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Sample records for tpc time projection

  1. ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Readout Sector in Lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electrons out of their atoms, which drift in the eletric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, at segments such as the one shown here, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  2. Prototype of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Field-Cage

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electons out of their atoms, which then drift in in the electric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  3. Progress on the superconducting magnet for the time projection chamber experiment (TPC) at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Burns, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will have a two meter inside diameter superconducting magnet which creatests a 1.5 T uniform solenoidal field for the TPC. The superconducting magnet coil, cryostat, cooling system, and the TPC gas pressure vessel (which operatests at 11 atm) were designed to be about two thirds of a radiation length thick. As a result, a high current density coil design was chosen. The magnet is cooled by forced flow two phase helium. The TPC magnet is the largest adiabatically stable superconducting magnet built to date. The paper presents the parameters of the TPC thin solenoid and its subsystems. Tests results from the Spring 1980 cryogenic tes are presented. The topics to be dealt with in the paper are cryogenic services and the tests of magnet subsystems such as the folded current leads. Large thin superconducting magnet technology will be important to large detectors to be used on LEP

  4. Some TPC [Time Projection Chamber] measurements in an oxygen beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The principal detector for AGS Experiment 810 is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in which it is intended to measure momenta and angles of a major fraction of the charged particles from each light ion collision. This report describes the results of a test of a prototype of the TPC in a beam of (14.6 /times/ 16 = 233.6 GeV/c) oxygen ions run in June of this year

  5. Development of a time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, S.X.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Isobe, T.; Gunji, T.; Morino, Y.; Saito, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.; Sawada, S.; Yokkaichi, S.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a prototype time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC) for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. To investigate its performance, we conducted a beam test with three kinds of gases (Ar(90%)-CH 4 (10%), Ar(70%)-C 2 H 6 (30%) and CF 4 ). Detection efficiency of 99%, and spatial resolution of 79μm in the pad-row direction and 313μm in the drift direction were achieved. The test results show that the GEM-TPC meets the requirements for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. The configuration and performance of the GEM-TPC are described

  6. AGS silicon gold collisions measured in the E-810 TPC [Time Projection Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Roberts, J.B.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The tracking detector of AGS Experiment 810 is a three-piece Time Projection Chamber (TPC) intended to measure all charged tracks in the forward hemisphere of the nucleon-nucleon center of mass system, i.e. forward of an angle of about 20 degrees in the lab. Each module of the TPC contains twelve rows of short anode wires which give 3-D space points on each track, but no dE/dx information useable for particle identification. The TPC was operated in a beam of silicon ions at the end of June 1989 and this talk reports the results of analysis of the data taken with a thin gold target in that run. We have gathered a similar amount of data from thin copper and silicon targets, the analysis of which is in a less advanced state. The results of our investigation of the neutral strange particle decays appear in a separate contribution by Al Saulys. This paper presents the current state of the analysis of the charged tracks from the silicon gold collisions. 1 ref., 15 figs

  7. The NA36 time projection chamber: An interim report on a TPC designed for a relativistic heavy ion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since its conception in the early 1970s, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has found application in several areas of particle physics ranging from e + e - collider experiments to rare decay studies of lepton nonconservation. A new and promising area of application for the TPC is the study of relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC). Presented here is an interim report on the first TPC for this field of physics, the NA36 TPC, being developed by Berkeley (LBL) for RHIC at the CERN SPS. Emphasis is placed on the operational and design considerations implemented to optimize the performance of the NA36 TPC in the study of central rapidity strange baryons produced in RHIC. The NA36 TPC volume is rectangular with an endcap area 0.5 m x 1.0 m and a maximum drift distance of 0.5 m. The drift volume is filled with Ar-CH 4 (9%) at one atmosphere. A total of 6400 channels of time digitizing electronics instrument 66% of the endcap in a wedge shaped area matched to fixed target kinematics. 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) in cold gas of Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechetoille, E; Mathez, H; Zoccarato, Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on a 8-channel low noise Front-End electronic coupled to a Liquid Argon (LAr) TPC (Time Projection Chamber). Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), a band pass filter and a 50 Ohms buffer as line driver. A serial link based on a 'i2c-like' protocol, provides multiple configuration features to the circuit by accessing slow control registers. In this paper, we describe the CSA, the shaper and the slow control part. The feedback network of the CSA is made of a capacitance and a resistor. Their values are respectively 250 fF and 4 MΩ. An input referred noise of, at most, 1500 e- rms must be achieved at -100 deg. C with an input detector capacitance of 250 pF to ensure a correct measurement of the minimal signal of 18000e- (2.88 fC). The power consumption in this cryogenic setup must be less than 40 mW from a 3.3 V power supply.

  9. Photostructured coating on a voltage degrader for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Manaranche, C; Loquet, J L; Serdiouk, V; Scandurra, M; Zucchelli, P

    2002-01-01

    Fibreglass-reinforced epoxy (Stesalit) tubes and rods were coated with a photostructured metal layer system of copper, nickel and gold for a voltage degrader built in a particle detector at CERN, Geneva. The metal layers were applied with galvanotechnical processes involving an original photolithographic exposure in three dimensions to produce a complex electrical circuit design able to provide the correct potential to 420 different conductors. The Stesalit substrate material, even after a first layer of electroless copper, is electrically quite resistive, creating problems for the electrodeposition of the subsequent nickel layer. A mathematical simulation of the plating thickness distribution showed that the electrolytic nickel deposition was suitable for short rods but electroless nickel was needed for the long rods. The functional properties of the metallized Stesalit components are satisfactory: no degradation of the gas quality within the Time Projection Chamber is observed; the potential distribution al...

  10. TPC workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept is now nearly ten years old and, as is evident in this workshop, is still evolving in many directions. From the liquid xenon TPC for double beta decay studies to the impressively large second generation TPC for the LEP experiment ALEPH, the surprising diversity of current applications is apparent. This workshop, the first to concentrate solely on the TPC has provided a most congenial and rewarding occasion for all TPC enthusiasts to share experience, results, and ideas

  11. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V., E-mail: vereschagin@jinr.ru; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  12. Calibration of the DELPHI Time Projection chamber (TPC) and measurement of the Z0 parameters through its hadronic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.H.

