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Sample records for trace metal accumulation

  1. Accumulation of trace metals in grey mangrove Avicennia marina fine nutritive roots: the role of rhizosphere processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin

    2014-02-15

    Mangrove sediment has long been recognized as being important in restricting the mobility of contaminants in estuarine environments. To investigate the role of rhizosphere processes in the accumulation of trace metals in mangrove fine nutritive roots, the mangrove sediments and associated fine nutritive roots are collected from five major embayments of Sydney estuary (Australia) for geochemical studies. In this estuary Avicennia marina sediments are accumulating large quantities of trace metals due to presence of abundant fine sediment (<62.5 μm) and organic matter as well as anthropogenic input. Accumulation of trace metals in fine nutritive roots responds to total sediment chemistry mainly due to rhizosphere sediment geochemical processes resulting in a strong linear correlation between metal concentrations in fine nutritive roots vs. total and bio-available contents in sediments. Accumulation of trace metals in fine nutritive roots is almost always exceeds rhizosphere total sediment metal concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

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    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  3. Accumulation of trace metals by aquatic macrophytes and their possible use in phytoremediation techniques

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    Michaela Hillermannová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed research was to obtain knowledge on the ability of aquatic plants naturally growing at a site to absorb trace metals contained in bottom sediments and surface water. Furthermore, we compared differences in the accumulation of trace metals by the individual groups of aquatic plants (submerged and emergent and assessed a possible use of the individual plant species in phytoremediation techniques. Representative samples of water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes were taken from three anthropogenically loaded streams in six monitoring cycles in several collection profiles differing in the distance from a source of contamination. The samples were analysed for the total content of selected trace metals (As, Cd, Pb, Al, Hg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Cu. For comparison, one profile at an unloaded site was sampled as well. The obtained results were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis of data. Increased contents of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Zn were detected in sediments and plant biomass at loaded sites, namely 2–3× higher than at the comparing site. The contents of metals in surface water samples were altogether below the detection limit of the analytical method. When evaluating the individual plant species, we can state that the lowest contents of metals were detected in shore species (reed canary grass Phalaroides arundinacea, wood club-rush Scirpus silvaticus and red dock Rumex aquaticus; plant species growing in the very water current (water star-wort Callitriche sp. and flote-grass Glyceria fluitans exhibited mean contents of metals. In species forming mats (Fontinalis antipyretica and Cladophora sp., these contents were several times higher as compared to the previous species. The results of the performed research show that one of important factors, which influence the accumulation of trace metals in plants, is their ecological group (emergent – submerged affiliation and the species classification within this group

  4. Effect of orthosilicic acid on the accumulation of trace metals by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

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    Desouky, Mahmoud M.; McCrohan, Catherine R.; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J.; White, Keith N

    2003-06-19

    Silicon (Si) has a marked affinity for aluminium (Al(III)), but not other trace metals such as cadmium (Cd(II)) and zinc (Zn(II)). Exogenous orthosilicic acid (Si(OH){sub 4}) ameliorates the toxicity of Al(III) to the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, but its mechanism of action is unclear. Here, studies were conducted to ascertain whether interaction between orthosilicic acid and Al(III) occurs in the water column to prevent Al(III) uptake, or in the tissues to reduce the toxicity of accumulated metal. Silicon did not reduce the accumulation of Al(III) by the digestive gland (the main 'sink' for trace metals in L. stagnalis) following exposure of the snail for 30 days to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} added Al(III) and 13-fold molar excess of orthosilicic acid. However, Si concentrations correlated well with Al(III) levels in the digestive gland (R{sup 2}=0.77), giving a ratio of 2.5:1 (Al(III):Si). Exposure to Zn(II) or Cd(II) and 13-fold molar excess of orthosilicic acid did not prevent uptake of these metals, or result in a correlation between metal and Si concentrations of the snail digestive gland. These data show that aquated orthosilicic acid does not prevent Al(III) accumulation by L. stagnalis. However, following exposure, the ratio of Al(III) to Si in the digestive gland is suggestive of the early formation of hydroxyaluminosilicates, probably proto-imogolites (2-3:1 Al(III):Si). Whether hydroxyaluminates are formed ex vivo in the water column and taken up by snails into the digestive gland, or formed in situ within the digestive gland remains to be established. Either way, orthosilicic acid clearly prevents the in vivo toxicity of Al(III) rather than reducing its uptake. Silicon appears to have an important role in the handling Al(III) by the pond snail which may also have wider relevance in understanding the role of Si in ameliorating Al(III) toxicity.

  5. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  6. Trace metal accumulation in sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates before and after maintenance of a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas P; Muthukrishnan, Swarna; Barshatzky, Kristen; Wallace, William

    2012-04-01

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) require regular maintenance. The impact on trace metal concentrations in a constructed stormwater wetland BMP on Staten Island, New York, was investigated by analyzing sediment concentrations and tissue residues of the dominant macroinvertebrates (Tubifex tubifex) prior and subsequent to maintenance. Trace metal concentrations were assessed using standard serial extraction (for sediment) and acid digestion (for tissue burdens) techniques, followed by quantitative determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. The results suggest that disturbance of sediment during maintenance of the BMP resulted in an increase in the most mobile fraction of trace metals, especially those associated with finer grained sediments (macroinvertebrates increased. Regressions of a subset of metal concentrations (copper, lead, and zinc) in sediment and the macroinvertebrate tissue burden samples generally increased as a result of maintenance. A follow-up sampling event 9 months after maintenance demonstrated that the most readily available form of trace metal in the BMP was reduced, which supports (1) long-term sequestration of metals in the BMP and (2) that elevated bioavailability following maintenance was potentially a transient feature of the disturbance. This study suggests that in the long-term, performing sediment removal might help reduce bioavailability of trace metal concentrations in both the BMP and the receiving water to which a BMP discharges. However, alternative practices might need to be implemented to reduce trace metal bioavailability in the short-term.

  7. Spatial and interspecific variation of accumulated trace metals between remote and urbane dwelling birds of Pakistan.

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    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that birds of urbanized and/or industrialized origin depict higher metal accumulation as compared to remote dwellers. We selected seven representative species from three families (Anatidae, Motacillidae and Sturnidae) at two different locations; Baroghil valley (remote location) and Soan valley (urbanized location) of Pakistan and analyzed the concentrations of 8 metals Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in feathers of these species. Feathers from Soan valley which is under higher anthropogenic influence exhibited significantly (Pbirds of the Baroghil valley revealed greater metal loads than aquatic birds while at Soan valley it was vice versa. In general, elevated concentrations of metals were recorded in insectivorous species as compared to omnivorous species. Within each location, species belonging to Anatidae and Motacillidae revealed similar metal contamination patterns. Principal component Analysis (PCA) based on correlation matrices depicted a clear tendency of metals towards the species originating from areas with greater pollution load (Soan valley) than relatively undisturbed sites (Baroghil valley) and hence corroborated our hypothesis. The pattern of metal accumulation in feathers of both the locations suggested that there may be a flux of migration between the two regions and/or trans-boundary movement of pollutants/metals, which either singly or synergistically influence the overall metal profile in the studied bird species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of Trace Metals in Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis from Pattani Bay and the Setiu Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradit, Siriporn; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Towatana, Prawit; Saengmanee, Wuttipong

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in two common species of cockles (Anadara granosa and Anadara inaequivalvis) from two coastal areas in Thailand (Pattani Bay) and Malaysia (the Setiu Wetlands). A total of 350 cockles were collected in February and September 2014. Trace metals were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. We observed that cockles in both areas had a higher accumulation of metals in September. Notably, the biota-sediment accumulation (BSAF) of Cd was highest in both areas. A strong positive correlation of Cd with the length of the cockles at Pattani Bay (r(2) = 0.597) and the Setiu Wetlands (r(2) = 0.675) was noted. It was suggested that As could be a limiting element (BSAF < 1) of cockles obtained from Pattani Bay. In comparison with the permissible limits set by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health and the Malaysia Food Regulations, mean values of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were within acceptable limits, but the maximum values of Cd and Pb exceeded the limits for both areas. Regular monitoring of trace metals in cockles from both areas is suggested for more definitive contamination determination.

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-29

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  11. Sediments of the Lagoa Olho D'Agua: geochronology and accumulation of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorato, Eliane Valentim

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental impact of anthropic activities in the Lagoa Olho D'Agua, located in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County, Brazil, was carried out by assessing the vertical distribution of some trace metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, U, Zn and Zr) in dated sediment samples. Sediment cores were collected from thirteen locations at the northern, central and southern sections of the lagoon. The metal content in the samples was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Its organic carbon content was also determined and used to characterize the environment as, either oxic or anoxic environments can bias the trace element content of sediment samples. The influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics in the sedimentation process was also studied. The results obtained for the geochronology of sediments showed a pronounced increase in sedimentation rates in the period of 1970 - 1980 and 1980 - 1990 in the sampling stations ST-09, ST-10, ST-11, ST-12 e ST-13 (ca.480% in the 80's to 90's ) compared to ca. 90% increase observed in other sampling stations. This increase can be associated to the demographic growth of ca. 500% that occurred in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County in the 80's to 90's predominantly along the shoreline. The geochemistry analyses of sediment samples, on the other hand, showed that the severe degradation process the occurred in the lagoon in the last 30 years was caused by the release of pollutants from industrial facilities as well as by the discharge of untreated domestic sewage. These domestic sewage favorable the increase of the concentration of organic material in the lagoon, accentuating the adsorption process of the metals on the sediments, mainly Fe and Zr in the suspense particles. The accentuated increase observed in both Fe and Zr concentrations is compatible with period of built industries basic steel works foundries and painting, indicating the anthropogenic origin these metals. (author)

  12. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen; Smith, Brian D.; DelValls, T. Angel; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  13. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yaowen; Yu Kefu; Zhang Gan; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 μg g -1 , whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 μg g -1 , respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  14. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Yaowen, E-mail: yqiu@scsio.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Yu Kefu [State Key Laboratory of Tropic Marine Environment, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Wenxiong [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-06-15

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}, whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43) > Cu (0.27) > Cd (0.22) > Zn (0.17) > Pb (0.07) > Cr (0.06) > As (0.02).

  15. Vertical fluxes and accumulation of trace metals in superficial sediments of the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatone, L M; Bilos, C; Skorupka, C N; Colombo, J C

    2009-12-01

    Superficial sediments and settling material collected in Buenos Aires coastal area were analyzed to evaluate the accumulation and sources of trace metals. Residual elements showed homogeneous sedimentary concentrations (Fe: 23,846 +/- 4,367; Ni: 10 +/- 2.7; Mn: 706 +/- 314 μg g(-1)) whereas anthropogenic metals presented exponentially decreasing offshore gradients (Zn: 98 +/- 69; Cr: 28 +/- 21; Cu: 19 +/- 15; Pb: 18 +/- 13 μg g(-1)). Anthropogenic impact was evaluated through metal-Fe relationships, Fe-normalized enrichment factors and sediment quality guidelines. The slopes of metal-Fe regressions from background sites were comparable to upper crust metal ratios, excepted Cr which is impoverished, and Mn which is diagenetically enriched. Metal-Fe relationships also hold for most 2.5 km offshore sites but with higher slopes denoting human influence, and are completely lost in 1-2.5 km sediments and trap material which plot over the regressions and exceed sediment quality guidelines.

  16. Trace metals accumulation patterns in a mangrove lagoon ecosystem, Mazatlan Harbor, southeast Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Marini, M E; Soto-Jimenez, M F; Paez-Osuna, F

    2008-07-15

    Water, surface sediments, the mussel Mytella strigata, the mangrove oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, and the green macroalgae Caulerpa sertularioides from four locations in Mazatlan Harbor on the southeast coast of the Gulf of California, were analyzed to determine concentrations and distribution patterns of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc. Total metal concentrations in water in the present study exceed the background levels in open sea and coastal waters. Total metal concentrations in sediments were ordered as follows: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg, but for the bioavailable fraction were ordered as Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. The concentrations in bioavailable levels fall between the Threshold Effects Level (TEL), and Probable Effects Level (PEL), criteria for sediment quality. Distribution patterns for metals in organisms were ordered Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg with seasonal variations for Pb and Zn. Correlations between Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were indicative of similar assimilation and storage mechanisms and common sources of contamination. These correlations also indicated that bioavailability was not simultaneous for Cd and Pb. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) show different patterns in different organisms. For the oyster the metals were ordered Zn > Cu > Cd approximately Hg > Pb, for the mussel Hg > Cu approximately Zn approximately Cd > Pb and for the macroalgae Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. Based on BCF results in the lagoon system, the oyster C cortezienzes can be used as a biomonitor of Zn and Cu exposure, the mussel M. strigata of Hg exposure and the green macroalgae C. serticularioides of exposure to all five metals studied.

  17. An historical assessment of trace metal accumulation in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Lake Champlain watershed, with its increased land use, shoreline development, and population, is being threatened by pollutants in the water column and bottom sediments. A comprehensive study is currently being conducted to characterize the bottom sediments of the lake for toxicity and to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs. Surface sediment samples were collected from 30 stations and analyzed for metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, and Ag) concentrations to determine the contaminated regions of the lake. Once the contaminated regions were determined, a Nemesis corer was used to retrieve sediments cores averaging 1 meter in length from 10 sites within Lake Champlain. Grain size and metal analyses were conducted at one and two cm intervals down the cores. Grain size data, in combination with metal and radiometric stratigraphy, can serve as an indicator of changing land use in the watershed. The grain size in some cores has a fining upward trend indicating increased land use and soil erosion. Downcore variations in metal concentrations reveal two different regimes. The concentration at depth remain consistently low and are inferred to correspond with the natural background levels. In contrast, the upper section of the cores show abrupt increases in metal concentrations which are attributed to increased anthropogenic inputs. Radiometric ( 210 and 137 Cs) and pollen chronostratigraphy of these cores indicates that the increased metal concentrations and the changes in grain size recorded in the upper most sediments is related to increased human disturbance beginning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This study demonstrates that the historical record of pollution inputs to Lake Champlain can be reconstructed from the sediment sequences

  18. Bio-accumulation of some trace metals in the short-neck clam Paphia malabarica from Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KrishnaKumari, L.; Kaisary, S.; Rodrigues, V.

    difference was not observed in the accumulation of metals in the whole soft tissue between the two size groups. Irrespective of size, annual mean, metal content recorded as mu g/g dry weight in the whole soft tissue was 3.8, 30.3, 13.5, 36.6 and 105...

  19. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  20. Evaluation of Trace Element and Metal Accumulation and Edibility Risk Associated with Consumption of Labeo umbratus from the Vaal Dam, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Beric M; Hussain, Ebrahim; Jirsa, Franz; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2017-06-23

    With the occurrence of recreational and small scale subsistence fishing activities at the Vaal Dam, South Africa, consumption of fish from this dam may result in health risks associated with trace elements and metals. The Vaal Dam is one of the largest dams in South Africa, located between the Gauteng Province and Orange Free State, and supplies water to approximately 11.6 million people. A total of 38 specimens of the benthic cyprinid fish Labeo umbratus were collected from the Vaal Dam during two surveys, in 2011 and 2016. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, gill and spinal cord were analysed, along with sediment samples collected during the same surveys. Thirteen trace elements were analysed in the samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. This is the first survey on trace element and Hg accumulation in this fish species from the Vaal Dam and target hazard quotients (THQ) indicated that there is a risk for consumers of fish for As and Hg (THQ = 1.43 and 1.14 respectively). Although levels of trace elements in this impoundment have shown little change for a number of years and are lower than global background levels, studies detailing the accumulation of metals by fish inhabiting the Vaal Dam have indicated that trace elements in muscle tissue are above food safety guidelines. Trace element levels in L. umbratus are lower compared to other species inhabiting the Vaal Dam and further indicate that risks for consumers can be decreased if humans relying on fish from the Vaal Dam preferentially consume this species over others.

  1. Accumulation of sediment, organic matter and trace metals with space and time, in a creek along Mumbai coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L; Nayak, G.N.; Ilangovan, D.; Borole, D.V.

    . Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 414. Breckela, E.J., Emersona, S., Balistrieri, L.S., 2005. Authigenesis of trace metals in energetic tropical shelf environments. Continental Shelf Research 25 (11), 1321e1337. Buckley, D.E., Smith, J.N., Winters, G.V., 1995....063 mm) and sand (>0.063 mm) fractions using standard sieve and pipette technique (Folk,1974), after destruction of organic matter with 30% L. Fernandes et al. / Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 91 (2011) 388e399 389 dominant mangrove species. Because...

  2. The impact of urban expansion and agricultural legacies on trace metal accumulation in fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, T M; Odhiambo, B K; Giancarlo, L C

    2016-10-15

    The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies. Eight (210)Pb and (137)Cs dated sediment cores and seventy two sediment grab samples were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of Al, Ca, Mg, Cr, Cd, As, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the waterways of the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay basin. The sediment cores for trace metal historical fluctuation analysis were obtained in lower fluvial-estuarine environments and reservoirs in the upper reaches of the basin. The trace metal profiles revealed high basal enrichment factors (EF) of between 0.05 and 40.24, which are interpreted to represent early nineteenth century agricultural activity and primary resource extraction. Surficial enrichment factors on both cores and surface grab samples ranged from 0.01 (Cu) to 1421 (Cd), with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd enrichments a plausible consequence of modern urban expansion and industrial development along major transportation corridors. Contemporary surficial enrichments of As, Se, and Cr also ranged between 0 and 137, with the higher values likely influenced by lithological and atmospheric sources. Pearson correlation analyses suggest mining and agricultural legacies, coupled with aerosol deposition, are responsible for high metal concentrations in western lakes and headwater reaches of fluvial systems, while metal accumulation in estuarine reaches of the major rivers can be attributed to urban effluence and the remobilization of legacy sediments. Copyright © 2016

  3. Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, M; Urban, B; Velmurugan, P M; Srinivasalu, S

    2010-11-01

    The article presents the results for enrichment of total trace metals (TTMs) from Pallikaranai salt marsh in South Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. TTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Sr, V, and Hg along with sediment texture, OC, and CaCO3 were analyzed in 36 surface sediments collected during August 2008 to recognize and observe the input of TTMs in the marsh from various sources in the city limits. In view of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Chennai City, especially on the southern side, uncontrolled input of sewage, garbage, and industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai marsh land, the elevated concentrations are not surprising. The level of enrichment of TTMs has also increased by 20% to 60% for most of the elements when compared with all other ecosystems in the world as well as the nearby area. The results also indicate that the marshy region is more heavily contaminated with Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn than other regions on the southeast coast of India. The Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, and I (geo) indexes are calculated, and these values are useful to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The spatial distributions of TTMs are also controlled by other factors like geochemical, precipitation, and flocculation of particulate substances in the marsh. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring and management program which will help to improve the quality of Pallikaranai pristine marsh land.

  4. The impact of urban expansion and agricultural legacies on trace metal accumulation in fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coxon, T.M.; Odhiambo, B.K.; Giancarlo, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies. Eight 210 Pb and 137 Cs dated sediment cores and seventy two sediment grab samples were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of Al, Ca, Mg, Cr, Cd, As, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the waterways of the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay basin. The sediment cores for trace metal historical fluctuation analysis were obtained in lower fluvial-estuarine environments and reservoirs in the upper reaches of the basin. The trace metal profiles revealed high basal enrichment factors (EF) of between 0.05 and 40.24, which are interpreted to represent early nineteenth century agricultural activity and primary resource extraction. Surficial enrichment factors on both cores and surface grab samples ranged from 0.01 (Cu) to 1421 (Cd), with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd enrichments a plausible consequence of modern urban expansion and industrial development along major transportation corridors. Contemporary surficial enrichments of As, Se, and Cr also ranged between 0 and 137, with the higher values likely influenced by lithological and atmospheric sources. Pearson correlation analyses suggest mining and agricultural legacies, coupled with aerosol deposition, are responsible for high metal concentrations in western lakes and headwater reaches of fluvial systems, while metal accumulation in estuarine reaches of the major rivers can be attributed to urban effluence and the remobilization of legacy sediments. - Highlights:

  5. The impact of urban expansion and agricultural legacies on trace metal accumulation in fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coxon, T.M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue Fredericksburg, Virginia 22401 (United States); Odhiambo, B.K., E-mail: bkisila@umw.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue Fredericksburg, Virginia 22401 (United States); Giancarlo, L.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA 22401 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The progressively declining ecological condition of the Chesapeake Bay is attributed to the influx of contaminants associated with sediment loads supplied by its largest tributaries. The continued urban expansion in the suburbs of Virginia cities, modern agricultural activities in the Shenandoah Valley, the anthropogenic and climate driven changes in fluvial system hydrodynamics and their potential associated impacts on trace metals enrichment in the bay's tributaries necessitate constant environmental monitoring of these important water bodies. Eight {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs dated sediment cores and seventy two sediment grab samples were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of Al, Ca, Mg, Cr, Cd, As, Se, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the waterways of the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay basin. The sediment cores for trace metal historical fluctuation analysis were obtained in lower fluvial-estuarine environments and reservoirs in the upper reaches of the basin. The trace metal profiles revealed high basal enrichment factors (EF) of between 0.05 and 40.24, which are interpreted to represent early nineteenth century agricultural activity and primary resource extraction. Surficial enrichment factors on both cores and surface grab samples ranged from 0.01 (Cu) to 1421 (Cd), with Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd enrichments a plausible consequence of modern urban expansion and industrial development along major transportation corridors. Contemporary surficial enrichments of As, Se, and Cr also ranged between 0 and 137, with the higher values likely influenced by lithological and atmospheric sources. Pearson correlation analyses suggest mining and agricultural legacies, coupled with aerosol deposition, are responsible for high metal concentrations in western lakes and headwater reaches of fluvial systems, while metal accumulation in estuarine reaches of the major rivers can be attributed to urban effluence and the remobilization of legacy sediments

  6. Translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the tomato and topinambur plants in a contaminated area of South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Stefania; Bartoli, Giovanni; Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Zornoza, Raúl; Carillo, Petronia; Fioretto, Antonietta

    2017-04-01

    According to a survey of the Italian Environmental Monitoring Agency (ARPA), there are different critical sites in Campania region (South Italy) (e.i. legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets). Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006; Liu et al 2012; Chang et al 2014; Wong et al 2002). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food are very important with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sampled in the coast area of Castel Volturno (Campania region, South Italy). This area is one of the critical sites according to a survey of the Environmental Monitoring Agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant. The results showed that the trace metals concentration determinated in different organs of each species studied were more present in the roots than the other plant's parts, suggesting a probable block at root level. The only exception were Cu and Hg in tomato and topinambur plants respectively, that were mainly present in the leaves. The metals block at the root induced no alteration of MDA. However, the correlation between this activity and Cd, Pb, V and Hg seemed to attest to a possible synergy. Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation Reference -Kachenko AG, Singh B, 2006 Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Urban and Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Australia. Water

  7. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  8. Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI and Geo-accumulation Index Igeo Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mgkg and 0.330 mgkg while the mean iron was highest 5.05 mgkg in station 4 and lowest 2.26 mgkg in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mgkg station 1 and 2 to 0.021 mgkg station 3 and 4. The mean copper was highest 3.97 mgkg in station 1 and lowest 0.008 mgkg in station 2. Analysis of variance ANOVA revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference P 0.05 in lead chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference P0.05 in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class 0 in all the five sampling stations indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments lead fall in class 3 in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class 0in station 1 2 3 and 5 and copper fall in class 3 in station 4 and 5 in class 6 in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluentswastes into River. Therefore perpetual assessment is highly recommended

  9. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of trace metals in sediment can cause severe ecological impacts. In this study, determination of elemental concentrations in water and sediment was done. Shadegan wetland is one of the most important wetlands in southwest of Iran and is among the Ramsar-listed wetlands. Wastewaters from industries ...

  10. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bonnail-Miguel, E. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, 11,510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity.

  11. Accumulation of sediment, organic matter and trace metals with space and time, in a creek along Mumbai coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lina; Nayak, G. N.; Ilangovan, D.; Borole, D. V.

    2011-02-01

    Two core sediment samples; one from inner part (ManI) and the other closer to the mouth (ManII); were collected from the intertidal regions of Manori, a tidally influenced creek near Mumbai, India. Both the cores were subjected to various geochemical analyses to determine parameters such as pH, sediment components, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and selected metals viz., Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr, Al, Ca and V. Analysis of 210Pb activity was employed to assess the sediment deposition trend of the area. The data was further processed using factor and cluster analyses. The results indicate that the sediments from site ManI, had finer sediment composition, higher porosity, organic matter and metal contents but exhibited an erratic decline in 210Pb activity downcore. Also ManI showed higher C:N ratio and enrichment factor values as compared to site ManII. The inner area (ManI) probably received a greater input of organic matter from the erosion of terrestrial matter as well as domestic and industrial discharge. Sediments from site ManII had typical marine organic matter composition (lower C:N ratio). The concentration of metals at this site was also low indicating the contents were getting diluted by freshwater and seawater mixing.

  12. Determination of water quality, and trace metals in endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICP-MS and ICP-OES analyses of trace metals based on total concentration of unfiltered lake water samples showed the presence of trace metals. All fish species accumulated Al, Mn and Sr in the highest concentrations in their gills, with Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb and U highest in the liver. Pungu maclareni accumulated Al, Cr, Co, ...

  13. Social paper wasps as bioindicators: a preliminary research with Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera Vespidae) as a trace metal accumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbini, A; Sparvoli, E; Turillazzi, S

    2006-07-01

    The wasps of the genus Polistes (paper wasps), have a worldwide distribution and are widespread in human-built areas. Like other social wasps, they are at the top of food chains and are therefore exposed to the dangers of biomagnification, given that the larvae are fed predominantly with prey that consist of herbivorous insects. The larval faeces, larval fecal masses, in the form of a semi-solid ball, are made up of the residues of the diet of the larva, which are emitted and compressed on the floor of the cell during the larval metamorphosis. Larval fecal masses may accumulate lead (up to 36 times with respect to the adult body), therefore they were used as substrate for the analysis. From the analysis of sample nests of Polistes dominulus in various sites of the urban area of Florence, it emerges that the larval fecal masses are an analytical substrate with which it is possible to distinguish zones with differing degrees of lead pollution. The lead concentration measured in the larval fecal masses turns out to be directly correlated with vehicle traffic density, the main lead source in Florence when the survey was carried out. The notable increase in the lead concentration of larval fecal masses from the rural to the urban nest (11.15 times), in contrast with the much more limited level of pupae (4.39 times), seems to indicate the efficiency of the excretion and/or barrier mechanisms. These wasps seem to be a promising species for biomonitoring lead pollution in order to better understand its dynamics in anthropic ecosystems after the progressive diffusion of unleaded gasoline.

  14. Effects of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystal (nC60) on copper (trace necessary nutrient metal): Enhanced toxicity and accumulation of copper in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xianji; He, Yiliang; Fortner, John D; Chen, Yongsheng; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-08-01

    Our focus herein is to evaluate the potential interaction between nC60 and copper, a trace necessary metal, in light of the impact on toxicity. The non-observable effects concentration (NOEC) of nC60 was confirmed as 100μgL(-1) before. When Daphnia magna was exposed to the mixture of copper solution and nC60 suspension (100μgL(-1)), LC50 of 48h was lower than that when they were exposed to copper solution alone. This result clearly showed the decrease in NOEC of copper at the presence of nC60. Cu(2+)-ATPase activity was enhanced at the presence of nC60, indicating that copper transport involved with the uptake, distribution and depuration in body was increased. We further conducted experiments on accumulation of copper in D. magna. The observed equilibrium copper concentration in D. magna in the mixture of 100μgL(-1) nC60 and 1μgL(-1) copper solution reached 131μg (kg wet weight)(-1), which was more than twice that in copper solution only: 60μg (kg wet weight)(-1). This result demonstrated that the accumulation of copper in D. magna was significantly enhanced at the presence of even low nC60 concentration. Experiments also showed that copper was quickly adsorbed onto nC60. The absorption of copper onto D. magna was statistically correlated to the absorption of nC60 onto D. magna; this might be caused by nC60 facilitating the transfer of copper into D. magna. The absorption and desorption of copper to nC60 (pH=5.0) reached equilibrium quickly, which may be involved with the co-bioaccumulation and decrease in NOEC of Cu(2+) and nC60. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulations and sources of uranium, of its daughters and of metallic trace elements in wetlands located around old uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuvier, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Uranium mining and uranium ore processing increase the environmental activity of U and Th decay products and trace elements, in particular in case of releases to the adjacent rivers. Contaminants accumulate then preferentially in sedimentation areas (such as ponds or lakes) or in wetlands (peat lands, marshes or riverbanks) located downstream to the mine. Wetlands - generally located at the head of watershed - are particularly sensitive to environmental changes and anthropogenic pressure. This poses a risk of release of contaminants from these accumulation areas. The objective of the present study is to propose an easily reproducible methodology - in particular for the orphan mining sites - to identify and characterize accumulation areas. This study also aims to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation and release, in these areas. This study was performed around the former mining site of Bertholene (France). Standing and mobile in situ gamma spectrometry is used to accurately locate the accumulation areas. Soils, sediments, vegetation, water and peat are also sampled upstream and downstream of the mine, in order to (a) characterize the activities and the disequilibria of the U-Th decay chains and the associated trace elements according to the scale of observation, (b) understand the mechanisms of accumulation and release and (c) identify the potential sources using geochemical proxies and isotopic analyses. The results obtained show that radionuclides are mainly accumulated in a flooding area located downstream the mine. Strong U-238 activities (≥ 20000 Bq.kg -1 ) and strong Ra-226/U-238 and Th-230/Ra-226 activity ratios are recorded, involving preferential inputs of U-238 and Th-230 during flooding events. Trace element contamination is low, except for Mn, Ba and S. Such contaminations are potentially explained by the geochemical composition of the uranium ore and by the past and current processes of ore and water mine. Sequential extractions

  16. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  17. Trace metal speciation: Finally, correctly addressing trace metal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donard, O.F.X.

    2001-01-01

    The history of the development of trace metal speciation was discussed and the reasons behind the relatively slow widespread acceptance of its importance were presented. Partially, this was due to the lack of availability of commercial instrumentation and partly to the drive towards improving sensitivity in analytical chemistry which had focused attention on total concentration determinations. The sophistication and control of analytical instrumentation is now such that the spotlight must be turned onto the chemical species of an element present in a sample since this is what governs its behaviour in the biosphere. Indeed, several companies are currently considering the introduction of instrumentation specifically designed for metal species determination

  18. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction.

  19. Uptake, accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radioisotopes by marine organisms in the Izmir area. Part of a coordinated programme on the fate and significance of foreign substances in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.

    1976-12-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the concentrations of trace metals such as copper, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, cobalt, chromium, mercury and cadmium in marine organisms particularly Tapes decussatus in different localities in Izmir Bay. The results demonstrate the marine coastal pollution problems in a developing country where industrialisation has overtaken traditional fisheries. Metals are taken directly from solution in sea water or through feed chains or by absorption through the gills. In Izmir Bay there were found unusually high concentration of toxic elements in edible shellfish (Tapes decussatus) - maximum values in ug/g on a dry weight basis: Fe - 353, Zn - 211, Pb - 21, Mn - 13, Co - 10, Cu - 7, Hg - 20 (wct weight). The concentration of metals in the animals of Cakalburnu was lower than that of Deniz Bostanli and Tuzla. The concentration of copper, manganese, lead and zinc were lower in winter than in other seasons. Considerable seasonal differences are probably the results of changes in environmental temperature and productivity. A decrease in size of the animals tends to be associated with the higher mean concentration of manganese, zinc, lead and cobalt. Copper was found to accumulate mostly in digestive glands, gills and palps; manganese in gills and palps, body fluids and digestive glands; zinc in body fluids, digestive glands, gills and palps; iron in digestive glands gills and palps; lead in body fluids, shells, muscles, gills and palps; cobalt in shells and body fluids; mercury in digestive glands, gills, palps and muscles

  20. Concentrations of trace metals (lead, iron, copper and zinc) in crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of trace metals (lead, iron, copper and zinc) in crops harvested in some oil prospecting locations in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... These findings give cause for concern, particularly as heavy metals are bio-accumulative in the system and portend a serious health risk to man and animals. Key Words: Trace metals, ...

  1. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, David X.; Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: → We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. → Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. → Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. → Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. → The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  2. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, David X., E-mail: david.soto@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain); Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: > We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. > Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. > Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. > Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. > The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  3. (17) ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    . *Adelasoye, K. A. ... cassava leaf and assessed the effects of the metals on microbial populations along Ogbomoso-‐Oyo, high traffic density (HTD) (A) and Ogbomoso-‐Ife ..... Kumar (2014). Leaves of higher plants as indicators of heavy metal.

  4. Trace metal physiology in normal and pathological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the ionic tumour seeking radiopharmaceuticals consist of a metal ion combined with an anion. The choice of metal depends on the existence of radionuclides with suitable radiological properties, and on their availability. Because several of the metal complexes used in nuclear medicine are of rather recent interest, information about their metabolism is scarce. Although nuclear medicine is limited to those metals which radiochemists can produce, we can manipulate the chemical form in which the metals are introduced into the organism to some extent. The relation between chemical form and biological pathway, e.g., the extent of accumulation in certain tissues, is subject of study related to trace metal physiology. It is the purpose of this paper to try and bridge the gap between nuclear medicine and trace metal physiology by showing the progress made by the latter in the study of the metabolism of copper and zinc. Few trace metals have been studied as thoroughly as these, although iron could have been chosen just as well. This presentation is limited to a study of the fate of a metal derivative after its intravenous injection. Where possible the results obtained are related to the behaviour of metals presently of interest to nuclear medicine. (Auth.)

  5. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  6. Trace element accumulation and human health risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... The risk assessment performed on the muscle tissue revealed that As and Se had total hazard quotient (THQ) values greater than one, and that the levels of As and Se were above the safety threshold values for human consumption. Keywords: Vaal Dam, Labeo capensis, trace element accumulation, ...

  7. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation matrix analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the kitchen, living room and outdoor sites, suggesting identical sources of the trace metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified two fundamental sources of the metals, whichwas further confirmed by the hierarchical cluster analysis.

