-day-regimen of cycline, CT was no longer detected in the throat. The course of HIV infection did not appear modified by this infectious episode. According to a review of the literature, the 4 most recent studies have not revealed CT in the throat of homosexuals although the bacteria was detected in the urethra of 3 to 4% of them. Chlamydia trachomatis is more frequently detected in the genital tract rather than the pharynx of women also screened in various localisations. These results must be tempered by the participant recruitment methods, diagnostic methods used, sample size and history of recent antibiotherapy. The pharyngeal mucosa might be less receptive to CT than the urethral mucosa. Association of CT pharyngitis with syphilis or its occurrence during HIV infection are not documented. The molecular amplification technique detects CT in the throat with sensitivity and specificity. A one-week regimen of cycline can cure this pharyngitis. Cost-effectiveness of screening for pharyngeal CT has not yet been assessed in persons 'at risk'.

  7. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  8. Global Ocean Circulation in Thermohaline Coordinates and Small-scale and Mesoscale mixing: An Inverse Estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeskamp, S.; Zika, J. D.; McDougall, T. J.; Sloyan, B.

    2016-02-01

    I will present results of a new inverse technique that infers small-scale turbulent diffusivities and mesoscale eddy diffusivities from an ocean climatology of Salinity (S) and Temperature (T) in combination with surface freshwater and heat fluxes.First, the ocean circulation is represented in (S,T) coordinates, by the diathermohaline streamfunction. Framing the ocean circulation in (S,T) coordinates, isolates the component of the circulation that is directly related to water-mass transformation.Because water-mass transformation is directly related to fluxes of salt and heat, this framework allows for the formulation of an inverse method in which the diathermohaline streamfunction is balanced with known air-sea forcing and unknown mixing. When applying this inverse method to observations, we obtain observationally based estimates for both the streamfunction and the mixing. The results reveal new information about the component of the global ocean circulation due to water-mass transformation and its relation to surface freshwater and heat fluxes and small-scale and mesoscale mixing. The results provide global constraints on spatially varying patterns of diffusivities, in order to obtain a realistic overturning circulation. We find that mesoscale isopycnal mixing is much smaller than expected. These results are important for our understanding of the relation between global ocean circulation and mixing and may lead to improved parameterisations in numerical ocean models.

  9. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  10. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  11. Demonstration of circulating 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 in man by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, T.L.; Fraher, L.J.; Sandler, L.M.; O'Riordan, J.L.H.

    1982-01-01

    1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 has been detected in human serum using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Tritiated 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D 3 was synthesized biologically and used as tracer to monitor the recovery of endogenous metabolite during isolation from serum. Circulating 1,24,25(OH) 3 D 3 in normal subjects ranged from 9.3 to 18.5 pmol/l but was not detectable ( 3 . (author)

  12. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece: conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarrakos, Panagiotis; Papadogeorgakis, Eleni; Sachse, Konrad; Vretou, Evangelia

    2011-08-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were the most prevalent (both 12, 28%), followed by D (9, 21%), G (4, 9%), B and K (both 2, 5%) and H and J (both 1, 2%). Over one third of the samples bared a variant ompA genotype that had been previously identified in other areas worldwide. Two results in this study, both observed for the first time, were of particular interest. First, the emergence of the unique variant genotype D/Ep6 (X77364.2) identified in 3 urethral samples. Second, the ompA genotype OCLH196 of the animal pathogen Chlamydophila abortus as well as a 23S rRNA gene fragment of this species detected by the assay ArrayTube™ was found in 7 urethral samples. The implications resulting from this observation for the health of the general population are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS feature on clinical laboratory efficiencies of abbott RealTime assays for detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents.

  15. Genotype-Specific Concordance of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Within Heterosexual Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Julia A; Katz, Barry P; Markowitz, Lauri E; Braslins, Phillip G; Shrier, Lydia A; Madico, Guillermo; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Orr, Donald P; Rice, Peter A; Batteiger, Byron E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.