    1990-05-01

    The work presented in this thesis has been performed on the DELPHI experiment, at the CERN large electron-positron collider: LEP. At first, a review of the apparatus, the data taking and the trigger used in 1989 is done, and their performances are shown. Then a detailed presentation of the main charged detector, the Time Projection Chamber is done. Its reliability lies on a precise monitoring of the electric field and on a very good knowledge of the electron drift velocity in the gas (80% argon-20% methan). These two goals are achieved using ultraviolet nitrogen lasers which simulate the crossing of particles through the detector. The complete sequence of operations is described, from the data taking up to the computation of the drift velocity (66.67 mm per microsecond). The second part of this work deals with the determination of the Z 0 resonance parameters. At first are described the theoretical expectations of the Standard Model and the radiative corrections which have to be taken into account in the hadronic Z 0 decays. Then the methods used for the computation of the luminosity and the selection of the hadronic Z 0 decays are presented. By combining these two informations the experimental hadronic cross section is derived. A fit of the theoretical line shape allows us to determine the mass, the width and the Born cross section of the Z 0 resonance. Using constants given by the Standard Model one can exclude at fourth neutrino lighter than 37 GeV/c 2 at the 95% confidence level [fr

  13. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  14. The ALICE TPC Upgrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrew; Alice-Usa Collaboration; Alice-Tpc Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) currently used for ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) is a gaseous tracking detector used to study both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) In order to accommodate the higher luminosit collisions planned for the LHC Run-3 starting in 2021, the ALICE-TPC will undergo a major upgrade during the next LHC shut down. The TPC is limited to a read out of 1000 Hz in minimum bias events due to the intrinsic dead time associated with back ion flow in the multi wire proportional chambers (MWPC) in the TPC. The TPC upgrade will handle the increase in event readout to 50 kHz for heavy ion minimum bias triggered events expected with the Run-3 luminosity by switching the MWPCs to a stack of four Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM layers will combine different hole pitches to reduce the dead time while maintaining the current spatial and energy resolution of the existing TPC. Undertaking the upgrade of the TPC represents a massive endeavor in terms of design, production, construction, quality assurance, and installation, thus the upgrade is coordinated over a number of institutes worldwide. The talk will go over the physics motivation for the upgrade, the ALICE-USA contribution to the construction of Inner Read Out Chambers IROCs, and QA from the first chambers built in the U.S

  15. TPC magnet cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

    1980-03-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system

  16. R and D on a Fast LXe TPC with real-time event reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussoni, S., E-mail: simeone.dussoni@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Galli, L. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cerri, C.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    The FOXFIRE project (Feasibility Of a Xenon detector with Front-end for Ionization Real-time Extraction) aims at the realization of a Liquid Xenon TPC optimized for high rate particle physics experiments, in particular in the field of rare event searches, with particles in the 10–100 MeV energy range. Liquid Xenon has several attractive properties to be exploited resulting in superior time and energy resolution, by using the scintillation light readout with suitable photo-detectors. A novel approach with a complementary TPC readout scheme can improve the space resolution to a level of a few hundred microns. We are studying both the feasibility of a light readout with higher granularity by means of Silicon PhotoMultipliers optimized for the Xenon emission spectrum as well as on an innovative micro-fabricated device capable of charge multiplication in liquid phase. The detector will be equipped with a readout electronics capable of online reconstruction of events, allowing the detector to sustain a high rate of interactions.

  17. ALICE installs its TPC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE time projection chamber has been transported to the experimental cavern. The handling of this extremely fragile detector was a long and delicate process. The lorry transporting the TPC took one hour to travel from the assembly hall to the access shaft...200 metres away.The TPC was lowered into the ALICE experimental cavern with extreme care. The gap between the structure and the shaft wall was only 10 centimetres! For ALICE the year started with a flurry of activity...but at a snail's pace. On 8 January, the day CERN reopened after the end-of-year break, teams from ALICE and the TS Department began the transportation of the experiment's time projection chamber (TPC), the largest ever built. This 5-metre long and 5-m diameter cylinder was transported from the clean room where it had been assembled to the experimental cavern. The 300-metre journey took no less than four days! Since the TPC is an extremely fragile object, the utmost precautions were exercised in its transportation. The TPC, which is d...

  18. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture; Driftgeschwindigkeitsstudien an einer Zeit-Projektions-Kammer (TPC) bei unterschiedlichen Wassergehalten des Kammergases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-15

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC.

  19. Online Calibration of the TPC Drift Time in the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, David; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Zampolli, Chiara; Wiechula, Jens; Gorbunov, Sergey; Chauvin, Alex; Vorobyev, Ivan; Weber, Steffen; Schweda, Kai; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2017-06-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The high level trigger (HLT) is a compute cluster, which reconstructs collisions as recorded by the ALICE detector in real-time. It employs a custom online data-transport framework to distribute data and workload among the compute nodes. ALICE employs subdetectors that are sensitive to environmental conditions such as pressure and temperature, e.g., the time projection chamber (TPC). A precise reconstruction of particle trajectories requires calibration of these detectors. Performing calibration in real time in the HLT improves the online reconstructions and renders certain offline calibration steps obsolete speeding up offline physics analysis. For LHC Run 3, starting in 2020 when data reduction will rely on reconstructed data, online calibration becomes a necessity. Reconstructed particle trajectories build the basis for the calibration making a fast online-tracking mandatory. The main detectors used for this purpose are the TPC and Inner Tracking System. Reconstructing the trajectories in the TPC is the most compute-intense step. We present several improvements to the ALICE HLT developed to facilitate online calibration. The main new development for online calibration is a wrapper that can run ALICE offline analysis and calibration tasks inside the HLT. In addition, we have added asynchronous processing capabilities to support long-running calibration tasks in the HLT framework, which runs event-synchronously otherwise. In order to improve the resiliency, an isolated process performs the asynchronous operations such that even a fatal error does not disturb data taking. We have complemented the original loop-free HLT chain with ZeroMQ data-transfer components. The ZeroMQ components facilitate a feedback loop that inserts the calibration result created at the end of the chain back into tracking components at the beginning of the chain, after a

  20. Performance and applications of a μ-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miuchi, Kentaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Takada, Atsushi; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Ueno, Masaru; Bouianov, Oleg; Bouianov, Marina

    2004-01-01

    A μ-TPC, a time projection chamber (TPC) which can detect three-dimensional fine tracks of charged particles, was developed and its performance was measured. We developed a μ-TPC with a detection volume of 10x10x10cm3 based on a novel two-dimensional imaging gaseous detector, or the μ-PIC. Fine tracks of charged particles with large energy depositions (protons and electrons) were detected with the μ-TPC. With a pressurized gas, tracks of the minimum ionizing particles were detected. We showed the principle of the application for the time-resolved neutron imaging detector

  1. A laser calibration system for the STAR TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, A

    2002-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the primary tracking detector for the STAR experiment at RHIC. A laser calibration system was built to calibrate and monitor the TPC tracking performance. The laser system uses a novel design which produces approx 500 thin, ionizing beams distributed throughout the tracking volume. This new approach is significantly simpler than the traditional ones, and provides complete TPC coverage at a reduced cost. The laser system was used during the RHIC 2000 summer run to measure drift velocities with about 0.02% accuracy and to monitor the TPC performance. Calibration runs were made with and without a magnetic field to check B field map corrections.