  8. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  9. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  10. Bioavailability of metals-trace in sediments: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rafaela E. de A.V.; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Lima, Vanessa Lemos de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao

    2014-01-01

    The chemical association of metals in sediments provides an indication of its release by physical, chemical and biological processes, with toxic effects under certain environmental conditions. Knowing about their chemical bonds in sediments, can recognize specific sources of pollution, and speciation of trace metals is important for bioavailability and toxicity to animals and plants. The accumulation of these particles in the sediment occur by the following mechanisms: a) adsorption to the finest particles; b) precipitating of the element in the form of compounds; c) co-precipitating of the element with iron and manganese oxides; d) complexation with organic matter; e) incorporation into the crystal lattice of minerals. Currently, five phases are considered when studying the bioavailability of trace elements in sediments: a) the exchangeable phase, MgCl 2 (causes saltiness change); b) leachable phase, (acetic acid causes pH change); c) reducible phase (hydroxylamine hydrochloride causes release of the bound metals linked to Fe and Mn oxides); d) oxidized phase, the peroxide hydrogen (cause the degradation of organic matter); e) the residual pseudo-phase, the aqua regia (cause release of metals associated to minerals). The first three phases are considered the most bioavailable. In the last two fractions, the metals are linked to sediment constituents and not bioavailable. The organic phase is relatively stable and the metal present therein are removed under oxidative conditions. Metals present in the pseudo-phase residual measure the degree of environmental pollution, since great amount of metals at this stage indicates a lower degree of pollution

  11. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  12. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  13. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  14. Trace Metals Bioaccumulation Potentials of Three Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...

  15. Photometric determination of traces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter

  16. Regulating cellular trace metal economy in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2017-10-01

    As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell. In this review, we focus on recent progress made toward understanding the pathways by which the single-celled, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii controls its cellular trace metal economy. We also compare these mechanisms to characterized and putative processes in other algal lineages. Photosynthetic microbes continue to provide insight into cellular regulation and handling of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn as a function of the nutritional supply and cellular demand for metal cofactors. New experimental tools such as RNA-Seq and subcellular metal imaging are bringing us closer to a molecular understanding of acclimation to supply dynamics in algae and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  18. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  19. Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. Carrillo [Soil Chemistry, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crogelio@colpos.mx; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.A. [Soil Microbiology, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx

    2006-11-15

    Four sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted soil developed on tailings from Ag, Au, and Zn mines at the Zacatecas state in Mexico. Trace element concentrations varied between sites, the most polluted area was at El Bote mine near to Zacatecas city. The ranges of total concentration in soil were as follows: Cd 11-47, Ni 19-26, Pb 232-695, Mn 1132-2400, Cu 134-186 and Zn 116-827 mg kg{sup -1} air-dried soil weight. All soil samples had concentrations above typical values for non-polluted soils from the same soil types (Cd 0.6 {+-} 0.3, Ni 52 {+-} 4, Pb 41 {+-} 3 mg kg{sup -1}). However, for the majority of samples the DTPA-extractable element concentrations were less than 10% of the total. Some of the wild plants are potentially metal tolerant, because they were able to grow in highly polluted substrates. Plant metal analysis revealed that most species did not translocate metals to their aerial parts, therefore they behave as excluder plants. Polygonum aviculare accumulated Zn (9236 mg kg{sup -1}) at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants. Jatropha dioica also accumulated high Zn (6249 mg kg{sup -1}) concentrations. - Polygonum aviculare and Jatropha dioica accumulated Zn at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants.

  20. Metal traces in paper and paper products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, G.

    1986-01-01

    In the following a survey is given on the problems of detection and occurrence of heavy metals in packaging materials. A method of sample preparation procedure and AAS measurement is presented which allows the direct detection of metals such as cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury. The method was tested with standard reference materials and checked in Round Robin tests. More than 150 paper samples which are used in food packaging were analysed with regard to their heavy metal content. In case of heavy metal traces, the values were compared with literature data. In order to evaluate the influence of heavy metals in packaging materials it is necessary to determine the soluble part of the total amount of these metals in the packaging material, which also can be done by means of our method. A comparison of metal contents of selected foodstuffs with paper samples analysed by us showed that the consumer will not suffer an additional burdening by migration of heavy metals from packaging materials into foodstuffs.

  1. Sediments of the Lagoa Olho D'Agua: geochronology and accumulation of trace metals; Sedimentos da Lagoa Olho D'Agua: geocronologia e acumulacao de metais-tracos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorato, Eliane Valentim

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of the environmental impact of anthropic activities in the Lagoa Olho D'Agua, located in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County, Brazil, was carried out by assessing the vertical distribution of some trace metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, U, Zn and Zr) in dated sediment samples. Sediment cores were collected from thirteen locations at the northern, central and southern sections of the lagoon. The metal content in the samples was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Its organic carbon content was also determined and used to characterize the environment as, either oxic or anoxic environments can bias the trace element content of sediment samples. The influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics in the sedimentation process was also studied. The results obtained for the geochronology of sediments showed a pronounced increase in sedimentation rates in the period of 1970 - 1980 and 1980 - 1990 in the sampling stations ST-09, ST-10, ST-11, ST-12 e ST-13 (ca.480% in the 80's to 90's ) compared to ca. 90% increase observed in other sampling stations. This increase can be associated to the demographic growth of ca. 500% that occurred in Jaboatao dos Guararapes County in the 80's to 90's predominantly along the shoreline. The geochemistry analyses of sediment samples, on the other hand, showed that the severe degradation process the occurred in the lagoon in the last 30 years was caused by the release of pollutants from industrial facilities as well as by the discharge of untreated domestic sewage. These domestic sewage favorable the increase of the concentration of organic material in the lagoon, accentuating the adsorption process of the metals on the sediments, mainly Fe and Zr in the suspense particles. The accentuated increase observed in both Fe and Zr concentrations is compatible with period of built industries basic steel works foundries and painting, indicating the anthropogenic origin these metals. (author)

  2. Spatial distribution of trace metals in water resources impacted by PGM activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the aquatic environment from natural and anthropogenic sources (such as industrial effluents and mining wastes). Trace metals can accumulate in fish (which are often at the top of the aquatic food chain) either through water or the food chain (1), and metals...

  3. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  4. Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R Carrillo; González-Chávez, M C A

    2006-11-01

    Four sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted soil developed on tailings from Ag, Au, and Zn mines at the Zacatecas state in Mexico. Trace element concentrations varied between sites, the most polluted area was at El Bote mine near to Zacatecas city. The ranges of total concentration in soil were as follows: Cd 11-47, Ni 19-26, Pb 232-695, Mn 1132-2400, Cu 134-186 and Zn 116-827 mg kg(-1) air-dried soil weight. All soil samples had concentrations above typical values for non-polluted soils from the same soil types (Cd 0.6+/-0.3, Ni 52+/-4, Pb 41+/-3mg kg(-1)). However, for the majority of samples the DTPA-extractable element concentrations were less than 10% of the total. Some of the wild plants are potentially metal tolerant, because they were able to grow in highly polluted substrates. Plant metal analysis revealed that most species did not translocate metals to their aerial parts, therefore they behave as excluder plants. Polygonum aviculare accumulated Zn (9236 mg kg(-1)) at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants. Jatropha dioica also accumulated high Zn (6249 mg kg(-1)) concentrations.

  5. Vacuolar accumulation of heavy metals in Datura cultured cells is metal concentration dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotz, R.M.; Wagner, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vacuolar-extravacuolar compartmentation studies were performed to determine if the vacuole serves as an accumulation site for Cd, Zn, and Ni, after growth of Datura cultured cells in trace and high levels of these metals. After 3 to 4 days growth with 0.12 μM Cd or 0.02 μM Ni (radiolabeled) no evidence was obtained for vacuolar accumulation of these metals. In contrast, growth with 30 or 45 μM Cd, 11 μM Ni (with or without trace radiolabel), or 300 and 500 μM Zn resulted in isolated vacuoles which were enriched in metal. Compartmentation after exposure to low levels of Zn and also Cu is being investigated as is the subcellular site(s) of Cd-binding peptide formed during growth in high Cd. The hypothesis that Zn is accumulated as vacuolar organic acid salts is being tested directly because no evidence was found for formation of substantial ligand of Cd-peptide in response to Zn exposure

  6. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. E-mail: msmasri@aec.org.sy; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y

    2003-07-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) for {sup 210}Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate {sup 210}Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br.

  7. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  8. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements

  9. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P

    2003-03-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements.

  10. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  12. Carbohydrate Reserves And Metal Accumulation Of The Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the carbohydrate reserves and metal accumulation of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after exposure to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals such as copper, lead and zinc for a 12-week period, using static renewable toxicity tests. The concentrations of the metals accumulated in the tissue ...

  13. Specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Anan, Yasumi; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Okabe, Yuko; Kim, Eun-Young; Subramanian, Annamalai; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    This study is to elucidate the specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in tissues/organs of great cormorants from two different colonies (Lake Biwa and Mie) in Japan. In the body distribution of trace elements, some elements revealed tissue-specific accumulation such as most of the burden of Mo, Ag and Cd in liver, Tl and Cd in kidney, Cu, Rb and Cs in muscle, and V, Sr and Ba in bone. Gender-related variation was not observed in both populations for most of the trace elements, except for higher hepatic Sr in males from Lake Biwa. Hepatic V, muscular Hg and Tl, and Cd in liver, kidney and muscle increased with growth. Comparison of trace element levels in tissues between the two colonies showed that Cr, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba and Tl levels were higher in Lake Biwa than in Mie, whereas Zn, Co and Hg in Mie samples were greater than Lake Biwa. Variations of elemental levels in stomach contents also showed similar patterns, thus, showing that dietary sources tended to be the main factor for these regional variations. Toxic Hg and Cd concentrations in the liver of cormorants from the two colonies were lower than those from other areas, implying relatively low exposure to these metals in the present study sites. Concentrations of V, Co, Ag, Cd, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in liver remained more or less at the same level between 1993 and 2003, while hepatic Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Ba showed apparent decrease, which might be related to the biological factors. - Dietary sources seemed to be the main reason for variable results

  14. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ

  15. Use and abuse of trace metal concentrations in plant tissue for biomonitoring and phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Jan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Verheyen, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Some plant species accumulate trace metals from the soil in their aboveground biomass. Therefore, some scientists have concluded that these species are suitable for biomonitoring trace metal concentrations in the soil or for removing excessive trace metals from the soil by means of phytoextraction. A significant correlation between the chemical composition of foliage and soil is not a sufficient condition for using the chemical composition of foliage as a biomonitor for the quality of the soil. The chemical composition of foliage can, however, provide additional information to the traditional soil samples. The phytoextraction potential of a plant species cannot solely be evaluated on the basis of the trace metal concentrations in the plant and soil tissue. Data on the depth of the rooting zone, the density of the soil and the harvestable biomass should also be taken into account. Although plant tissue analysis is a useful tool in a wide range of studies and applications, trace metal concentrations in plant tissue cannot be viewed in isolation. Instead it should be analysed and interpreted in relation to other information such as soil concentrations, rooted zone, biomass production, etc. - Plants that accumulate soil metals in their aboveground biomass are often incorrectly considered to be suitable for monitoring soil pollution or for phytoextraction purposes

  16. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  17. CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF TRACE METALS IN FISH AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of six trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd) in fish and sediment samples from Kubanni River located in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, were investigated. The river receives agricultural runoff and municipal wastewaters, and is utilized for drinking, fishing and irrigation. Fractionation of trace metals in the river ...

  18. Determination of trace heavy metals in some textile products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace heavy metals in textile samples collected from Tokat, Turkey, were determined by flame and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The relative standard deviations for the determinations were found to be lower than 10 %. The concentrations of trace metals ...

  19. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been several reports on the role of macronutrients in the pathogenesis of high blood pressure (HBP), however, reports on the relationship between micronutrients and trace metals are few, especially in blacks. This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of ...

  20. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. A survey was conducted on the levels of trace metals (Ni, Cu, Hg, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mg and Ca) in ground and surface water sources from the northern parts of the Ashanti gold belt. Water samples were collected from 67 boreholes, 24 wells, and 10 streams during dry and wet seasons for trace metal analyses ...

  1. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    preferentially accumulated by the polychaete, making it a useful biomonitor of sedimentary metal exposure. - Highlights: • A positive relationship was found between HCl and pyrite trace metal concentrations • Incorporation of trace metals into pyrite is a function of their solubility product • Every year 98 metric tons of Fe are precipitated as pyrite in Ensenada Harbor • Dredging operations can export as much as (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} metric tons of Cu • Trace metals in Armandia brevis correlated with sedimentary reactive trace metals.

  2. Detection of trace metal in distilled alcoholic drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Suw-Young; Yoo, Hai-Soo; Chun, Seung-Kyu

    2013-04-15

    The presence of trace metal cadmium assay was investigated with a copper immobilized on a graphite carbon electrode (GPC), the modified property of which was determined with handheld voltammetric systems. Following the determination of the analytical stripping conditions of 0.45 V amplitude, 30 Hz frequency, -1.4 V initial potential, and 4.0 mV increment potential, only a 60-s experimental accumulation time was used. Using these conditions, the analytical detection limit approached the nano range. At this condition, the analytical application was performed on distilled alcoholic drinks for food manufacturing systems. This developed technique is faster and less costly than the common voltammetric and spectrophotometric methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of essential trace minerals on the absorption of heavy metals with special reference to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Herman Sunil; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2003-07-01

    Heavy metals are important toxicants known to exert adverse effects in humans and animals, given sufficient exposure and accumulation in the body. This has a great concern both at personal and public health risk. Heavy metals are also known to interact with the essential trace minerals at the level of absorption and also during the metabolism. The adverse effects of the absorbed and accumulated heavy metals include neurological, reproductive, renal and hematological systems. Children are more sensitive than adults to the effects of lead. Efforts are made to understand the mechanism of the interactions of heavy metals with essential trace minerals at the level of absorption. With available sensitive and specific methodologies like Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for the evaluation of the levels of toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury etc., better understanding of heavy metal absorption is made possible.Due to the poor nutritional standards, risk of heavy metal exposure is still a major concern in developing countries. Studies carried out by the author have provided evidence towards the understanding of the prevailing mechanisms of metal-metal interaction at the intestinal level. During growth and development the demand for the essential minerals being at higher level, differentiation of various essential metals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, it is preventable not only with environmental intervention but also by the nutritional management.

  4. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    OpenAIRE

    Irene B. Rodriguez; Tung-Yuan Ho; Tung-Yuan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and...

  5. Trace metals in the open oceans:speciation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Stockdale, Anthony; Tipping, Edward; Hamilton-Taylor, John; Lofts, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The speciation of trace metals in the oceans is typically explained by invoking the concept of metal binding to specific organic ligands, but a lack of detailed knowledge about the ligands has impeded the formulation of comprehensive models to predict speciation chemistry. The aim of our study was to shed further light on the possible role of humic-type ligands in trace metal complexation in the oceans by comparing published seawater (open ocean) speciation measurements with predictions obtai...

  6. Influence of the heron colony on heavy metals accumulation in soil of Dniprovsko-Orilsky nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vovk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the settlements of heron on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. The author considers accumulation of trace elements in different soil horizons. The reasons of the prohibitions has been rate.

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  8. Analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes belonging to four different countries. In the present research seven trace elements have been determined spectrophotometrically by the use of suitable analytical reagent of the respective metal ions. The metals which has been analysed quantitatively in forty one brand of cigarettes are aluminium, copper, chromium, nickel, iron titanium and zinc. The concentration per cigarette of these metals are in tolerable range. The concentration of above mentioned metal ions is highest in Pakistani cigarettes tobacco while the concentration of nickel is highest in American cigarettes. (author) 221 refs

  9. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijver, Martina G.; Vink, Jos P.M.; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  10. Trace elements in Mediterranean seagrasses: Accumulation, tolerance and biomonitoring. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the state of the art on trace elements in Mediterranean seagrasses, and their close environment (seawater and sediment). The analyzed species were Posidonia oceanica, Cymodocea nodosa, Halophila stipulacea, Zostera marina and Zostera noltei. All these species showed high tolerance to pollution and high capacity of accumulation of trace elements. Seagrasses also showed similar patterns of accumulation: the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Pb were found in the roots, whereas those of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were found in the leaves. Phytotoxic levels in seagrasses are unknown for most trace elements. The accumulation of trace elements in seagrasses is widely recognized as a risk to the whole food web, but the real magnitude of this risk is still uncertain. Seagrasses are known to act as trace element bioindicators, but this potential is still poorly valued for the creation of biomonitoring networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relation between tobacco trace metals and soil type in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; Saad, Z.; Kazpard, V.; El Samarani, A; Nabhan, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the concentration of nutrients in soil and tobacco samples from different agricultural regions. We studied the influence of soil type on tobacco quality and the transfer and accumulation of trace metals in tobacco leaves. The results showed that human activities in the Nabatiyeh region had a none pronounced effect on one agricultural plot than on its neighbor. The transfer factor of elements between soil and tobacco plants showed that major constituents are leached and absorbed from the soil, whereas some trace elements are finely absorbed from the alkaline soil. Statistical analysis of the micro nutrients in soil and plants confirmed the existence of two principal factors that control the distribution of elements in different compartments. Four tobacco plots in different regions were also studied as a functions of their pedologic and geologic characteristics. The major elements varied in all regions, but were always ordered Ca > Mg > Na > K. The highest transfer factor for nutrients was found in young soil layers. In the Akkar region, clay nutrients form complexes with micronutrients. Thereby reducing their absorption by tobacco plants. (author)

  12. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Chemical speciation of trace metals in seawater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    The recent development of the chemical speciation of trace metals in seawater is described. The speciation studies reveal that metal ion complexation is one of the most important processes in seawater; especially, most bioactive trace metals, such as Fe(III) and Cu, exist as complexes with ligands in dissolved organic matter. The organic ligands in seawater are characterized with metal ions selected by the HSAB concept. A strong organic ligand, which originates from marine microorganisms, is classified as a hard base including carboxylates. The free organic ligand concentrations in seawater are buffered by complexation with excess amounts of Ca and Mg in seawater. The chemical equilibrium model suggested that the concentrations of bioactive free metal ions are at an optimal level to activities of marine microorganisms. For chemical speciation, it is important to have a better understanding of the ecological roles of trace metals in seawater.

  14. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@unamur.be [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints)

  15. Particulate trace metals in Cochin backwaters: Distribution of seasonal indices

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.

    A seasonal analysis of particulate trace metals, viz. iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel collected from 4 stations in Cochin backwaters are presented. The spatial trend for cobalt, iron and nickel was stationary at surface whereas...

  16. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references

  17. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references.

  18. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Irene B.; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts. PMID:29467748

  19. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions inSymbiodinium kawagutii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Irene B; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe' was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  20. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  1. Oyster-based national mapping of trace metals pollution in the Chinese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhu, Aijia; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the distribution and variability of trace metal pollution in the Chinese coastal waters, over 1000 adult oyster individuals were collected from 31 sites along the entire coastline, spanning from temperate to tropical regions (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), between August and September 2015. Concentrations of macroelements [sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] and trace elements [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), silver (Ag), and titanium (Ti)] in these oysters were concurrently measured and analyzed. The results showed high Ti, Zn and Cu bioaccumulation in oysters from Guangdong (South China Sea) and Zhejiang (East China Sea). Oysters at Nanji Island (Wenzhou) and Daya Bay (Huizhou) accumulated significantly high concentrations of Ni and Cr. The elements in these oysters were several times higher than the national food safety limits of China. On the other hand, the present study found that normalization of metals by salinity (Na) and nutrient (P) could reflect more details of metal pollution in the oysters. Biomonitoring of metal pollution could benefit from incorporating the macroelement calibration instead of focusing only on the total metal concentrations. Overall, simultaneous measurement of macroelements and trace metals coupled with non-linear analysis provide a new perspective for revealing the underlying mechanism of trace metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of trace metals in calcium urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J L; Angino, E E

    1977-03-01

    Ten urinary stones composed of calcium oxalate or a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate were analyzed for trace metal content by emission spectroscopy. Trace metals found in amounts of 0.001 per cent or more were iron, copper, zinic, tin, lead, and aluminum. The inhibitory effect of each of these trace metals on the crystal growth of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate was tested. Results indicated that none of the metal affect the crystal growth of calcium oxalate at concentrations approximating those found in normal urine. The metal ions copper (II), zinc (II), tin (II), and aluminum (III) did affect the crystal growth of calcium phosphate when present at physiologic concentrations; however, their contribution to the total calcium phosphate inhibitor activity in urine was estimated to be insufficient to have a regulatory role in urinary stone growth.

  3. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  4. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    proline accumulation was observed in presence of all heavy metals studied and sodium chloride. @JASEM. Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of plants to environmental stresses have gained great ecological momentum due to their alarming increase in the biosphere, their ultimate.

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and accumulation in plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... The extent of contamination of soil by heavy metals and their accumulation in plants around the abandoned slag was studied. Plants and the surrounding soils were sampled from different directions at increasing distance from the vicinity of the waste pile and their concentrations of heavy metals were ...

  6. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the Msimbazi River in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... With exception to Ipomea batata, other vegetables contained at least two types of heavy metals with high concentrations beyond the permissible values ...

  7. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    animal and human beings through food chain (Lone et al. 2003). The presence of these substances are harmful to human health because of the non biodegradable nature of heavy metals and their potential to accumulate in different parts of the body (Lawal and Audu, 2011; Arora et al., 2008). Similarly, toxic metals may be ...

  8. A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1985-01-01

    In most aquatic systems, concentrations of trace metals in suspended sediment and the top few centimeters of bottom sediment are far greater than concentrations of trace metals dissolved in the water column. Consequently, the distribution, transport, and availability of these constituents can not be intelligently evaluated, nor can their environmental impact be determined or predicted solely through the sampling and analysis of dissolved phases. This Primer is designed to acquaint the reader with the basic principles that govern the concentration and distribution of trace metals associated with bottom and suspended sediments. The sampling and analysis of suspended and bottom sediments are very important for monitoring studies, not only because trace metal concentrations associated with them are orders of magnitude higher than in the dissolved phase, but also because of several other factors. Riverine transport of trace metals is dominated by sediment. In addition, bottom sediments serve as a source for suspended sediment and can provide a historical record of chemical conditions. This record will help establish area baseline metal levels against which existing conditions can be compared. Many physical and chemical factors affect a sediment's capacity to collect and concentrate trace metals. The physical factors include grain size, surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, composition, and so forth. Increases in metal concentrations are strongly correlated with decreasing grain size and increasing surface area, surface charge, cation exchange capacity, and increasing concentrations of iron and manganese oxides, organic matter, and clay minerals. Chemical factors are equally important, especially for differentiating between samples having similar bulk chemistries and for inferring or predicting environmental availability. Chemical factors entail phase associations (with such sedimentary components as interstitial water, sulfides, carbonates, and organic

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in Yam, Cassava, Orange and Papaya from two Oil and Gas Flaring Impacted Communities in Southern Nigeria. ... metals in response to contamination. Keywords: PAHs levels; Hydrocarbon contaminant exposure; Food safety; Fruits and tubers.

  10. enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    site located in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH).X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the trace metal in the particulate matter and the enrichment factors were computed using Iron (Fe), Titanium (Ti),. Zirconium (Zr) and Copper (Cu) as reference elements. The measured metals in the glass filter paper were ...

  11. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    contamination. Solid waste and run-off that are discharged into the stream indiscriminately are also sources of contamination with such metals. Municipal solid waste contains a variety of materials which contain trace metals. An investigation on municipal waste site in. Yola, Nigeria showed that the soil of the dump site was ...

  12. 12 Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    2 Science Laboratory Technology Departments, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe, Nigeria. 12 ... metals including both essential and non essential elements .... Source Lab Analysis 2010. Table 2. The trace metal concentration in Okumeshi River Water and comparison with water quality guidelines (mg/L). Guidelines. Cd. Cr.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Trace Metal Levels of Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Mohr titration methods. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (Buck model 20. VGP) model was used for the analysis of the pre- treated samples for the following trace metals-Fe, Cu,. Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd which are among the nine (9) listed toxic metals by the United State Environmental. Protection Agency (1998) with the exception ...

  14. Feeding habits and trace metal concentrations in the muscle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet composition and trace metal concentration in the muscle of the lapping minnow Garra quadrimaculata (Rüppell, 1835) was investigated to study the trophic status of the species as well as to assess the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the body of the fish. The study was conducted based on 328 gut samples ...

  15. Sex-associated differences in trace metals concentrations in and on the plumage of a common urban bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Adrien; Federici, Pierre; Legoupi, Julie; Jacquin, Lisa; Gasparini, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas encompass both favorable and stressful conditions linked with human activities and pollution. Pollutants remain of major ecological importance for synanthropic organisms living in the city. Plumage of urban birds harbour trace metals, which can result from external deposition or from internal accumulation. External and internal plumage concentrations likely differ between specific trace metals, and may further differ between males and females because of potential sex-linked differential urban use, physiology or behaviour. Here, we measured the concentrations in four trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) in both unwashed and washed feathers of 49 male and 38 female feral pigeons (Columba livia) from Parisian agglomeration. We found that these concentrations indeed differed between unwashed and washed feathers, between males and females, and for some metals depended on the interaction between these factors. We discuss these results in the light of physiological and behavioural differences between males and females and of spatial repartition of the four trace metals in the city.

  16. Trace metal speciation in the Baltic sea

    OpenAIRE

    Gelting, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Physicochemical speciation of metals in natural waters is very important for understanding their distribution, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. To be able to understand the behaviour of an aqueous element and the transformation between chemical and physical species, there is a need for reliable methods that enable measurements of specific fractions of metals. Many different techniques are used for metal speciation, of which many suffer from problems. Ultrafiltration has frequently been...

  17. Estuaries as filters: the role of tidal marshes in trace metal removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Teuchies

    Full Text Available Flux calculations demonstrate that many estuaries are natural filters for trace metals. Yet, the underlying processes are poorly investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized that intertidal marshes contribute significantly to the contaminant filter function of estuaries. Trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics were measured along a transect from the subtidal, over an intertidal flat and marsh to a restored marsh with controlled reduced tide. Metal concentrations in the intertidal and restored marsh were found to be a factor two to five higher than values in the subtidal and intertidal flat sediments. High metal concentrations and high accretion rates indicate a high metal accumulation capacity of the intertidal marshes. Overbank sedimentation in the tidal marshes of the entire estuary was calculated to remove 25% to 50% of the riverine metal influx, even though marshes comprise less than 8% of the total surface of the estuary. In addition, the large-scale implementation of planned tidal marsh restoration projects was estimated to almost double the trace metal storage capacity of the present natural tidal marshes in the estuary.

  18. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators......, significant portions of some heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Cd, As and Pb) were found in the absorption liquids of the sampling line, indicating the presence of either vaporous metal species or metals condensed on very small particles in the flue gases. The experimental results were interpreted by theoretical...

  19. Trace metals in urban road dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, Loredana Antonella; Dongarra, Gaetano; Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals associated with urban road dust is a matter for concern as they may have serious effects on biological systems. The bioavailability and potential toxicity of metals bound to urban dust is related to the specific chemical form of the element. In the present article are reported the determinations and chemical speciation of As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in six samples of road dust collected within the urban centre and the outskirts of Palermo [it

  20. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  1. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Federica; Monaci, Fabrizio; Blanusa, Tijana; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk (‘stemflow area’). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals. -- Highlights: ► Of the main metal contaminants only leaf Pb concentrations decreased in the period 1994–2011. ► Leaf Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in urban than in extra urban park. ► In urban park litter, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher outside than underneath the tree crown. ► Conversely, in urban park soil, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower outside the crown. ► Soil therefore behaves as a sink for metal contaminants such as Cu, Pb and Cd. -- Quercus ilex leaves are efficient interceptors of airborne trace elements in urban environments and we found an increased accumulation of metals in topsoil under the tree canopy

  2. Square wave voltametric method for the trace metal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viqar-un-Nisa; Ahmed, R.; Mohammand, M.

    1998-01-01

    Voltammetry is one of the most sensitive and cheaper analytical technique for the analysis of toxic metals, particularly at low levels and in water systems. Different pulse voltametry is relatively slow analytical technique, whereas square wave voltametry is faster. Thus the number of samples analysed can be appreciably increased by using square wave voltametry. Extensive studies were carried out to optimized the square wave voltametric method for trace analysis. Pulse amplitudes and scan rates were varied to find out most sensitive and reliable conditions. Comparative studies were performed to evaluate differential pulse and square wave voltametry. Advantages and disadvantages of both the techniques are discussed for trace analysis of heavy and toxic metals like lead, cadmium, copper and zinc. Effects of scan rates and pulse amplitude are discussed on the optimization of the technique for trace metals analysis. Effects of background electrolyte concentration were also studied. After optimizing the voltametric methods many environmental samples were also analysed. (author)

  3. Trace metal analysis for fingerprinting oil spill samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotts, J.P.; Reilly, T.; Plourde, K.; Hendrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Coast Guard Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) uses four organic analytical techniques to fingerprint oil spill samples: gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography; inorganic constituents are not addressed. Theoretically, trace metal analysis would enhance oil fingerprinting in cases in which the water-borne oil samples are significantly weathered, because of the low volatility of trace metals. The feasibility of fingerprinting spilled oil and suspected source sample pairs via trace metal analysis has been examined. A total of 14 pairs of light fuel oils, previously matched via COIL's organic fingerprinting methods, were analyzed by atomic absorption for nickel, iron, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium content and then qualitatively compared. Light fuels were selected because of their susceptibility to weathering

  4. Trace metals in sediments and benthic animals from aquaculture ponds near a mangrove wetland in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Jinling; Bi, Xiangyang; Lin, Guanghui; Feng, Christopher C; Li, Zhengjie; Qi, Fei; Zheng, Tianling; Xie, Liqi

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in typical cultured animals (crabs, clams, and shrimps) and sediments from aquaculture ponds nearby mangrove wetlands in Zhangjiang estuary, China. The contents of Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb in mangrove sediments were significantly higher than those in pond sediments, while an inverse distribution was observed for Zn, As, and Hg. Significantly higher concentrations of trace metals were found in clams from the mangrove mudflats compared to those from the aquaculture ponds. The sources of trace metals in the clams were primarily from organic fertilizer, whereas those in the shrimp were from contaminated sediment. The results of geo-accumulation index and the ecological risk assessment indicated that the aquaculture ponds near the mangrove wetlands in this subtropical estuary posed a special risk of endogenous and exogenous trace metal pollution to nearby systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Caddisflies Hydropsyche spp. as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailability thresholds causing disturbance in freshwater stream benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awrahman, Zmnako; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    statistical analysis. A simpler approach is the use of accumulated trace metal concentrations in a metal-resistant biomonitor to define thresholds that indicate the presence of raised trace metal bioavailabilities causing ecotoxicological responses in populations of more metal-sensitive members...... of the community. We explore further the hypothesis that concentrations of toxic metals in larvae of species of the caddisfly genus Hydropsyche can be used to predict metal-driven ecotoxicological responses in more metal-sensitive mayflies, especially ephemerellid and heptageniid mayflies, in metal...... systems. Use of a combined toxic unit approach, relying on independent data sets, suggested that copper and probably also arsenic are the drivers of mayfly ecotoxicity in the River Hayle and the Red River in Cornwall, while cadmium, lead and zinc are the toxic agents in the Biala Przemsza River in Poland...

  6. Trace element accumulation in Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in Italy's so called Triangle of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbo, S; Aprile, G; Strumia, S; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Leone, A; Basile, A

    2008-12-15

    Trace element accumulation in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was studied in the district of Acerra (province of Naples, southern Italy), one of the points forming Italy's Triangle of Death. P. furfuracea thalli, collected from Mt. Faito (province of Naples), were transplanted and exposed in bags at different sites in Acerra district, classified into three different site types (urban, rural and industrial). We aimed to test the hypothesis that P. furfuracea, when transplanted in the district of Acerra, would respond to air pollution accumulating trace elements and that element concentrations in the exposed lichens were different in relation to the three different environments, characterised by different pollution sources. Samples were exposed for six months, periodically collected and examined by ICP MS spectrometer assays to measure concentrations of 10 trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn). The exposed samples showed increases in concentrations of all the examined elements; the trace element concentrations were evaluated by calculating exposed to control (EC) ratios, for each site and each trace element, to better understand the accumulation rates. EC ratios were evaluated after 3 and 6 month exposures, at the end of spring and summer respectively: 6 month EC values were the highest. The urban sites showed EC ratios generally higher than industrial and rural; the most accumulated elements were Pb and Cu (at the urban sites), Cu and Zn (at the industrial sites), and Cu and As (at the rural sites). The chemical data were then processed using a multivariate approach (ordination, PCA) to better understand environmental gradients. Bioaccumulation data and PCA analysis showed the sampling sites separated by different trace element abundance. Trace element abundance patterns in the three site types are discussed in relation to the land use and the pollution sources.

  7. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  8. Removal of trace metal contaminants from potable water by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Heffron, Joe; Marhefke, Matt; Mayer, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of four operational and environmental variables on the removal of trace metal contaminants from drinking water by electrocoagulation (EC). Removal efficiencies for five metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel) were compared under varying combinations of electrode material, post-treatment, water composition and pH. Iron electrodes out-performed aluminum electrodes in removing chromium and arsenic. At pH 6.5, aluminum electrodes were slightly more...

  9. Elucidating the Composition and Distribution of Trace Metals in Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, G.; Webb, S. M.; Apprill, A.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs host a plethora of marine life and thereby provide a wealth of aesthetic and economic benefits to coastal countries. Anthropogenic influences, including local coastal water contamination, however threaten the health of these delicate ecosystems. Metal incorporation into carbonate minerals, the backbone of coral reefs, is known to have a large yet variable impact on carbonate structure and solubility. Yet, trace metal influences on the structure, porosity, composition, and solubility of coral skeletons is largely unknown. Here, we coupled synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (u-XRF) mapping and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) to explore the distribution and speciation of trace metals associated with corals and their impact on the carbonate structure of corals obtained from reefs varying in anthropogenic influence - Florida Keys, FL USA and the Federated States of Micronesia. Iron and copper were the most abundant metals in the biological tissue, while in some areas zinc was observed in the tissue, overlapping with the skeleton. Trace metals were not detectable in the aragonite skeletons; in fact, the distributions of Ca and Fe were anti-correlated. XANES spectra show that the iron is primarily Fe(III), likely as the poorly crystalline iron oxide ferrihydrite structure or trapped within ferretin proteins. The same trace metals were observed in corals of different species and from different environments. This in situ investigation corroborates previous studies that corals tend to incorporate iron into the biological components but not into the aragonite skeleton. Given the dominant partitioning of metals within the biological tissue rather than the coral skeleton, the specific carbon molecules responsible for metal attenuation and their fate under changing geochemical conditions and following coral death require exploration.