  16. Human and Pathogen Factors Associated with Chlamydia trachomatis-Related Infertility in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, S.; Timms, P.; Allan, J. A.; Alexander, K.; Rombauts, L.; Horner, P.; Keltz, M.; Hocking, J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen worldwide. Infection can result in serious reproductive pathologies, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, in women. However, the processes that result in these reproductive pathologies have not been well defined. Here we review the evidence for the human disease burden of these chlamydial reproductive pathologies. We then review human-based evidence that links Chlamydia with reproductive pathologies in women. We present data supporting the idea that host, immunological, epidemiological, and pathogen factors may all contribute to the development of infertility. Specifically, we review the existing evidence that host and pathogen genotypes, host hormone status, age of sexual debut, sexual behavior, coinfections, and repeat infections are all likely to be contributory factors in development of infertility. Pathogen factors such as infectious burden, treatment failure, and tissue tropisms or ascension capacity are also potential contributory factors. We present four possible processes of pathology development and how these processes are supported by the published data. We highlight the limitations of the evidence and propose future studies that could improve our understanding of how chlamydial infertility in women occurs and possible future interventions to reduce this disease burden. PMID:26310245

  17. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Isolated vertigo and possibility of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosarrezai, Arash; Toghae, Mansoureh; Majed, Masoud; Aloosh, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    In cases of isolated vertigo, physicians are unable to definitely distinguish between central or peripheral vertigo by history and physical examination. Some central causes of isolated vertigo such as cerebellar stroke can be life-threatening and require intervention. Brain infarction can be detected shortly after the onset of clinical symptoms by using diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). We have conducted this study to perform DWI on isolated vertigo patients with a higher probability of brain infarction. We enrolled 55 consecutive patients with isolated vertigo who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. A questionnaire that consisted of cardiovascular risk factors was completed and DWI performed for each patient. We analyzed the association of cardiovascular risk factors with infarction as identified by DWI. Using DWI, 5 (9.1%) patients had an acute ischemic stroke. Among cardiovascular risk factors, analysis showed a significant relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and infarction. Isolated vertigo may occur due to the occlusion of a small artery in the area of brain circulated by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. According to our results, DWI may be used in diabetic patients with isolated vertigo to locate a probable infarction.

  20. Mosaic structure of intragenic repetitive elements in histone H1-like protein Hc2 varies within serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone-like protein Hc2 binds DNA in Chlamydia trachomatis and is known to vary in size between 165 and 237 amino acids, which is caused by different numbers of lysine-rich pentamers. A more complex structure was seen in this study when sequences from 378 specimens covering the hctB gene, which encodes Hc2, were compared. Results This study shows that the size variation is due to different numbers of 36-amino acid long repetitive elements built up of five pentamers and one hexamer. Deletions and amino acid substitutions result in 14 variants of repetitive elements and these elements are combined into 22 configurations. A protein with similar structure has been described in Bordetella but was now also found in other genera, including Burkholderia, Herminiimonas, Minibacterium and Ralstonia. Sequence determination resulted in 41 hctB variants that formed four clades in phylogenetic analysis. Strains causing the eye disease trachoma and strains causing invasive lymphogranuloma venereum infections formed separate clades, while strains from urogenital infections were more heterogeneous. Three cases of recombination were identified. The size variation of Hc2 has previously been attributed to deletions of pentamers but we show that the structure is more complex with both duplication and deletions of 36-amino acid long elements. Conclusions The polymorphisms in Hc2 need to be further investigated in experimental studies since DNA binding is essential for the unique biphasic life cycle of the Chlamydiacae. The high sequence variation in the corresponding hctB gene enables phylogenetic analysis and provides a suitable target for the genotyping of C. trachomatis.

  1. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  2. New coxsackievirus B4 genotype circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tian

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I-V with high bootstrap support (90-100%. The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%, and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced.