  2. TPC track distortions III: fiat lux

    CERN Document Server

    Boyko, I; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Veenhof, R; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview and final summary of all four types of static track distortions seen in the HARP TPC, in terms of physical origins, mathematical modelling, and correction algorithms. 'Static'™ distortions are defined as not depending on the event time within the 400 ms long accelerator spill. Calculated static distortions are compared with measurements from cosmic-muon tracks. We characterize track distortions by the r phi residuals of cluster positions with respect to the transverse projection of a helical trajectory constrained by hits in the RPC overlap regions. This method provides a fixed TPC-external reference system (by contrast to the co-moving coordinate system associated with a fit) which solely permits to identify individually, and measure quantitatively, the static TPC track distortions arising from (i) the inhomogeneity of the solenoidal magnetic field, (ii) the inhomogeneity of the electric field from the high-voltage mismatch between the inner and outer TPC field cages, (...

  3. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  4. CAMAC interface for TPC data-acquisition electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidman, S.; Olson, S.; Jared, R.

    1983-06-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a detector used for high-energy physics research at the Stanford PEP Accelerator. TPC requires about 17,000 channels of data acquisition, which samples on command the input to each channel at a 10 MHz rate. This high data rate is made possible by means of Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), intelligent digitizers, and a sophisticated trigger system. The TPC-CAMAC interface described here was developed to allow experiments of smaller scale than the complete TPC to use the standard data acquisition portion of the TPC electronics, namely the amplifier, CCD and digitizer bins. These three bins, when properly interconnected and controlled by the interface control bin, form a transient digitizer with a depth of 455 samples and a maximum width of 256 channels per bin set

  5. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  6. The GAP-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Cocco, A.G.; Meo, P. Di; Vanzanella, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Walker, S.; Fiorillo, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  7. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attié, David [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); Bellerive, Alain [Carleton University, Department of Physics, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bezshyyko, Oleg [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, City of Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); now at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Purba [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); now at National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) Bhubaneswar, P.O. Jatni, Khurda 752050, Odisha (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Caiazza, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Colas, Paul [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lentdecker, Gilles De [Inter University ULB-VUB, Av. Fr. Roosevelt 50, B1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Dehmelt, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Desch, Klaus [Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  8. Some TPC measurements in an oxygen beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Krishna, N.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The principal detector for AGS Experiment 810 is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in which it is intended to measure momenta and angles of a major fraction of the charged particles from each light ion collision. This report describes the results of a test of a prototype of the TPC in a beam of (14.6x16=233.6 GeV/c) oxygen ions run in June of this year. (orig.)

  9. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  10. Prototype for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This is a prototype endplate piece constructed during R&D for the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC). ALEPH was one of 4 experiments at CERN's 27km Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) that ran from 1989 to 2000. ALEPH's TPC was a large-volume tracking chamber, 4.4 metres long and 3.6 metres in diameter - the largest TPC in existance at the time. This object is one of the endplates of a “Kind” sector, the smallest of the three types of sectors. The patterns etched into the copper form the cathode pads that measured particle track coordinates in the r-phi direction. It included a laser calibration system, a gating system to prevent space charge buildup, and a new radial pad geometry to improve resolution. the ALEPH TPC allowed for precise momentum measurements of the high-momentum particles from W and Z decays. The following institutes participated: CERN, Athens, Glasgow, Mainz, MPI Munich, INFN-Pisa, INFN-Trieste, Wisconsin.

  11. Compression of TPC data in the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaucig, A.; Mattavelli, M.; Carrato, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper two algorithms for the compression of the data generated by the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector of the ALICE experiment at CERN are described. The first algorithm is based on a lossless source code modeling technique, i.e. the original TPC signal information can be reconstructed without errors at the decompression stage. The source model exploits the temporal correlation that is present in the TPC data to reduce the entropy of the source. The second algorithm is based on a source model which is lossy if samples of the TPC signal are considered one by one. Conversely, the source model is lossless or quasi-lossless if some physical quantities that are of main interest for the experiment are considered. These quantities are the area and the location of the center of mass of each TPC signal pulse. Obviously entropy coding is applied to the set of events defined by the two source models to reduce the bit rate to the corresponding source entropy. Using TPC simulated data according to the expected ALICE TPC performance, the lossless and the lossy compression algorithms achieve a data reduction, respectively, to 49.2% and in the range of 34.2% down to 23.7% of the original data rate. The number of operations per input symbol required to implement the compression stage for both algorithms is relatively low, so that a real-time implementation embedded in the TPC data acquisition chain using low-cost integrated electronics is a realistic option to effectively reduce the data storing cost of ALICE experiment

  12. Electronic Devices for Controlling the Very High Voltage in the ALICE TPC Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the core of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The TPC Very High Voltage project covers the development of the control system for the power supply that generates the 100kV necessary for the drift field in the TPC. This paper reports on the project progress, introducing the control system architecture from the electronics up to the control level. All the electronic devices will be described, highlighting their communication issues, and the challenges in integrating these devices in a PLC-based control system.

  13. Real-time TPC analysis with the ALICE High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A.; Vik, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE High-Level Trigger processes data online, to either select interesting (sub-) events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Focusing on the main data source, the Time Projection Chamber, the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking and compression methods are outlined

  14. First results from the CERES radial TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, A.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baur, R.; Belaga, V.; Bell, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Ceretto, F.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Drees, A.; Ernst, P.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Gnaenski, A.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hanzal, V.; Hausmann, M.; Hering, G.; Hrivnacova, I.; Holl, P.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Messer, M.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Razin, S.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Saveljic, N.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Socol, E.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Stiller, P.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Voigt, C.; Voloshin, S.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, V.