  10. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Urquiza, Esmeralda; Arteaga-Cardona, Fernando; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan; Wu, Bing; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2017-09-01

    Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide. Using mussel haemocytes, a well-known model system to assess nanomaterial toxicity, we simultaneously assessed zinc accumulation and multiple cellular response endpoints. We found that intracellular zinc uptake was strongly enhanced by inulin coating, in comparison to the uncoated nanoparticles, while no significant effects on cell death, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane integrity, production of reactive oxygen species or lysosome abundance were observed at concentrations up to 20 ppm. Since no significant increments in toxicity were observed, the coated nanomaterials may be useful to increase in vivo zinc uptake for nutritional applications.

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  12. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  13. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater in tropical savannah zone, Nigeria. HI Mustapha, OB Adeboye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Phyto-accumulation of heavy metals by sunflower ( Helianthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to investigate the phyto-accumulation capacity of heavy metals [lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd)] by two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiment was ...

  15. Trace metal pollution and carbon and nitrogen isotope tracing through the Yongdingxin River estuary in Bohai Bay, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Conghui; Wei, Qi; Ma, Lixia; Li, Li; Wu, Guanghong; Pan, Ling

    2017-02-15

    A tide gate was built in 2010 to prevent seawater from moving upstream into the Yongdingxin River estuary in Bohai Bay, Northern China. We analysed the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, TOC, TN, δ 13 C and δ 15 N and studied their variations in the surface layer and vertical profiles of sediment cores collected from the Yongdingxin River estuary. Contamination factors and geo-accumulation indices were calculated for each metal, which revealed high levels of contamination for Hg and Cd in the sediments, likely from anthropogenic sources. δ 13 C and δ 15 N were used as natural tracers to determine the sources of TOC and TN. The results revealed that sewage was the main source of TOC, while TN may have more than one source in the Yongdingxin River estuary. Sewage dominated trace metal pollution in the Yongdingxin River estuary. Our results provide a baseline for trace metal contamination in an estuary facing a large water project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  17. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  18. Trace metal enrichment in agricultural soils of Jianghan Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Daniel, J. N.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schaefer, M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coal consumption in China is increasing annually due to constantly rising energy demand. As a result, a massive amount of coal combustion byproducts, particularly in the form of fly ash, are expelled from power plants and distributed through atmospheric transport. The fly ash is eventually deposited on to land, potentially contaminating agricultural soils. Coal fly ash contains high concentration of a suite of toxic trace metals including lead, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, we surveyed the concentration of trace metals in agricultural soils at 131 sites within a 20 km radius of Yangluo Power Plant, a 2400 MW plant within the highly populated Jianghan Plain of Central China. Using X-ray fluorecence (XRF) spectrometry, the total concentration of trace metals in homogenized surface and subsurface soil samples were measured to calculate the corresponding enrichment factor at each site. Our initial findings demonstrate that Pb is enriched in a majority of sites, independent of land use, whereas As and Cr are generally not enriched in this region. Further studies using Pb isotopes as a source-tracing tool will help determine the Pb pollution's origin. Ultimately, the results of this study may inform whether crops grown within the Jianghan Plain have the potential of being contaminated by metals emitted from coal power plants.

  19. Trace Metals Concentration Assessment in Urban Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    are tracers for oil combustion (Peltier et al., 2009;. Peltier and Lippmann, 2010). Therefore, the EF calculated in this study tend to suggests strongly that combustion sources such as gas flaring and vehicular movement influence trace metal pollution of ambient air of Yenagoa and its environ. Table 8.Principal component ...

  20. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JohnDOCTOR;OFFIONG, edu

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in soils from automobile repair workshop village and environs in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria. Edu Inam*, John B. Edet, and Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong. Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Received 1 April ...

  1. Assessment of contamination sources of trace metals in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and potential contamination sources of trace metals (Fe, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, Y and Zr) in long-term wastewater irrigated garden soils were investigated by using radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence. The result indicates that the soils have elevated concentration of Fe, Pb, Ti and Y in comparison with mean ...

  2. Trace metals and vitamin levels in Nigerian patients with sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of the higher levels of magnesium in the patients is unclear and needs further investigation. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this observation. Keywords: ataxia, trace metals, vitamins, Nigerians Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 4(2) 2005: 156–160 ...

  3. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, L.; Klimenko, N.; Rätsep, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 13 (2017), s. 4520-4525 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : white wine * Chardonnay * Vitis * Ukraine * vineyard * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  4. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Anthropometric characteristics, total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), Vit. E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and trace metals (Se, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) were determined in 40 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ...

  5. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion ...

  6. DETERMINATION OF TRACE HEAVY METALS IN SOME TEXTILE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ... productions is very important for export. People want to be able to buy clothing, bedding and household textiles that have been tested and are not dyed in any way with harmful substances [6-8]. Textile products contain some organic and inorganic substance including trace metal ions. Especially, reactive and pigment.

  7. Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. The high percentage recoveries obtained from microwave induced acid digestion method make it to be a more efficient method ...

  8. An appraisal of physicochemical parameters and some trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial effluent samples collected from the disposal point of five different companies in Trans-Amadi industrial area of Port Harcourt were analyzed to investigate effect on the environment. The analyzed effluent samples showed results of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals in the ranges : (pH 3.60 - 6.90), ...

  9. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Oil Extraction and determination of BTEX and Trace. Metals: For the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of BTEX, 5g of homogenized soil samples were weighed and transferred into dry beakers. The weighed samples were extracted with 10ml hexane. The extracts were centrifuged and passed thru a filter paper to ...

  10. Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using Wet Digestion and. Microwave Digestion Techniques. *1M. I. YAHAYA; A. SHEHU; F.G. DABAI. Department of Applied Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin – Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Biology Department, Kebbi State College of Basic and Advanced Studies ...

  11. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to coagulation process during treatment of a beverage industrial wastewater to remove some of its trace metals content such as lead, cadmium, total iron, total chromium, nickel and zinc. Experiments were conducted using the standard Jar ...

  12. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentration of mercury was higher than 1.0 µg l-1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in ...

  13. Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of tilapia while the lowest concentration with a value of 0.04mg/kg was recorded in tilapia bone. In most of the fish samples, cadmium concentration was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by international institutions. Keywords: Trace metals, Fish Tissues, Water, Bottom sediments, Okumeshi River ...

  14. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from irrigated farmlands on the bank of River ... All glassware and plastic containers used were washed with liquid soap, rinsed with water, soaked in. 10% nitric acid for 24 h, cleaned thoroughly with distilled water and.

  15. Trace metals and cancer: The case of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Llabador, Y.; Deves, G.; Vesvres, M.H.; Simonoff, M.; Benard, J.

    2001-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is one of the most established prognostic factors in neuroblastoma (NB), a young children solid tumor. Amounts of ferritin, an iron storage protein, are abnormally increased in serum of patients with advanced stage disease. N-myc amplified NB cells can synthesize zinc metalloenzymes allowing tumor invasion and metastases formation. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between N-myc amplification and trace metals in human neuroblasts. Coupling PIXE and RBS techniques, nuclear microprobe allowed to analyze elemental distributions and to determine trace metal concentrations within cultured neuroblasts characterized by various degrees of N-myc amplification. They were compared to trace metal distributions and concentrations in tumor xenograft models of human NB, after injection of cells from the same lines in athymic nude mice. Our data allowed to establish a relation between trace metal contents and mechanisms of NB oncogenesis, amplified cell lines representing more aggressive phenotypes of the disease. They should be confirmed by analysis of cultured neuroblasts and tumors issued from a non-amplified cell line transfected with the N-myc oncogene

  16. studies on trace metal concentration pseudotolithus elongatus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    ecological and human health implications of Lead (Pb) pollution are discussed. KEY WORDS: Trace metals, Lead Pollution, Pseudotolithus elongatus, Mbo coastal waters, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Anthropogenic activities which have taken place for the past two decades have greatly impacted on the marine ecosystem ...

  17. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals from single and mixed metal solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of the intertidal gastropod Tympanotonus fuscatus L as a biomonitor of heavy metals in tropical estuaries was assessed. The periwinkles were collected from a site in the upper Bonny Estuary, Southern Nigeria and exposed in a series of experiments either singly or binary mixtures to copper, zinc and ...

  19. Accumulation of some metal ions on Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; El-Desouky, W.; Fouad, A.

    2001-01-01

    Pure species of Bacillus licheniformis was used to remove ions from aqueous and simulated waste solutions. Metal ion accumulation on B. licheniformis was fast. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 4± 0.5 and at 25 ± 3 deg C. One gram of dry B. licheniformis was found to accumulate 115 mg cerium, 34 mg copper and 11 mg cobalt from aqueous solutions. The presence of certain foreign ions such as calcium, sodium and potassium decreased the uptake of ions by B. licheniformis, while citrate and EDTA prevent the uptake. Electron microscopic investigations showed that cerium (III), copper (II) and cobalt (II) accumulated extracellulary around the surface wall of B. licheniformis cells. A bio-adsorption mechanism between the metal ions and B. licheniformis cell wall was proposed. (author)

  20. Influence of dietary cadmium exposure on fitness traits and its accumulation (with an overview on trace elements) in Lymantria dispar larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Mutić, Jelena; Trifković, Jelena; Đurđić, Slađana; Perić Mataruga, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    Bioaccumulation and excretion of heavy metals in insects is only partially clarified. We have investigated cadmium accumulation in the feces, head and integument of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae exposed to chronic dietary intake of cadmium. The aim of the experiment was to establish modalities of metal accumulation, primarily cadmium, as well as changes in fitness traits in two insect populations receiving 50 or 100μgCd/g dry food. The egg-masses originated from two localities: a protected nature reserve (unpolluted population) and an area near a busy highway (polluted population) in Serbia. At both added dietary levels cadmium concentration was highest in feces. Small alterations in metal concentrations after both cadmium treatments were detected in the integument. It was established that irrespective of population origin, the modality of decline of larval mass and relative growth rate (RGR) was similar. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the integument were approximately the same regardless of dietary cadmium intake. However, cadmium accumulation in the examined tissues, as well as variability of fitness traits depended on population origin and cadmium concentration. In larvae from both populations not given contaminated food the head was the organ with the greatest accumulation of trace elements. Our results reveal how invasive phytophagous insects cope with high metal concentrations in their food by body mass (RGR) reduction and energy allocation towards processes that enable accumulation of cadmium and other trace elements in different tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  2. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, Liubov; Klimenko, Nina; Rätsep, Reelika

    2017-10-01

    The study was focused on Zn, Cu and Pb transfer in the system of soil-grape-must-juice-wine in a Chardonnay grape variety from Ukrainian vine growing regions. The analyses of soil, grape, must, pomace, juice and wine were done at the study plot in the south-west of Crimea. Commercial white wines of Chardonnay from different vine growing regions in Ukraine were analysed for trace metals content. Results revealed that trace elements transfer was related to diverse Zn, Cu and Pb sources, trace metals bioavailability, their speciation and complexes during the wine making processes. The analysed commercial wines had lower Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations than wine from the Inkerman study plot. Trace metals concentrations were comparable to those in European wines and lower than limits recommended by International Organization of Vine and Wine. The tentative relationship between wine and soil was found for Zn at the study plot. The method can be used to describe the relationship between the soil and wine in other study areas. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Comparative studies on trace metal geochemistry in Indian and Chinese rivers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; Zhang, J.

    The trace metal geochemistry in Indian and Chinese rivers in the Asian region was studied to understand its variation on a global scale in terms of climate, geological conditions and anthropogenic impact. The average particulate trace metal...

  5. Tolerance and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Descurainia sophia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Karamooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, biosphere pollution has accelerated strongly with start of industrial revolution by toxicity of heavy metals. One of existing pollution is soil pollution. Unfortunately, soil pollution by metals is as intensive environmental stress for plant hence for human. Plants, which are able to store heavy metals in their organs, can be used for phytoremediation of polluted soils and utilization of these plants is effective for phytoremediation as a cheap and economic method. In this research, the absorption rate of Cd (II, Ni (II by Descurainia sophia was considered in hydroponic conditions. Plants were grown in Hoagland media containing different concentrations of Cd (II, Ni (II. An experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Two weeks after treatment of plants the sample were gathered and metal concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the content of chlorophyll and proline was measured. The results showed the chlorophyll content in high concentrations of the metals (Cd (II, Ni (II was decreased in plants that were sign of pigment degradation in presence of heavy metals. Similarly, the proline content in plants was increased under stress which was sign of damage of heavy metal stress on plant and activation of defensive mechanisms in this condition. The effects of toxic concentration of nickel and cadmium on metal accumulation in these plants showed that roots were able to absorb more than shoots, which is sign of elements connection to root cell wall.

  6. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge.

  7. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  8. Trace metals in coastal sediments and in soft tissues of Paracentrotus lividus in the northern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Scanu, Sergio; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of sediment dynamic is of fundamental help in defining the potential susceptibility to the accumulation of potentially harmful elements in coastal environment. The present work shows the spatial and temporal assessment of pollution degree and potential toxicity of some trace metals in marine sediments and the spatial assessment of bioaccumulation levels in soft tissues of Paracentrotus lividus in the coastal area of northern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. Spatial distribution of trace metal concentrations highlights a notable enrichment degree of As and Mn located in two hotspots. These hotspots are profoundly influenced by the coastal dynamic of the area and by the sedimentary productivity of the Mignone and Marangone river basins. Moreover, the results of the trace metals spatial distribution are in agreement with the levels of trace metals measured in soft tissues of specimens of Paracentrotus lividus. Temporal assessment of trace metal concentrations in coastal sediments was carried out by sampling sediment cores at a depth of -50m. The chronology of sediment cores covers 40 - 60 years and trace metal values measured in the sections of the cores result to be below the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) numerical indices. Temporal distribution of trace metals in sediment cores does not show notable increases in the last 60 years as would be expected in the study area. This temporal trend can be attributable to the presence of geochemical anomalies and to the past mining activities occurred in the study area which could have masked any further enrichment of trace metals derived from fossil fuels combustion and maritime traffic. However, further geochemical and mineralogical studies are needed to better discriminate between the anthropogenic contributions and natural sources.

  9. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  10. Alleviation of environmental risks associated with severely contaminated mine tailings using amendments: Modeling of trace element speciation, solubility, and plant accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Bes, Cleménce; Bernal, Maria Pilar; Clemente, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Tailings are considered one of the most relevant sources of contamination associated with mining activities. Phytostabilization of mine spoils may need the application of the adequate combination of amendments to facilitate plant establishment and reduce their environmental impact. Two pot experiments were set up to assess the capability of 2 inorganic materials (calcium carbonate and a red mud derivate, ViroBind TM ), alone or in combination with organic amendments, for the stabilization of highly acidic trace element-contaminated mine tailings using Atriplex halimus. The effects of the treatments on tailings and porewater physico-chemical properties and trace-element accumulation by the plants, as well as the processes governing trace elements speciation and solubility in soil solution and their bioavailability were modeled. The application of the amendments increased tailings pH and decreased (>99%) trace elements solubility in porewater, but also changed the speciation of soluble Cd, Cu, and Pb. All the treatments made A. halimus growth in the tailings possible; organic amendments increased plant biomass and nutritional status, and reduced trace-element accumulation in the plants. Tailings amendments modified trace-element speciation in porewater (favoring the formation of chlorides and/or organo-metallic forms) and their solubility and plant uptake, which were found to be mainly governed by tailing/porewater pH, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon content, as well as soluble/available trace-element concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2874-2884. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Assessing the levels of trace metal from two fish species harvested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace metals content of two fish species: Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio and levels of trace metals from waste water in the lake where the fish species were harvested were determined by inductive couple plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The trace metal values from fish samples ranged between ...

  12. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa.

  13. Features of accumulation of radiation defects in metal with impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskakov, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The processes of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids are being studied for the last fifty years quite intensively. Many regularities of these processes are fixed, but there are more unsolved problems. The computer simulation is one of the effective tools in finding the mechanisms of accumulation and annealing of radiation defects in solids. The numerical solution of the system of the differential equations by means of computers describing kinetics of accumulation of radiation point defects in metals with impurity, has allowed to receive a number of new outcomes. It was revealed, that a determinative factor influential in concentration of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms), formed during an exposure of metal, is the correlation a speed of Frenkel twins recombination, the capture of defects by impurity atoms and absorption of defects by other drainage, for example by dislocations. If the speed of capture of interstitial atoms by impurity atoms for two - three order is lower than the recombination speed of Frenkel twins and on two - three order exceeds the speed of capture of vacancies by impurity atoms, the concentration of interstitial atoms within the first seconds of an exposure passes through a maximum, then quickly decreases in some times and after that starts slowly to grow. The change of concentration of interstitial atoms in an initial period of an exposure does not influence on the change of a vacancy concentration. Within the whole period of an exposure, during which the concentration of interstitial atoms achieves a maximum and then is reduced, the vacancy concentration is steadily enlarged. However subsequent sluggish rise of concentration of interstitial atoms during an exposure is followed by the decrease of the vacancy concentration. The most remarkable feature of the kinetics of accumulation of interstitial atoms in metals with impurity is the presence of two extremum on curve dependence of interstitial atoms on a

  14. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  15. Adsorption of humic acids and trace metals in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies concerning the interactions between suspended hydrous iron oxide and dissolved humic acids and trace metals are reported. As a major component of dissolved organic matters and its readiness for adsorption at the solid/water interface, humic acids may play a very important role in the organometallic geochemistry of suspended sediments and in determining the fate and distribution of trace metals, pesticides and anions in natural water systems. Most of the solid phases in natural waters contain oxides and hydroxides. The most simple promising theory to describe the interactions of hydrous iron oxide interface is the surface complex formation model. In this model, the adsorptions of humic acids on hydrous iron oxide may be interpreted as complex formation of the organic bases (humic acid oxyanions) with surface Fe ions. Measurements on adsorptions were made in both fresh water and seawater. Attempts have been made to fit our data to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Adsorption equilibrium constants were determined.

  16. Trace metal Contamination in Water from abandoned mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted on the levels of trace metals (Ni, Cu, Hg, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mg and Ca) in ground and surface water sources from the northern parts ... The results showed that ground water (pH range 4.09–7.29 and mean 5.87 pH units) was slightly acidic (low pH) than surface water (pH range 5.81–7.74 and ...

  17. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  18. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  19. Trace metal evidence for a poorly ventilated glacial Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meghan; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2017-08-01

    Glacial benthic δ13C and Δ14C measurements from the Atlantic Ocean have been interpreted to indicate the existence of a poorly ventilated Southern Ocean with greater CO2 and nutrient contents compared to present. Enhanced storage of CO2 in the deep ocean predicts that oxygen concentrations should have declined at the same time-a prediction increasingly supported by evidence for oxygen depletion in the glacial Southern Ocean. Here we take a novel approach by using a suite of redox-sensitive trace metals (Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) to show that Southern Ocean sediments from two cores in the Atlantic sector were suboxic during and prior to deglaciation, implying changes to ocean circulation and/or elevated export production that significantly altered deep water chemistry. In the Cape Basin, enrichments of the authigenically deposited trace metal Re are comparable to those found in oxygen minimum zones, pointing to substantial decreases in oxygenation. Furthermore, trace metal results suggest potential spatial heterogeneity in the glacial Southern Ocean, and a more complicated oceanographic and oxygenation history than has previously been assumed.

  20. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  1. Trace Metals in Urban Stormwater Runoff and their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Hall, K.; Li, L. Y.; Schreier, H.

    2009-04-01

    In past decades, due to the rapid urbanization, land development has replaced forests, fields and meadows with impervious surfaces such as roofs, parking lots and roads, significantly affecting watershed quality and having an impact on aquatic systems. In this study, non-point source pollution from a diesel bus loop was assessed for the extent of trace metal contamination of Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn in the storm water runoff. The study was carried out at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) of British Columbia, Canada. Fifteen storm events were monitored at 3 sites from the diesel bus loop to determine spatial and temporal variations of dissolved and total metal concentrations in the storm water runoff. The dissolved metal concentrations were compared with the provincial government discharge criteria and the bus loop storm water quality was also compared with previous studies conducted across the GVRD urban area. To prevent storm water with hazardous levels of contaminants from being discharged into the urban drainage system, a storm water catch basin filter was installed and evaluated for its efficiency of contaminants removal. The perlite filter media adsorption capacities for the trace metals, oil and grease were studied for better maintenance of the catch basin filter. Dissolved copper exceeded the discharge criteria limit in 2 out of 15 cases, whereas dissolved zinc exceeded the criteria in 4 out of 15 cases, and dissolved manganese was below the criteria in all of the events sampled. Dissolved Cu and Zn accounted for 36 and 45% of the total concentration, whereas Mn and Fe only accounted for 20 and 4% of their total concentration, respectively. Since they are more mobile and have higher bioaccumulation potentials, Zn and Cu are considered to be more hazardous to the aquatic environment than Fe and Mn. With high imperviousness (100%) and intensive traffic at the UBC diesel bus loop, trace metal concentrations

  2. The interaction of trace heavy metal with lipid monolayer in the sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Du, Lin; Tsona, Narcisse T; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-04-01

    Lipid molecules and trace heavy metals are enriched in sea surface microlayer and can be transferred into the sea spray aerosol. To better understand their impact on marine aerosol generation and evolution, we investigated the interaction of trace heavy metals including Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cd 2+ , and Co 2+ , with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. Phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer on heavy metal solutions was probed with surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms. The conformation order and orientation of DPPC alkyl chains were characterized by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The π-A isotherms show that Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ strongly interact with DPPC molecules, and induce condensation of the monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner. IRRAS spectra show that the formation of cation-DPPC complex gives rise to conformational changes and immobilization of the headgroups. The current results suggest that the enrichment of Zn 2+ in sea spray aerosols is due to strong binding to the DPPC film. The interaction of Fe 3+ with DPPC monolayers can significantly influence their surface organizations through the formation of lipid-coated particles. These results suggest that the sea surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface water. The organic and metal pollutants may transfer into the atmosphere by this interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata as a sentinel for trace metal pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely spread lichen specie Flavoparmelia caperata is used in a biomonitoring study for atmospheric trace metal pollution in natural ecosystems in Southeastern Serbia. The concentration and distribution pattern of 21 metals in lichens were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The difference observed between metal deposition in peripheral and central parts of lichen thalli reflected air quality changes in the last and previous years. These findings were confirmed with principal component analysis. Our study demonstrated the accumulation of Ba, K, Mg, Na, Tl and Zn in peripheral parts of thalli, while As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Ni, Pb and Se were concentrated in central parts of thalli.

  4. Arsenic and trace metals in commercially important bivalves, Anadara granosa and Paphia undulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mat, I. (Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1994-06-01

    The semi-culture of marine bivalves particularly Anadara granosa is of considerable economic importance in Malaysia. Currently, about 4-5000 ha of mudflats along the west coast are utilized for this purpose. Therefore, contamination of the highly productive mudflats with heavy metals tend to be accumulated in the filter feeding organisms such as bivalve molluscs which often serve as important environmental sinks of heavy metals. Bivalve molluscs, A. granosa and Paphia undulata are commercially important seafoods and popular among the locals in Malaysia. With this point in mind, it is intended to evaluate the concentration levels of arsenic as well as trace metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb) in both species derived from retail outlets in the city of Kuala Lumpur. Although this analysis may not indicate the site of capture but may act as a direct check on the contamination of seafoods available to the consumers. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Trace metal seasonal variations in Texas marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements in coastal environments are derived from three major sources: (1) the bordering watershed; (2) the offshore marine environment; and (3) industrial and/or urban effluent. The site of deposition, however, is controlled by physical and chemical processes in the coastal zone. In many cases, these processes are controlled by climate and can vary seasonally. In the harbor at Corpus Christi, Texas, the summer climate creates an oxygen-poor environment in the water column near the sediment-water interface. This causes chalcophilic metals to precipitate from the water, resulting in high concentrations in the sediments near the source. During the winter, turbulence created by strong winds causes the entire water mass to become aerated and oxidizing, and remobilization of some metals results. In addition, this turbulence accelerates circulation which transports the metal-enriched waters from the harbor. On the outer continental shelf of south Texas, the infaunal activity varies seasonally with bottom water temperatures. As this infaunal activity has an effect on the chemical environment within the sediment near the sediment-water interface, the observed trace metal content at the interface also appears to change with the seasons. ?? 1986.

  7. Urban farming as a possible source of trace metals in human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Olowoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have greatly increased the concentrations of trace metals as pollutants in the urban environment. These pollutants (trace metals are more likely to have an adverse effect on peri-urban agriculture which is now becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many urban cities in the world. This review reports on the concentrations of trace metals in crops, including leafy vegetables harvested from different urban areas, thus highlighting the presence of trace metals in leafy vegetables. Various pathways of uptake of trace metals by leafy vegetables, such as the foliar and roots, and possible health risks associated with urban faming are discussed and various morphological and physiological impacts of trace metals in leafy vegetables are described. Defensive mechanisms and positive aspects of trace metals in plants are also highlighted.

  8. Lead isotopes and trace metals in dust at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Loretta; Neymark, Leonid A.; Peterman, Zell E.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb)-isotope compositions and trace-metal concentrations were determined for samples of dust collected from underground and surface locations at and near the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Rare earth element concentrations in the dust samples from the underground tunnels are similar to those in wholerock samples of the repository host rocks (Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff and Topopah Spring Tuff), supporting interpretation that the subsurface dust is mainly composed of rock comminuted during tunnel construction. Other trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, thallium, and zinc) are variably enriched in the subsurface dust samples relative to the average concentrations in the host rocks. Average concentrations of arsenic and lead in dust samples, high concentrations of which can cause corrosion of waste canisters, have enrichment factors from 1.2 to 1.6 and are insignificant relative to the range of concentrations for these metals observed in the host rock samples. Most dust samples from surface sites also are enriched in many of these trace metals relative to average repository host rocks. At least some of these enrichments may be artifacts of sampling. Plotted on a 208Pb/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb graph, Pb-isotope compositions of dust samples from underground sites form a mixing line extending from host-rock Pb-isotope compositions towards compositions of many of the dust samples from surface sites; however, combined Pb concentration and isotope data indicate the presence of a Pbenriched component in the subsurface dust that is not derived from host rock or surface dust and may derive from anthropogenic materials introduced into the underground environment.

  9. Acetoclastic methanogens in an anaerobic digester could be susceptible to trace metal supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C; Bega, A; Unlu, C; Chadderton, R A; McKean, W R; Kohl, P M; Hunt, J A; Keaney, J; Willis, J L; Duran, M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nutrient supplementation on anaerobic biomass. While many studies emphasized the importance of supplementing trace metals such as iron, cobalt, and nickel for maximum methanogenic activity, there is no evidence whether such supplements, even at relatively low concentration, could perturb anaerobic biomass. Effects of supplementing nutrients, including yeast extract, on anaerobic biomass from two full-scale mesophilic digesters, operating under different conditions, at the North East Water Pollution Control Plant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, were assessed using biochemical methane potential tests. The results show that acetoclastic methanogens from a recently cleaned digester was not stimulated by nutrient supplementation at relatively low concentrations and a slight perturbation was observed when supplementation was at a relatively high concentration. Furthermore, greater degree of susceptibility to the trace metal supplementation was observed for biomass from another digester that had not been cleaned for over 10 years, thus it had reduced active volume due to grit accumulation. For instance, supplementation of 200 mg/L of iron as FeCl(2)·4H(2)O to the biomass from the reduced-active-volume digester caused 17% reduction in CH(4) production, as compared to a control which did not receive any supplements, while the same concentration had no effect on the biomass from full-active-volume digester. Results strongly suggest that acetoclastic methanogens stressed due to reduced hydraulic/solids retention time may be susceptible to trace metal addition. Therefore, trace metal supplementation for anaerobic digesters should be considered on a case by case basis.

  10. Trace metal dynamics in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.

    comparison of average trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the Bay of Bengal showed enrichment of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in coastal zooplankton may be related to metal absorption from primary producers, and differences in metal...

  11. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-01

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  12. Metal accumulation rates in northwest Atlantic pelagic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.; Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Wilson, T.R.S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of 230 Th, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and twenty-four metals were made on cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain. The sediment is characterized by slowly-accumulating pelagic red clays and rapidly deposited grey clays transported by turbidity currents. Despite their colour differences and the enrichment of certain elements in the red clays, Sr isotope evidence demonstrates that the clays have the same terrigenous origin. The excesses of metals in the red clays have been attributed to metal removal from the water column and a comparison with the grey clays has enabled the authigenic fluxes of metals to be estimated. The results are given for the elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V, Sr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb. Authigenic fluxes of Y, Nb, Cr, Zr, Rb, U and Th were not resolvable. Fluxes appear to be near constant on the Plain but comparison with other areas shows that they are quite variable both between and within ocean basins. The chief factor controlling authigenic fluxes is discussed. (author)

  13. Radionuclides and trace metals in surface air. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feely, H.W.; Toonkel, L.E.; Larsen, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since January 1963, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), formerly the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL), has been conducting the Surface Air Sampling Program. This study is a direct outgrowth of a program initiated by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in 1957 and continued through 1962. The primary objective of this program is to study the spatial and temporal distribution of specific natural and man-made radioisotopes, and of trace metals in the surface air. Other special studies of surface air contamination have been performed during the course of the program

  14. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai-Hong; Qiu, Hao; Tian, Tian; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Chaney, Rufus L; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and 40gkg(-1)) and steel slag (3 and 6gkg(-1)) increased soil pH from 4.0 to 5.0-6.4, decreased the phytoavailability of heavy metals by at least 60%, and further suppressed metal uptake by rice. Diffusion gradient in thin-film measurement showed the heavy metal diffusion fluxes from soil to solution decreased by greater than 84% after remediation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the mobile metals were mainly deposited as their silicates, phosphates and hydroxides in amended treatments. Moreover, it was found metal translocation from stem to leaf was dramatically restrained by adding amendments, which might be due to the increase of silicon concentration and co-precipitation with heavy metals in stem. Finally, a field experiment showed the trace element concentrations in polished rice treated with amendments complied with the food safety standards of China. These results demonstrated fly ash and steel slag could be effective in mitigating heavy metal accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal contaminated acidic soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of Trace and Toxic metals in River Narmada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality has become a serious problem in developing countries. Almost 70% of Indian’s surface water resources have become contaminated due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The results reveals that out of nine water quality stations monitored, water samples collected at 5 water quality stations (Amarkantak, Dindori, Manot, Barmanghat and Handia are found to be within the permissible limit for all purposes in respect to trace & toxic metals. While Sandia, Hoshangabad, Mandleshwar and Garudeshwar stations were beyond the permissible limit due to presence of chromium, copper and iron metals. The major source of pollution to the Narmada river is the anthropogenic municipal solid waste and sewage from nearby towns/habitations, agricultural runoff and native soil erosion. The quality of the Narmada River is degraded due to the municipal and industrial discharges from the catchment.

  16. Quantification and localization of trace metals in natural plancton using a synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, B. S.; Baines, S. B.; Fisher, N. S.; Jacobsen, C.; Maser, J.; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook

    2003-03-01

    The accumulation of trace metals by planktonic protists influences the growth of primary producers, metal biogeochemical cycling, and metal bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Despite their importance, unequivocal measurements of trace element concentrations in individual plankton cells have not been possible to date. We have used the 2-ID-E side-branch hard x-ray microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source to measure trace elements in individual marine plankton cells. This microprobe employs zoneplate optics to produce the sub-micron spatial resolution and low background fluorescence required to produce trace element maps of planktonic protist cells ranging in size from 3 to >50 {micro}m. We have developed preservation, rinsing, and mounting protocols that remove most of the salt from our marine samples, thus simplifying the identification of unknown cells and reducing high Cl-related background fluorescence. We have also developed spectral modeling techniques that account for the frequent overlap of adjacent fluorescence peaks and non-uniform detector response. Finally, we have used parallel soft x-ray transmission and epifluorescence microscopy images to estimate C normalized trace element concentrations, identify functional cell types (e.g., photosynthetic vs. non-photosynthetic), and correlate cell structures with spatial patterns in trace element fluorescence.

  17. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  18. trace metals in selected fish species from lakes awassa and ziway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    species for monitoring the level of trace metals. Comparison of trace metals in fishes with the. European dietary standards and guidelines. To evaluate whether metal levels found in fish samples from Lakes Awassa and Ziway are safe for human consumption, a comparison is made with reference values for fish muscles ...

  19. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  20. Radioactive and stable trace metals in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Broecker, W.S.; Li, Y.H.; Bell, J.; Carson, S.; Morrison, G.; Davie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments designed to determine the removal rates and mechanisms of various radioactive trace metals from the water of Narragansett Bay were performed in the spring and early summer in 150-liter microcosms simulating the bay. Overall removal rates were first order for all elements studied in the spring ( 54 Mn, 58 Co, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, /sup 115m/Cd) and most elements studied in the summer ( 58 Co, 65 Zn, 59 Fe, 134 Cs, 210 Po, 228 Th). For those elements studied in both seasons, removal was slower in the summer than in the spring. During the summer experiment 54 Mn, 51 Cr, and 75 Se showed rapid first order removal in the initial 1 to 2 weeks followed by much slower removal. The seasonal differences appear to be the result of the association of the metals with low molecular weight organic compounds present only during the summer. Mass balance shows that the major removal reservoirs during the spring were the tank walls, suspended sediment, and the upper layers of the sediment. The seasonal behavior of the metals in the tanks was qualitatively similar to that of some radionuclides and stable metals studied in the bay

  1. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.

  2. First investigation of trace metal distribution in surface seawater and copepods of the south coast of Sfax (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    The increased metal loading from anthropogenic sources has affected aquatic ecosystems and has cascaded through food webs worldwide. Therefore, the evaluation of ecological impacts of anthropogenic metal has become increasingly important. In this paper, we monitored the concentration of six trace metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the three copepod groups (cyclopoida, calanoida, and harpacticoida) and in seawater samples collected from the south coast of Sfax (Tunisia). Results showed that the concentration of Fe and Zn for all copepod groups was higher than that for other metals and that of Cd was the lowest in all groups. The mean increase in bioconcentration factor of metals in copepods ranged from 0.05 to 18.93 and followed the sequence Zn (18.93) > Fe (14.34) > Pb (6.41) > Cd (1.53) > Cu (0.10) > Ni (0.05). The copepods in the south coast of Sfax were found to have a great capacity to accumulate trace metals and act as contamination indicators. Comparative studies with those from the Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of trace metals (Pb and Ni) in all copepod groups namely in cyclopoida.