  3. Genomic characterization of Zika virus isolated from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhaputri, Frilasita A; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Perkasa, Aditya; Yohan, Benediktus; Haryanto, Sotianingsih; Wiyatno, Ageng; Soebandrio, Amin; Myint, Khin Saw; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Rosenberg, Ronald; Powers, Ann M; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2017-10-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) JMB-185 strain was isolated from a febrile patient in Jambi, Indonesia in 2014. To understand its genetic characteristics, we performed whole genome sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the supernatant of the first passage. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was not closely related to the Brazilian ZIKV associated with microcephaly or isolates from the recent Singapore Zika outbreak. Molecular evolution analysis indicated that JMB-185 strain may have been circulating in the Southeast Asia region, including Indonesia since 2000. We observed high nucleotide sequence identity between Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, and American strains although unique amino acid substitutions were also observed. This report provides information on the genomic characteristics of Indonesian ZIKV which may be used for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  5. Anti-cyclonic circulation driven by the estuarine circulation in a gulf type ROFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Sanford, L. P.; Nakatsuji, K.; Sugiyama, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Baroclinic residual circulation processes are examined in gulf type Regions Of Freshwater Influence (ROFIs), which have large rivers discharging into a rounded head wider than the Rossby internal deformation radius. Theoretical and observational investigations concentrate on Ise Bay, Japan, with supporting data from Osaka Bay and Tokyo Bay. Simplified analytical solutions are derived to describe the primary features of the circulation. Three dimensional residual current data collected using moored current meters and shipboard acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCPs), satellite imagery and density structure data observed using STDs, are presented for comparison to the theoretical predictions. There are three key points to understanding the resulting circulation in gulf type ROFIs. First, there are likely to be three distinct water masses: the river plume, a brackish upper layer, and a higher salinity lower layer. Second, baroclinic processes in gulf type ROFIs are influenced by the Earth's rotation at first order. Residual currents are quasi-geostrophic and potential vorticity is approximately conserved. Third, the combined effects of a classical longitudinal estuarine circulation and the Earth's rotation are both necessary to produce the resulting circulation. Anti-cyclonic vorticity is generated in the upper layer by the horizontal divergence associated with upward entrainment, which is part of the estuarine circulation. The interaction between anti-cyclonic vorticity and horizontal divergence results in two regions of qualitatively different circulation, with gyre-like circulation near the bay head and uniformly seaward anti-cyclonicly sheared flow further towards the mouth. The stagnation point separating the two regions is closer to (further away from) the bay head for stronger (weaker) horizontal divergence, respectively. The vorticity and spin-up time of this circulation are-(ƒ-ω 1)/2 and h/2w 0, respectively, where ƒ is the Coriolis parameter, ω 1 is

  6. [Genetic recombination in vaccine poliovirus: comparative study in strains excreted in course of vaccination by oral poliovirus vaccine and circulating strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad-Boubaker, S; Ould-Mohamed-Abdallah, M V; Ben-Yahia, A; Triki, H

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is one of the major mechanisms of evolution in poliovirus. In this work, recombination was assessed in children during vaccination with OPV and among circulating vaccine strains isolated in Tunisia during the last 15 years in order to identify a possible role of recombination in the response to the vaccine or the acquisition of an increased transmissibility. This study included 250 poliovirus isolates: 137 vaccine isolates, excreted by children during primary vaccination with OPV and 113 isolates obtained from acute flaccid paralytic (AFP) cases and healthy contacts. Recombination was first assessed using a double PCR-RFLP, and sequencing. Nineteen per cent of recombinant strains were identified: 20% of strains excreted by vaccinees among 18% of circulating strains. The proportion of recombinant in isolates of serotype1 was very low in the two groups while the proportions of recombinants in serotypes 2 and 3 were different. In vaccinees, the frequency of recombinants in serotype3 decreased during the course of vaccination: 54% after the first dose, 32% after the second and 14% after the third dose. These results suggest that recombination enhances the ability of serotype3 vaccine strains to induce an immune response. Apart from recent vaccination, it may contribute to a more effective transmissibility of vaccine strains among human population. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  8. Detection in and circulation of Bluetongue virus among domestic ruminants in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Viarouge, Cyril; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Sailleau, Corinne; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Zientara, Stephan; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-17