    1999-01-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS was upgraded in 1998 by the addition of a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber. The aim is to improve the mass resolution of e + e - pairs in the ρ/ω/phi region to Δm/m < 2%. A progress report is given on the TPC performance during the 1998 commissioning runs (laser rays, beam halo muons, and particles produced by proton/π and lead beams hitting Pb and Au targets)

  15. The CAST time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; Chesi, E; Davenport, M; Delattre, M; Di Lella, L; Formenti, F; Irastorza, I G; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Lakic, B; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Musa, L; Ortiz, A; Placci, A; Rodrigurez, A; Ruz, J; Villar, J A; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the three x-ray detectors of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searching for solar axions is a time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity x-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is set to a safe level during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62%. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10 -5 counts cm -2 s -1 keV -1 between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass

  16. Measurement of magnetic and electric field inhomogenities in a time projection chamber using laser tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benetta, M.; Froberger, J.P.; Lehraus, I.; Mathewson, R.; May, J.; Price, M.; Schlater, D.; Tejessi, W.; Witzeling, W.

    1985-01-01

    The large time projection chambers (TPC) for particle track measurements have their electric drift field parallel to the magnetic field which is needed for the momentum measurement of the particles. Small field inhomogeneities of the order of epsilon times the main field cause large track distortions (coordinate displacements) of the order of epsilon times the driftlength. It is therefore important for every TPC to know the inhomogeneities very well. Laser rays have proven to be useful to study them. We report here on our experience with a TPC having a maximum drift length of 1.3 m

  17. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of Λ's produced in 2 GeV/nucleon 5 8Ni + nat Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y cm and extends down to P T = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A's. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made

  18. Results from the STAR TPC system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, W.

    1996-01-01

    A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given

  19. The Time Projection Chamber for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, C

    2008-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber of the ALICE Experiment has been installed in the experimental setup in the underground area at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. The Alice TPC ReadOut (ALTRO) chip implements intelligent signal processing on the Front-End-Electronics. During the years of 2007 and 2008 commissioning and calibration of the TPC have been carried out with cosmic rays, radioactive Krypton isotopes and with tracks produced by a UV laser system. In addition to these in this publication we present first results on energy loss measurements and on the momentum resolution.

  20. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Pechenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-08-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 μm in the azimuthal and 640 μm in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Δp/p=√{(1%·p/GeV)2+(2%)2}.

  1. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073202; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Campagnolo, R; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Dubitzky, W; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Mikowiec, D; Musa, L; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pechenova, O; Petretracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Richter, M; Sako, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, J; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienoldh, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 um in the azimuthal and 640 um in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Dp/p = sqrt{(1% * p/GeV)^2 + (2%)^2}.

  2. Development of time projection chamber for precise neutron lifetime measurement using pulsed cold neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, N. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Igarashi, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwashita, Y. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ino, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, R. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kitaguchi, M. [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Kitahara, R. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, H.; Mishima, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Nagakura, N.; Oide, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Otono, H., E-mail: otono@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Centre for Advanced Particle Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakakibara, R. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Shima, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, H.M.; Sugino, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Sumi, N. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sumino, H. [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Taketani, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); and others

    2015-11-01

    A new time projection chamber (TPC) was developed for neutron lifetime measurement using a pulsed cold neutron spallation source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Managing considerable background events from natural sources and the beam radioactivity is a challenging aspect of this measurement. To overcome this problem, the developed TPC has unprecedented features such as the use of polyether-ether-ketone plates in the support structure and internal surfaces covered with {sup 6}Li-enriched tiles to absorb outlier neutrons. In this paper, the design and performance of the new TPC are reported in detail.

  3. TPC spectrometer for measuring the e+ spectrum in μ decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) being used at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) for a high-statistics normal muon-decay experiment is described. It is shown how the experiment will improve upon the limits of the weak-interaction coupling constants by a factor of 5 through the measurement of the positron momentum and direction of emission with respect to the muon-polarization vector for 10 8 decays of stopped, polarized, positive muons. The TPC apparatus is described, and it is shown that even though more work is to be done to improve the detector acceptance and individual coordinate resolutions, for certain track topologies, the TPC already has a momentum resolution of 0.7% (sigma)

  4. Identification of Low Momentum Electrons in The Time Projection Chamber of The ALICE Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Mwewa, Chilufya

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained in the study to identify noisy low momentum electrons in the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE detector. To do this, the Circle Hough Transform is employed under the openCV library in python programming. This is tested on simulated tracks in the transverse view of the TPC. It is found that the noisy low momentum electrons can be identified and their exact positions in the transverse plane can be obtained.

  5. Behavior of TPC`s in a high particle flux environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.H.; Zhu, Y. [City College of New York, New York (United States); Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Mutchler, G.S.; Roberts, J.B. [Bonner Nuclear Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

    1991-12-31

    TPC`s (Time Projection Chamber) used in E-810 at the TAGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) were exposed to fluxes equivalent to more than 10 minimum ionizing particles per second to find if such high fluxes cause gain changes or distortions of the electric field. Initial results of these and other tests are presented and the consequences for the RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) TPC-based experiments are discussed.

  6. CCD's at TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The CCD, Charge Coupled Device, is an analog shift register for which application to the readout of particle detectors has recently been realized. These devices can be used to detect optical information directly, providing an automated readout for streamer or other optical chambers, or as a single input shift register, acting in this instance as a delay line for analog information. A description is given of the latter mode of operation and its utility as a readout method for drift chambers. Most of the information contained herein has been obtained from tests performed in connection with PEP TPC project, PEP-4. That detector will employ approximately 10 4 CCD's making it a reasonable testing ground for ISABELLE size detectors

  7. First results from the CERES radial TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108583; Appelshäuser, H; Baur, R; Belaga, V; Bell, R; Braun-Munzinger, P; Ceretto, F; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Drees, A; Ernst, P; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Gnaenski, A; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hanzal, V; Hausmann, M; Hering, G; Hrivnacova, I; Holl, P; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Messer, M; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Richter, M; Saveljic, N; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Seipp, W; Sharma, A; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Stiller, P; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Voigt, C A; Voloshin, S A; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, V

    1999-01-01

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS was upgraded in 1998 by the addition of a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber. The aim is to improve the mass resolution of e sup + e sup - pairs in the rho/omega/phi region to DELTA m/m < 2%. A progress report is given on the TPC performance during the 1998 commissioning runs (laser rays, beam halo muons, and particles produced by proton/pi and lead beams hitting Pb and Au targets).