  3. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  4. Early diagenesis and trace element accumulation in North American Arctic margin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Gobeil, Charles; Goñi, Miguel A.; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2017-04-01

    combined with a shallow water column (average 64 m) leads to high rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from the Bering-Chukchi shelves. High to moderate primary production combined with deep water (average 610 m) leads to moderate rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from Lancaster Sound. Low to very low primary production combined with moderate water depths (average 380 m) leads to low rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments in the Beaufort Shelf, Davis Strait and Canadian Archipelago. Authigenic Mo accumulation rates show a significant relationship with vascular plant input to the sediments, implying that terrestrial organic matter contributes significantly to metabolism in Arctic margin sediments. Our results suggest that the broad and shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea, which has high productivity sustained by imported nutrients, contributes disproportionately to global biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Metal accumulation in soils derived from volcano-sedimentary rocks, Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Laíse Milena Ribeiro; Gloaguen, Thomas Vincent; Fadigas, Francisco de Souza; Chaves, Joselisa Maria; Martins, Tamires Moraes Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Many countries and some Brazilian regions have defined the guideline values for metals in soils. However, the local geological features may be so heterogeneous that global or even regional guideline values cannot be applied. The Greenstone Belts are worldwide geological formations of vast extension, containing mineralization of various metals (e.g., Au, Cr, Ni, and Ag). Natural concentrations of soils must be known to correctly assess the impact of mining. We studied the soils of the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt (RIGB), of Paleoproterozoic age, sampling at 24 sites (0-0.20m) in the areas not or minimally human impacted, equally distributed in the three units of the RIGB: Volcanic Mafic Unit (VMU), Volcanic Felsic Unit (VFU), and Volcano-clastic Sedimentary Unit (SU). The natural pseudo-total concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were obtained by acid digestion (EPA3050b) both in the soil and the particle-size fractions (sand and clay+silt). The concentrations of metals in RIGB soils, especially Cr and Ni, are generally higher than those reported for other regions of Brazil or other countries. Even the sedimentary soils have relatively high metal values, naturally contaminated by the VMU of the RIGB; a potential impact on Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks located near the study region is highly expected. Metals are concentrated (80%) in the fine particle-size fraction, implying an easy availability through surface transport (wind and runoff). We introduced a new index, called the Fe-independent accumulation factor - AF -Fe , which reveals that 90-98% of the dynamics of the trace metals is associated with the iron geochemical cycle. We primarily conclude that determining the guideline values for different soil classes in variable geological/geochemical environment and under semiarid climate is meaningless: the concentration of metals in soils is clearly more related to the source material than to the pedogenesis processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  6. Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mat, I.; Maah, M.J. (Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1994-11-01

    About 4-5000 ha of the mudflats along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia are currently utilized for the semi-culture of the economically important marine bivalve, Anadara granosa. Therefore, information on the status of the trace metal pollution in the culture areas is of considerable value in the interest of public health when shellfish from this area are available for consumption. As an initial assessment of the degree of trace metal pollution in the sediments, an approach to analyze the non-residual (non-lattice held) trace metal concentrations should be of prime consideration rather than the total metal content in the sediments. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to restrict the comparison of the non- residual metal fraction to sediments having similar textural composition. For the above reasons, assorted acids are used to partially extract the non-residual trace metal fraction. The partial extraction of sediment-bound trace metals is not only providing information on the strength of association between metals and sediment compositions but also the potential availability of these metals to aquatic organisms. It has been shown that the bioavailability of trace metals to the aquatic biota is best related to the easily leachable, non-residual fraction rather than the total sediment bound trace metals. Therefore, it makes very little sense to consider the total metal content in the sediment to be bioavailable to cause damage to aquatic organisms or to the aquatic ecosystems. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tab.

  7. Study of distribution and differential accumulation of trace elements in plant leaves using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo; Takada, Jitsuya; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Katayama, Koshi.

    1983-01-01

    Plant leaves were collected from geologically different forests three times from April to May, from August to September, and from October to November. Although the concentration of inorganic elements showed the constant distribution pattern in the same trees, the distribution pattern was peculiar to plant species and elements. Ia and halogen groups were prominent in herbaceous plants, while IIa group, except for Ba accumulated into pteridophyta, was prominent in woody plants. Of the transition metal elements, Mn was highly accumulated in Tea senensis. The high concentration of Mn was more marked in Araliaceae than in Tea senensis. Specific high concentrations of Fe and Co were noted in Ecephorbiaceae, Zn and Cd in Aquifoliaceae, and Al, rare earth elements and Ra in Gleichenia japonica and Dicranopteris dichotome. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Agricultural management of an Oxisol affects accumulation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minari, Guilherme Deomedesse; Rosalen, David Luciano; da Cruz, Mara Cristina Pessôa; de Melo, Wanderley José; Alves, Lucia Maria Carareto; Saran, Luciana Maria

    2017-10-01

    Soil contamination may result from the inadequate disposal of substances with polluting potential or prolonged agricultural use. Therefore, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) concentrations were assessed in a Eutroferric Red Oxisol under a no-tillage farming system with mineral fertilizer applications, a conventional tillage system with mineral fertilizer application and a conventional tillage system with sewage sludge application in an area used for agriculture for more than 80 years. We evaluated the spatial distributions of these elements in the experimental area and the effect of the different management practices on the soil retention of these metals. The concentrations of metals extracted from 422 soil samples by open-system digestion with HNO 3 , H 2 O 2 and HCl were assessed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The pH and soil organic matter were also assessed, and spatial distribution maps were designed. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cr and Ni (1.0, 50 and 14 mg kg -1 , respectively) in the native forest were higher than the reference values (100, 25 and 8% greater, respectively) in Brazilian legislation, indicating that the source material was the determining factor of the high metal concentrations in the study soils. Soil management with sewage sludge was the major contributor to the accumulation of Cd and Ni, whereas Cr concentration did not vary with management type. Approximately 0.3, 12 and 16% of the experimental area is contaminated with Ni, Cd and Cr, respectively, because their concentrations exceeded the values for alertness or prevention in Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  10. Trace metal concentrations in street dusts of Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruque; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    Street dust samples were collected from differing areas (industrial—medium traffic density, commercial—high traffic density, and residential 1 and 2—low traffic density) in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and their major oxide and trace element compositions were determined. The results show significant concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr in the Dhaka dusts, and some variations among the four sample groups. The samples in the commercial area had Pb concentrations two- to seven-fold those of the industrial and residential areas. Contents of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr in the industrial areas were greater than those in the commercial and residential areas. Levels of Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cr exceeded the maximum permissible limits for common soil. Increases in these anthropogenic trace metals in the surface environment can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization and industrialization and increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. Elevated Zn concentrations in an industrial area can be ascribed to discharges of industrial activities, while elevated Zn abundances in commercial areas probably originate from traffic sources. The street dusts contaminated with Cu, Ni, and Cr occur mainly in industrial areas. However, Pb contamination in the Dhaka dusts is probably caused by Pb particles from vehicle emissions.

  11. Trace metal contamination of Beaufort's Dyke, North Channel, Irish Sea: A legacy of ordnance disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Alexander; Quinn, Rory; Brown, Craig J.; Service, Matthew; Benetti, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our samples are the first trace metal concentrations taken from the valley of Beaufort's Dyke. → There is no clear trend between concentrations of trace metals in Dyke and NMMP sediments. → Particle transport simulations show dispersal of trace metals from Beaufort's Dyke is possible. → Disposed ordnance may also contribute to contamination of surrounding areas. → These methods could help predict areas at risk of future trace metal contamination as a result of ordnance disposal. - Abstract: Beaufort's Dyke is a disused ordnance disposal ground within the North Channel of the Irish Sea. Over 1 million tonnes of ordnance were disposed of in the dyke over a 40 year period representing a substantial volume of trace metal pollutants introduced to the seabed. Utilising particle transport modelling software we simulated the potential transport of metal particles from Beaufort's Dyke over a 3 month period. This demonstrated that Beaufort's Dyke has the potential to act as a source for trace metal contamination to areas beyond the submarine valley. Trace metal analysis of sediments from the Dyke and surrounding National Marine Monitoring Programme areas demonstrate that the Dyke is not the most contaminated site in the region. Particle transport modelling enables the transport pathways of trace metal contaminants to be predicted. Implementation of the technique in other munitions disposal grounds will provide valuable information for the selection of monitoring stations.

  12. Differential accumulation of trace elements in ventral and dorsal muscle tissues in tilapia and milkfish with different feeding habits from the same cultured fishery pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chin-Ching; Yang, Ke-Ruo; Hsu, Hui-Tsung

    2013-03-01

    There were many studies that reported the concentrations of trace elements in fish and assessed the human health risk through consumption of contaminated fish. However, fish species with different feeding habits may accumulate toxic elements differentially in their muscle. In this study, we conducted a field survey to analyze concentrations of ten trace elements in water, sediment, artificial feed, and different part of muscles either with or without skin of two species of fish, tilapia and milkfish. The results of this study showed that the ventral and dorsal muscles with skin contained higher concentrations of metals than those without skin for both species of fish. Tilapia lives in the bottom layer, the ventral part therefore contacts closely with sediment. A higher metal concentration in ventral muscle was obtained in this study when compared to dorsal muscle for tilapia. The estimated Metal Pollution Index (MPI) of tilapia is higher than that of milkfish. Our results indicated that metal concentrations in muscle of tilapia are mainly originated from sediment. However, sources of metal concentrations in muscle of milkfish can be from sediment and artificial feed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients, and trace elements in switchgrass for phytoremediation of municipal biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Ross, Lisette

    2016-09-01

    In situ phytoremediation of municipal biosolids is a promising alternative to the land spreading and landfilling of biosolids from end-of-life municipal lagoons. Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and trace elements were determined in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to determine the harvest stage that maximizes phytoextraction of contaminants from municipal biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into 15-L plastic pails containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids. Biomass yield components and contaminant concentrations were assessed every 14 days for up to 161 days. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant differences in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Switchgrass partitioned significantly more N and P to AGB than to BGB. Maximum uptake occurred 86 days after transplanting (DAT) for N and 102 DAT for P. Harvesting at peak aboveground element accumulation removed 5% of N, 1.6% of P, 0.2% of Zn, 0.05% of Cd, and 0.1% of Cr initially present in the biosolids. These results will contribute toward identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using switchgrass.

  14. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.Y.A.

    2007-09-01

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  15. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vardanyan, L.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    of these macrophytes in accumulation of toxic metals and controlling the heavy metal pollution and suggesting the remedial measures, if any, for the preservation and restoration of lake ecosystem. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (ICP...

  16. Trace Metals in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactors: Bioavailability and Dosing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.H.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Gonzalez, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The trace metal dynamics in anaerobic granular sludge bed reactors and their influence on reactor performance is reviewed in this paper. An insight into the metal dynamics is required from a practical point of view in order to be able to early recognize limitations for essential trace elements,

  17. Trace metal Levels in Some Packaged Fruit Juices Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of ten (10) trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb) in samples of commonly consumed fruit juices in Nigeria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) technique. The mean concentration (mg/L) of the trace metals in the samples analyzed were as follows: Cr ...

  18. Trace-metal distributions in seawater and anoxic brines in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saager, Paul M.; Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical distribution of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd) is reported for seawater and the anoxic brines of Tyro and Bannock Basins in the eastern Mediterranean. In normal Mediterranean seawater, the distribution of dissolved trace metals is governed by water mass

  19. Metals in environmental media: A study of trace and platinum group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pt and Pd. The study further investigated the correlation between these trace metals in roadside soils and vegetation in order to infer the potential impacts of roadside trace metals contamination of vegetation. Collected surface soil and vegetation samples were analysed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zn, ...

  20. Contamination of Potentially Trace Metals in Aqaba and Eshidiya Phosphogypsum in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. AL-HWAITI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn and V in Jordan phosphogypsum by product has been determined. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of trace metals contamination caused by production plant of Aqaba and Eshidiya. Arsenic, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se and V have exhibited normal abundances where Cd and U had the highest enrichment factors of 16 and 4, respectively in Aqaba phosphogypsum and 18 and 1, respectively in Eshidiya phosphogypsum. In addition, the elements geo-accumulation index factor were calculated and found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn V are unpolluted to moderately polluted, with the exception of Cd, it shows highly polluted. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn show immobility to low mobility, whereas Se exhibits intermediate to high mobility. The results obtained in this study can be not worrying from the point of view of environmental safe use of phosphogypsum.

  1. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Reveillac, E.; Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L.; Jeffree, R.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO 2 . → We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. → Increasing pCO 2 affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. → Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO 2 . → Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) in the ocean, which may reach 950 μatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO 2 ) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO 2 (380, 850 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH T of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110m Ag, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 203 Hg, 54 Mn and 65 Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110m Ag, 203 Hg and 65 Zn were affected by the pCO 2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO 2 enhanced the uptake of both 110m Ag and 65 Zn while 203 Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO 2 . 65 Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO 2 . Conversely, uptake of 109 Cd and 54 Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Reveillac, E. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs) UMR 6250 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, Institut du Littoral et de l' Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); School of the Environment, Science Faculty, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007 (Australia); Gattuso, J.P. [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO{sub 2}. {yields} We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. {yields} Increasing pCO{sub 2} affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. {yields} Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO{sub 2}. {yields} Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in the ocean, which may reach 950 {mu}atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO{sub 2}) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO{sub 2} (380, 850 and 1500 {mu}atm corresponding to pH{sub T} of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 203}Hg and {sup 65}Zn were affected by the pCO{sub 2} treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO{sub 2} enhanced the uptake of both {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 65}Zn while {sup 203}Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO{sub 2}. {sup 65}Zn

  3. The removal of trace metals at the wastewater treatment plant of Psyttalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. FIRFILIONIS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the levels of trace metals in the input and output of the Psyttalia wastewater treatment plant, as well as the removal of the various trace metal forms (dissolved, particulate during primary sedimentation. The trace metals determined were: Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni. The experimental procedure included the collection and analysis of inflow and outflow samples. Dissolved and particulate forms were separated by filtration through 0.45 and 8 Μm Millipore filters and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that particulate matter consists mainly of large particles (> 8 µ m and the sedimentation process is more effective in their removal in contrast to smaller particles. The removal of trace metals during primary sedimentation follows the decreasing sequence: Particulate metal in large particles > Particulate metal in small particles > Dissolved metal. Concerning the various metals the removal follows the sequence: Pb ~= Cu>Zn ~= Cr>Cd>Ni. The quantities of trace metals that are discharged to the sea through the outflow pipes of the Psyttalia treatment plant follow the decreasing sequence: Zn >> Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd.

  4. Assessment of atmospheric trace metals in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. Van Zyl"

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trace metal species emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources can cause various health-related and environmental problems. Limited data exist for atmospheric trace metal concentrations in South Africa, which has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of these mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, with the western limb being the most exploited. To partially address this knowledge gap, atmospheric trace metals were collected in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex at Marikana in the North West Province. Diurnal PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected for 1 year. A total of 27 trace metal species were determined. With the exception of Ni, none of the trace metals measured during the sampling period exceeded local or international air quality standard limit values. Total trace metal concentrations in the PM10 fraction peaked during the dry months and were regularly washed out during the wet season. A less significant seasonal trend was observed for the trace metal concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction; a finding attributed to a faster replenishment of smaller particles into the atmosphere after rain events. About 80% of the PM10 trace metal levels measured occurred in the PM2.5 fraction, while 40% or more of all metals emanated from the PM2.5 fraction. This finding indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic sources. Four meaningful emission sources were determined from explorative principal component factor analysis: crustal, vanadium related, base metal related and ferrochromium related, which correlated well with the anticipated atmospheric trace metal sources in the region.

  5. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  6. Content and uptake of trace metals in benthic algae, Enteromorpha and Porphyra. I. Measurement and variation of trace metal content of Porphyra grown in natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiyama, T.; Maeda, M.

    1977-01-01

    Trace metals in Porphyra were recovered more than 95% by the treatment of the alga with HNO/sub 3/-HClO/sub 4/-HCl. Ten to 20% of the standard deviations were obtained by the analyses of alga. The trace metals in Porphyra were divided into two groups according to their tendencies of seasonal and regional variations, one group being Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu and the other group, Pb and Cd. The variation of chlorophyll a content was quite similar to that of Fe. The content of metals was different in Porphyra collected from regions other than the fixed stations.

  7. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haili; Zhang, Zhengwang; Chang, Chongyan; Wang, Yong

    2007-07-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels.

  8. Trace elements in pacific Dunlin (Calidris alpina pacifica): patterns of accumulation and concentrations in kidneys and feathers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St. Clair, C.T.; Baird, P.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Elner, R.W.; Bendell, L.I.

    2015-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were measured in Pacific Dunlin (Calidris alpina pacifica) to identify factors that influence accumulation and to assess toxicity risks. We report concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in kidneys as well as copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc in feathers.

  9. Sewage sludge application in a plantation: effects on trace metal transfer in soil-plant-snail continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Aleya, Lotfi; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr

    2015-01-01

    We studied the potential bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by the snail Cantareus aspersus and evaluated the risk of leaching after application of sewage sludge to forest plantation ecosystems. Sewage sludge was applied to the soil surface at two loading rates (0, and 6 tons ha(-1) in dry matter) without incorporation into the soil so as to identify the sources of trace metal contamination in soil and plants and to evaluate effects on snail growth. The results indicated a snail mortality rate of less than 1% during the experiment, while their dry weight decreased significantly (snails showed no acute toxicity symptoms after soil amendment with sewage sludge over the exposure period considered. Additions of sewage sludge led to higher levels of trace metals in forest litter compared to control subplots, but similar trace metal concentrations were observed in sampling plants. Bioaccumulation study demonstrated that Zn had not accumulated in snails compared to Cu which accumulated only after 28 days of exposure to amended subplots. However, Pb and Cd contents in snails increased significantly after 14 and 28 days of exposure in both the control and amended subplots. At the last sampling date, in comparison to controls the Cd increase was higher in snails exposed to amended subplots. Thus, sludge spread therefore appears to be responsible for the observed bioaccumulation for Cu and Cd after 28days of exposure. Concerning Pb accumulation, the results from litter-soil-plant compartments suggest that soil is this metal's best transfer source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ivan; Hermans, Christian; Lahner, Brett; Yakubova, Elena; Tikhonova, Marina; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Chao, Dai-Yin; Salt, David E

    2012-01-01

    In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome) of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of 17-19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene × environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  11. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    Full Text Available In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The concentrations of 17-19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene × environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  12. Nutrient and Antinutrient Compositions and Heavy Metal Uptake and Accumulation in S. nigrum Cultivated on Different Soil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adijat Funke Ogundola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum nigrum cultivated on different soil texture types, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, loam, and control soils, were evaluated for proximate compositions, antinutrients, vitamins, and mineral composition with plant age using standard analytical methods. Accumulation of trace elements using translocation factor was studied to determine their toxic levels in plant tissues. Data were analysed by ANOVA and results expressed as means and standard deviation. Ash content, crude fibre, protein, alkaloid, phytate, and saponin ranged between 11.4 and 12%, 19.24 and 19.95%, 34.23 and 38.98, 42.08 and 45.76 mg/ml, 0.84 and 1.17%, and 94.10 and 97.00%, respectively. Vitamins A, C, and B were present in high quantity. Macro- and micronutrients recorded showed that S. nigrum is a potential reservoir of minerals. Accumulation of micronutrients was observed to be the highest at the flowering stage between the 4th and 5th weeks after transplanting. Plants cultivated on clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam soils accumulated elevated nutritional compositions and abundant antinutrients. However, the accumulated trace metals in the plants are within the recommended safe levels. All nutrient values are in the recommended requirements for daily consumption.

  13. Fraction-specific controls on the trace element distribution in iron formations : Implications for trace metal stable isotope proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Paul B.H.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Mason, Paul R.D.; Henkel, Susann; Staubwasser, Michael; Fryer, Lindi; Poulton, Simon W.; Williams, Helen M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron formations (IFs) are important geochemical repositories that provide constraints on atmospheric and ocean chemistry, prior to and during the onset of the Great Oxidation Event. Trace metal abundances and their Mo-Cr-U isotopic ratios have been widely used for investigating ocean redox processes

  14. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehn, Larissa-A.; Follmann, Erich H.; Thomas, Dana L.; Sheffield, Gay G.; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on δ 15 N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean δ 15 N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace metals

  15. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, Larissa-A. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)]. E-mail: ftld@uaf.edu; Follmann, Erich H. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Thomas, Dana L. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-6660 (United States); Sheffield, Gay G. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99701-1599 (United States); Rosa, Cheryl [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Duffy, Lawrence K. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon ({delta} {sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta} {sup 15}N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on {delta} {sup 15}N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean {delta} {sup 15}N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of

  16. Determination of trace metals in drinking water in Irbid City-Northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomary, Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water samples from Irbid, the second populated city in Jordan were analyzed for trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Se) content. The study was undertaken to determine if the metal concentrations were within the national and international guidelines. A total of 90 drinking water samples were collected from Al-Yarmouk University area. The samples were collected from three different water types: tap water (TW), home-purified water (HPW), and plant-purified water (PPW). All the samples were analyzed for trace metals using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. All the samples analyzed were within the United States Environmental Protection Agency admissible pH limit (6.5-8.5). The results showed that concentrations of the trace metals vary significantly between the three drinking water types. The results showed that HPW samples have the lowest level of trace metals and the concentrations of some essential trace metals in these samples are less than the recommended amounts. Slight differences in the metal contents were found between HPW samples, little differences between PPW samples; however, significant differences were found between TW samples. Although some TW samples showed high levels of trace metals, however, the mean level of most elements determined in the samples were well within the Jordanian standards as well as the World Health Organization standards for drinking water.

  17. trace metal level of human blood from dareta village, anka, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    them having toxic effects on humans and animals.Increasing pollution has given rise to concern on the intake of harmful metals in humans. These metals enter the human body through inhalation and ingestion. The intake through ingestion depends on food habit. Trace amounts of heavy metals occur naturally in soil.

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals to concentrations that may pose potential environmental and health risks on the long term. Key words: Heavy metals, Olea europaea L, Melilotus officinalis, wastewater, irrigation. INTRODUCTION. Heavy metals ...

  19. Atmospheric trace metals measured at a regional background site (Welgegund) in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Andrew D.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Josipovic, Micky; Hendriks, Johan; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric trace metals can cause a variety of health-related and environmental problems. Only a few studies on atmospheric trace metal concentrations have been conducted in South Africa. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine trace metal concentrations in aerosols collected at a regional background site, i.e. Welgegund, South Africa. PM1, PM1-2. 5 and PM2. 5-10 samples were collected for 13 months, and 31 atmospheric trace metal species were detected. Atmospheric iron (Fe) had the highest concentrations in all three size fractions, while calcium (Ca) was the second-most-abundant species. Chromium (Cr) and sodium (Na) concentrations were the third- and fourth-most-abundant species, respectively. The concentrations of the trace metal species in all three size ranges were similar, with the exception of Fe, which had higher concentrations in the PM1 size fraction. With the exception of titanium (Ti), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mg), 70 % or more of the trace metal species detected were in the smaller size fractions, which indicated the influence of industrial activities. However, the large influence of wind-blown dust was reflected by 30 % or more of trace metals being present in the PM2. 5-10 size fraction. Comparison of trace metals determined at Welgegund to those in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex indicated that at both locations similar species were observed, with Fe being the most abundant. However, concentrations of these trace metal species were significantly higher in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. Fe concentrations at the Vaal Triangle were similar to levels thereof at Welgegund, while concentrations of species associated with pyrometallurgical smelting were lower. Annual average Ni was 4 times higher, and annual average As was marginally higher than their respective European standard values, which could be attributed to regional influence of pyrometallurgical industries in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. All three size

  20. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  1. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. © 2013.

  2. Bioconcentration of trace metals in the tissues of two leafy vegetables widely consumed in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyokumbur, Emmanuel Teryila; Okorie, Tonye

    2011-05-01

    The trace metal levels in the tissues of two popular leafy vegetables Amaranthus caudatus and Corchrus olithorus widely consumed in Nigeria were assessed from a cultivated floodplain receiving effluents from diverse factories in Ibadan. Although the leaves are primarily consumed, the stems are usually used as a feed for farm animals while the roots are disposed by burning when dry or by composting. The objective of this work was to evaluate the level of trace elements in the tissues of these vegetables at harvest time when they become available to the human ecosystem for exposure to the accumulated trace metals, especially the leaves which are cooked and eaten as soup. The results of the mean trace metal levels in the analyses show that the leaves of A. caudatus had the highest bioconcentration in the following order Ba>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Co>Ni>Cd>U>Sb, stems: Ba>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni>Co>Cd>U>Sb, and roots: Mn>Ba>Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni>Co>U>Cd>Sb. In C. olithorus, the order was Mn>Ba>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Co>Ni>Cd>Sb>U in the leaves, Mn>Zn>Ba>Pb>Cr>Cu>Co>Ni>U>Cd>Sb in the roots, and Mn>Zn>Ba>Cu>Cr>Pb>Co>Ni>Cd>U>Sb in the stems. The final result of the vegetable samples showed that the trace metal concentration was in the range of Cr (0.8-58.7), Mn (35.0-9,495.9), Co (0.3-33.6), Cu (2.3-60.3), Zn (16.0-538.2), Cd (0.000-40.53), Sb (0.000-0.037), Ba (13.0-1,175.6), Pb (0.9-39.7), and U (0.0-2.2). The bioconcentration factors (BF) for the transfer of trace metals from soil to the tissues showed a higher ease of bioaccumulation when compared to previous studies. The element with the highest BF in the study was Ba (6.45) in the leaves while the least was Co (0.09) in the roots of A. caudatus. The level of bioconcentration of trace metals in the leaves in most of the samples exceeds the recommended levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Nigeria and therefore constitutes a potential public health risk to the populace who consume

  3. Metal-metal interactions among dietary toxic and essential trace metals in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsenhans, B.; Schmolke, G.; Kolb, K.; Stokes, J.; Forth, W.

    1987-12-01

    Exposure to toxic and essential metals is thought to be reflected by corresponding metal concentrations in tissues. However, toxic and essential metals may influence each other in regard to their retention in the body. Therefore, a basic diet containing four toxic metals (As 7, Cd 9, Ni 13, and Pb 20 ppm) and adequate amounts of essential metals was fed to rats for 2 weeks. Test groups received the basic diet with increasing concentrations of one of the toxic metals (up to 90 ppm As, 180 ppm Cd, 365 ppm Ni, and 394 ppm Pb). As, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by atomic emission spectroscopy in liver, kidney, intestine, brain, muscle, bone, skin, hair, and blood. A linear relationship between diet and tissue concentration is observed for As and Ni in the kidney, for Cd in the liver, and for Pb in the bone. In other tissues saturation was observed. While Cd-Fe interactions were common to most of the tissues, other interactions were detected only in specific tissues, e.g., As-Cu in the kidney, Cd-Zn in the liver, and As-Mn, Cd-Mn, or Ni-Cu in the intestine. Increases of renal Pb and intestinal Cd by dietary Ni, and a decrease in bone As by dietary Pb were the most pronounced interactions between the toxic metals. The results demonstrate that potential target organs for the evaluation of metal exposure need to be carefully analyzed for interfering metal-metal interactions.

  4. Biochemical normalization of trace metals in Arctocephalus australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Baraj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the heart concentration data does not seem relevant for use as a bioindicator, mainly due to its low concentration level. After applying a normalizing procedure, the heart results were a better Hg bioindicator (preconcentration coefficient 43.1 than those of the kidney (preconcentration coefficient 8.6. Cadmium preconcentration coefficients were 128.1, 195.3 and 5.2 for liver, kidney and heart, respectively, demonstrating the high accumulative capacity especially for the liver and kidneys. Iron is proposed as a normalizing element for the definiton of the regional natural biochemical population of the metals. In general, positive correlation coefficients were found between Fe and other metals.Arctocephalus australis foi usado como organismo indicador para concentrações de metal traço na costa do Rio Grande do Sul. Metais foram analisados em tecidos extraídos do coração, rins e fígado. Os baixos teores encontrados no coração inicialmente poderiam indicar que este órgão não traria resultados relevantes. Porém, mediante a aplicação de um procedimento de normalização, foram encontrados coeficientes de pré-concentração de 43.1 e de 8.6 para o coração e para os rins, respectivamente, indicando o tecido do coração como o melhor bioindicador para Hg. Para Cd, os coeficientes de pré-concentração foram 128.1, 195.3 e 5.2 para fígado, rins e coração, respectivamente, demonstrando alta capacidade acumulativa especialmente para fígado e rins. Foram encontradas altas correlações positivas entre o Fe e os metais Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ag, Mn, Ni, Cr e Pb, indicando ser este elemento normalizante para definição da concentração bioquímica natural de metais na população de Arctocephalus australis no extremo sul do Brasil.

  5. Leaching and accumulation of trace elements in sulfate reducing granular sludge under concomitant thermophilic and low pH conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    The leaching and/or accumulation of trace elements in sulfate reducing granular sludge systems was investigated. Two thermophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors operated at pH 5 were fed with sucrose (4gCODl reactor -1d -1) and sulfate at different COD/SO 4 2- ratios. During the start-up of such acidogenic systems, an initial leaching of trace elements from the inoculum sludge occurred regardless of trace elements supplementation in the reactor influent. The granular sludge maintained the physical structure despite high Fe leaching. After start-up and nonetheless the acidic conditions, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo and Se were retained or accumulated by the sludge when added. Particularly, Ni and Co accumulated in the carbonates and exchangeable fractions ensuring potential bioavailability. Otherwise, the initial stock in the inoculum sludge sufficed to operate the process for nearly 1year without supplementation of trace elements and no significant sludge wash-out occurred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Pu(IV) and Fe(III) accumulation ability of heavy metal-tolerant soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskaite, L.; Smirnov, A.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.; Remeikis, V.; Baltrunas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The work was aimed at studying abilities of soil microorganisms to participate in metal/radionuclide mobility processes by accumulating them. Soil microorganisms were treated with a mixture of heavy metals (Cr(III), Ni, Fe(III), Mn(II), Cd) in order to isolate the most tolerant ones. Among more metal-tolerant microorganisms microscopic fungi dominated. Tests of fungal tolerance towards each metal showed that the most tolerant fungi to almost all metals were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Accumulation ability of metal-tolerant fungi was tested using Pu(IV) and Fe(III). Investigation of Pu accumulation by fungal biomass showed that all the fungi accumulated Pu, and among the most effective radionuclide accumulators Eupenicillium sp., Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger could be mentioned. All the fungi showed high Fe-accumulation capacity. While growing in the medium with 1 mM iron, most fungi accumulated over 90% of Fe in their biomass. Very good accumulation and growth abilities in Fe-supplemented medium were demonstrated by Paecilomyces lilacinus. (authors)

  7. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otitoloju, A.A.; Don-Pedro, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Most laboratory assessments on toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC 5 0) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. while Zn and Pb ions accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation radio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). (author) [es

  8. Seagrasses as indicators for coastal trace metal pollution: a global meta-analysis serving as a benchmark, and a Caribbean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L; Lamers, Leon P M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Eygensteyn, Jelle; de Brouwer, Jan H F; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbers, Chantal M; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-12-01

    Seagrass beds are highly productive coastal ecosystems providing a large array of ecosystem services including fisheries and carbon sequestration. As seagrasses are known to be highly sensitive to anthropogenic forcing, we evaluated the use of trace metal concentrations in seagrasses as bioindicators for trace metal pollution of coastal regions at both global and local scale. We carried out a meta-analysis based on literature data to provide a global benchmark list for trace metal accumulation in seagrasses, which was lacking in literature. We subsequently carried out a case study at the Caribbean islands of Curaçao and Bonaire to test for local-scale differences in trace metal concentrations in seagrasses, and internal metal allocation. The benchmark and local study show that trace metal concentrations in seagrass leaves, regardless of the species, can vary over a 100-1000-fold range, and are related to the level of anthropogenic pressure, making seagrasses highly valuable indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacterial mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress and decreased accumulation of metals in plant tissues: Mechanisms and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils is one of main concerns causing some of the different ecological and environmental problems. Excess accumulation of these metals in soil has changed microbial community (e.g., structure, function, and diversity), deteriorated soil, decreased the growth and yield of plant, and entered into the food chain. Plants' tolerance to heavy metal stress needs to be improved in order to allow growth of crops with minimum or no accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of plant that satisfy safe food demands for the world's rapidly increasing population. It is well known that PGPRs (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) enhance crop productivity and plant resistance to heavy metal stress. Many recent reports describe the application of heavy metal resistant-PGPRs to enhance agricultural yields without accumulation of metal in plant tissues. This review provides information about the mechanisms possessed by heavy metal resistant-PGPRs that ameliorate heavy metal stress to plants and decrease the accumulation of these metals in plant, and finally gives some perspectives for research on these bacteria in agriculture in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between some selected trace metal concentrations in six species of fish from the Arabian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.

    1988-07-01

    The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.

  11. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Robert J; Bain, Daniel J; Hillman, Aubrey L; Pompeani, David P; Finkenbinder, Matthew S; Abbott, Mark B

    2017-04-18

    Early industrial trace metal loadings are poorly characterized but potentially substantial sources of trace metals to the landscape. The magnitude of legacy contamination in southwestern Pennsylvania, the cradle of North American fossil fuel industrialization, is reconstructed from trace metal concentrations in a sediment core with proxies including major and trace metal chemistry, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Trace metal chemistry in this sediment record reflects 19th and 20th century land use and industry. In particular, early 19th century arsenic loadings to the lake are elevated from pesticides used by early European settlers at a lakeside tannery. Later, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of acidic mine drainage from coal operations. Twentieth century zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by emissions from the nearby, infamous Donora Zinc Works yet record both the opening of a nearby coal-fired power plant and amendments to the Clean Air Act. The impact of early industry is substantial and rivals more recent metal fluxes, resulting in a significant potential source of contaminated sediments. Thus, modern assessments of trace metal contamination cannot ignore early industrial inputs, as the potential remobilization of legacy contamination would impact ecosystem and human health.

  12. Investigation of Water Safety in Non-treated Drinking Water with Trace Toxic Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Suw Young; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ga Eun

    2013-09-01

    The trace toxic metal copper was assayed using mercury immobilized on a carbon nanotube electrode (MCW), with a graphite counter and a reference electrode. In this study, a macro-scale convection motor was interfaced with a MCW three-electrode system, in which a handmade MCW was optimized using cyclic- and square-wave stripping voltammetry. An analytical electrolyte for tap water was used instead of an expensive acid or base ionic solution. Under these conditions, optimum parameters were 0.09 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, 0.01 V incremental potential, and a 60-s accumulation time. A diagnostic working curve was obtained from 50.0 to 350 μg/L. At a constant Cu(II) concentration of 10.0 μg/L, the statistical relative standard deviation was 1.78% (RSD, n = 15), the analytical accumulation time was only 60 s, and the analytical detection limit approached 4.6 μg/L (signal/noise = 3). The results were applied to nontreated drinking water. The content of the analyzed copper using 9.0 and 4.0 μg/L standards were 8.68 μg/L and 3.96 μg/L; statistical values R(2) = 0.9987 and R(2) = 0.9534, respectively. This method is applicable to biological diagnostics or food surveys.