    So far, no published data was available concerning the circulation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Madagascar. During a survey on Rift Valley Fever, we were able to detect a virus belonging to BTV. Therefore, we conducted a study aiming at characterizing molecularly the BTV isolated and assess the importance of circulation of BTV in Madagascar. A total of 4393 sera from ruminants selected randomly by stratification and sampled in 30 districts of Madagascar were tested for BTV. Moreover, 175 cattle were followed during 11 months. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from virus isolated from unfed pools of mosquitoes. Overall, the estimated mean seroprevalence of infection at the national level was 95.9% (95% CI: [95.2-96.5]) in cattle and 83.7% (95% CI: [81.4-85.9]) in small ruminants. Estimation of incidence rate was 54 per 100 cattle-years assuming that the incidence rate is constant all year along. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BTV detected belong to serotype 2. In conclusion, our results showed that BTV is endemic in Madagascar and highly prevalent among cattle. In our study we did not work on the vector involved in transmission of BTV in cattle. Thus, research should be conducted to better describe epidemiology of BTV in Madagascar including vectors and assess economic impact of the disease associated to BTV infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates circulating in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Tong, Jing-jing; Ma, Xiu-hua; Song, Feng-li; Fan, Ling; Guo, Cui-mei; Shi, Wei; Yu, Sang-jie; Yao, Kai-hu; Yang, Yong-hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections. All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles. In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%). Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%), Ia (17.9%), Ib (16.1%), and V (14.3%) were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs) for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4%) was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7%) carried ermB. S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB.

  10. Experiences with loss of natural circulation events, performed experiments, analysis, computations and development of operational documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, L.; Varju, A.; Nagy, S.

    1996-01-01

    The refuelling of the unit 4 was started on 18 June, 1988. At the time of the event the reactor was in cold shutdown state, with atmospheric pressure, the reactor head was removed. On June 30 the operational personnel performed a planned switch over of natural circulation from loops 4, 6 to loops 1, 3. In the meantime the effectiveness of the core cooling by natural circulation decreased sharply for about 3 hour-period. After switching over the natural circulation among the loops the operating personnel isolated the loops 4., 6. and started to drain them. Nitrogen used to drain the loops was unintentionally injected into the loops in operation and large amount of primary coolant was pushed out from the SG primary side to the reactor vessel. The operators tried to stop the disturbance of natural circulation by starting the booster pump of make-up system periodically to the working loops. During this injection the personnel performed venting few times to take away the gas-air mixture from the top of the SG primary headers. After all the restoration of the natural circulation was achieved by continuous venting the SG headers. During 1993 annual refuelling outage of Unit 2 at Paks NPP a deterioration of natural circulation in reactor coolant system occurred. A special maintenance task was being performed to repair the cladding of the sealing bellows between the reactor vessel and reactor cavity

  11. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed E; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Ali, Ibtisam A; Elamin, Fatima M; Grobusch, Martin P; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-25

    Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance. Ten genetic variants, or genotypes designated as (G1-G10), are distributed worldwide based on genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to provide some sequence data and phylogeny of EG isolates recovered from the Sudanese one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries). Fifty samples of hydatid cysts were collected from the one- humped camels (Camelus dromedaries) at Taboul slaughter house, central Sudan. DNAs were extracted from protoscolices and/or associated germinal layers of hydatid cysts using a commercial kit. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADH1) gene and the cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were used as targets for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR products were purified and partial sequences were generated. Sequences were further examined by sequence analysis and subsequent phylogeny to compare these sequences to those from known strains of EG circulating globally. The identity of the PCR products were confirmed as NADH1 and cox1 nucleotide sequences using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) of NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD). The phylogenetic analysis showed that 98% (n = 49) of the isolates clustered with Echinococcus canadensis genotype 6 (G6), whereas only one isolate (2%) clustered with Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). This investigation expands on the existing sequence data generated from EG isolates recovered from camel in the Sudan. The circulation of the cattle genotype (G5) in the one-humped camel is reported here for the first time.