  8. First results from the CERES radial TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, A.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baur, R.; Belaga, V.; Bell, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Ceretto, F.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Drees, A.; Ernst, P.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Gnaenski, A.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hanzal, V.; Hausmann, M.; Hering, G.; Hrivnacova, I.; Holl, P.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Messer, M.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Razin, S.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Saveljic, N.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Socol, E.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Stiller, P.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Voigt, C.; Voloshin, S.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, V

    1999-12-27

    The CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS was upgraded in 1998 by the addition of a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber. The aim is to improve the mass resolution of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the {rho}/{omega}/phi region to {delta}m/m < 2%. A progress report is given on the TPC performance during the 1998 commissioning runs (laser rays, beam halo muons, and particles produced by proton/{pi} and lead beams hitting Pb and Au targets)

  9. A large ungated TPC with GEM amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.; Ball, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Ketzer, B.; Arora, R.; Beck, R.; Böhmer, F. V.; Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Dørheim, S.; García, F.; Hehner, J.; Herrmann, N.; Höppner, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kis̆, M.; Kleipa, V.; Konorov, I.; Kunkel, J.; Kurz, N.; Leifels, Y.; Müllner, P.; Münzer, R.; Neubert, S.; Rauch, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitz, R.; Soyk, D.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Voss, B.; Walther, D.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-10-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is an ideal device for the detection of charged particle tracks in a large volume covering a solid angle of almost 4 π. The high density of hits on a given particle track facilitates the task of pattern recognition in a high-occupancy environment and in addition provides particle identification by measuring the specific energy loss for each track. For these reasons, TPCs with Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) amplification have been and are widely used in experiments recording heavy-ion collisions. A significant drawback, however, is the large dead time of the order of 1 ms per event generated by the use of a gating grid, which is mandatory to prevent ions created in the amplification region from drifting back into the drift volume, where they would severely distort the drift path of subsequent tracks. For experiments with higher event rates this concept of a conventional TPC operating with a triggered gating grid can therefore not be applied without a significant loss of data. A continuous readout of the signals is the more appropriate way of operation. This, however, constitutes a change of paradigm with considerable challenges to be met concerning the amplification region, the design and bandwidth of the readout electronics, and the data handling. A mandatory prerequisite for such an operation is a sufficiently good suppression of the ion backflow from the avalanche region, which otherwise limits the tracking and particle identification capabilities of such a detector. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a promising candidate to combine excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. In this paper we describe the design, construction and the commissioning of a large TPC with GEM amplification and without gating grid (GEM-TPC). The design requirements have driven innovations in the construction of a light-weight field-cage, a supporting media flange, the GEM amplification and the readout system, which are

  10. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killenberg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 μm, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be ΔE/E=8.10 -3 . Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 μm. (orig.)

  11. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killenberg, M.

    2006-12-15

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be {delta}E/E=8.10{sup -3}. Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 {mu}m. (orig.)

  12. SπRIT: A time-projection chamber for symmetry-energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, R.; McIntosh, A.B.; Isobe, T.; Lynch, W.G.; Baba, H.; Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chartier, M.; Estee, J.; Famiano, M.; Hong, B.; Ieki, K.; Jhang, G.; Lemmon, R.; Lu, F.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Nishimura, M.; Olsen, R.; Powell, W.

    2015-01-01

    A time-projection chamber (TPC) called the SAMURAI Pion-Reconstruction and Ion-Tracker (SπRIT) has recently been constructed at Michigan State University as part of an international effort to constrain the symmetry-energy term in the nuclear Equation of State (EoS). The SπRIT TPC will be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI spectrometer at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN to measure yield ratios for pions and other light isospin multiplets produced in central collisions of neutron-rich heavy ions, such as 132 Sn+ 124 Sn. The SπRIT TPC can function both as a TPC detector and as an active target. It has a vertical drift length of 50 cm, parallel to the magnetic field. Gas multiplication is achieved through the use of a multi-wire anode plane. Image charges, produced in the 12096 pads, are read out with the recently developed Generic Electronics for TPCs

  13. Performance study of a GEM-TPC prototype using cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yulan; Qi Huirong; Li Jin; Gao Yuanning; Li Yuanjing; Yang Zhenwei; Fujii, Keisuke; Matsuda, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Time projection chambers (TPCs) have been successfully used as the central tracking devices in a number of high-energy physics experiments. However, the performance requirements on TPCs for future high-energy physics experiments greatly exceed the abilities of traditional TPCs read out by multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPCs). Micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs), such as gas electron multipliers (GEMs) or micromegas, have great potential to improve TPC performance when used as readout detectors. In order to evaluate its feasibility, a GEM-based TPC prototype with a drift length up to 50 cm was designed. Measurements of the spatial resolution of cosmic-ray tracks without and with a magnetic field (B=1 T) are presented. A very good performance is achieved, matching the analytic formula for the spatial resolution of a MPGD-readout TPC. A dedicated study shows that the increase of GEM detector gain can improve the TPC's spatial resolution.

  14. Online calibration of the ALICE-TPC in LHC-Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyev, Ivan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector at the ALICE Experiment at the LHC. Its performance and calibration directly influence the calibration of other detectors in the ALICE central barrel. To address this issue during the first LHC running period, a two-step offline calibration was employed, in which first the TPC and then the other detectors were calibrated. However, such a scheme will not be feasible for the Run 3 period, because the TPC will run in a continuous readout mode, producing a vast amount of data that needs to be significantly compressed on the fly for data storage. This will require the calibration step to run online within the High Level Trigger environment. In this talk, the online calibration concept and the implementation for the ALICE-TPC already in Run 2 are discussed.