  13. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haili; Zhang Zhengwang; Chang Chongyan; Wang Yong

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels

  14. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Haili [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Zhengwang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: zzw@bnu.edu.cn; Chang Chongyan [Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Yong [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Center for Forestry and Ecology, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels.

  15. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  16. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  17. Guidelines for the determination of selected trace metals in aerosols and in wet precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and analytical procedures suitable for the collection and analysis of representative samples of atmospheric aerosols and wet precipitation for selected trace metals. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  19. Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a sensor to detect select trace toxic heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in water is proposed. Using an automatic side-stream sampling technique,...

  20. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  1. Trace Metal and Ancillary Data in Puget Sound, 1980 - 1986 (NODC Accession 9100153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In first of three data reports on the trace metal and ancillary data in Puget Sound and its watershed (Paulson et al., 1991a), all water column, sediment, and...

  2. Trace metal levels in nearshore sediments close to industrial discharges off Cuddalore (Bay of Bengal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Das, V.K.; Nair, K.K.C.; Paimpillii, J.S.

    Trace metals in the sediment and in the overlying water column along with texture characteristics in the vicinity of industrial discharges at Cuddallore were analyzed, covering the seasonal changes to identify probable anthropogenic influence...

  3. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  4. Yield, resource use efficiency and trace metal uptake of weeping lovegrass grown on municipal sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Eyob H; Annandale, John G; Steyn, Martin J; Truter, Wayne F; Debusho, Legesse K; Talore, Deribe G

    2018-01-01

    There are concerns that fertilization using sludge in semi-arid areas, where water is limiting, will compound the effect of drought, resulting in the decline of yield from potential salt accumulation. This study investigated impacts of annual sludge application at 0, 4, 8 and 16 Mg ha -1 on weeping lovegrass hay yield, crude protein (CP) content, rainfall use efficiency (RUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and trace metal uptake over eight consecutive years. Both hay yield and RUE increased by 5-53% as the sludge rate increased. Hay yield was highest (13.3 Mg ha -1 ) during the wet season and RUE (27.1 kg mm -1 ) during the dry season. RUE was highest at sludge rates of 16 Mg ha -1 and NUE at 4 Mg ha -1 . Similarly, municipal sludge application increased CP content as well as crop Cr and Zn uptake from the 16 Mg ha -1 treatment. Results from this study indicated that eight consecutive years of treated municipal sludge application increased weeping lovegrass hay yield, CP content and RUE. Similarly, trace metal uptake by crop did not differ between the zero control and the 16 Mg ha -1 treatment, except for Zn and Cr, which showed a slight increment. Nonetheless, all trace metals remained well below the maximum tolerable dietary concentrations for domestic animals. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Trace metal and metalloid species determination: evolution and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, O. F. X.; Caruso, J. A.

    1998-02-01

    Metal species determination has seen considerable evolution during the last decade. The issues addressed by total metal determinations using standard spectrochemical analyses deliver only a minimal amount of information required to appropriately inform decision making. In molecular analyses, coupled instrumentation systems allow us to obtain molecular information for assisting in identifying the compounds of interest. Metal species determinations will provide additional information beyond that available from total metal determinations. Many total metal determinations will be replaced with elemental speciation determinations when species-selective risk/benefit assessment is a priority. This paper discusses the differences between traditional inorganic metals analysis and metal species determinations and outlines new trends.

  6. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  7. Influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Wu; Zhao, Bo; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments, core sediments from a restored mangrove forest and adjacent mud flat in Yifeng Estuary (southeastern China) were analyzed. The chemical speciation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni) was determined according to a sequential extraction procedure. Special attention was paid to the upper 20cm of sediment, in which metal accumulation was enhanced and speciation was obviously modified. Mangrove reforestation decreased the concentrations of all metals in the acid-soluble fraction and increased metal concentrations in the oxidizable fraction. Increased Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations and decreased Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in the reducible fraction. These results suggest that mangrove reforestation facilitated the accumulation of heavy metals in the upper sediment layers but decreased their bioavailability and mobility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of Dry Atmospheric Deposition on Aquatic Systems - Nutrients, Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Chia-Te

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a source of new N, P and trace metals to the ocean and water bodies on land. Nutrient and trace metal inputs from atmospheric deposition have been shown to induce phytoplankton growth and impact water chemistry. The three chapters presented in this thesis examine dry atmospheric deposition impacts on phytoplankton and water chemistry including: (1) How African dust impact phytoplankton growth at the low nutrient low chlorophyll (LNLC) ocean off Barbados; (2) Evaluate...

  9. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal concentration in plants increased in site irrigation with wastewater. Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals ...

  11. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several sediment samples in Lake Burullus have been affected by the discharges of heavy metals through different drains. The study aimed to analyze the chemical speciation of these metals. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments collected in spring season were studied using a ...

  12. Modified batch anaerobic digestion assay for testing efficiencies of trace metal additives to enhance methane production of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulé, Mathieu; Bolduan, Rainer; Seidelt, Stephan; Schlagermann, Pascal; Bott, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to evaluate the methane yield of biogas substrates such as energy crops are usually carried out with undiluted inoculum. A BMP assay was performed on two energy crops (green cuttings and grass silage). Anaerobic digestion was performed both with and without supplementation of three commercial additives containing trace metals in liquid, solid or adsorbed form (on clay particles). In order to reveal positive effects of trace metal supplementation on the methane yield, besides undiluted inoculum, 3-fold and 10-fold dilutions of the inoculum were applied for substrate digestion. Diluted inoculum variants were supplemented with both mineral nutrients and pH-buffering substances to prevent a collapse of the digestion process. As expected, commercial additives had no effect on the digestion process performed with undiluted inoculum, while significant increases of methane production through trace element supplementation could be observed on the diluted variants. The effect of inoculum dilution may be twofold: (1) decrease in trace metal supplementation from the inoculum and (2) reduction in the initial number of bacterial cells. Bacteria require higher growth rates for substrate degradation and hence have higher trace element consumption. According to common knowledge of the biogas process, periods with volatile fatty acids accumulation and decreased pH may have occurred in the course ofanaerobic digestion. These effects may have led to inhibition, not only ofmethanogenes and acetogenes involved in the final phases of methane production, but also offibre-degrading bacterial strains involved in polymer hydrolysis. Further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the...

  14. Spatial distribution of heavy metal accumulation in the sediments after dam construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moo Joon; Yang, Yun Mo; Oh, Da Yeon; Lee, Soo Hyung; Yoon, Yi Yong

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary environment has been modified in the Geum River where an estuary dam and midstream dams were constructed. Furthermore, the Geum River tributaries deliver contaminants from the wastewater of an industrial complex. However, the influence of tributaries and dams on sedimentary metal deposition has not been extensively studied. The objectives of this study are to assess metal accumulation and to investigate the source of the metals. Sediments were collected in the main channel and two tributaries on October 2013. Abnormal accumulations of fine sediments were not observed above the midstream dams. Chromium, Ni, and Zn showed higher concentrations in above the midstream dam, but their concentrations were not related to grain size. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Hg were much higher upstream from the first midstream dam and came from one of the major tributaries. Arsenic was the only element found at higher concentrations downstream from the last midstream dam and was likely sourced from abandoned mines and/or agricultural activity. The pollution indexes indicated deposition of all metals, except Cr and Ni, may have been affected by anthropogenic activity. With respect to long-term accumulation of the metals, accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu by anthropogenic input largely increased, implying accumulation of these metals has continued due to anthropogenic activity since the estuary dam was constructed. Our results suggest that changes in river flow caused by the estuary dam and anthropogenic input from tributaries sources increased the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, and As).

  15. Bioavailability of metals-trace in sediments: a review; Biodisponibilidade de metais-traco em sedimentos: uma revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rafaela E. de A.V.; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann; Lima, Vanessa Lemos de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao, E-mail: rafaelarodriguesss@hotmail.com, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lemos.nessa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The chemical association of metals in sediments provides an indication of its release by physical, chemical and biological processes, with toxic effects under certain environmental conditions. Knowing about their chemical bonds in sediments, can recognize specific sources of pollution, and speciation of trace metals is important for bioavailability and toxicity to animals and plants. The accumulation of these particles in the sediment occur by the following mechanisms: a) adsorption to the finest particles; b) precipitating of the element in the form of compounds; c) co-precipitating of the element with iron and manganese oxides; d) complexation with organic matter; e) incorporation into the crystal lattice of minerals. Currently, five phases are considered when studying the bioavailability of trace elements in sediments: a) the exchangeable phase, MgCl{sub 2} (causes saltiness change); b) leachable phase, (acetic acid causes pH change); c) reducible phase (hydroxylamine hydrochloride causes release of the bound metals linked to Fe and Mn oxides); d) oxidized phase, the peroxide hydrogen (cause the degradation of organic matter); e) the residual pseudo-phase, the aqua regia (cause release of metals associated to minerals). The first three phases are considered the most bioavailable. In the last two fractions, the metals are linked to sediment constituents and not bioavailable. The organic phase is relatively stable and the metal present therein are removed under oxidative conditions. Metals present in the pseudo-phase residual measure the degree of environmental pollution, since great amount of metals at this stage indicates a lower degree of pollution.

  16. Silver nanoparticle accumulation by aquatic organisms – neutron activation as a tool for the environmental fate of nanoparticles tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asztemborska Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water environments are noted as being some of the most exposed to the influence of toxic nanoparticles (NPs. Therefore, there is a growing need for the investigation of the accumulation and toxicity of NPs to aquatic organisms. In our studies neutron activation followed by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used for studying the accumulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by freshwater larvae of Chironomus and fish Danio rerio. The influence of exposition time, concentration and the source of nanoparticles on the efficiency of AgNP accumulation were studied. It was found that AgNPs are efficiently accumulated by Chironomid larvae for the first 30 hours of exposition; then, the amount of silver nanoparticles decreases. The silver content in larvae increases together with the NP concentration in water. Larvae which have accumulated AgNPs can be a source of nanoparticles for fish and certainly higher levels of Ag in the trophic chain. In comparison with water contamination, silver nanoparticles are more efficiently accumulated if fish are fed with AgNP-contaminated food. Finally, it was concluded that the applied study strategy, including neutron activation of nanoparticles, is very useful technique for tracing the uptake and accumulation of NPs in organisms

  17. Modified interstitial water squeezer for trace metal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Hydraulic squeezer of Manheim, used in the extraction of pore water of sediments, has been modified by providing teflon inner lining and increasing the volume of squeezer. The modified version facilitates collection of pore water sample, for trace...

  18. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L.; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D.; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. - Highlights: • Trace metals measured in blood and feathers. • Arsenic, Mercury and Lead significantly higher at urban colony. • Correlations found between trace metals in feathers and blood. • Little Penguins are suitable bioindicators for coastal metal pollution. - This study confirms the suitability of the Little Penguin as a bioindicator of coastal metal pollution in coastal areas using non-destructive sampling methods

  19. Distributions of traces of metals on sorption from solutions of vanadium(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, N.K.; Turnaov, A.N.; Telegin, G.F.; Kremenskaya, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the distributions of traces of metals between aqueous solutions of vanadium(V) and a solid reagent made by introducing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid into an inert matrix: a nonionic macroporous copolymer of polystyrene with divinyl benzene (wofatit Y 29). As regards degree of extraction, the trace components fall in the series zinc > cadmium > manganese > copper > cobalt, which resemble the extractability series. The vanadium content of the solution and the concentrations of the trace components have virtually no effect on the sorption. The process is effective in concentrating trace components from solutions containing vanadium(V)

  20. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, Cd accumulation in fine roots reached to 390 μg/g DW under the treatment Cd200. Oxalic and citric acids were the two most abundant organic acids in S. alterniflora. Contents of oxalic acid in inflorescences, stems and fine roots were all positively related with Cd bioaccumulations indicating that oxalic acid ...

  2. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoff, Magdalena; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry; Lettens, Suzanna; Tack, Filip; Vandecasteele, Bart; De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the

  3. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the

  4. Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Vijver, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida

  5. A comparison of lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes. Methods: To this purpose, we compared Pb tolerance and accumulation in hydroponics among calamine and non-calamine populations of Silene

  6. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C

    2014-02-15

    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of bioavailable heavy metals and microbial parameters of soil on the metal accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi; Dai, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A field-based study was undertaken to analyze the effects of soil bioavailable heavy metals determined by a sequential extraction procedure, and soil microbial parameters on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The results showed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in rice grain decreases by 65.9%, 78.9%, 32.6%, 80.5%, 61.0% and 15.7%, respectively in the sites 3 (far-away), compared with those in sites 1 (close-to). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil catalase activity, the MBC/MBN ratio, along with bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni could explain 68.9% of the total eigenvalue, indicating that these parameters have a great impact on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The soil bioavailable heavy metals have a dominant impact on their accumulation in rice grain, with a variance contribution of 60.1%, while the MBC/MBN has a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 4.1%. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the MBC/MBN, urease and catalase activities are the key microbial parameters that affect the heavy metal accumulation in rice by influencing the soil bioavailable heavy metals or the translocation of heavy metals in rice. RDA showed an interactive effect between Cu, Pb and Zn in rice grain and the soil bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni. The heavy metals in rice grain, with the exception of Pb, could be predicted by their respective soil bioavailable heavy metals. The results suggested that Pb accumulation in rice grain was mainly influenced by the multi-metal interactive effects, and less affected by soil bioavailable Pb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal accumulation in the human uterus varies by pathology and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Kozak, Lidia; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the content of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in human endometrium (END), endocervix (ECX), and endometrial (END-P) and endocervical (ECX-P) polyps in relation to histologic image and female demographic characteristics and habits. Tissues were collected during curettage of the uterine cavity, subjected to histopathologic examination, digested, and analyzed with the use of a microwave induced nitrogen plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Demographic/lifestyle characteristics were assessed with the use of a questionnaire. University hospital and research laboratory. One hundred nine white Polish women undergoing curettage of the END (n = 60) or ECX (n = 23) or dissection of END-P (n = 16) or ECX-P (n = 10). None. Trace element concentrations in collected tissues. Histologic states of analyzed END included: normal (n = 22), irregularity (n = 3), polypoid (n = 12), simple hyperplasia (n = 10), leiomyoma (n = 5), and cancer (n = 8); whereas for ECX: normal (n = 10), inflammation (n = 8), irregularity (n = 2), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 3). All elements were identified in the sampled material. Compared with histologically normal tissues, endometrial cancer, hyperplasia, and CIN revealed significantly increased levels of toxic metals (Cd and Pb), altered status of Cu and Mn, and an elevated Cu/Zn ratio. Current and former smoking was associated with significantly higher Cd and Pb levels in investigated tissues. Polyps represented significant accumulators of Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb (END-P) or Al, Cd, and Cu (ECX-P). The findings of this study are important in understanding the presence and role of metals in the female reproductive system and its pathology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace metal levels of drinking water sources in parts of Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace metal contents were determined over a period of six months covering both the rainy and dry seasons. Tap, well, stream and borehole water from five towns (Osogbo, Iwo, Ejigbo, Ile-Ife and Ilesha) in Osun State were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of the metals analyzed ...

  10. Trace metal concentrations in marine zooplankton from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of Marine Research-Living Resource Programme (MRLR) programme at 24 stations to establish the importance of these metals in the Bay of Bengal. The average concentration of Fe, Co...

  11. Temporal variation of trace metal geochemistry in floodplain lake sediment subject to dynamic hydrological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Luitwieler, M.; Joziasse, J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change and land use may significantly influence metal cycling in dynamic river systems. We studied temporal variation of sediment characteristics in a floodplain lake, including concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, acid volatile sulfide and trace metals. The sampling period included a

  12. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-07

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  13. Multilevel modeling of damage accumulation processes in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmoiartseva, K. A.; Trusov, P. V.; Kotelnikova, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    To predict the behavior of components and constructions it is necessary to develop the methods and mathematical models which take into account the self-organization of microstructural processes and the strain localization. The damage accumulation processes and the evolution of material properties during deformation are important to take into account. The heterogeneity of the process of damage accumulation is due to the appropriate physical mechanisms at the scale levels, which are lower than the macro-level. The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model for analyzing the behavior of polycrystalline materials that allows describing the damage accumulation processes. Fracture is the multistage and multiscale process of the build-up of micro- and mesodefects over the wide range of loading rates. The formation of microcracks by mechanisms is caused by the interactions of the dislocations of different slip systems, barriers, boundaries and the inclusions of the secondary phase. This paper provides the description of some of the most well-known models of crack nucleation and also suggests the structure of a mathematical model based on crystal plasticity and dislocation models of crack nucleation.

  14. Mobility and accumulation of heavy metals in podsolic soil via fertilizers usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhovskaya, T.Yu.; Pukhovskij, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasting of heavy metal mobility and accumulation in soil has a great value for ecosystem status assessment. Results of long-term field and greenhouse experiments with the using X-ray fluorescence method are presented in this paper. New approaches have been proposed for using X-ray spectrometry in agrochemical investigations and heavy metal mobility measurements. (author)

  15. Heavy metal accumulation and phytostabilisation potential of tree fine roots in a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Luster, Joerg; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Frey, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Root systems of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and poplar (Populus tremula) were long-term exposed to metal-contaminated soils in open-top chambers to investigate the accumulation of the heavy metals in the fine roots and to assess the plants suitability for phytostabilisation. The heavy metals from the contaminated soil accumulated in the fine roots about 10-20 times more than in the controls. The capacity to bind heavy metals already reached its maximum after the first vegetation period. Fine roots of spruce tend to accumulate more heavy metals than poplar. Copper and Zinc were mainly detected in the cell walls with larger values in the epidermis than in the cortex. The heavy metals accumulated in the fine roots made up 0.03-0.2% of the total amount in the soils. We conclude that tree fine roots adapt well to conditions with heavy metal contamination, but their phytostabilisation capabilities seem to be very low. - Long-term exposed fine roots of trees are well adapted to soils with high heavy metal contents, but their phytostabilisation capabilities are rather low

  16. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. .... digested samples were filtered with a 0.45 µm pore size cellulose nitrate membrane filter paper. ... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by Farooq et al.

  17. Heavy Metals Accumulation In Roadside Soil And Vegetation Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of some heavy metals in soil and vegetation along a major highway in Libya were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Mn in soil and vegetation all decreased with distance from the road, indicating their relation to traffic. The concentrations of the ...

  18. Determination of heavy metal genotoxicity and their accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lowest level of Cd was observed in the bone tissue of Oreochromis niloticus. The values of heavy metals found in the cultured fish species were very low in concentration compared to the ones sourced from Asa River. Micronuclei and frequencies of nuclear abnormalities were assessed in the blood erythrocytes of both ...

  19. Determination of Heavy Metal Genotoxicity and their Accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515. Ilorin, Nigeria. ... The fish organs; bone, gills, kidney and liver from the four fish species were ..... Fig 1: Mean concentration of heavy metals detected in bone, gills, kidneys and liver tissues of Tilapia zilli.

  20. Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: Threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Casado-Martinez, M.; Smith, Brian D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    We followed the net accumulation of As, Cu and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina exposed in the laboratory to natural metal-contaminated sediments, one exposure leading to mass mortality between day 10 and 20, and the other not causing lethality over a period of 60 days of exposure. The worms showed lower total accumulated metal concentrations just before mortality occurred (<20 days) at the lethal exposure, than after 30 days of exposure to sediments not causing mortality. Moreover rates of accumulation of As, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in the lethal exposure than in the sublethal exposure. Our results show that it is not possible to link mortality to a critical total body concentration, and we add to a growing body of literature indicating that metal toxicity occurs when organisms cannot cope with overwhelming influx and subsequent accumulation rates. - Laboratory exposures with the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina suggest that toxicity is not caused by the accumulated concentration of toxic metals in the body of the animal, but by the rate at which the toxic metal is accumulated.

  1. Concentration and separation of trace metals with an arsonic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, J S; Moyers, E M

    1976-08-01

    Macroporeus arsonic acid resins with different pore sizes and surface areas were prepared and the properties compared. One of the resins was used for concentration of trace metal ions from dimineralized water, tap-water, and sea-water. The effect of pH and complexing agents on the recovery of metal ions was studied. A method for separation of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from each other and from other metal ions was developed.

  2. Leaching of Trace Metals from Soil under Alternating Oxic-anoxic Conditions: a Column Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Balint, Nimirciag; Enrico, Buratto; Franco, Ajmone-Marsan

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important and abundant transition metals in the Earth’s crust is iron, which plays a key role in environmental biogeochemistry. A large number of trace metals and other contaminants are associated to Fe(III) minerals; under anoxic conditions, Fe(III) can be reduced and, consequently, potentially dangerous compounds can be released. In this work we present column experiments of metal mobilization from soils sampled from a mining area in Northeastern Romania. A preliminary study...

  3. Grain size effect on trace metals distribution in sediments from two coastal areas of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. De Gregori, H.; H. Pinochet, C.; M. Arancibia, J.; A. Vidal, B. [Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla (Chile)

    1996-07-01

    Marine environment contamination by trace metals has received increased global attention during recent years. Presently it is widely recognized that marine ecosystem can become contaminated by trace metals from numerous and diverse sources. However, anthropogenic activities, such as mining and industrial processing of ores and metals, still remain the principal cause of the increased amount of heavy metals which have been dumped into oceans. After entering the aquatic environment trace metals are distributed among water, biotic and sediment compartments, this latter serving as a final sink for metal pollutants. The magnitude of this scavenging action of sediments depends on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the sediments. Concentrations of trace metals in sediments are usually of a greater magnitude order than concentrations in water. Sediments were considered as an important indicator for environmental pollution, they act as permanent or temporary traps for material spread into the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the grain size effect on the copper, cadmium and zinc levels distribution in surface marine sediments along the Chilean Coast. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in epidermal glands of the waterlily (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavid, N; Barkay, Z; Tel-Or, E

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the anatomical aspects of heavy-metal accumulation in the waterlily (Nymphaea 'Aurora', Nymphaeaceae). Epidermal glands were identified by light microscopy on the abaxial side of the leaf laminae and on the epidermis of the rhizome; glandular trichomes were observed in the petiole epidermis. Glands were not observed in the roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in these glands was monitored using a scanning electron microscope equipped for energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Further experiments showed maximal cadmium and calcium accumulation in the mature leaf lamina in daylight, and this accumulation was inhibited by the herbicide 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. These results suggest that, in Nymphaea, heavy metals are accumulated primarily in association with glands found in plant organs that have direct contact with water or mud. Deposition and storage of heavy metals by these glands may represent a stage in the sequestration and detoxification of the metals. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing waterlilies for the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil-crop systems: a review for wheat and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Fei; Liao, Renkuan; Hu, Yaqi

    2017-06-01

    The health risks arising from heavy metal pollution (HMP) in agricultural soils have attracted global attention, and research on the accumulation of heavy metals in soil-plant systems is the basis for human health risk assessments. This review studied the accumulation of seven typical heavy metals-Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn-in soil-corn and soil-wheat systems. The findings indicated that, in general, wheat was more likely to accumulate heavy metals than corn. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the seven heavy metals in wheat and corn grains decreased exponentially with their average concentrations in soil. The seven heavy metals were ranked as follows, in ascending order of accumulation in corn grains: Pb < Cr < Zn < As < Cu < Cd accumulation in wheat grains, their ranking was as follows: Zn < Pb < Cr < Cu < As < Hg

  6. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  7. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Mobility in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drilling and “fracing” of the Marcellus shale causes fluid‐rock interactions that has the potential to mobilize metals naturally enriched in the shale. While these metal concentrations are low, their mobilization from the solid, is cause for further study

  8. Assessment of trace metal contamination of soils around Oluyole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of metals contamination of the soils around Oluyole industrial estate in Ibadan. Oluyole industrial estate has heavy concentration of manufacturing industries that generate a lot of waste products capable of introducing metals into the environment. Consequently, twenty-one ...

  9. Coagulation / flocculation process in the removal of trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    @JASEM. Since the early 1970s, there has been growing concern over the diverse effects of heavy metals on humans and aquatic ecosystems. Many heavy metals and their compound have been found that are toxic, while some are also subjected to biomagnifications. (Viessman and Hammer, 1993; Gardea – Torresday.

  10. Assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic workshops in Oyo town in order to assess their possible adverse health implications on man and his environment. Concentrations of metals above certain levels have been shown to impair man's health.

  11. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Vijver, Martina G.; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.; Hobbelen, Peter H.F.; Koolhaas, Josee E.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Vliet, Petra C.J. van; Jan Hendriks, A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. - Earthworm metal concentrations are less than linearly related to total soil concentrations and predicted pore water concentrations

  12. Adsorption of Bio accumulated Heavy Metals Using Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... minutes using metal ion concentration range of 100 - 500mg/L. The adsorption of copper and lead ions from aqueous solutions by 0.2 mole MgCl2 activated palm kennel shell was investigated. The results show that maximum adsorption occurred at 80.0 mg/g for Cu2+ and 114.0 mg/g for Pb2+ with raw palm kernel shell.

  13. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  14. N- myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-10-01

    N- myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N- myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N- myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N- myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N- myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N- myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N- myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N- myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N- myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N- myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness.

  15. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  18. Comparison of trace metals in South Carolina floodplain and marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, L.R.; Chen, H.S.; Settlemyre, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study of trace metals (copper, zinc, lead, and molybdenum) in sediment cores from a pristine marsh near North Inlet, S.C., a polluted marsh near Charleston Harbor, S.C., and South Carolina river floodplains indicates that the Charleston Harbor marsh samples have significantly higher concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead than either North Inlet samples or river floodplain samples. It is not clear, however, whether this result can be attributed to industrial contamination because the peak concentrations of copper and zinc in cores from the Charleston Harbor marsh occur at depths between 10 and 60 cm rather than at or near the sediment surface, as is the case for well-documented occurrences of contaminated marine sediments. Also, both marsh areas show similar linear relationships for copper vs. zinc, which suggest that both areas received the same relative inputs of copper and zinc from similar or identical sources and that the differences in concentrations between the two areas are due to differences in the rates of accumulation. Natural mechanisms are suggested to explain the higher content of copper and zinc in Charleston Harbor vs. North Inlet marsh sediments and the variable depth of peak copper and zinc concentrations

  19. Biomass, Nutrient, and Trace Element Accumulation and Partitioning in Cattail ( L.) during Wetland Phytoremediation of Municipal Biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Cicek, Nazim; Ross, Lisette; Badiou, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Biomass and contaminant accumulation and partitioning in plants determine the harvest stage for optimum contaminant uptake during phytoremediation of municipal biosolids. This wetland microcosm bioassay characterized accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients (N and P), and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in cattail ( L.) in a growth room. Four cattail seedlings were transplanted into each 20-L plastic pail containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. A 10-cm-deep water column was maintained above the 12-cm-thick biosolids layer. Plants were harvested every 14 d over a period of 126 d for determination of aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) yields, along with contaminant concentrations in these plant tissues. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant difference in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Aboveground biomass accumulated significantly greater amounts of N and P and lower amounts of trace elements than BGB. Maximum N accumulation in AGB occurred 83 d after transplanting (DAT), and peak P uptake occurred at 86 DAT. Harvesting at maximum aboveground accumulation removed (percent of the initial element concentration in the biosolids) 4% N, 3% P, 0.05% Zn, 0.6% Cu, 0.1% Cd, and 0.2% Cr. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, phytoremediation would be most effective if cattail is harvested at 86 DAT. These results contribute toward the identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using cattail. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Metal accumulation in the smooth toadfish, Tetractenos glaber, in estuaries around Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alquezar, Ralph; Markich, Scott J.; Booth, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the metal levels in sediments and tissues of a common estuarine fish, Tetractenos glaber (smooth toadfish), from two metal contaminated and two reference estuaries near Sydney, Australia. Metal levels were highest in sediments and fish from contaminated estuaries. Gonads contained the highest metal levels followed by muscle, gill and liver. Metal accumulation was gender-dependant (e.g. male gonads were >20 times higher in As than females; female gills were >30 times higher than males for Pb). Cadmium, Pb and Ni levels in fish tissues reflected sediment levels, indicating sediment and/or dietary metal uptake. Levels of As, Co, Cd and Pb in gills showed similar patterns to other tissues, suggesting that metals may have been taken up by gills through contaminated water. Similar metal patterns in tissues and sediments suggest more than one uptake pathway. This study indicates that multiple factors influence metal accumulation in fish. - Metal levels in toadfish tissues reflect sediment metal levels and show gender differences

  1. Subcellular partitioning of non-essential trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl) in livers of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European (Anguilla anguilla) yellow eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosabal, Maikel [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pierron, Fabien [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Couture, Patrice [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Hare, Landis [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS–ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Handling of hepatic metals consistently involved cytosolic, thermostable ligands. • Granule-like fractions are also involved in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl. • Despite these sequestration mechanisms, metal detoxification is incomplete. • Along the metal gradient, concentrations increase in metal-sensitive fractions. • This increase could represent a toxicological risk for the yellow eels. - Abstract: We determined the intracellular compartmentalization of the trace metals Ag, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl in the livers of yellow eels collected from the Saint Lawrence River system in Canada (Anguilla rostrata) and in the area of the Gironde estuary in France (Anguilla anguilla). Differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and thermal shock were used to separate eel livers into putative “sensitive” fractions (heat-denatured proteins, mitochondria and microsomes + lysosomes) and detoxified metal fractions (heat-stable peptides/proteins and granules). The cytosolic heat-stable fraction (HSP) was consistently involved in the detoxification of all trace metals. In addition, granule-like structures played a complementary role in the detoxification of Ni, Pb, and Tl in both eel species. However, these detoxification mechanisms were not completely effective because increasing trace metal concentrations in whole livers were accompanied by significant increases in the concentrations of most trace metals in “sensitive” subcellular fractions, that is, mitochondria, heat-denatured cytosolic proteins and microsomes + lysosomes. Among these “sensitive” fractions, mitochondria were the major binding sites for As, Cd, Pb, and Tl. This accumulation of non-essential metals in “sensitive” fractions likely represents a health risk for eels inhabiting the Saint Lawrence and Gironde environments.

  2. Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: A large-scale phytomanagement case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; Maranon, Teodoro; Murillo, Jose M.; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.

    2008-01-01

    Phytomanagement employs vegetation and soil amendments to reduce the environmental risk posed by contaminated sites. We investigated the distribution of trace elements in soils and woody plants from a large phytomanaged site, the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain), 7 years after a mine spill, which contaminated the area in 1998. At spill-affected sites, topsoils (0-25 cm) had elevated concentrations of As (129 mg kg -1 ), Bi (1.64 mg kg -1 ), Cd (1.44 mg kg -1 ), Cu (115 mg kg -1 ), Pb (210 mg kg -1 ), Sb (13.8 mg kg -1 ), Tl (1.17 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (457 mg kg -1 ). Trace element concentrations in the studied species were, on average, within the normal ranges for higher plants. An exception was white poplar (Populus alba), which accumulated Cd and Zn in leaves up to 3 and 410 mg kg -1 respectively. We discuss the results with regard to the phytomanagement of trace element contaminated sites. - There is a low trace element transfer from contaminated soils to the aboveground parts of afforested woody plants under a semi-arid climate

  3. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gretchen Loeffler; Wright, Meredith S; Hopkins, William A; Meyer, Judy L

    2009-07-01

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85+/-0.25 microg/g [dry mass]), selenium (17.75+/-0.80 microg/g), and cadmium (7.28+/-0.34 microg/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33+/-0.83 to 0.81+/-0.11 microg/g [dry mass] in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  4. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, G.L.; Wright, M.S.; Hopkins, W.A.; Meyer, J.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have elevated trace element concentrations in their tissues, but this relationship and its potential consequences are unclear for lotic organisms. To explore these patterns in a lotic environment, we transplanted Corbicula fluminea from a reference stream to a stream receiving CFPP discharge. We assessed trace element accumulation and glutathione concentration in clam tissue, shell growth, and condition index at five sites along a contamination gradient. Clams at the most upstream and contaminated site had the highest growth rate, condition index, glutathione concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic (7.85 {+-} 0.25 {mu} g/g (dry mass)), selenium (17.75 {+-} 0.80 {mu} g/g), and cadmium (7.28 {+-} 0.34 {mu} g/g). Mercury concentrations declined from 4.33 {+-} 0.83 to 0.81 {+-} 0.11 {mu} g/g (dry mass) in clams transplanted into the selenium-rich environment nearest the power plant, but this effect was not as evident at less impacted, downstream sites. Even though dilution of trace elements within modest distances from the power plant reduced bioaccumulation potential in clams, long-term loading of trace elements to downstream depositional regions (e.g., slow moving, silty areas) is likely significant.

  5. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  6. Assessment of trace metal levels in some moss and lichen samples collected from near the motorway in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Celik, Fatma; Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, 14 different lichen and moss samples were collected from near the Sivas-Tokat motorway (5-25 m), control samples were collected from uncontaminated locations (1000-3000 m) during 2005. Samples were analyzed using flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The maximum metal concentrations were found to be as 468.1 {mu}g/g (Fe), 270.5 {mu}g/g (Mn), 67.6 {mu}g/g (Zn), 53.3 {mu}g/g (Pb), 79.6 {mu}g/g (Ni), 33.9 {mu}g/g (Cr), 29.6 {mu}g/g (Cu) and 5.7 {mu}g/g (Cd) for mosses, 455.5 {mu}g/g (Fe), 170.5 {mu}g/g (Mn), 77.6 {mu}g/g (Zn), 6.5 {mu}g/g (Pb), 10.1 {mu}g/g (Ni), 3.8 {mu}g/g (Cr), 25.6 {mu}g/g (Cu) and 1.5 {mu}g/g (Cd) {mu}g/g for lichens. The concentration of trace metals in samples is depended on moss and lichen species. Some species is accumulated trace metals at high ratio.