  12. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  13. European Chlamydia abortus livestock isolate genomes reveal unusual stability and limited diversity, reflected in geographical signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth-Smith, H M B; Busó, Leonor Sánchez; Livingstone, M; Sait, M; Harris, S R; Aitchison, K D; Vretou, Evangelia; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K; Sachse, K; Longbottom, D; Thomson, N R

    2017-05-04

    Chlamydia abortus (formerly Chlamydophila abortus) is an economically important livestock pathogen, causing ovine enzootic abortion (OEA), and can also cause zoonotic infections in humans affecting pregnancy outcome. Large-scale genomic studies on other chlamydial species are giving insights into the biology of these organisms but have not yet been performed on C. abortus. Our aim was to investigate a broad collection of European isolates of C. abortus, using next generation sequencing methods, looking at diversity, geographic distribution and genome dynamics. Whole genome sequencing was performed on our collection of 57 C. abortus isolates originating primarily from the UK, Germany, France and Greece, but also from Tunisia, Namibia and the USA. Phylogenetic analysis of a total of 64 genomes shows a deep structural division within the C. abortus species with a major clade displaying limited diversity, in addition to a branch carrying two more distantly related Greek isolates, LLG and POS. Within the major clade, seven further phylogenetic groups can be identified, demonstrating geographical associations. The number of variable nucleotide positions across the sampled isolates is significantly lower than those published for C. trachomatis and C. psittaci. No recombination was identified within C. abortus, and no plasmid was found. Analysis of pseudogenes showed lineage specific loss of some functions, notably with several Pmp and TMH/Inc proteins predicted to be inactivated in many of the isolates studied. The diversity within C. abortus appears to be much lower compared to other species within the genus. There are strong geographical signatures within the phylogeny, indicating clonal expansion within areas of limited livestock transport. No recombination has been identified within this species, showing that different species of Chlamydia may demonstrate different evolutionary dynamics, and that the genome of C. abortus is highly stable.

  14. Purification of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein Hc2, and comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1996-01-01

    The metabolically inactive developmental form of Chlamydia trachomatis, the elementary body, contains two very basic DNA-binding proteins with homology to eukaryotic histone H1. One of these, Hc1, is relatively well characterized and induces DNA condensation in vitro, whereas the other, Hc2......, is functionally virtually uncharacterized. In this study we describe the purification of Hc2, and a detailed comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1 is presented. By gel shift assays and electron microscopy, marked differences in the nucleic acid-binding properties of Hc2 and Hc1 were observed. Furthermore...

  15. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  16. Population-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Using Discarded, Deidentified Urine Specimens Previously Collected for Drug Testing (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    trichomonas vaginalis testing, Melinda Balansay-ames, chris Myers and gary Brice for Pcr- based sex determination testing, and Kimberly De Vera for...2017-053355 rEFErEnCEs 1 torrone e , Papp J, Weinstock H. centers for Disease control and Prevention (cDc). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital...infection among persons aged 14-39 years-United States, 2007-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:834–7. 2 rietmeijer ca, Hopkins e , geisler WM

  17. Circulation of canine parvovirus among dogs living in human-wildlife interface in the Atlantic forest biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. Vieira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for threatening viral diseases for wild carnivores, few studies have focused to identify circulation of viruses among dogs living in human/wildlife interfaces. To identify canine parvovirus (CPV types circulating in dogs living in an Atlantic forest biome, faecal samples (n = 100 were collected at the same period (one week corresponding to each of four areas, during 2014 to 2016 and corresponded to 100 different individuals. CPV was isolated in cell culture from 67 out 100 (67% samples from healthy dogs. Cytopathic effects were characterized by total or partial cell culture lysis. Genome sequences of CPV-2a (10%, CPV-2b (7% and CPV-2c (50% were concomitantly detected by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The current study addresses the importance of monitoring CPV circulation among dogs presenting potential contact with wildlife species.