  15. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  17. Temperature Stabilization of the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caleb

    2017-09-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) is a collaboration measuring nuclear fission cross sections for use in advanced nuclear reactors. A neutron beam incident on targets of Uranium-235, Uranium-238, and Plutonium-239 is used to measure the neutron induced fission cross sections for these isotopes. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is used to record these reactions. Significant heat is generated by the readout cards mounted on the TPC, which are cooled by fans. One proposed measurement of the experiment is to compare the cross sections of the target to a proton target of gaseous hydrogen. A constant temperature inside the TPC's pressure vessel is desirable to maintain a constant number of hydrogen target atoms. In addition, a constant temperature minimizes the strain and wrinkles on an amplifying mesh inside the TPC. This poster describes the successful work to develop, build, and install a fan controller using a Raspberry Pi, an Arduino, and a custom circuit board to implement an algorithm called Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. This research was supported by US DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  18. The Pixel-TPC. Demonstration of the concept and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, Michael [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as tracker for the ILD, one of the two detector concepts at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). At the TPC endplates, Micromegas or GEMs will be used as gas amplification structure. Besides segmented anodes, also an active endplate with pixel chips, in our experiments the Timepix ASIC, is considered as a readout option. In a photolithographic process a grid has been produced on top of the chip to form a so called InGrid, which is a Micromegas-like gas amplification structure. Several thousand InGrids are necessary to equip a complete TPC endplate. For demonstration of the concept, three endplate modules have been built with a total of 160 InGrids covering an active area of about 300 cm{sup 2}. To read out the 10.5 million channels, the Timepix ASIC was implemented in a general readout system. A dedicated powering scheme, DAQ and online event display were developed by our group. The feasibility of the Pixel-TPC could be proven in a test beam campaign at DESY early 2015. The data has partly been analysed and shows the potential of this new type of detector. An overview of the developments necessary to build the detector is presented followed by impressions from the test beam and some of the results from the data analysis.

  19. R3B time projection chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legou P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the international FAIR project, the R3B collaboration (Reaction studies with Radioactive Relativistic beams will be in charge of the physics program with secondary beams of energy between 200 and 1500MeV per nucleon. Central to the R3B set-up will be a large-aperture superconducting magnet under construction at CEA-Saclay. An international collaboration has been formed to work on the design of a large time-projection chamber (TPC to be installed behind this magnet to cover the full phase-space of the charged fragments produced in the target. Within this collaboration, tests of detector prototypes were performed with the heavy-ions beams at GSI Darmstadt. These prototypes were equipped with a gaseous Micromegas detector. Two amplification technologies were tested, either conventional or resistive Micromegas and two construction concepts, bulk-Micromegas or micro-meshes screwed on the PCB. We will present the results of the last beam and the 1m TPC station which will be dedicated to make tests using the real drift distance and compare the performances of micromegas and GEM.

  20. R and D of MPGD-readout TPC for the International Linear Collider experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonamine, R

    2012-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is chosen for the central tracker of the ILD detector, one of two detector concepts planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Physics goals at the ILC will require a TPC with a position resolution of 100 μm and superior track separation, which are not achievable with a conventional Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) readout. A MPGD readout offers improved position resolution and track separation due to measuring the signal at the anode and minimization of E × B effect. For several years, the LC TPC collaboration has been developing a MPGD readout using various small TPC prototypes and the Large Prototype TPC that is operated in a test beam at DESY. The MPGD technologies being tested are GEM and Micromegas with resistive charge broadening, with both traditional pad and CMOS pixel readout. Readout modules with both GEM and Micromegas gas amplification have achieved a position resolution on the order of 100 μm at B = 1 T. In this paper we report on the recent R and D toward the ILD TPC.

  1. A Preliminary Study on Time Projection Chamber Simulation for Fission Cross Section Measurements with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Youngouk; Kim, Jae Cheon

    2014-01-01

    We present the details of the TPC simulation with Geant4 and show the results. TPC can provide more information than a fission chamber in that it is possible to distinguish different particle types. Simulations are conducted for uranium and plutonium targets with 20MeV neutrons. The simulation results are compared with the reference and show reasonable results. This is the first phase of study for realizing a TPC in the NFS at RAON, and we have more work to do, such as applying an electric field, signal processing in the simulation, and manufacturing of a TPC. The standard in fission cross section measurement is a fission chamber. It is basically just two parallel plates separated by a few centimeters of gas. A power supply connected to the plates sets up a moderate electric field. The target is deposited onto one of the plates. When fission occurs, the fragments ionize the gas, and the electric field causes the produced electrons to drift to the opposite plate, which records the total energy deposited in the chamber. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a gas ionization detector similar to a fission chamber. However, it can measure the charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions by adding several readouts on the pad plane (fission chamber has only one readout one a pad plane). The specific ionization for each particle track enables the TPC to distinguish different particle types. A TPC will be used for fission cross section measurements in the Neutron Science Facility (NSF) at RAON. As a preliminary study, we present details of TPC simulation with Geant4 and discuss the results

  2. Inbetriebnahme und Kalibrierung der ALICE-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Wiechula, Jens

    2008-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m^3 and a total readout area of 32.5m^2 it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5m long detector into two drift regions. Each readout side is subdivided into 18 inner and 18 outer multi-wire proportional read-out chambers. The readout area is subdivide into 557568 pads, where each pad is read out by and electronics chanin. A complex calibration is needed in order to reach the design position-resolution of the reconstructed particle tracks of about 200um. One part of the calibration lies in understanding the electronic-response. The work at hand presents results of the pedestal and noise behaviour of the front-end elect...

  3. The ALICE TPC front end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L; Bialas, N; Bramm, R; Campagnolo, R; Engster, Claude; Formenti, F; Bonnes, U; Esteve-Bosch, R; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Glässel, P; Gonzales, C; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Jiménez, A; Junique, A; Lien, J; Lindenstruth, V; Mota, B; Braun-Munzinger, P; Oeschler, H; Österman, L; Renfordt, R E; Ruschmann, G; Röhrich, D; Schmidt, H R; Stachel, J; Soltveit, A K; Ullaland, K

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the front end electronics for the time projection chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment. The system, which consists of about 570000 channels, is based on two basic units: (a) an analogue ASIC (PASA) that incorporates the shaping-amplifier circuits for 16 channels; (b) a mixed-signal ASIC (ALTRO) that integrates 16 channels, each consisting of a 10-bit 25-MSPS ADC, the baseline subtraction, tail cancellation filter, zero suppression and multi-event buffer. The complete readout chain is contained in front end cards (FEC), with 128 channels each, connected to the detector by means of capton cables. A number of FECs (up to 25) are controlled by a readout control unit (RCU), which interfaces the FECs to the data acquisition (DAQ), the trigger, and the detector control system (DCS) . A function of the final electronics (1024 channels) has been characterized in a test that incorporates a prototype of the ALICE TPC as well as many other components of the final set-up. The tests show that the ...