  7. Assessment of trace metal levels in catfish (Cathorops spixii) from Sal River estuary, Aracaju, state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Aragão, Kennedy Alexandre Sousa; Santos, Danielle Barros; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead were determined in the catfish (Cathorops spixii) from the Sal River estuary, Brazil, to evaluate the potential role of domestic and industrial effluents released without treatment on the quality of the estuarine environment with consequences to fish resources. Muscle, liver, and kidney samples were analyzed for trace metal composition by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentration (microg/g wet weight) of trace metals in the tissues of C. spixii were as follows: cadmium = 1.65, 2.81, and 0.71 microg/g; copper = 29.07, 4.38, and 3.40 microg/g; zinc = 229, 312, and 15.57 microg/g; nickel = 1.22, 1.04, and 117 microg/g; and lead = 7.09, 10.77, and 11.18 microg/g. The results show that metal accumulation in organs indicates the difference between them. The results showed high concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, lead, and cadmium in the Cathorops spixii compared with the maximum values registered from fish in studies reported in other coastal regions of Brazil.

  8. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  9. Effect of heavy metals combined stress on growth and metals accumulation of three Salix species with different cutting position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Wu, Yajing; Akbar, Siddiq; Jia, Xiuqin; He, Zaihua; Tian, Xingjun

    2016-08-02

    This study aimed to compare growth performance and heavy metal (HM) accumulation at different cutting positions of Salix species grown in multi-metal culture. Three Salix species stems cut at different positions (apical to basal) were grown hydroponically for four weeks. The plants were then treated for three weeks with 0, 5, 10, and 20 μM Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, resulting in total metal concentrations of 0, 20, 40, and 80 μM. The growth parameters and HM content in shoots and initial cutting were measured. Results showed that, compared with S. fragilis, S. matsudana grew more poorly in uncontaminated condition but grew better and accumulated lower metal in shoots under mixed HM treatment. In addition, cuttings from apical parent stem position exhibited poorer growth performance before and after treatment, as well as greater metal content in shoots than base parts under the HM treatment. These results suggest that S. matsudana may undergo a special mechanism to hinder metals in the initial cutting, thus mitigating growth damage. The apical portion also showed poor resistance against the invasion of mixed HMs because of the immature structure. Therefore, in the selection of phytoremediation plants, metal accumulation ability is not proportional to growth performance.

  10. Trace metal speciation in brackish water using diffusive gradients in thin films and ultrafiltration:comparison of techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Jerry; Dahlqvist, Ralf; Gelting, Johan; Ingri, Johan

    2006-01-01

      Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and ultrafiltration were used to measure trace metal concentrations in the Baltic Sea. The results provide the first comparison of these two fundamentally different speciation methods for trace metals. Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were measured at two sites with different total trace metal concentrations. DGT units prepared with APA-gel as diffusive layer and Chelex 100 resin as binding agent were used throughout the study. The ultrafiltration was perfor...

  11. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  12. Trace metals in pelagic organisms from the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of current interest in heavy metal pollution in the marine environment much information is accruing on the present levels of metals in certain marine species. By far the majority of the studies have involved elemental analysis of coastal organisms which are relatively easy to collect. However, due to inherent problems in sampling, far less information exists on element concentration in pelagic organisms, species which are important in terms of total marine biomass, their position in the food web, and their ability to concentrate and transport relatively large amounts of metals in various ways. Microplankton and larger zooplanktonic and nektonic species were sampled over a wide geographical range throughout the Mediterranean as well as along selected transects to assess possible gradients in metal concentrations in plankton communities

  13. Dissolved Trace Metals in Soft-Water Streams of the Northeast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    The free dissolved fraction of trace metals is biologically available and correlated with acute toxicity in aquatic organisms that respire through gills. Consensus regarding prevalence of dissolved trace-metal occurrence in streams in the United States has varied, ranging from widespread occurrence in the 1 to 10's of micrograms per liter for cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, molybdenum, nickel, silver, and zinc, during 1975 to 1995, but less than 1 microgram per liter during the late 1990's to present. Whereas much of the earlier data is thought to have been affected by contamination during sampling and sample processing, later data after implementation of clean-sampling techniques indicates dissolved trace-metal concentrations in hard-water streams are very low because of sorption on suspended solids. In low-conductance, low-suspended-load streams of the northeast, USA, however, substantial dissolved metals concentrations have been measured with periods of record now approaching 6 years since implementation of clean sampling methods. The high concentrations are associated with industrial and domestic-development source, low surface area on suspended loads, and stabilizing dissolved organic ligands, including natural fulvic acids and chelating compounds of anthropogenic origin, such as EDTA. Although present at substantial concentrations, only a small part of the total dissolved metals is in a free state, unassociated with organic ligands, so that acute toxicity of the dissolved trace metals may be low.

  14. Trace metals in the estuary of the Seine and its approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, Dominique

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and behaviour of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) were studied in the waters and deposited or suspended sediments of the estuary and eastern bay of the Seine river. The various physico-chemical forms - hydrosoluble, exchangeable, chelated, organic forms, were determined by successive fractionations. The abundance of the ionic stock in the estuary cannot explain the decrease of trace metal contents by purely chemical processes. Mixing processes with open sea particles and release of metals induced by the erosion-sedimentation cycles resulting in sediment washing can explain the observations. Metals first trapped in the sediments are freed in the dissolved state; they can be expelled from the estuary and participate in the biological cycles. In the bay sediments, the trace metals were used as tracers of sediment masses, allowing to determine the river deposit areas. The human contribution to trace metal deposits in the Seine river bay was also estimated. (author) [fr

  15. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  16. Maximum permissible concentrations for water, sediment and soil derived from toxicity data for nine trace metals

    OpenAIRE

    van de Plassche EJ; Polder MD; Canton JH

    1992-01-01

    In this report Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) are derived for 9 trace metals based on ecotoxicological data. The elements are: antimony, barium, beryllium, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, tin, and vanadium The study was carried out in the framework of the project "Setting integrated environmental quality objectives". For the aquatic environment MPCs could be derived for all trace elements. These values were based on toxicity data for freshwater as well as saltwater...

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kuklina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr, while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb. The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys.

  18. Analysis of trace metals and perfluorinated compounds in 43 representative tea products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai; Li, Jian-Long; Li, Hai-Hang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Hua-Shou

    2014-06-01

    Six trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn) and 2 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were analyzed in 43 representative tea products (including 18 green, 12 Oolong, and 13 black teas) from 7 main tea production provinces in China, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for trace metals analysis and HPLC-MS/MS for PFOS and PFOA analysis. The average contents of the 3 essential metals Mn, Cu, and Zn ions in the tea samples were 629.74, 17.75, and 37.38 mg/kg, whereas 3 toxic metals Cd, Cr, and Pb were 0.65, 1.02, and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the 3 types of tea were in the order of black tea > Oolong tea > green tea. Both PFOS and PFOA contents were low and PFOA content was higher than PFOS in the tea samples. The highest concentration of PFOA was 0.25 ng/g dry weight found in a Hunan green tea. The Principal component analysis was performed with the trace metals and PFCs to analyze the relationships of these indices. The results showed that black teas had higher trace metals and PFCs than green and Oolong teas, and the teas from Hunan and Zhejiang provinces had higher Pb and Cr than others. This paper reports trace metals, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in wide range of tea products produced in the south China area. This paper also warns the low PFOS and PFOA pollution in tea. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Content of trace elements and heavy metals in Chinese winter jujube fruit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Lin; Sheng, Ji-ping

    2008-08-01

    Today researchers pay more and more attention to the content of trace elements and heavy metals in food. Contents of trace elements and heavy metals in Chinese winter jujube fruit were analyzed by ICP-MS, the results showed that winter Chinese jujube contained plentiful trace elements, especially Ca (126.67 microg x g(-1) x FW), Mg (68.04 microg x g(-1) x FW), Sr (1691.39 ng x g(-1) x FW), Zn (787.26 ng x g(-1) x FW), Fe (512.84 ng x g(-1) x FW), Mn (495.42 ng x g(-1) x FW) and Mo (33.38 ng x g(-1) x FW), which is necessary for human health and can prolong the human life. But Chinese winter jujube contains little heavy metals and accords with relative national standard.

  1. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  2. Monitoring trace metals and organohalogens in shellfish (2014) and physicochemical parameters and trace metals in seawater (2015) under the Shellfish Waters Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2017-01-01

    Directive 2006/113/EC on the Quality Required of Shellfish Waters, also referred to as the Shellfish Waters Directive (SWD) requires the monitoring of, inter alia, certain physicochemical parameters including trace metal contaminants in order to assess and protect the quality of shellfish growing waters and the shellfish harvested from them. Sixty-four areas have been designated as Shellfish Waters (SWs) under SI 268 of 2006, SI 55 of 2009 and SI 464 of 2009. The SWD is concerned the quality ...

  3. Detection of trace metallic elements in oral lichenoid contact lesions using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL) are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous reactions with a risk of malignant transformation that alter the epithelium. OLP and OLCL have similar clinical and histopathological features and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Metallic restorations are suspected to generate OLCLs. Trace metal analysis of OLCL specimens may facilitate the discrimination of symptoms and identification of causative metallic restorations. The purpose of this study was to assess OLCL tissue samples for the prevalence of metallic elements derived from dental restorations, and to discriminate OLCL from OLP by using synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Typical elements of dental materials were detected in the OLCL, whereas no obvious element accumulation was detected in OLP and negative control specimens. The origin of the detected metallic elements was presumed to be dental alloys through erosion. Therefore, our findings support the feasibility of providing supporting information to distinguish OLCL from OLP by using elemental analysis.

  4. The mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants: limits on accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, R. G.; Marshall, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles have many potential technological applications. Biological routes to the synthesis of these particles have been proposed including production by vascular plants, known as phytoextraction. While many studies have looked at metal uptake by plants, particularly with regard to phytoremediation and hyperaccumulation, few have distinguished between metal deposition and metal salt accumulation. This work describes the uptake of AgNO 3 , Na 3 Ag(S 2 O 3 ) 2 , and Ag(NH 3 ) 2 NO 3 solutions by hydroponically grown Brassica juncea and the quantitative measurement of the conversion of these salts to silver metal nanoparticles. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the metal speciation within the plants, combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for total Ag, the quantity of reduction of Ag I to Ag 0 is reported. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed Ag particles of 2-35 nm. The factors controlling the amount of silver accumulated are revealed. It is found that there is a limit on the amount of metal nanoparticles that may be deposited, of about 0.35 wt.% Ag on a dry plant basis, and that higher levels of silver are obtained only by the concentration of metal salts within the plant, not by deposition of metal. The limit on metal nanoparticle accumulation, across a range of metals, is proposed to be controlled by the total reducing capacity of the plant for the reduction potential of the metal species and limited to reactions occurring at an electrochemical potential greater than 0 V (verses the standard hydrogen electrode).

  5. Metal accumulation in the polychaete Hediste japonica with emphasis on interaction between heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuhong; Zhou Qixing

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in the polychaete Hediste japonica exposed to the mixture of Cd (or Cu) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was investigated and compared with that exposed to single Cd (or Cu). The increased bioavailability of Cd or Cu with exposure concentrations resulted in an increase in the accumulation and net accumulation rate of Cd or Cu during single metal exposure. The net accumulation rate of Cd increased, but the net accumulation rate of Cu decreased with exposure time during single metal exposure, suggesting that H. japonica could actively regulate Cu burden in their body by inhibition of absolute uptake or promotion of excretion. The interactions between Cd (or Cu) and PHCs had complicated influences on the net accumulation rate of Cd and Cu in H. japonica under the condition of the binary mixture, which are dependent on their concentration combinations and exposure time. - The influences of petroleum hydrocarbons on Cd and Cu accumulation in H. japonica depend on their concentration combinations and exposure time

  6. Are there metallic traces in black extrinsic dental stain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Limor; Chevion, Mordechai; Berenshtein, Eduard; Faibis, Sarit; Moskovitz, Moti

    2013-05-01

    The detection of ferric ions in samples of black extrinsic dental stain led to the idea that it is comprised of insoluble ferric compounds. The present study examined the chemical composition of black extrinsic dental stain. Plaque was collected from 17 children with black extrinsic dental stain (study group A) and from 15 children without black extrinsic stain (control group), using sterile graphite curettes; and from 4 children with black extrinsic stain (study group B), using a standard sterile metal curette. Samples were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and subjected to quantitative chemical analysis (energy dispersive spectrometry). Except for calcium and phosphorus levels, no significant differences were found between the chemical composition of black extrinsic dental stain and dental plaque. Metallic ions were not detected in samples collected with a graphite curette (study group A), but were detected in samples collected with a metal curette (study group B). Metallic ions do not seem to be the origin of black extrinsic dental stain. Previous reports of the presence of metallic ions are probably due to contamination of the samples by the collection method.

  7. Flexible digestion strategies and trace metal assimilation in marine bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decho, Alan W.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Pulse-chase experiments show that two marine bivalves take optimal advantage of different types of particulate food by varying food retention time in a flexible two-phase digestive system. For example, carbon is efficiently assimilated from bacteria by subjecting nearly all the ingested bacteria to prolonged digestion. Prolonging digestion also enhances assimilation of metals, many of which are toxic in minute quantities if they are biologically available. Detritus-feeding aquatic organisms have always lived in environments naturally rich in particle-reactive metals. We suggest that avoiding excess assimilation of metals could be a factor in the evolution of digestion strategies. We tested that suggestion by studying digestion of particles containing different Cr concentrations. We show that bivalves are capable of modifying the digestive processing of food to reduce exposure to high, biologically available, Cr concentrations. The evolution of a mechanism in some species to avoid high concentrations of metals in food could influence how effects of modern metal pollution are manifested in marine ecosystems.

  8. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  9. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-01-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  10. Distribution and transfer of dissolved trace metals in the North Aegean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriki, A.; Zeri, C.; Zervakis, V.; Georgopoulos, D.

    1999-01-01

    Sampling for trace metal analysis in the North Aegean Sea took place from 13-25 May 1997 with the R/V Aegaeo. Samples were collected from 12 Go-flo bottles attached to the rosette-CTD system and were filtered through 0.45 μm membrane filters, on-board, under a nitrogen atmosphere. Precautions were taken during handling of samples to minimise contamination. The samples were acidified and carried back to the clean laboratory for further analysis. A preconcentration step using the chelex-100 resin followed. Trace metals were determined on a Perkin-Elmer AAS equipped with a HGA-700

  11. A combined sensor for simultaneous high resolution 2-D imaging of oxygen and trace metals fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Henrik; Warnken, Kent W.; Sochaczewski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    (0.2 mu m) chelating resin and records the locally induced trace metal flux during the deployment, whereas the planar optode resolves the O-2 dynamic in near real time at the same location in the sediment. Despite its ultrathin composition, the DGT layer has high carrying capacity for trace metals...... that the enhanced smearing and reduced response time of the O-2 signal associated with the additional DGT layer were marginal. To test sensor performance at realistic conditions, it was applied to an artificial burrow system consisting of permeable dialysis tubing flushed with oxygenated seawater. The measurements...

  12. Metal-free” catalytic oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom- doped graphene is caused by trace metal impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-16

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of high industrial importance. There is a large body of literature showing that metal-based catalytic nanoparticles (e.g. Co, Mn, Fe or hybrid Mn/Co-based nanoparticles) supported on graphene act as efficient catalysts for the ORR. A significant research effort is also directed to the so-called “metal-free” oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene surfaces. While such studies of the ORR on nonmetallic heteroatom-doped graphene are advertised as “metal-free” there is typically no sufficient effort to characterize the doped materials to verify that they are indeed free of any trace metal. Here we argue that the claimed “metal-free” electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction on heteroatom-doped graphene is caused by metallic impurities present within the graphene materials.

  13. Elevated concentrations of trace elements in soil do not necessarily reflect metals available to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Silitonga, Maifan R; Tsegaye, Teferi D; Unrine, Jason M; Coolong, Timothy; Snyder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and entry of trace elements from soil into the food chain have made trace-elements major environmental pollutants. The main objective of this investigation was to study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or SS mixed with yard waste (SS+YW) compost on total concentration of trace elements in soil, metals available to plants, and mobility of metals from soil into peppers and melon fruits. Regardless of soil treatment, the average concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mo in melon fruits were 5.2, 0.7, 3.9, 0.9, 34.3, 96.1, and 3.5μg g(-1), respectively. Overall concentrations of Ni, Cd, Pb, and Zn in melon fruits were significantly greater (P fruits. No significant differences were found in Cr, Cu, and Mo concentrations between pepper and melon fruits at harvest time. Total metal concentrations and metal ions in soil available to melon and pepper plants were also determined. Total concentration of each metal in the soil was significantly greater than concentration of metal ions available to plants. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF > 1) of melon fruits of plants grown in SS+YW mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when plants grown on sites having high concentrations of these metals.

  14. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  15. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  16. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  17. Spatial Gradients in Trace Metal Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eTovar-Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dust deposition and surface water metal concentrations is poorly understood. Dissolution, solubility, and partitioning reactions of trace metals from dust particles are governed by complex chemical, biological, and physical processes occurring in the surface ocean. Despite that, the role of the sea surface microlayer (SML, a thin, but fundamental component modulating the air-sea exchange of materials has not been properly evaluated. Our study revealed that the SML of the Mediterranean Sea is enriched with bioactive trace metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu and Fe, ranging from 8 (for Cd to 1000 (for Fe times higher than the dissolved metal pool in the underlying water column. The highest enrichments were spatially correlated with the atmospheric deposition of mineral particles. Our mass balance results suggest that the SML in the Mediterranean Sea contains about 2 tonnes of Fe. However, we did not detect any trends between the concentrations of metals in SML with the subsurface water concentrations and biomass distributions. These findings suggest that future studies are needed to quantify the rate of metal exchange between the SML and the bioavailable pool and that the SML should be considered to better understand the effect of atmospheric inputs on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the ocean.

  18. Tissue distribution and correlation profiles of heavy-metal accumulation in the freshwater crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Evren; Ucuncu, Esra; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Ulger, Zeynep Ergul; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-05-01

    The present work details the analysis of heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in exoskeleton, gill, hepatopancreas, and abdominal muscle tissues of 60 crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) specimens collected from Lake Hirfanlı, a dam lake located in Kırşehir (Turkey) with a low metal-contamination profile. Concentrations of 11 metals (aluminum [Al], chromium [Cd], manganese [Mn], cobalt [Co], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], molybdenum [Mo], silver [Ag], cadmium [Cd], mercury [Hg], and lead [Pb]) and a metalloid (arsenic [As]) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the relative frequencies of the most abundant isotopes of Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were evaluated. Three correlation trends were evaluated between the following: (1) different elements in the each individual tissue, (2) individual elements in different tissues, and (3) different elements in different tissues. In addition, correlation rates of growth parameters (weight, cephalothorax length, and total length) with heavy-metal and metalloid concentrations in each tissue were investigated. Our results suggest that substantial differences in metal and metalloid-accumulation levels exist between male and female specimens, with stronger correlations between the heavy-metal concentrations observed in the male cohort. It is notable that correlation trends of Co, Cu, (52)As, Cr, and Ni in exoskeleton of the male specimens display strong similarities. Likewise, a very strong correlation is present in Ni-Cd and Ni-Pb accumulations in abdominal muscle of the male specimens; a similar trend is present between Cd and Pb concentrations in the same tissue of female specimens. For correlation rates of different heavy metals and metalloid in different tissues, the strongest positive association observed was between (63)Cu in gill and As in hepatopancreas, whereas the strongest negative correlation was between accumulated Ni in abdominal muscle and As in exoskeleton. Strong correlations between

  19. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  20. On-site preconcentration and trace metal ions determination in the Okavango Delta water system, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawula, G M

    2004-09-08

    Microcolumns containing 8-hydroxyquinoline azo-immobilized on controlled pore glass were incorporated in a field sampler for on-site collection, isolation and preconcentration of trace metal ions in waters of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sequestered trace metal ions were recovered by elution with 0.5ml of 1.5M nitric acid, and determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This sampling and enrichment method minimizes sample contamination, and collection of large volumes of water samples for transporting, over long distances, to analytical laboratories is avoided. Data reported comprise one of the initial surveys on trace metal ion concentrations in waters of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. In waters with more efficient mixing, dissolved metal ion concentrations found were generally low with slightly elevated levels of manganese (7-19mugl(-1)), zinc (2.7-4.8mugl(-1)), nickel (0.2-2.5mugl(-1)) and copper (0.3-2.1mugl(-1)). For each trace metal ion, concentration levels seem to reflect zones of varying water conveyance, and show no obvious temporal and spatial variations apart from a slight increment from the inlet in the upper Delta to the outlets in the lower Delta.

  1. Distribution and transfer of trace metals in the Aegean Seawater (Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. VOUTSINOU-TALIADOURI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements of dissolved Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in 324 water samples of the Aegean Sea fill the gap of missing knowledge in this part of the Eastern Mediterranean and try to identify their main input sources and spreading pathways. The analyses indicate that trace metal concentrations in the North and South Aegean Sea are generally in good agreement with those reported for the Western Mediterranean Sea. In the North Aegean Sea the trace metal distribution patterns differentiate mainly according to the existing water masses. Hence, a strong influence of the Black Sea Water, enriched in trace metals, is clearly recorded for Mn. Concentrations of this metal are one order of magnitude higher in the surface layer than those of the deeper waters. This feature is followed to a lesser degree also by Cd, Cu and Ni. Trace metal concentrations in the South Aegean Sea reveal almost constant values throughout the watercolumn similar to those observed in the North Aegean Sea below the depth of 100 m. Manganese values in the South Aegean Sea are considerably lower comparing with the North Aegean ones, showing relatively enhanced surface values which decrease with depth.

  2. Molecular Speciation of Trace Metal Organic Complexes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R. M.; Bundy, R. M.; Babcock-Adams, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial production across approximately one third of the surface ocean is limited by extraordinarily low (picomolar) concentrations of dissolved iron, essentially all of which is complexed to strong organic ligands of unknown composition. Other biologically important trace metals (cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel) are also complexed to strong organic ligands, which again have not been extensively characterized. Nevertheless, organic ligands exert a strong influence on metal bioavailability and toxicity. For example, amendment experiments using commercially available siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, show these ligands can both facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on the siderophore composition and available uptake pathways. Over the past few years we have developed analytical techniques using high pressure liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify and quantify trace metal organic complexes in laboratory cultures of marine microbes and in seawater. We found siderophores to be widely distributed in the ocean, particularly in regions characterized by low iron concentrations. We also find chemically distinct complexes of copper, zinc, colbalt and nickel that we have yet to fully characterize. We will discuss some of our recent work on trace metal organic speciation in seawater and laboratory cultures, and outline future efforts to better understand the microbial cycling of trace metal organic complexes in the sea.

  3. Offshore iron sand extraction in New Zealand: Potential trace metal exposure of benthic and pelagic biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopel, Kay; Pook, Chris; Wilson, Peter; Robertson, John

    2017-10-15

    Plans to exploit an offshore source of iron sand in South Taranaki Bight (STB), New Zealand, caused concerns that such exploitation may expose benthic and pelagic biota to elevated trace metal concentrations. We conducted dilute-acid extractions and standard elutriate tests to investigate the potential of this exploitation to (1) create a new seafloor with elevated trace metal content, (2) mobilise trace metals during iron sand extraction and, (3) enrich the returning process seawater, which feeds iron sand through mills, with trace metals. We found that recruits of freshly uncovered sediment may encounter higher-than-natural concentrations of cadmium, nickel and chromium (but not of copper, lead, and zinc) and propose to investigate the bioavailability of these metals. Elutriate test with raw and milled iron sand revealed that, for nickel and copper, dilution of the process seawater may be required to meet the local water quality guideline. We argue that this dilution can be achieved by adjustment of the mass and seawater balance of the offshore extraction process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  5. Accumulation of Toxic Trace Elements in Evaporites in Agricultural Evaporation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Tanji, Kenneth K; Dahlgren, Randy A; Ong, Colin; Herbel, Mitchell; Quek, Ann; Gao, Suduan

    1994-01-01

    Evaporation ponds are utilized to dispose of saline agricultural drainage waters where there are no surface drainage outlets to the San Joaquin River. Presently, 22 ponds in the San Joaquin Valley's west side are receiving about 32,000 acre-feet per year of tile drainage effluents and about 0.8 million tons per year of salt are being deposited. This project investigates the incorporation of potentially toxic trace elements (selenium, boron, arsenic, molybdenum) into evaporite minerals forming...

  6. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ 15 N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  7. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  8. Accumulation of some trace elements in plants of the Kuraminskiy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akzhigitova, N.I.; Lezhneva, N.D.

    1975-01-01

    Spectral analysis was made of shrubs, semi-shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants with deeply penetrating root systems; Rosa kokanica, Alhagi sparsifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Inula grandis, Amygdalus spinosissima, Cerasus erythrocarpa, Centaurea squarrosa are the main dominants and components of associations widespread in the Kuraminskiy range in the Uzbek SSR (USSR). The content of trace elements (Cu, Mo, Ag, Pb) in the ash of these species over ore deposits is 2-6 times higher than over nonmetalliferous fields.

  9. Trace metal biogeochemistry in mangrove ecosystems: a comparative assessment of acidified (by acid sulfate soils) and non-acidified sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2013-10-01

    The generation of acidity and subsequent mobilization of toxic metals induced by acid sulfate soils (ASSs) are known to cause severe environmental damage to many coastal wetlands and estuaries of Australia and worldwide. Mangrove ecosystems serve to protect coastal environments, but are increasingly threatened from such ASS-induced acidification due to variable hydrological conditions (i.e., inundation-desiccation cycles). However, the impact of such behaviors on trace metal distribution, bio-availability and accumulation in mangrove tissues, i.e., leaves and pneumatophores, are largely unknown. In this study, we examined how ASS-induced acidifications controlled trace metal distribution and bio-availability in gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) soils and in tissues in the Kooragang wetland, New South Wales, Australia. We collected mangrove soils, leaves and pneumatophores from a part of the wetland acidified from ASS (i.e., an affected site) for detailed biogeochemical studies. The results were compared with samples collected from a natural intertidal mangrove forest (i.e., a control site) located within the same wetland. Soil pH (mean: 5.90) indicated acidic conditions in the affected site, whereas pH was near-neutral (mean: 7.17) in the control site. The results did not show statistically significant differences in near-total and bio-available metal concentrations, except for Fe and Mn, between affected and control sites. Iron concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the affected site, whereas Mn concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the control site. However, large proportions of near-total metals were potentially bio-available in control sites. Concentrations of Fe and Ni were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in leaves and pneumatophores of the affected sites, whereas Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn were greater in control sites. The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting

  10. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  11. Interpretation of complexometric titration data: An intercomparison of methods for estimating models of trace metal complexation by natural organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pižeta, I.; Sander, S.G.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Omanovic, D.; Baars, O.; Barbeau, K.A.; Buck, K.N.; Bundy, R.M.; Carrasco, G.; Croot, P.L.; Garnier, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Gledhill, M.; Hirose, K.; Kondo, Y.; Laglera, L.M.; Nuester, J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Takeda, S.; Twining, B.S.; Wells, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the common goal of more accurately and consistently quantifying ambient concentrations of free metal ions and natural organic ligands in aquatic ecosystems, researchers from 15 laboratories that routinely analyze trace metal speciation participated in an intercomparison of statistical methods

  12. Simulation of the accumulation kinetics for radiation point defects in a metals with impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskakov, B.M.; Nurova, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    In the work a kinetics of vacancies (V) and interstitial atoms (IA) accumulation for cases when the V and IA are recombining with each other, absorbing by drain and capturing by impurity atoms has been simulated. The differential equations system numerical solution was carried out by the Runge-Kutta method. The dynamical equilibrium time achievement for the point radiation defects accumulation process in the metal with impurity is considered

  13. Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane

  14. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  15. Impact Of Municipal Solid Waste On Trace Metal Concentrations In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of municipal solid waste on the levels of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in herbage and soil samples within Abuja municipality was studied. The flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used in the determination of the metals. The average concentration of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the herbage ...

  16. Trace Metals and Mineral Composition of Harmattan Dust Haze in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Tyre wear emission elements were not also detected in the sample. Nonferrous metal smelters elements present in the sample are Cu, As, Zn and Pb. Iron and steel mills elements presents in the sample are Zn and. Pb. Copper refinery elements present in the sample are Cu and Zn. Refuse incineration ...

  17. assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    susceptible to metal contamination (Ololade, 2014;. Olanrewaju et al, 2015). There has been a gradual increase in the number of automobile mechanic workshops in many cities of Nigeria as a result of urban development and increase in population. Waste from these automobile mechanic workshops are disposed and ...

  18. Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... of Calabar River are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Table 4, 5 and 6 present the correlation matrices for sediment, surface water and N. lotus samples respec- tively, showing values of Pearson's correlation coefficient. (p<0.05, n=4) for pairs of heavy metals at the four locations. The concentrations of As, Cd, ...

  19. Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, water and Daucus Carota sativa obtained from these sites were unsafe for human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental sustainability the management strategies suggested includes proper treatment of effluents discharged into the stream and ...

  20. Assessment of Godavari estuarine mangrove ecosystem through trace metal studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, A.K.; Tripathy, S.C; Patra, S.; Sarma, V.V.

    that organic matter is acting as a metal carrier. The values of Pollution Load Index (PLI) were found to be very low, and varied between 0.34-0.60 in KKD bay, 0.47-0.97 in GGE and 0.62-1.03 in CGME indicating that this estuarine ecosystem is not a pollution...

  1. Trace metal levels in the sediments of the Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Remani, K.N.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Levels of Cu, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn at four stations in the northern arm of the Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India, which runs through an industrial belt is reported. All metals showed some degree of variation over the area studied. Co showed the lowest...

  2. Heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is related to eutrophication in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Tang

    Full Text Available The Hai River Basin (HRB is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A, filamentous algae with diatoms (type B, and filamentous algae (type C varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.

  3. Metal accumulation by an epigean and a hypogean freshwater amphipod: Considerations for water quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienet, S.

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate their potential as biomonitors of surface and underground water quality, the accumulation of essential metals, zinc and copper, by two species of amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus fossarum (an epigean amphipod) and Niphargus rhenorhodanensis (a similar but blind and hypogean form) was investigated. These two species were exposed, under controlled laboratory conditions, to different metal concentrations for 12 days. Several concentrations of each of the two metals separately and one concentration of a mixture of both were tested. Percent mortality revealed that the hypogean species was more resistant than the epigean. During the 12 days of experiment, accumulation patterns differed between species and between metals. G. fossarum, but not N. rhenorhodanensis, accumulated zinc at exposures of up to 12 days and concentrations as great as 1,000 {micro}g/L. Zinc levels in tissue of G. fossarum were greater than in those of N. rhenorhodanensis. Epigean and hypogean amphipods did not clearly accumulate copper in exposures as great at 65 {micro}g/L. Possible reasons for the differences in zinc and copper accumulation between the two species are discussed. Finally, the suitability of the two species as biomonitors for surface and underground water is discussed.

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterbrunner, R. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Puschenreiter, M. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Sommer, P. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, G. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Agriculture Prague, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol (Czech Republic); Zupan, M. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Wenzel, W.W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna - BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg{sup -1} and 116 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in their leaves.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterbrunner, R.; Puschenreiter, M.; Sommer, P.; Wieshammer, G.; Tlustos, P.; Zupan, M.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. We investigated Zn and Cd accumulation in tissues of adult trees and associated herbaceous species collected from contaminated areas in Central Europe. We found considerable Cd and Zn accumulation in various willow, poplar and birch species with up to 116 mg Cd kg -1 and 4680 mg Zn kg -1 in leaves of Salix caprea. Annual variation of Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves of Salix caprea were small, indicating that data obtained in different years can be compared. Metal concentrations in leaves were not related to total (aqua regia) or labile (1 M NH 4 NO 3 extract) concentrations in soil but the accumulation factors (leaf concentration: soil concentration) for Cd and Zn followed an inverse log type function. Metal partitioning between tissues showed a minimum in the wood, with increasing concentrations of Cd and Zn towards the leaves and fine roots. - Adult field-grown Salix caprea, Populus tremula and other tree species accumulate up to 4680 mg Zn kg -1 and 116 mg Cd kg -1 in their leaves

  6. Bellows-Type Accumulators for Liquid Metal Loops of Space Reactor Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    In many space nuclear power systems, the primary and/or secondary loops use liquid metal working fluids, and require accumulators to accommodate the change in the liquid metal volume and maintain sufficient subcooling to avoid boiling. This paper developed redundant and light-weight bellows-type accumulators with and without a mechanical spring, and compared the operating condition and mass of the accumulators for different types of liquid metal working fluids and operating temperatures: potassium, NaK-78, sodium and lithium loops of a total capacity of 50 liters and nominal operating temperatures of 840 K, 860 K, 950 K and 1340 K, respectively. The effects of using a mechanical spring and different structural materials on the design, operation and mass of the accumulators are also investigated. The structure materials considered include SS-316, Hastelloy-X, C-103 and Mo-14Re. The accumulator without a mechanical spring weighs 23 kg and 40 kg for a coolant subcooling of 50 K and 100 K, respectively, following a loss of the fill gas. The addition of a mechanical spring comes with a mass penalty, in favor of higher redundancy and maintaining a higher liquid metal subcooling.

  7. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  8. Coral trace metal of natural and anthropogenic influences in the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yu, Ke-Fu; Song, Yin-Xian; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing; Wang, Ying-Hui; Xu, Shen-Dong

    2017-12-31

    The composition and concentrations of trace metals in coastal seawater have changed in parallel with variations in geochemical processes, climate and anthropogenic activities. To evaluate the response of trace metals in coastal seawater to climatic changes and human disturbances, we report annual-resolution trace element data for a Porites coral core covering ~100years of continuous growth from a fringing reef in Xiaodonghai Bay in the northern South China Sea. The results suggested that the trace metal contents in the coral skeleton demonstrated decadal to interdecadal fluctuations with several large or small peaks in certain years with remarkable environmental significances. All of the trace metals in coastal surface seawater, especially Cr and Pb (related to industrial or traffic emissions), were impacted by terrestrial inputs, except for Sr and U, which were impacted by the surface seawater temperature (SST). Moreover, Mn, Ni, Fe and Co were also contributed by weapons and military supplies during wars, and Cu, Cd and Zn were further impacted by upwelling associated with their biogeochemical cycles. Ba and rare earth element (REE) in coastal surface seawater were dominated by runoff and groundwater discharge associated with precipitation. This study provided the potential for some trace metals (e.g., REE, Ba, Cu, Cd, and Zn) in coral skeletons to be used as proxies of natural (e.g., upwelling and precipitation) and anthropogenic (e.g., war and coastal construction) variability of seawater chemistry to enable the reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes through time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace metal Levels in Some Packaged Fruit Juices Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-13

    Dec 13, 2015 ... The highest concentration was found CH brand (4.59mg/L) while the least was. NF with a value of 2.14mg/L. The recommended daily intakes of metal from pineapple juices vary from 0.59µg of Cr to 25.25µg of Zn (WHO, 1993). Table 1: Concentration of Trace Metals in Some Selected Fruit Juices. Element.