  18. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  19. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...... infection are not treated, 10-60% will develop pelvic infection after abortion. Salpingitis caused by Chlamydia runs a milder clinical course than salpingitis caused by gonococci or other etiology but salpingitis due to Chlamydia is regarded as one of the most important causes of tubal infertility...... and extrauterine pregnancy. The symptoms may be discharge and dysuria or objective findings such as cervicitis and pathological findings in wet smears of the cervical secretion. The majority of women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia infection have no symptoms. Only few investigations have...

  20. Complete Genome and Phylogeny of Puumala Hantavirus Isolates Circulating in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Couteaudier, Mathilde; Sauvage, Frank; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Murri, Séverine; Plyusnina, Angelina; Pontier, Dominique; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2015-10-22

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed.

  1. Complete Genome and Phylogeny of Puumala Hantavirus Isolates Circulating in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (IgG ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed.

  2. Experimental investigation on natural circulation and air-injection enhanced circulation in a simple loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter Ambrosini; Nicola Forgione; Francesco Oriolo; Filippo Pellacani; Mariano Tarantino; Claudio Struckmann

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Natural circulation represents an interesting phenomenon because of both the complex aspects characterising it and for the widespread application in industry. On the other hand, injection of a gas into a rising branch of a loop represents a means to establish or to enhance a circulation flow, as it occurs in the so-called 'air-lift' loops. Both natural circulation and gas-injection enhanced circulation are presently considered for cooling Accelerator Driven System (ADS) reactors. These are subcritical reactors in which the fission reaction chain is maintained by the injection of neutrons obtained by spallation reactions in a target through a high energy proton beam generated in an external accelerator. The capability of such reactors to be used as incinerators of long lived fission products makes them particularly interesting in the light of the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Some of the fluids proposed as coolants for these reactors are liquid metals, with main interest for lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Experimental activities are being performed in support to the design of the reactor prototype by different organisations. The university of Pisa, in addition to provide cooperation in these large scale activities performed with LBE has set up a specific experimental program aimed at studying the fundamental mechanisms involved in natural circulation and gas-injection enhanced circulation. The adopted experimental facility consists in a simple loop, having a rectangular lay-out (roughly, 4 m tall and 1 m wide), equipped with a 5 kW, 1 m tall heater, a 2 m long pipe-in-pipe heat exchanger, an air injection device and a separator. The fluid adopted in the tests performed up to now is water, though studies for evaluating the feasibility of the adoption of different fluids have been undertaken. Experimental data reported in previous publications concerning this research were related to a relatively high range of gas

  3. Molecular characterization of influenza viruses circulating in Northern Italy during two seasons (2005/2006 and 2006/2007) of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Zappa, Alessandra; Bianchi, Silvia; Colzani, Daniela; Anselmi, Giovanni; Zanetti, Alessandro; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    The influenza activity and circulation of influenza viruses in Lombardy (the most populous Italian region) were observed during two consecutive seasons (2005/2006 and 2006/2007) characterized by low influenza activity by the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network. The molecular characteristics of circulating viruses were analyzed to evaluate the introduction of new variants and emergence of vaccine-escape viruses. In both seasons, the epidemic in Lombardy was sustained almost exclusively by influenza A viruses, accounting for 80.5% and 93.6% of total detections, respectively, and the co-circulation of A/H3 viruses belonging to distinct phylogenetic groups was observed. The A/H1N1 viruses isolated during the 2005/2006 season were closely related to A/New Caledonia/20/99, while the hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of the A/H1N1 viruses from the 2006/2007 season exhibited a greater diversity. These viruses were A/Solomon Islands/3/2006-like and showed several variants. All B isolates were similar to B/Malaysia/2506/2004 belonging to the B/Victoria/2/87-lineage. Influenza B virus was the dominant virus in Europe in the 2005/2006 season and accounted for the 20% of total detections in Lombardy. Overall, the viruses studied presented heterogeneity in their HA sequences suggesting the circulation of a miscellaneous set of variants during the two seasons notwithstanding the medium-low activity of influenza. The importance of virological surveillance of influenza viruses is recognized widely and the molecular characterization of the viruses, especially in vaccinated subjects, is of particular importance to evaluate the introduction and circulation of new variants. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.