  4. Track distortion in a micromegas based large prototype of a Time Projection Chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bhattacharya, P.; Attie, D.; Colas, P.; Ganjour, S.; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    The principal particle tracker at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be a large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) where different Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGDs) candidate as the gaseous amplifier. A Micromegas (MM) based TPC can meet the ILC requirement of continuous and precise pattern recognition. Seven MM modules, working as the end-plate of a Large Prototype TPC (LPTPC) installed at DESY, have been tested with a 5 GeV electron beam. Due to the grounded peripheral frame of the MM modules, at low drift, the electric field lines near the detector edge remain no longer parallel to the TPC axis. This causes signal loss along the boundaries of the MM modules as well as distortion in the reconstructed track. In presence of magnetic field, the distorted electric field introduces ExB effect

  5. The Laser Calibration System of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, G; Nielsen, B S; Westergaard, J

    2005-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the only experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) dedicated to the study of heavy ion collisions. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector covering the pseudo rapidity range $|\\eta|< 0.9$. It is designed for a maximum multiplicity \\dNdy = 8000. The aim of the laser system is to simulate ionizing tracks at predifined positions throughout the drift volume in order to monitor the TPC response to a known source. In particular, the alignment of the read-out chambers will be performed, and variations of the drift velocity due to drift field imperfections can be measured and used as calibration data in the physics data analysis. In this paper we present the design of the pulsed UV laser and optical system, together with the control and monitoring systems.

  6. Noise Characterization and Filtering in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2017-05-20

    The low-noise operation of readout electronics in a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) is critical to properly extract the distribution of ionization charge deposited on the wire planes of the TPC, especially for the induction planes. This paper describes the characteristics and mitigation of the observed noise in the MicroBooNE detector. The MicroBooNE's single-phase LArTPC comprises two induction planes and one collection sense wire plane with a total of 8256 wires. Current induced on each TPC wire is amplified and shaped by custom low-power, low-noise ASICs immersed in the liquid argon. The digitization of the signal waveform occurs outside the cryostat. Using data from the first year of MicroBooNE operations, several excess noise sources in the TPC were identified and mitigated. The residual equivalent noise charge (ENC) after noise filtering varies with wire length and is found to be below 400 electrons for the longest wires (4.7 m). The response is consistent with the cold electronics design expectations and is found to be stable with time and uniform over the functioning channels. This noise level is significantly lower than previous experiments utilizing warm front-end electronics.

  7. Development of a Time Projection Chamber using CF4 gas for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Kametani, S.; Kajihara, F.; Gunji, T.; Kurihara, N.; Oda, S.X.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) using pure CF 4 gas was developed for possible use in heavy ion experiments. Basic characteristics such as gain, drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and attenuation length of produced electrons were measured with the TPC. At an electric field of 900V/cm, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion for 1cm drift were obtained as 10cm/μs and 60μm, respectively. The relatively large gain fluctuation is explained to be due to the electron attachment process in CF 4 . These characteristics are encouraging for the measurement of the charged particle trajectories under high multiplicity conditions at RHIC

  8. Convolutional neural networks applied to neutrino events in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present several studies of convolutional neural networks applied to data coming from the MicroBooNE detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). The algorithms studied include the classification of single particle images, the localization of single particle and neutrino interactions in an image, and the detection of a simulated neutrino event overlaid with cosmic ray backgrounds taken from real detector data. These studies demonstrate the potential of convolutional neural networks for particle identification or event detection on simulated neutrino interactions. Lastly, we also address technical issues that arise when applying this technique to data from a large LArTPC at or near ground level.

  9. Convolutional neural networks applied to neutrino events in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Fernandez, R. Castillo; Cavanna, F.; Chen, H.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Crespo-Anad?n, J. I.; Del Tutto, M.; Devitt, D.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Sanchez, L. Escudero; Esquivel, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Garvey, G. T.; Genty, V.; Goeldi, D.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Greenlee, H.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Hamilton, P.; Hen, O.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jen, C. -M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Karagiorgi, G.; Ketchum, W.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Laube, A.; Li, Y.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Marshall, J.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Rafique, A.; Rochester, L.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Russell, B.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sinclair, J.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; S?ldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Tagg, N.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; Viren, B.; Weber, M.; Weston, J.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.

    2017-03-01

    We present several studies of convolutional neural networks applied to data coming from the MicroBooNE detector, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). The algorithms studied include the classification of single particle images, the localization of single particle and neutrino interactions in an image, and the detection of a simulated neutrino event overlaid with cosmic ray backgrounds taken from real detector data. These studies demonstrate the potential of convolutional neural networks for particle identification or event detection on simulated neutrino interactions. We also address technical issues that arise when applying this technique to data from a large LArTPC at or near ground level.

  10. How to Advance TPC Benchmarks with Dependability Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raquel; Poess, Meikel; Nambiar, Raghunath; Patil, Indira; Vieira, Marco

    Transactional systems are the core of the information systems of most organizations. Although there is general acknowledgement that failures in these systems often entail significant impact both on the proceeds and reputation of companies, the benchmarks developed and managed by the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) still maintain their focus on reporting bare performance. Each TPC benchmark has to pass a list of dependability-related tests (to verify ACID properties), but not all benchmarks require measuring their performances. While TPC-E measures the recovery time of some system failures, TPC-H and TPC-C only require functional correctness of such recovery. Consequently, systems used in TPC benchmarks are tuned mostly for performance. In this paper we argue that nowadays systems should be tuned for a more comprehensive suite of dependability tests, and that a dependability metric should be part of TPC benchmark publications. The paper discusses WHY and HOW this can be achieved. Two approaches are introduced and discussed: augmenting each TPC benchmark in a customized way, by extending each specification individually; and pursuing a more unified approach, defining a generic specification that could be adjoined to any TPC benchmark.

  11. The ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe the ALICE TPC, with emphasis on the design features which are driven by the physics requirements of the detector. In particular, the gas choice and composition, Ne-CO/sub 2/ Ý90-10¿, as well as the unprecedentedly high gain for a TPC (2*10/sup 40/), are direct consequences of the expected performance in the high- multiplicity environment of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The characteristics of this mixture are discussed and a viable way of improving the stability of detectors working under these conditions, namely the addition of nitrogen into the mixture, is presented. This results in a more effective Penning transfer of neon excited states onto ionisation of the quencher at no penalty for the charge transport and amplification properties.