  10. Study of the migration of toxic metals in steelmaking waste using radioactive tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.; Jauzein, M.; Charentus, T.; Margrita, R.; Dechelette, O.

    1991-01-01

    The danger presented by toxic metals contained in steelmaking wastes put into slag piles may be neutralized by suitably chosen alternation of these wastes when they are deposited. Presentation of a study method using radioactive tracing of the migration of toxic metal (cadmium, zinc, chromium) in steelmaking wastes (slag, blast furnace sludge). This non destructive method was used in columns in the laboratory, but may be used in on-site slag piles [fr

  11. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in farmed pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from SW Gulf of California coast, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Muñoz-Sevilla, N P; Góngora-Gómez, Andrés Martin; Luna Varela, Raquel Gabriela; Sujitha, S B; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Campos Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability of trace metals (Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Arsenic, and Mercury) in the commercially consumed Crassostrea gigas oysters collected over a 12-month growth period (2011-12) from an experimental cultivation farm in La Pitahaya, Sinaloa State, Mexico. Sediment and water samples were also collected from four different zones adjacent to the cultivation area to identify the concentration patterns of metals. The results revealed that sewage disposals, fertilizers used for agricultural practices and shrimp culture are the major sources for the enrichment of certain toxic metals. The metal concentrations in oysters presented a decreasing order of abundance (all values in mg Kg -1 ): Zn (278.91 ± 93.03) > Cu (63.13 ± 31.72) > Cr (22.29 ± 30.23) > Cd (14.54 ± 4.28) > Ni (9.41 ± 11.33) > Pb (2.22 ± 1.33) > As (0.58 ± 0.91) > Hg (0.04 ± 0.06). Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) exhibited that C. gigas in the region are strong accumulators for Zn and Cd respectively. Thus, the present study proves to fulfill the gap in understanding the rate of bioaccumulation of metals in C. gigas which is regarded as the most sought after oyster species globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biometal Dyshomeostasis and Toxic Metal Accumulations in the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Jiao, Qian; Xu, Huamin; Du, Xixun; Shi, Limin; Jia, Fengju; Jiang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Biometal dyshomeostasis and toxic metal accumulation are common features in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. The neurotoxic effects of metal imbalance are generally associated with reduced enzymatic activities, elevated protein aggregation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system, in which a cascade of events lead to cell death and neurodegeneration. Although the links between biometal imbalance and ...

  13. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C; Fernandez, J-M; Moreton, B

    2016-08-15

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of some trace metals in elsaraf dam (GEDAREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoob, T. I.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the part of the plant analyzed was the root, while by the soil we mean the soil which is in direct contact with the plant root. This analysis was carried to find the relation between the concentrations of the free ions in water, the mobile ions in the soil in contact with the root of the plant and the ions uptake by the plant as well as the movement of these ions between different reservoirs. The nutrient elements, (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co) showed higher concentrations than toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Cd). Because of its natural abundance, iron has the highest concentration (54900/56600, 33580/36800), manganese has shown the second highest concentration, followed by nickel and zinc. Copper, cobalt and chromium have shown relatively similar concentrations, while cadmium has shown the lowest concentration. In general, almost for all elements the soils have shown higher concentration followed by the plant and then water. Cyperus rotandus has shown high affinity towards most of the metal ions, while the rest of plants have shown almost similar affinity. Because of the generally low concentration of metal ions in water, preconcentration was used using 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate APDC to extract (pre concentrate) the metal ions at the optimum parameters before measurement in AAS.(Author)

  15. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  17. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  18. Biochemistry and Physiology of Heavy Metal Resistance and Accumulation in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Saavedra, Emma; García-García, Jorge D

    2017-01-01

    Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids. The available data at the transcriptional, kinetic and metabolic levels on these metabolic/cellular processes are herein reviewed and analyzed to provide mechanistic basis for developing genetically engineered Euglena cells that may have a greater removal and accumulating capacity for bioremediation and recycling of heavy metals.

  19. Trace metal levels of the Odaw river sediments at the Agbogbloshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of appropriate infrastructure and legislation regarding the proper way of handling ewastes has encouraged informal recycling as in the case of the Agbogbloshie e-waste site. The burning and dumping of these wastes at the bank of the Odaw River eventually end up in the river. To ascertain the level of trace metal ...

  20. Biogeochemical Cycling of Nutrients and Trace Metals in the Sediment of Haringvliet Lake: Response to Salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavan, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines sediment redox processes associated with organic matter degradation and their impact on the cycling of nutrients (N, P) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn). Our study site, Haringvliet Lake, is located in the Rhine-Meuse River Delta in the southwest of The Netherlands. This

  1. Representativeness of laboratory sampling procedures for the analysis of trace metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Boudreault, Jean-Philippe; Bost, Régis; Sona, Mirela; Duhaime, François; Éthier, Yannic

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the representativeness of laboratory sampling protocols for purposes of trace metal analysis in soil. Five laboratory protocols were compared, including conventional grab sampling, to assess the influence of sectorial splitting, sieving, and grinding on measured trace metal concentrations and their variability. It was concluded that grinding was the most important factor in controlling the variability of trace metal concentrations. Grinding increased the reproducibility of sample mass reduction by rotary sectorial splitting by up to two orders of magnitude. Combined with rotary sectorial splitting, grinding increased the reproducibility of trace metal concentrations by almost three orders of magnitude compared to grab sampling. Moreover, results showed that if grinding is used as part of a mass reduction protocol by sectorial splitting, the effect of sieving on reproducibility became insignificant. Gy's sampling theory and practice was also used to analyze the aforementioned sampling protocols. While the theoretical relative variances calculated for each sampling protocol qualitatively agreed with the experimental variances, their quantitative agreement was very poor. It was assumed that the parameters used in the calculation of theoretical sampling variances may not correctly estimate the constitutional heterogeneity of soils or soil-like materials. Finally, the results have highlighted the pitfalls of grab sampling, namely, the fact that it does not exert control over incorrect sampling errors and that it is strongly affected by distribution heterogeneity.

  2. Fluid displacive resin embedding of laminated sediments: preserving trace metals for high-resolution paleoclimate investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.; Lange, G.J. de; Reichart, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    For the high-resolution study of trace metal profiles in laminated anoxic sediments, a specially adapted method of resin embedding has been developed. Fluid displacement is the preferred means of sediment dehydration, offering optimum structural preservation and facilitating desalination. Exchanges

  3. Minor and trace metals levels in human milk in north western cities of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahabbis, M. T.; Elkubat, M. S.; Kut, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of twelve minor and trace metals were determined by using (AAS, ES and ICP/MS) in breast milk obtained from 60 women living in north western cities of Libya. Samples were collected at one week up to two years after delivery. Women with age>21 years old to an age of <43 years old were investigated. (Author)

  4. Trace metals in some benthic fishes of the Ikpoba river dam, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace metals in some benthic fishes of the Ikpoba river dam, Benin City, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Mormyrus macrophthalmus netted from two locations (Okhoro and Low lift pump sites) on the Ikpoba River Dam, Benin City, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrometric technique.

  5. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace metals in sewage water and sludge samples from River Kubanni drainage basin in Zaria City, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The drainage basin is utilized as a source for irrigation water, during dry seasons. The sewage water quality characteristics in three month sampling periods, that ...

  6. Maximum permissible concentrations for water, sediment and soil derived from toxicity data for nine trace metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche EJ; Polder MD; Canton JH

    1992-01-01

    In this report Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) are derived for 9 trace metals based on ecotoxicological data. The elements are: antimony, barium, beryllium, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, tin, and vanadium The study was carried out in the framework of the project "Setting

  7. Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on determination of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown near of Manyoni uranium deposit. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from five sites namely Mitoo Mbuga, farming area, Miyomboni, Tambukareli and near water pump. The concentrations of heavy ...

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  9. Dissolved and particulate trace metals in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; DeSousa, S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Pb, both in soluble and particulate forms were studied in the upper 200 m depth. Correlation between the trace metal concentration and the primary productivity was also investigated. Zn, Ni and Co were...

  10. Quantitative Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Trace-Metal Determination: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Costas, Marta; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Gil, Sandra; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is introduced to upper-level analytical chemistry students as a simple strategy focused on sample preparation for trace-metal determination in biological tissues. Nickel extraction in seafood samples and quantification by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are carried out by a team of four…

  11. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  12. Trace metal concentration in some marine algae of the Maharashtra coast (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agadi, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Untawale, A.G.

    station to station The concentration of Fe shows a wide range from 115-31380 ppm, followed by Mn from 41-739 ppm Co, Ni Cu, Zn and Pb were comparatively lower than Fe and Mn Statistical analysis indicates significant variation of trace-metal concentration...

  13. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  14. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...

  15. Mammalian hair as an accumulative bioindicator of metal bioavailability in Australian terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Christopher M. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Centre for the Risk Management of Bushfires, Institute for Conservation Biology and Law, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Koller, Claudia E. [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); Rodger, John C. [Marsupial Research Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia); MacFarlane, Geoff R., E-mail: geoff.macfarlane@newcastle.edu.au [Ecology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW Australia (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    The current study represents the first investigation of the suitability of marsupial and eutherian mammalian hair as indicator tissue for metal exposure and accumulation within contaminated Australian terrestrial ecosystems. A soil metal contamination gradient was established across 22 sites at increasing distances from a decommissioned Lead/Zinc smelter in NSW, Australia. Within each site, soil and small mammal populations were sampled. An Australian native marsupial, the insectivorous Brown Antechinus, Antechinus stuartii: Dasyuridae, and introduced rodents, the omnivorous Brown or Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus: Muridae and the Black Rat, Rattus rattus: Muridae were assessed for hair concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Metals in soil were most elevated at sites within close proximity to the smelter, with soil metal concentrations decreasing with distance from the smelter. The non-essential metals Pb and Cd were accumulated in hair, both metals exhibiting positive linear relationships with environmental exposure (soil metal concentrations). When the variables of weight and snout-vent length were considered, no further contribution in terms of explaining the variability in hair Cd or Pb was observed for all species examined. The essential metals Cu and Zn were regulated in hair, remaining similar across the metal contamination gradient. A significant negative correlation between snout-vent length and hair Cu concentration was found for the Brown Rat; greater hair Cu concentrations were found in smaller individuals of this species. Accumulation of Pb to hair was similar among species while concentrations of Cd in Brown Rat hair were higher than both Black Rat and Brown Antechinus hair. As each of the three aforementioned species exhibit similar bioaccumulation relationships for Pb, we suggest that sampling hair from introduced rodents (pest species) may provide a suitable proxy for the assessment of Pb bioavailability for a range of

  16. Enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measured metals in the glass filter paper were found to be in the range of Argon(Ar), 0.00-0.01mg/m3; Potassium(K), 0.03-0.18mg/m3; Calcium(Ca), 0.01 0.14mg/m3; Titanium (Ti), 0.01-04mg/m3; Iron (Fe), 0.00-0.02mg/m3, Zinc(Zn), 0.00-0.04mg/m3; Strontium(Sr), 0.02-0.21mg/m3; Barium(Ba), 0.08-0.16mg/m3; ...

  17. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  18. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  19. The concentrations of trace metals in plants from phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka, northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryło A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was determination of trace metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Fe in different plants collected in the vicinity of phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland. The concentrations of trace metals were determined by two methods: AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry and OES-ICP (atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Enhanced levels of iron were observed in all the analyzed samples. This fact can be explained by the higher content of iron in the groundwaters of Žuławy Wiślane, where concentration of iron was 60 mg/l. The trace metals concentrations in plant samples from phosphogypsum waste heap recorded in this study are generally higher than in control sites. In this study the relationship is shown between atmospheric trace metals deposition and elevated trace metals element concentrations in plants and topsoils, especially in the vicinity of phoshpogypsum waste heap.

  20. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  1. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Ecological and biological determinants of trace elements accumulation in liver and kidney of Pontoporia blainvillei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Tercia G. [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: tercia@rdc.puc-rio.br; Kehrig, Helena do A. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fillmann, Gilberto [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.; Souza, Cristina M.M. [Laboratorio de Ciencias Ambientais, CBB-UENF, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Secchi, Eduardo R. [Departamento de Oceanografia, FURG, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Laboratorio de Tartarugas e Mamiferos Marinhos, Departamento de Oceonagrafia e Museu Oceanografico ' Prof. E.C. Rios' , FURG, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Moreira, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica, PUC-Rio, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF-UFRJ, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The present work tested whether ecological and biological variables have an influence on the assimilation of trace elements by the tissues of a cetacean from the Western South Atlantic Ocean. No significant differences were observed in the concentrations for both sexes. As individuals from the two sampling areas belong to distinct genetic and morphological populations, animals of similar body length were older on the southeastern than on the southern coast. The liver showed the highest concentrations of mercury, whereas the highest levels of cadmium were found in the kidney. Hepatic mercury, cadmium and selenium in individuals from the south coast were about four times as high as those from the southeast coast. However, arsenic in the liver and kidney were similar in both coastal areas. Hepatic mercury, cadmium and selenium concentrations increased with body length in individuals from the southeastern coast, although no significant correlations (P > 0.05) were observed between body length from either area and the renal and hepatic As concentrations. A significant positive linear relationship was observed between molar concentrations of Hg and Se in the liver of all individuals from both areas (r{sup 2} = 0.93; P < 0.001), presenting Se:Hg ratios close to 4. Differences found among the concentrations of Hg, Cd and Se in dolphins from both areas were probably due to the preferred prey, bioavailability of elements in each marine environment, and environment variables (water temperature, net primary production). As a consequence, concentrations of trace elements in the tissues of this species can be considered to be a result of the surrounding environment.

  3. Concentration and separation of trace metals from seawater using a single anion exchange bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Lee, D.S.; Stallard, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the quantitative adsorption of trace metals onto a single anion exchange bead. The application to the assay of trace metals in seawater was explored with the following radionuclides: 109 Cd, 103 Pd, 192 Ir, 195 Au, 237 Pu, and /sup 99m/Tc. The major ions, Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ exist primarily as positively charged species in seawater under nearly all conditions and did not interfere in the adsorption of anionic forms of trace metals onto the single bead. Three types of applications of the technique were investigated: (A) determination of metals in seawater by the direct adsorption onto a single bead without prior concentration, with or without a subsequent desorption from the bead (e.g., Cd, Zn); (B) determination of metals in seawater by the adsorption onto a single bead after a preconcentration step from several liters of seawater (e.g., Pd, Au, Ir), and (C) increasing the yield of Pu and Tc onto a single bead for improved sensitivity in mass spectrometric analyses

  4. Modeling seasonal and spatial contamination of surface waters and upper sediments with trace metal elements across industrialized urban areas of the Seybouse watershed in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabed, Bourhane-Eddine; Meddour, Abderrafik; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2017-06-01

    Industrialization and urbanization are the main sources of pollutions worldwide and particularly in developing countries. This study aims the determination of anthropogenic inputs with trace metals in aquatic ecosystems at the Plain of Annaba (NE Algeria), which is known as one of the largest industrial areas in Africa. Samples of surface waters and upper sediments were conducted in six stations: four in Meboudja wadi and two in Seybouse wadi. Contents of iron, copper, chromium, nickel, zinc, and manganese were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas Cd and Pb were determined using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Measurements of Hg were carried out using atomic fluorescence. Spatiotemporal variations of metal concentrations were tested using generalized linear models (GLM), whereas the influence of water pollution on sediment contamination was tested with generalized additive models (GAMs). Metal contents measured in surface water and sediments varied differently from upstream to downstream of the study wadis and between seasons. The results showed that the surface water was polluted with high levels of iron, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium. Values of the contamination index revealed that the surface sediments were contaminated by iron, chromium, lead, and cadmium. The GAMs indicated that water-phase metal concentrations had no significant effects on trace metal concentrations in the sediment. This suggests that seasonal metal concentrations in water phase, which are measured during the study period (2012) and are time-dependent, contribute increasingly and gradually over time-not immediately-to the accumulation of metals into the sediments. Therefore, the long-term accumulation of metals in the sediments resulted from the continuous discharges of metals in the water phase. The anthropogenic impacts are marked by high contaminations of Meboudja wadi particularly in downstream areas of the steel factory and the nearby industrial

  5. A mesocosm study of oxygen and trace metal dynamics in sediment microniches of reactive organic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letho, Niklas; Larsen, Morten; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of particulate organic matter (POM) induces diagenetic hot spots at the sediment-Water interface (SWI). Here we explore the effects of intensive POM degradation for metal mobilization at the SWI. By using a combined planar optode-DGT (diffusive gradient in thin-films) sensor we obtained...... observed intense Fe and Mn mobilization, removal of Co, Ni and Zn and found evidence for the concurrent release and precipitation of Pb within a small confined volume. We also identified two small microniches in the anoxic sediment below the SWI, defined by elevated trace metal mobilization. Differences...... mobilization at the SWI. By using a combined planar optode-DGT (diffusive gradient in thin-films) sensor we obtained simultaneous measurements of dissolved O2 and trace metal dynamics around an aggregate of reactive organic matter placed on the SWI of a sediment mesocosm. The aggregate induced a rapid, highly...

  6. Trace metals behaviour during salt and fresh water mixing in the Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghermandi, G.; Campolieti, D.; Cecchi, R.; Costa, F.; Zaggia, L.; Zonta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation on trace metals behaviour in the estuarine system of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon) are described. Hydrodynamical and water chemical-physical measurements and PIXE concentrations analysis on size-fractionated samples emphasize the complexity of the processes occurring in the area of salt and fresh water mixing. Suspended load variations in the bottom layer of the water column, which may be mostly ascribed to resuspension, regulate the trace metal concentrations and seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of pollutants in shallow water areas of the estuary. The behaviour of dissolved metals is masked by the presence of suspended matter, but some relationships with chemical-physical variables are distinguishable, furnishing information on the processes affecting their concentration in the system. (orig.)

  7. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nsikak U; Asuquo, Francis E; Williams, Akan B; Essien, Joseph P; Ekong, Cyril I; Akpabio, Otobong; Olajire, Abaas A

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria). The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF) and global contamination factor (GCF). Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  8. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak U Benson

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria. The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  9. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    existing in the uncomplexed state. Changes in the concentrations of uncomplexed Cd and Zn with time gave the best correlations with changes in plant uptake of these metals over time, supporting the hypothesis that plants mainly absorb the free metal ion from soil solution....... transpiration rates and prevented excess addition of nutrient ions, so that subtle changes in soil solution composition would not be obscured. Soil solution pH, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the concentrations of major and trace elements in solution were found to vary over time. Strict...... control of fertilizer additions led to the maintenance of a relatively low ionic strength in the soil solution, and under such conditions trace metal solubility appeared to be highly influenced by the concentration of DOC. A chemical speciation analysis was performed which showed that, while dissolved Cd...

  10. Mass spectrometric methods for trace analysis of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Schulten, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the principles of mass spectrometry (MS) and the fundamentals of qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometric analysis emphasizing recent developments and results. Classical methods of the analysis of solids, i.e. spark-source MS and thermal ionization MS, as well as recent methods of metal analysis are described. Focal points in this survey of recently developed techniques include secondary ion MS, laser probe MS, plasma ion source MS, gas discharge MS and field desorption MS. Here, a more detailed description is given and the merits of these emerging methods are discussed more explicitly. In particular, the results of the field desorption techniques in elemental analyses are reviewed and critically evaluated

  11. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Wang Naiyan; Zhang Fengshou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N + into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  12. Accumulation of radiocesium and trace elements in mushrooms collected from Japanese forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ban-Nai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K for 124 mushroom species (284 samples) collected from Japanese forests during 1989 to 1991 were studied. The levels of 137 Cs m mushrooms varied very widely ranging from 40 K were relatively constant. The median concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were 53 and 1180 Bq/kg (dry wt), respectively. The 134 Cs discharged through the Chernobyl accident was detected only in 33 mushroom samples. The proportions of 137 Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident m these mushrooms were in the range 137 Cs concentrations in mycorrhizal fungi tended to be higher than those in saprophytes. The concentrations in many mushrooms reflected the layers m which their mycelia were growing. In addition to the radionuclides, many stable elements including stable Cs in mushroom and soil samples were determined. A good correlation between 137 Cs and stable Cs was observed for 33 mushrooms collected from a pine forest on sandy soil near coast in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, indicating that mushroom available Cs is recycling in the pine forest with the constant 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio. Accumulations from soil to mushrooms were observed for Cd, Rb, Zn, Cu. Cs, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Tl. Through cultivation experiments in flasks using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn were observed to be accumulated in mushrooms. (author)

  13. Assessment of trace metal levels in size-resolved particulate matter in the area of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations at four sites in Leipzig (Germany) and its surrounding were assessed between the winter of 2013 and the summer of 2015. The measurements were performed in parallel at; traffic dominated (Leipzig - Mitte, LMI), traffic and residential dominated (Eisenbahnstrasse, EIB), urban background (TROPOS, TRO) and regional background (Melpitz, MEL) sites. In total, 19 trace metals, i.e. K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Sr, Sn, Sb, Co and Rb were analysed using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The major metals were Fe, K and Ca with concentrations ranging between; 31-440 ng/m3, 42-153 ng/m3 and 24-322 ng/m3, respectively, while the trace metals with the lowest concentrations were Co, Rb and Se with concentrations of; fine mode. Trace metal sources were related to crustal matter and road dust re-suspension for metals such as Ca, Fe, Co, Sr, and Ti, brake and tire wear (Cu, Sb, Ba, Fe, Zn, Pb), biomass burning (K, Rb), oil and coal combustion (V, Zn, As, Pb). Crustal matter contributed 5-12% in winter and 8-19% in summer of the PM10 mass. Using Cu and Zn as markers for brake and tire wear, respectively, the estimated brake and tire wear contributions to the PM10 mass were 0.1-0.8% and 1.7-2.9%, respectively. The higher contributions were observed at the traffic sites while the lower contributions were observed at the regional background site. In total, non-exhaust emissions could account for about 10-22% of the PM10 mass in the summer and about 7-15% of the PM10 mass in the winter.

  14. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  15. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  16. Thermal tracing of retained meltwater in the lower accumulation area of the Southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Van As, Dirk; Colgan, William T.

    2016-01-01

    We present in situ firn temperatures from the extreme 2012 melt season in the southwestern lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The upper 2.5 m of snow and firn was temperate during the melt season, when vertical meltwater percolation was inefficient due to a similar to 5.5 m thick...... ice layer underlying the temperate firn. Meltwater percolation and refreezing beneath 2.5 m depth only occurred after the melt season. Deviations from temperatures predicted by pure conductivity suggest that meltwater refroze in discrete bands at depths of 2.0-2.5, 5.0-6.0 and 8.0-9.0 m. While we find...

  17. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Jeffree

    Full Text Available Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi and black catfish (Neosilurus ater were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients, in exposed populations of both species, (ii experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii the number of generations exposed to likely

  18. Trace metals in Suisun Bay, California; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, S.N.; Cascos, P.V.; Dagovitz, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A 5-month partial study (February to July 1983) was completed in Suisun Bay, a shallow embayment of San Francisco Bay, Calif., to determine characteristic heavy metal concentrations present in sediments and organisms (Corbicula clams) prior to possible discharge of San Luis Drain irrigation tile return water. Preliminary results show sediments are typical of other San Francisco Bay study sites, ranging from coarse sands to fine silt-clays. The sediments are enriched in manganese and low in organic carbon; iron is moderately enriched, with acid-extractable iron concentrations of 162-3,521 micro-g/g. Sediment concentrations of silver, zinc, lead, and cadmium measured between April and July are reported. Previous area studies have shown increased concentrations during autumn and winter, a period not covered in the data set. Due to insufficient data, interpretations are incomplete. Clam-tissue burdens for silver and zinc are similar to those found in Corbicula from pristine areas. Lead concentrations are typically below the 2-micrograms/g detection level. Corbicula do show indications of more tissue enrichment for cadmium and copper at estuarine stations than at riverine stations. (USGS)

  19. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    transpiration rates and prevented excess addition of nutrient ions, so that subtle changes in soil solution composition would not be obscured. Soil solution pH, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the concentrations of major and trace elements in solution were found to vary over time. Strict...... control of fertilizer additions led to the maintenance of a relatively low ionic strength in the soil solution, and under such conditions trace metal solubility appeared to be highly influenced by the concentration of DOC. A chemical speciation analysis was performed which showed that, while dissolved Cd...

  20. Trace Metals in the Urine and Hair of a Population in an Endemic Arsenism Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Kong, Chang

    2018-04-01

    There have been few investigations of trace elements in the urine and hair of populations exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) in drinking water. Therefore, concentrations of selected metals in urine and hair samples from a population in a study area where arsenism was endemic and a control area were determined. It was found that the median concentrations of barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and As in the urine samples from the population in the study area were 3.87, 0.47, 0.50, 61.84, 26.82, 1.33, 128.45, 7.05, 1.10, 233.75, and 339.63 μg/L, respectively. The corresponding values in the urine samples from a population in the control area were 29.08, 0.19, 0.21, 27.77, 10.32, 4.61, 14.01, 2.19, 3.90, 113.92, and 20.28 μg/L, respectively. In the study area, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn excreted in the urine were likely to be mainly derived from drinking water with high levels of arsenic. The median concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, and As in the hair samples from the study area were 4.16, 0.03, 0.09, 1.09, 6.54, 1.97, 0.06, 0.53, 1.64, 144.28, and 1.67 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values from the control area were 4.76, 0.03, 0.02, 1.41, 8.31, 1.34, 0.07, 0.39, 0.86, 154.58, and 0.29 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between As and Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the urine in the study area. However, As was not positively associated with these metals in the hair samples. Exposure to high levels of As in drinking water increased the accumulation of Ba and Mn in the hair and the excretion of Cd, Cu, and Mo in the urine in the study area. The population in the study area might experience Cu and Mo deficiencies for an increasing excretion of Cu and Mo.

  1. Historical trace element accumulation in marine sediments from the Tamaulipas shelf, Gulf of Mexico: An assessment of natural vs anthropogenic inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Hernandez, Omar; Rosales-Hoz, Leticia; Cundy, Andrew B; Carranza-Edwards, Arturo; Croudace, Ian W; Hernandez-Hernandez, Hector

    2018-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is considered one of the world's major marine ecosystems, supporting important fisheries and habitats such as barrier islands, mangrove forests, seagrass beds, coral reefs etc. It also hosts a range of complex offshore petroleum exploration, extraction, and refining industries, which may have chronic or acute impacts on ecosystem functioning. Previous work on the marine effects of this activity is geographically incomplete, and has tended to focus on direct hydrocarbon impacts, while impacts from other related contaminants (e.g. heavy metals, salt-rich drilling muds) which may be discharged from oil facilities have not been widely assessed. Here, we examine historical trace element accumulation in marine sediments collected from four sites in the Tamaulipas shelf, Gulf of Mexico, in the area of the Arenque oil field. Dated sediment cores were used to examine the sources, and historical and contemporary inputs, of trace metals (including those typically present in oil industry discharges) and their potential biological impact in the Tamaulipas aquatic environment over the last 100years. CaO (i.e. biogenic component) normalized data showed increasing V, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Zr and Ba towards the sediment surface in three of the four cores, with Ba and V (based on an adverse effect index) possibly associated with adverse effects on organisms. Dated Ba/CaO profiles show an increase of 30-137% after opening of oil installations in the study area, and can be broadly correlated with increasing oil industry activities across the wider Gulf of Mexico. Data do not record however a clear enhancement of Ba concentration in sediment cores collected near to oil platforms over more distal cores, indicating that any Ba released from drilling platforms is incorporated quickly into the sediments around the drilling sites, and once this element has been deposited its rate of resuspension and mobility is low. Sediment core data from the Tamaulipas shelf show the

  2. IS Annona emarginata CAPABLE OF ACCUMULATE ESSENTIAL HEAVY METALS WITHOUT DAMAGES IN THE METABOLISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL BARON

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate if ionic strength variation causes differential accumulation of heavy metals in plants of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer var. ‘terra-fria’, modifying gas exchange and dry matter production. The seedlings were cultivated under different ionic strengths of the ‘Hoagland and Arnon’s’ nutrient solution (75% I, 50% I and 25% I. At 180 days after the application of the treatments, the effects of the essential heavy metals on the physiological parameters and foliar ionic concentration were assessed. The leaf gas exchanges and vegetative growth were affected by the variation in the essential heavy metals, with positive effects on the plants that were treated with 75%I. The seedlings that were grown under 75% I presented higher concentrations of Zn (24.2mg kg-1. On the other hand Fe (453mg kg-1 e Mn (803.5mg kg-1 accumulated more under 25% I, but gas exchanges and vegetative growth were reduced, compared to 50%I and 75%I. We can conclude that the ionic strength variation alters gas exchange and the dry matter accumulation, causing differential accumulation of Fe, Mn and Zn in A. emarginata, occurring inverse relationship between increased ionic strength and Fe and Mn content, besides directly relationship to the Zn content.

  3. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals and Organic Matter in Marine Lake as In Situ Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, M.; Fiket, Ž.; Cuculić, V.; Cukrov, N.; Geček, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine lakes are unique, isolated marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. Impact of organic matter cycling on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters and organic matter concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high organic carbon concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and high proportion of organic matter (up to 9%) and inorganic phases, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. Surrounding karstic background, with occasional occurrences of red soil characterize deposited sediments as coarse grained and carbonate rich, whose elemental composition is affected by bathymetry of the basin and overall biological production.

  4. Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

  5. Heavy metal pollution and Pb isotopic tracing in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruilian; Zhang, Weifang; Hu, Gongren; Lin, Chengqi; Yang, Qiuli

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of 16 heavy metals and Pb isotopic ratios in the intertidal surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay were determined to study the pollution level of heavy metals and the sources of Pb. The results showed that most concentrations of Cd, Sn, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cs, Fe and V were higher than the background values, while most concentrations of Ti, Sb and Sr were lower than the background values. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd exceeded the first-grade criteria of Chinese marine sediment quality. The geo-accumulation indexes revealed that the sediments had been polluted by some heavy metals. The results of Pb isotopic tracing indicated that the total Pb in the sediments were mainly from parent material, industrial emission and vehicle exhaust with the mean contributions of 38.2%, 51.3% and 10.5%, respectively, calculated by a three-end-member model of Pb isotopic ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration of trace heavy metals at the sea water/sediment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo; Tomiyama, Chisato

    1984-01-01

    Migration behavior of some trace heavy metals such as Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) at the sea water/sediment interface was investigated by tank experiments. The sea water which was doped with these metal ions (ppb to ppm levels) allowed to contact with the raw-, ignited- and autoclaved-marine sediments and the change of the concentration of each metal was traced at definite time intervals. At the end of the experiments, a core sample of the sediment was taken and analyzed for each metal in every 1 mm thick segment. On the other hand, the surface sediment was submitted to partial extraction with various kinds of reagents to estimate the chemical species of the metals captured in the sediment. While every metal ion was quickly adsorbed on surface of the raw sediment, a concentration gradient from surface to bottom of the water phase occurred in the ignited sediment system. The migration of manganese to the sediment phase was assumed to be concerned with bacterial activity in the sediment. Copper and zinc seemed to be adsorbed very quickly onto some fine sediment particles by the formation of organometallic complexes with some organic materials existing in the sediments. Cobalt migrated relatively fast downward within the sediment phase after its deposition. (author)

  7. Orientation behavior is a good biomarker of trace metal contamination in Parallelomorphus laevigatus (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicology has become very important in the short time since a change in behavior is very often the first response to environmental altered conditions. We investigated the influence of trace metal intake on the spatial orientation performances of the carabid beetle Parallelomorphus laevigatus, fundamental ability for its survival. The aim of this study was to consider the solar orientation as behavioral biomarker for exposure to trace metal contamination. Therefore, we tested the ability of solar orientation of specimens of this species, fed with shrimps contaminated with three different concentrations of Cu, Zn, or Hg. We carried out the orientation tests after 1, 3, 7, and 10 days of contaminated feeding. Subsequently, we fed these beetles with not contaminated shrimps and again tested them after 1, 3, 7, and 10 days. For all three metals considered and, regardless of the degree of contamination of the food, we have found a progressive and significant counterclockwise displacement of the angle of orientation and a corresponding progressive reduction in the precision in the directional choices by the animals. We also noticed a clear growing recovery in the normal orientation by these insects after returning to their feeding with uncontaminated food. In conclusion, we can consider the orientation in space of P. laevigatus as a behavioral biomarker for exposure to trace metal contamination. We believe that the intake of trace metals may induce the insects to make mistakes in their spatial orientation, due to an acceleration of their biological clock. Such a clock malfunction is not definitive, since the return to a normal diet restores P. laevigatus the ability to re-make the correct directional choices. Ultimately, our results confirm the usefulness of behavioral ecotoxicology investigations; moreover, they stimulate the opportunity to deepen the understanding of functioning of the biological clock in the animals.

  8. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, C.; Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low.

  9. Trace metal geochemistry in mangrove sediments and their transfer to mangrove plants (New Caledonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, C., E-mail: cyril.marchand@ird.fr [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR 206/UMR 7590 IMPMC, 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France); Fernandez, J.-M.; Moreton, B. [AEL/LEA, 7 rue Loriot de Rouvray, 98800 Nouméa, New Caledonia (France)

    2016-08-15

    Because of their physico-chemical inherent properties, mangrove sediments may act as a sink for pollutants coming from catchments. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of some trace metals in the tissues of various mangrove plants developing downstream highly weathered ferralsols, taking into account metals partitioning in the sediment. In New Caledonia, mangroves act as a buffer between open-cast mines and the world's largest lagoon. As a result of the erosion of lateritic soils, Ni and Fe concentrations in the sediment were substantially higher than the world average. Whatever the mangrove stand and despite low bioaccumulation and translocations factors, Fe and Ni were also the most abundant metals in the different plant tissues. This low bioaccumulation may be explained by: i) the low availability of metals, which were mainly present in the form of oxides or sulfur minerals, and ii) the root systems acting as barriers towards the transfer of metals to the plant. Conversely, Cu and Zn metals had a greater mobility in the plant, and were characterized by high bioconcentration and translocation factors compared to the other metals. Cu and Zn were also more mobile in the sediment as a result of their association with organic matter. Whatever the metal, a strong decrease of trace metal stock was observed from the landside to the seaside of the mangrove, probably as a result of the increased reactivity of the sediment due to OM enrichment. This reactivity lead to higher dissolution of bearing phases, and thus to the export of dissolved trace metals trough the tidal action. Cu and Zn were the less concerned by the phenomenon probably as a result of higher plant uptake and their restitution to the sediment with litter fall in stands where tidal flushing is limited. - Highlights: • Unusual high concentrations of Fe and Ni were measured in mangrove tissues. • Bioconcentration and translocation factors of Fe, Ni, Co and Mn were low.

  10. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  11. Heavy metal bio-accumulation in tissues of sturgeon species of the Lower Danube River, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONĂRĂ Dalia Florentina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates bio-accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of sturgeons of the North-Western Black Sea and Lower Danube River (LDR. Samples (10 – 30 gr of liver, muscle, fat, gonads and skin tissues collected in October 2003 from 21 adult specimens of three sturgeon species: Acipenser stellatus (10, A. gueldenstaedtii (2, and Huso huso (9 were analysed for content in Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and Ni, using VARIAN Spectra A100. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were found in liver and the smallest in muscles of sturgeons. The highest heavy metal content was detected in tissues of stellate sturgeons, followed by Russian sturgeons. In all three species Cd and Cu content of the liver as well as of the stellate sturgeon muscle surpassed the admitted limits for human consumption (Cd – 0.05; Zn - 50; Cu – 5.0; Pb – 0.3 [mg / kg wet weight]. In view of a future re-opening of the commercial fishing of wild sturgeons it is strongly recommended testing the heavy metal level prior delivering sturgeon products to the market. Avoiding human consumption of liver of sturgeons captured in the LDR is strongly recommended as well. In the case of Cd a bio-accumulation with age of sturgeons was visible. In all species males seem to accumulate more heavy metals in their tissues. We explain this as effect of more frequent spawning migration of males in the LDR, the major contamination source. Beluga sturgeons show less heavy metal bio-accumulation of tissues.

  12. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.; Moloukhia, H.; Belacy, N.; Abd El-Rahman, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  13. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  14. Assessment of acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from River Uppanar, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyamperumal, T.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2006-01-01

    An acid leachable technique is employed in core samples (C1, C2 and C3) to develop a baseline data on the sediment quality for trace metals of River Uppanar, Cuddalore, southeast coast of India. Acid leachable metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd) indicate peak values at the sulphidic phase and enrichment of metals in the surface layers are due to the anthropogenic activities. Association of trace metals with Fe, Mn indicates their adsorption onto Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and their correlation with S indicate that they are precipitated as metal sulphides. Factor analysis identified three possible types of geochemical associations and the supremacy of trace metals along with Fe, Mn, S and mud supports their geochemical associations. Factor analysis also signifies that anthropogenic activities have affected both the estuarine and fresh water regions of River Uppanar. - Both natural and anthropogenic factors are affecting metals in sediments

  15. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems; Transferts et mobilite des elements traces metalliques dans la colonne sedimentaire des hydrosystemes continentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devallois, V.

    2009-02-15

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  16. Degree of trace metal pyritization in sediments from the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava Lopez, Carmen; Huerta Diaz, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We analyzed sediments from a core collected on the Pacific coast of Baja California, 45 km off the city of Tijuana and at 1257 m water depth (32 Celsius degrees 9.5N , 117 Celsius degrees 8.3W), for trace metal content in two operationally-defined fractions, HCl and pyrite. Our results indicate transference of Cu>Ni>Zn>>Hg y Ag from the HCl to the pyrite fraction. Sediments have degrees of pyritization (DOP) that average 7.2{+-} 4.9% with a maximum value of 18.5%. Average degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) range from 6.2 {+-}2.1% to 83{+-} 8% for Mn and Hg, respectively, although maximum values for some metals were closed to 100%. This transference is apparently a function of the solubility products of metal sulfides and the relative abundances of metals in the HCl fraction, as suggested by the significant correlation (p<0.001) observed between these two parameters and the DTMP of a number of trace metals. A similar correlation was obtained from published data of two cores collected in the Gulf of Mexico. [Spanish] Se analizaron sedimentos de un nucleo recolectado en la costa del Pacifico de Baja California 45 km de la costa de la ciudad de Tijuana y a 1257 m de profundidad del agua (32 grados Celsius 9.5N, 117 grados Celsius 8.3W), para determinar su contenido de metales traza en dos fracciones operacionales definidas HCl y pirita. Los resultados indican una transferencia de Cu>Ni>Zn>>Hg y Ag de la fraccion de HCl a la fase piritica. Los grados de piritizacion (DOP) en los sedimentos promediaron 7.2{+-} 4.9%, con un valor maximo de 18.5%. Los valores promedio de los grados de piritizacion de metales traza (DTMP) abarcaron el intervalo de 6.2 {+-}2.1% a 83{+-}18% para Mn y Hg, respectivamente, aunque los valores maximos para algunos metales estuvieron cercanos al 100%. Esta transferencia aparentemente es funcion de los productos de solubilidad de los sulfuros metalicos y de la abundancia relativa de metales en la fraccion HCl, como sugiere la correlacion

  17. Hyper accumulators of heavy metals of industrial areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, A.; Malik, R.N.; Ajaib, M.; Khan, N.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major threats to water and soil as well as human health. Phytoremediation has been used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential of 23 plant species growing on contaminated sites in Industrial areas of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Plant root, shoot and the soil samples were collected and analyzed for selected metal concentration values. To evaluate the potential of plant species for phyto remediation: Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) and Biological Transfer Coefficient (BCF) were calculated. The concentration of Pb in soils varied from 2-29 mg/kg, Zn from 28.82-172.56 mg/ kg, Cu from 8.88-306 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in plant shoots varied from 1.0 to 39 mg/kg, Zn from 17.25 to 194.03 mg/kg, Cu from 0.65 to 171.83 mg/kg. The concentration of Pb in roots of plant varied 1-43 mg/kg, Zn from 3.34-116.16 mg/kg, Cu from 3.35- 416.89 mg/kg. Brachiaria raptans and Malvastrum coromandelianum were found most suitable for phyto stabilization of sites contaminated with Pb and Cu (BCF= 18 and 9.12). Considering the BAC values, 15 species for Pb, two species for Cu, five species for Zn possessed the characteristics of hyper accumulator, none of the plant species was found as hyper accumulator; however plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil) and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plants shoots to roots) have the potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. The results of this study can be used for management and decontamination of soils with heavy metals using plant species having phyto remediation potential/characteristics. (author)

  18. Baseline sediment trace metals investigation: Steinhatchee River estuary, Florida, Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, C.A.; Hoenstine, R.W.; Highley, A.B.; Donoghue, J.F.; Ragland, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Florida Geological Survey/U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service Cooperative Study provides baseline data for major and trace metal concentrations in the sediments of the Steinhatchee River estuary. These data are intended to provide a benchmark for comparison with future metal concentration data measurements. The Steinhatchee River estuary is a relatively pristine bay located within the Big Bend Wildlife Management Area on the North Central Florida Gulf of Mexico coastline. The river flows 55 km through woodlands and planted pines before emptying into the Gulf at Deadman Harbor. Water quality in the estuary is excellent at present. There is minimal development within the watershed. The estuary is part of an extensive system of marshes that formed along the Florida Gulf coast during the Holocene marine transgression. Sediment accretion rate measurements range from 1.4 to 4.1 mm/yr on the basis of lead-210 measurements. Seventy-nine short cores were collected from 66 sample locations, representing four lithofacies: clay- and organic-rich sands, organic-rich sands, clean quartz sands, and oyster bioherms. Samples were analyzed for texture, total organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, clay mineralogy, and major and trace-metal content. Following these analyses, metal concentrations were normalized against geochemical reference elements (aluminum and iron) and against total weight percent organic matter. Metals were also normalized granulometrically against total weight percent fines (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for all metals except mercury. Mercury concentrations were determined by cold-flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Granulometric measurements were made by sieve and pipette analyses. Organic matter was determined by two methods: weight loss upon ignition and elemental analysis (by Carlo-Erba Furnace) of carbon and nitrogen. X-ray diffraction was used to determine clay mineralogy

  19. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  20. Uranium and other heavy metal resistance and accumulation in bacteria isolated from uranium mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Islam, Ekramul; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2012-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains isolated from uranium mine wastes were characterized in terms of their uranium and other metal resistance and accumulation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified the strains as members of genera Bacillus, Serratia, and Arthrobacter. Strains were able to utilize various carbon sources, particularly aromatic hydrocarbons, grow at broad pH and temperature ranges and produce non specific acid phosphatase relevant for metal phosphate precipitation in contaminated environment. The isolates exhibited high uranium and other heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cu and Cd) resistance and accumulation capacities. Particularly, Arthrobacter sp. J001 and Bacillus sp. J003 were superior in terms of U resistance at low pH (pH 4.0) along with metals and actinides (U and Th) removal with maximum cell loading of 1088 μmol U, 1293 μmol Th, 425 μmol Cu, 305 μmol Cd, 377 μmol Zn, 250 μmol Ni g(-1) cell dry wt. Genes encoding P(1B)-type ATPases (Cu-CPx and Zn-CPx) and ABC transporters (nik) as catalytic tools for maintaining cellular metal homeostasis were detected within several Bacillus spp., with possible incidence of horizontal gene transfer for the later gene showing phylogenetic lineage to α Proteobacteria members. The study provides evidence on intrinsic abilities of indigenous bacteria from U-mine suitable for survival and cleaning up of contaminated mine sites.

  1. Hydroponic screening of black locust families for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župunski, Milan; Borišev, Milan; Orlović, Saša; Arsenov, Danijela; Nikolić, Nataša; Pilipović, Andrej; Pajević, Slobodanka

    2016-01-01

    Present work examines phytoextraction potential of four black locust families (half-sibs 54, 56, 115, and 135) grown hydroponically. Plants were treated with 6 ppm of cadmium (Cd), 100 ppm of nickel (Ni), and 40 ppm of lead (Pb) added in Hoagland nutrient solution, accompanying with simultaneously applied all three metals. Responses to metals exposure among families were different, ranging from severe to slight reduction of root and shoot biomass production of treated plants. Calculated tolerance indices are indicating tested families as highly tolerant (Ti > 60). Family 135 had the lowest tolerance index, pointing that it was highly susceptible to applied metals. Comparing photosynthetic activities of tested families it has been noticed that they were highly sensitive to stress induced by heavy metals. Net photosynthetic rate of nickel treated plants was the most affected by applied concentration. Cadmium and nickel concentrations in stems and leaves of black locust families exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Ni kg(-1), in both single and multipollution context. On the contrary, accumulation of lead in above ground biomass was highly affected by multipollution treatment. Tf and BCF significantly varied between investigated treatments and families of black locust. Concerning obtained results of heavy metals accumulation and tolerance of black locust families can be concluded that tested families might be a promising tool for phytoextraction purposes, but it takes to be further confirmed in field trials.

  2. Feedback interactions between trace metal nutrients and phytoplankton in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSunda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are affected by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium. Of these, iron exerts the greatest limiting influence on carbon fixation rates and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N2 fixation rates, and thus exerts an important influence on ocean inventories of biologically available fixed nitrogen. Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in controlling the biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO2 pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO2 levels and CO2-linked global warming. Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese have a lesser effect on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among algal species. The interactions between trace metals and ocean plankton are reciprocal: not only do the metals affect the plankton, but the plankton regulate the distributions, chemical speciation, and cycling of these metals through cellular uptake and regeneration processes, downward flux of biogenic particles, cellular release of organic chelators, and mediation of redox reactions. This two way interaction has influenced not only the biology and chemistry of the modern ocean, but has had a profound influence on biogeochemistry of the ocean and earth system as a whole, and on the evolution marine and terrestrial biology over geologic history.

  3. Feedback Interactions between Trace Metal Nutrients and Phytoplankton in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, William G.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are also regulated by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium). Of these, iron is most limiting to phytoplankton growth and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N2) fixation rates, and thus is important in controlling ocean inventories of fixed nitrogen. Because of these effects, iron is thought to play a key role in regulating biological cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, including the biological transfer of carbon to the deep sea, the so-called biological CO2 pump, which helps regulate atmospheric CO2 and CO2-linked global warming. Other trace metal nutrients (zinc, cobalt, copper, and manganese) have lesser effects on productivity; but may exert an important influence on the species composition of algal communities because of large differences in metal requirements among species. The interactions between trace metals and ocean plankton are reciprocal: not only do the metals control the plankton, but the plankton regulate the distributions, chemical speciation, and cycling of these metals through cellular uptake and recycling processes, downward flux of biogenic particles, biological release of organic chelators, and mediation of redox reactions. This two way interaction has influenced not only the biology and chemistry of the modern ocean, but has had a profound influence on biogeochemistry of the ocean and earth system as a whole, and on the evolution of marine and terrestrial biology over geologic history. PMID:22701115

  4. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  5. Soluble Nutrient and Trace Metal Fluxes from Aerosol Dry Deposition to Elkhorn Slough, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E. T.; Paytan, A.; Haskins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances in aerosols. These components can come from both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources. These pollutants may affect ecosystem health and water quality with environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. In this study we focus on dry deposition to Elkhorn Slough, California. Size fractionated aerosol samples (PM 2.5 and PM 10) collected continuously over a seven day period using a cascade impactor are used along with a deposition model to determine the soluble nutrient and trace metal fluxes on the Elkhorn Slough ecosystem. Atmospheric deposition inputs will be compared to other sources and their potential impact evaluated.

  6. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  7. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms (Agaricales) from the Chicago region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, D. M.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Mueller, G. M.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Field Museum of Natural History

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to (1) fungal species; (2) collection location; (3) differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and (4) mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi. In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms, as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. In 1995 and 1996, sporocarps from three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita flavorubescens, Amanita rubescens, and Russula pectinatoides) were collected from Cowles Bog, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (near an industrial area) and the Palos forest preserves (near a residential area). Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes. The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest (Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb) and three lanthanides (La, Ce, and Nd). Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. rubescens and R. pectinatoides, while A. rubescens and A. flavorubescens were not significantly different. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. rubescens, while Palos forest A. rubescens had more of the lanthanides and barium. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides. Sporocarps concentrated more

  8. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z. S.; Tokonami, S.; Mishra, S.; Arae, H.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Sahoo, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9±0.05 to 449±12 mg kg -1 . Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ( 235 U/ 238 U) shows a natural origin rather than DU. (authors)

  9. LA-ICP-MS Study of Trace Elements in the Chanuskij Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaev, Michail I.

    2005-01-01

    This progress report covers work done during the second year of the 3-year proposal. During this year we resolved many issues relevant to the analytical technique developed by us for measuring trace elements in meteoritic metals. This technique was used to measure concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Sb, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in eight large (120 - 160 microns) metal grains from both "igneous" and "metamorphic" lithologies of the Chanuskij silicate inclusions. The first application of OUT technique to metal grains from thin sections showed some limitations. Small thickness of metal grains in the thin section limited the signal to 3-4 time-slices instead of 10- 1 1 ones in polished sections of iron meteorites studied before.

  10. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  11. Review of heavy metal accumulation on aquatic environment in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea part I: some essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Yanar, Alper; Alkan, Ela Nur

    2017-03-01

    All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s. Some concern arose from previous studies, particularly in terms of safety for human consumption. For this purpose, 86 articles and 4 theses were examined and information was collected on the table to open a forward-looking view of the pollution of studied area. In previous studies, the variations in feeding habits, habitats, and the level of copper found in edible muscles of the demersal fish species (deep water fish species, carnivore) such as Mullus barbatus barbatus, Solea lascaris, Sparus aurata were always higher than those found in pelagic (omnivore) Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata. Results show discrepancies caused by many factors; thus, more work must be done carefully.

  12. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian-Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the observed signal of carbon

  13. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian–Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the

  14. [Effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Chen; Ma, Shou-Tian; Shao, Yun; Jiang, Li-Na; Li, Chun-Xi

    2013-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation with mine wastewater on the physiological characters and heavy metals accumulation of winter wheat. Three treatments were installed, i. e., irrigation with coal-washing wastewater (T1), irrigation with coal-washing wastewater after its precipitation (T2), and irrigation with coal gangue leacheate (T3), taking the well water irrigation as the control (CK). The plants were irrigated with mine wastewater after the turning green stage. Irrigation with mine wastewater had negative effects on the winter wheat growth and grain yield. At anthesis stage, the leaf area, dry mass per stem, root activity, and net photosynthetic rate of winter wheat in treatments T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than those in CK (P wheat under mine wastewater irrigation were significantly higher than those in CK, suggesting that the irrigation with mine wastewater could result in the heavy metals accumulation in wheat grain.

  15. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare; Kystol, J.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-three years of measurements of atmospheric heavy metal (HM) deposition (bulk precipitation) in Denmark combined with European emission inventories form the basis for calculating a 50-year accumulated atmospheric input to a remote forest plantation on the island of Laesoe. Soil samples taken...... in two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, at eight forest sites at the island were used to determine the increase in HM content in the eolian deposited top soils of the plantation. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) were determined...... in atmospheric deposition and in soils. The accumulated atmospheric deposition is of the same magnitude as the increase of these metals in the top soil....

  16. Trace metal release after minimally-invasive repair of pectus excavatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fortmann

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown a high incidence of metal allergy after minimally-invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE. We postulated that MIRPE is associated with a significant release of trace metal ions, possibly causing the allergic symptoms.We evaluated the concentration with chromium, cobalt and nickel in blood, urine and tissue in patients prior to MIRPE and in patients who underwent an explantation of the stainless-steel bar(s after three years.Our study group consisted of 20 patients (mean age 19 years who had bar explantation and our control group included 20 patients (mean age 16 years prior to MIRPE. At the time of bar removal we detected significantly elevated concentrations of chromium and nickel in the tissue compared to patients prior to the procedure (p<0,001. We also found a significant increase in the levels of chromium in urine and nickel in blood in patients three years post MIRPE (p<0,001. Four patients temporarily developed symptoms of metal allergy, all had elevated metal values in blood and urine at explantation.Minimally-invasive repair of pectus excavatum can lead to a significant trace metal exposure.

  17. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for ... Key words: trace metals, water, sediment, farmland, Tyume River

  18. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  19. Feedback Interactions between Trace Metal Nutrients and Phytoplankton in the Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sunda, William G.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to control by major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) the productivity and species composition of marine phytoplankton communities are affected by a number of trace metal nutrients (iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, copper, and cadmium). Of these, iron exerts the greatest limiting influence on carbon fixation rates and has the greatest effect on algal species diversity. It also plays an important role in limiting di-nitrogen (N2) fixation rates, and thus exert...

  20. Screening of phyto-chemical constituents, trace metals and antimicrobial efficiency of Cissus vitiginea

    OpenAIRE

    V. Subramani; M. Kamaraj; B. Ramachandran; J. Jerome Jeyakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and trace metal concentrations of the Cissus vitiginea plant leaves which were collected from the Tiruchirappalli district, southern India. Preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves extracts revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds, such as steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, sugar, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, amino acid, and coumarin in the leaves. The bacterial and fungal strains were tested...

  1. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: species-specific responses in past and present ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart Thomas; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous witnessed intervals of profound perturbation named "Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs)" characterized by volcanic injection of large amounts of CO2, ocean anoxia, eutrophication, and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a number of nannofossil species. To detect the cause/s of such changes in the fossil record is challenging. Evidence of a correspondence between intervals of high trace metals concentrations and nannofossil dwarfism may be suggestive for a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification process. In order to verify the hypothesis that anomalously high quantities of essential and/or toxic metals were the cause of coccolith dwarfism, we explored the toxicities of a mixture of trace metals on four living coccolithophores species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The trace metals tested were chosen based upon concentration peaks identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interaction with living coccolithophores algae. Our results demonstrate a species-specific response to trace metal enrichment in living coccolithophores: E. huxleyi, G. oceanica and C. pelagicus showed a decrease in their growth rate with progressively and exponentially increased trace metal concentrations, while P. carterae is unresponsive to trace metal content. Furthermore, E. huxleyi, G. oceanica and C. pelagicus evidenced a decrease in the cell diameter. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccolith of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations tested. P. carterae size was unresponsive for changing trace metal concentration. Our results on living coccolithophore algae, demonstrate that elevated trace metal concentrations not only affect growth but also coccolith size and/or weight and that

  3. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  4. Microbial cells as biosorbents for heavy metals: accumulation of Uranium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The rate and extent of accumulation were subject to environmental parameters, such as pH, temperature, and interference by certain anions and cations. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred intracellularly and was extremely rapid (<10 s), and no response to environmental parameters could be detected. Metabolism was not required for metal uptake by either organism. Cell-bound uranium reached a concentration of 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight, but only 32% of the S. cerevisiae cells and 44% of the P. aeruginosa cells within a given population possessed visible uranium deposits when examined by electron microscopy. Rates of uranium uptake by S. cerevisiae were increased by chemical pretreatment of the cells. Uranium could be removed chemically from S. cerevisiae cells, and the cells could then be reused as a biosorbent

  5. Concentration of trace metals in boreholes in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortasi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of trace metals in ground water from the Ankobra basin revealed high levels of iron, manganese and aluminium. Approximately 40% of boreholes had total iron concentration exceeding 1000 μ 1 -1 (maximum WHO permissible limit). Aluminium concentration varied from 0.1 μ to 2510 μ 1 -1 with a median value of 10.0 μ 1 -1 . Approximately 20% of the boreholes had aluminium concentration exceeding the WHO maximum acceptable limit (200 μ 1 -1 ) for drinking water. Manganese concentration was in the range 6-2510 μ 1 -1 with a median of 356 μ 1 -1 . Roughly 25% of the boreholes had manganese concentrations higher that 500 μ 1 -1 , which is the WHO maximum acceptable limit for drinking water. The concentrations of mercury was higher than 1.0 μ 1 -1 (WHO maximum acceptable limit) in 60% of the boreholes during the rainy season but below detection limit in the dry season, suggesting anthropogenic origin for mercury in the groundwater. Other trace metals that occurred, but in insignificant concentration in the boreholes, include lead, arsenic, nickel and selenium. Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. (au)

  6. Analysis of heavy metal accumulation in fish from the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M. N. R.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of toxic metals in fish causes serious threats to the human when they are consumed. Thus, the detection of toxic element concentration levels in fish is important. The accumulation of four heavy metal concentration of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in fish was determined. Five fish species namely Epinephelus lanceolatus, Rastrelliger, Megalaspis cordyla, Bramidae and Siganus canaliculatus were collected from the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The analysis was done using inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) technique. The accumulation of the four heavy metals in muscle tissues of the fish are lower compared to liver and gill tissues. Cd concentration was higher in liver tissues except in Megalaspis cordyla. Meanwhile Cu concentration was higher in liver for all selected fishes. Mn concentration was higher in gill tissues of all fish studied while Zn concentration was higher in gill tissues except in Epinephelus lanceolatus and Rastrelliger. The highest average level of heavy metal recorded in fish is Zn (11.05 × 10-2 ± 1.44 × 10-2 mg kg-1) followed by Mn (1.81 × 10-2 ± 0.58 × 10-2 mg kg-1), Cu (0.70 × 10-2 ± 0.10 × 10-2 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.52×10-2 ± 0.27 × 10-2 mg kg-1). The metal concentration found in this study was lower than the national and international Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for human consumption. Long term monitoring system of metal bioaccumulation in fishes need to be done to provide useful information for the assessment of the potential health risks of metals in Malaysia.

  7. The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy eJaffré

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While an excess of metals such as zinc, cadmium or nickel (Ni is toxic for most plants, about 500 plant species called hyperaccumulators are able to accumulate high amounts of these metals. These plants and the underlying mechanisms are receiving an increasing interest because of their potential use in sustainable biotechnologies such as biofortification, phytoremediation and phytomining. Among hyperaccumulators, about 400 species scattered in 40 families accumulate Ni. Despite this wide diversity, our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in Ni accumulation is still limited and mostly restricted to temperate herbaceous Brassicaceae. New Caledonia is an archipelago of the tropical southwest pacific with a third of its surface (5500 km2 covered by Ni-rich soils originating from ultramafic rocks. The rich New Caledonia flora contains 2145 species adapted to these soils, among which 65 are Ni hyperaccumulators, including lianas, shrubs or trees, mostly belonging to the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales and Gentianales. We present here our current knowledge on Ni hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia and the latest molecular studies developed to better understand the mechanisms of Ni accumulation in these plants.

  8. Biodynamic modelling of the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Ag, As and Zn) by an infaunal estuarine invertebrate, the clam Scrobicularia plana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Biodynamic modelling is used to predict accumulation of Ag, As and Zn in S. plana. • Dissolved and sediment-associated metals contribute to total metal bioaccumulation. • Relative importance varies with water and sediment concentrations and geochemistries. - Abstract: Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954 ± 0.375 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) followed by As (0.807 ± 0.129 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and Zn (0.103 ± 0.016 l g{sup −1} d{sup −1}). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2 ± 1.3% (Ag), 31.7 ± 1.0% (Zn) and 25.3 ± 0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014–0.060 d{sup −1}. By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66–99%, 50–97% and 52–98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.

  9. Speciation and leaching of trace metal contaminants from e-waste contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Li; Luo, Chun-Ling; Tang, Chloe Wing-Yee; Chan, Ting-Shan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Primitive electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities have caused serious environmental problems. However, little is known about the speciation and leaching behaviors of metal contaminants at e-waste contaminated sites. This study investigated trace metal speciation/mobilization from e-waste polluted soil through column leaching experiments involving irrigation with rainwater for almost 2.5 years. Over the experimental period, Cu and Zn levels in the porewater were 0.14±0.08mg/L, and 0.16±0.08mg/L, respectively, increasing to 0.33±0.16mg/L, and 0.69±0.28mg/L with plant growth. The amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb released in surface soil (0-2cm) contributed 43.8%, 22.5%, and 13.8%, respectively, to the original levels. The released Cu and Zn were primarily caused by the mobilization of the carbonate species of metals, including Cu(OH) 2 , CuCO 3 , and Zn 5 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 , and amorphous Fe/Mn oxides associated fractions characterized by sequential extraction coupling with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. During the experiments, trace metals were not detected in the effluent, and the re-sequestration of trace metals was mainly attributed to the adsorption on the abundant Fe/Mn oxides in the sub-layer soil. This study quantitatively elucidated the molecular speciation of Cu and Zn in e-waste contaminated soil during the column leaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accumulation of mercury and other heavy metals in edible fishes of Cochin backwaters, Southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mahesh; Deepa, M; Ramasamy, E V; Thomas, A P

    2012-07-01

    Mercury, a global pollutant, has become a real threat to the developing countries like India and China, where high usage of mercury is reported. Mercury and other heavy metals deposited in to the aquatic system can cause health risk to the biota. The common edible fishes such as Mugil cephalus, Arius arius, Lutjanus ehrenbergii, Etroplus suratensis were collected from Cochin backwaters, Southwest India and analysed for mercury and other heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, lead and copper) in various body parts. Kidney and liver showed highest concentration of metals in most fishes. The omnivore and bottom feeder (E. suratensis) showed high concentration of mercury (14.71 mg/kg dry weight) and other metals (1.74 mg/g-total metal concentration). The average mercury concentration obtained in muscle was 1.6 mg/kg dry weight (0.352 mg/kg wet weight), which is higher than the prescribed limits (0.3 mg/kg wet weight). The concentration of other heavy metals in the muscles of fishes were found in a decreasing order Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb and are well below WHO permissible limits that were safe for human consumption. Metal selectivity index (MSI) obtained for all the metals except mercury showed that both carnivores and omnivores have almost same kind of affinity towards the metals especially Zn and Cd, irrespective of their feeding habit. The MSI values also indicate that the fishes have the potential to accumulate metals. High tissue selectivity index (TSI) values were reported for kidney, muscle and brain for all metals suggests that the metal concentration in these tissues can serve as an indication of metal polluted environment. Even if the daily intakes of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu from these fishes are within the provisional maximum daily intake recommended by WHO/FAO, the quality is questionable due to the high hazard index obtained for mercury (>1). Fishes like E. suratensis being a favourite food of people in this region, the high consumption of it can lead to chronic disorders as this

  11. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lena Q.; Dong Yan

    2004-01-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl 2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg -1 ), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg -1 ). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO 3 . The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. - Iron is important in controlling metal solubility and mobility in flooded soils

  12. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. Biomonitoring of trace metals in a mine-polluted estuarine system (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, José; Usero, José; Gracia, Ignacio

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we examine metal concentrations in the water and in the crustacean Balanus balanoides from the Huelva estuary, one of the most polluted estuaries in Europe. Metal levels in waters are very high, especially those of Zn, Fe and Cu. Zn presents the highest concentrations, with a mean value of 690 microg l-1 in 2001 and 301 microg l-1 in 2002. As the water flows down through the estuary toward the sea, the metal concentrations drop sharply and the pH rises. The metal concentrations in balanoides tissues are, in general, very high, undoubtedly due to the high metal pollution of the water where it lives. Metal concentrations in Balanus balanoides tissues behave similarly to those in the water, reaching maximums in the upper part of the estuary and diminishing as we approach the sea. The element that reaches the highest levels in Balanus balanoides is Zn, with a mean value of 54.6 g kg-1 in 2001 and 29.9 g kg-1 in 2002, followed by Cu and Fe. There is a significant correlation (pwe can conclude that Balanus balanoides is a good tool for monitoring trace metals in the Huelva estuary.

  14. Trace metals in soil and vegetables and associated health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level of trace metals in soil and vegetables and health risk to the urban population in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils was 158-1160, 104-443, 157-519, 41-93, 3.9-13, and 84-574 mg/kg, respectively. Sequential extraction tests revealed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the organically bound phase. Concerning Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in vegetables, more than 50 % samples exceeded the FAO/WHO recommended permissible limits. Considering the transfer of metals from soil to vegetables, Cu and Cd exhibited higher transfer factor (TF) values than the other metals. Target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal was below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health hazards if they ingest a single metal from vegetables. However, total metal THQ signifies the potential non-carcinogenic health hazard to the highly exposed consumers. The carcinogenic risk (TR) of As (1.9 × 10(-4)) and Pb (2.3 × 10(-5)) through consumption of vegetables were higher than the USEPA threshold level (10(-6)), indicating potential cancer risks.

  15. Source-oriented variation in trace metal distribution and fractionation in sediments from developing aquaculture area-A case study in south Hangzhou bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingchen; Ye, Hua; Li, Feipeng; Tao, Hong; Shi, Liu; Chen, Ling; Shi, Weiling; Yan, Geng; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-15

    Elevation in toxic trace metal concentration found in coastal sediments in recent years (2013-2016) increased the risk to the aquaculture industry in south Hangzhou bay. This study assessed the main factors controlling the metal distribution and mobility in sediments by sampling from 20 sites along the bank. Spatial distribution and cluster analysis indicated that Cd, As, Hg and Sb attributed to anthropogenic terrestrial sources; while Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb, carried by fine-grained sediments and accumulated on tidal flat, were inputted from marine sources. High mobility of Cd was expected because of its considerable proportion (~50%) associated with the acid extractable fraction. Pb, Cu and Co in redox sensitive fraction should also be taken into concern in management of reclaimed area affected by tide. Risk assessments by potential ecological risk index (PERI) emphasised the importance of further monitor and proper treatment of 4 terrestrial generated metals in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of metal ion accumulation in Euglena gracilis by fluorescence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.; Ren, Q. G.; Mi, Y.; Shi, X. F.; Yao, H. Y.; Jin, C. Z.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.; Zhang, J.; Liu, B.

    2002-04-01

    Single cell synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe measurements as well as X-ray absorption near edge structure experiments have been done at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility on Euglena Gracilis cells. Concentrations of the metal ions Mn 2+, Nd 3+, Ce 3+ and other trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. have been measured both by single cell SXRF and bulk PIXE technique. It was found that the content of Ca, Fe and Zn was lower after the uptake of rare earths or Mn by the cells, while the valence states of Mn 2+, Ce 3+ and Nd 3+ were unaltered. The results related to cytochemistry are also discussed.

  17. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  18. Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal in four salt marsh species, from Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, B., E-mail: baduarte@fc.ul.p [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal); Caetano, M. [INRB/IPIMAR - Instituto Nacional de Recursos Biologicos, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, P.R. [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Evora, Largo dos Colegiais 2, 7004-516 Evora (Portugal); Vale, C. [INRB/IPIMAR - Instituto Nacional de Recursos Biologicos, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Cacador, I. [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-05-15

    Pools of Zn, Cu, Cd and Co in leaf, stem and root tissues of Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis, Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima were analyzed on a bimonthly basis, in a Tagus estuary salt marsh. All the major concentrations were found in the root tissues, being the concentrations in the aboveground organs neglectable for sediment budget proposes, as seen by the low root-aboveground translocation. Metal annual accumulation, root turnovers and cycling coefficients were also assessed. S. maritima showed the higher root turnovers and cycling coefficients for most of the analyzed metals, making this a phytostabilizer specie. By contrast the low root turnover, cycling coefficient and low root necromass generation makes S. perennis the most suitable specie for phytoremediation processes. Although the high amounts of metal return to the sediments, due to root senescence, salt marshes can still be considered sinks of heavy metals, cycling heavy metals mostly between sediment and root. - The efficiency of the phytoremediative processes and metal budgets are greatly influenced by the turnover periods and necromass generation.

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H. de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.dewolf@ua.ac.be; Rashid, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra.

  20. Multiple metal accumulation as a factor in learning achievement within various New Orleans elementary school communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.W.; Berry, K.J..; Mielke, P.W.; Powell, E.T.; Gonzales, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In New Orleans, the elementary school system is divided into attendance districts with established boundaries that define student enrollment among schools. This study concerns environmental quality as defined by amount of soil metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, and V) in attendance district elementary school communities (n=111) paired with learning achievement as measured by individual test scores (n=32,741) of students enrolled at each school. The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) 4th grade scores measure learning achievement for English language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science. The best fit between environmental quality and higher learning achievement is found to be inversely associated with the sum of the metals or multiple metal accumulations (MMA) in New Orleans communities. The P values for MMA partitions for ELA, SOC, MAT, and SCI are 0.57x10 -7 , 0.29x10 -8 , 0.41x10 -6 , and 0.17x10 -8 , respectively. Efforts to prevent childhood metal exposure should improve New Orleanians' learning achievement as measured by the LEAP scores and thereby enhance the socioeconomic situation in contaminated communities. This study establishes global relationships between LEAP scores in schools and soil metal concentrations in school neighborhoods. However, these data do not allow relating of the LEAP scores with metal levels for individual students