  12. Studies on GEM modules for a large prototype TPC for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsionou, Dimitra

    2016-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron-positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500-1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1-6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R and D; activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  13. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra, E-mail: dimitra.tsionou@desy.de

    2017-02-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  14. Construction and testing of the two meter diameter TPC thin superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.; Taylor, J.D.

    1979-08-01

    High energy colliding beam physics often requires large detectors which contain large volumes of magnetic field. The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will use a 1.5T magnetic field within a cylindrical volume which is 2.04m in diameter bounded by iron poles which are separated by a gap of 3.25m. The TPC magnet, built in 1979 by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is the largest high current density superconducting magnet built to date. It is designed to operate at a current density of 7 x 10 8 Am -2 and a stored energy of 11MJ, and it is protected by shorted secondary windings during a quench. The paper describes the basic parameters of the TPC magnet and the results of the first subassembly tests at LBL

  15. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsionou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  16. Visualizing Time Projection Chamber Data for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    The widespread availability of portable computers in the form of smartphones provides a unique opportunity to introduce scientific concepts to a broad audience, for the purpose of education, or for the purpose of sharing exciting developments and research. Unity, a free game development platform, has been used to develop a program to visualize 3-D events from a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The program can be presented as a Virtual Reality (VR) application on a smartphone, which can serve as a standalone demonstration for interested individuals, or as a resource for educators. An interactive experience to watch nuclear events unfold demonstrates the principles of particle detection with a TPC, as well as providing information about the particles present. Different kinds of reactions can be showcased. The current state of tools within this program for outreach and educational purposes will be highlighted and presented in this poster, along with key design concerns and optimizations necessary for running an interactive VR app. The events highlighted in this program are from the S πRIT TPC, but the program can be applied to other 3-D detectors. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014530, DE-NA0002923 and US NSF under Grant No. PHY-1565546.

  17. Development of a high rate TPC. The ALICE TPC upgrade after LS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Markus [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) collaboration plans an upgrade of the detector system during the second long shutdown of the LHC, during which the interaction rate will be increased to 50 kHz for Pb-Pb collisions. This demands operation of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in an ungated continuous mode. A conventional gating grid can not be used to prevent ions drifting back into the drift volume. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) such as GEMs and Micromegas offer suppression of the ion backflow. To keep distortions due to space-charge at a tolerable level an ion yield of 10 to 20 back drifting ions per incoming electron is required. However, the need for low ion backflow might be in conflict to other key parameters such as the detector performance and stability of the system. Therefore a careful optimisation of all three requirements was needed. Furthermore the large scale capability of the system has to be guaranteed. Test beams have been carried out to study the large scale performance with an Inner Readout Chamber (IROC) equipped with a multiple GEM system. Also an quadruple GEM Outer Readout Chamber (OROC) was assembled and successfully operated being the largest detector of this type. The upgrade of all readout chambers with a quadruple GEM system has started in 2016. The strategy and the work flow of the TPC upgrade are presented.

  18. Slow Control System for the NIFFTE Collaboration TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, Erik; Niffte Collaboration Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    As world energy concerns continue to dominate public policy in the 21st century, the need for cleaner and more efficient nuclear power is necessary. In order to effectively design and implement plans for generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate fission cross-section measurements are necessary. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration, in an effort to meet this need, has constructed a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which aims to reduce the uncertainty of the fission cross-section to less than 1%. Using the Maximum Integration Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) framework, slow control measurements are integrated into a single interface to facilitate off-site monitoring. The Hart Scientific 1560 Black Stack will be used with two 2564 Thermistor Scanner Modules to monitor internal temperature of the TPC. A Prologix GPIB to Ethernet controller will be used to interface the hardware with MIDAS. This presentation will detail the design and implementation of the slow control system for the TPC. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Energy Research.

  19. GEM Foil Quality Assurance For The ALICE TPC Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brücken Erik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN is dedicated to heavy ion physics to explore the structure of strongly interacting matter. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC of ALICE is a tracking detector located in the central region of the experiment. It offers excellent tracking capabilities as well as particle identification. After the second long shutdown (LS2 the LHC will run at substantially higher luminosities. To be able to increase the data acquisition rate by a factor of 100, the ALICE TPC experiment has to replace the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC –based readout chambers. The MWPC are operated with gating grid that limits the rate to O(kHz. The new ReadOut Chamber (ROC design is based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM technology operating in continuous mode. The current GEM productions scheme foresees the production of more than 800 GEM foils of different types. To fulfill the requirements on the performance of the GEM TPC readout, necessitates thorough Quality Assurance (QA measures. The QA scheme, developed by the ALICE collaboration, will be presented in detail.

  20. AGS silicon gold collisions measured in the E-810 TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Roberts, J.B.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The tracking detector of AGS Experiment 810 is a three-piece Time Projection Chamber (TPC) intended to measure all charged tracks in the forward hemisphere of the nucleon-nucleon center of mass system, i.e. forward of an angle of about 20 degrees in the lab. Each module of the TPC contains twelve rows of short anode wires which give 3-D space points on each track, but no dE/dx information useable for particle identification. The TPC was operated in a beam of silicon ions at the end of June 1989 and this talk reports the results of analysis of the data taken with a thin gold target in that run. The authors have gathered a similar amount of data from thin copper and silicon targets, the analysis of which is in a less advanced state. The results of the investigation of the neutral strange particle decays appear in a separate contribution by Al Saulys. This paper presents the current state of the analysis of the charged tracks from the silicon gold collisions

  1. Spatial resolution studies of a GEM-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Martin [TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: GEM-TPC-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A GEM-TPC can exploit the intrinsic suppression of back drifting ions from the amplification stage of the GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) foils to overcome the problem of drift-field distortions in an ungated operation. To explore the possibility of such a continuously running TPC (Time Projection Chamber) a large-size detector was built. This detector, with a drift length of 728 mm and a radius of 308 mm and a total of 10254 electronic channels, was designed as an upgrade for the FOPI experiment at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) to improve the secondary vertex resolution especially for K{sup 0}{sub S}- and Λ-reconstruction and the PID capabilities. After commissioning a large statistics of cosmic data and beam-target reactions has been collected and the obtained tracks in the TPC have been used to improve the tracking algorithms. During the track finding and fitting procedure a clustering algorithm which takes into account the track topology as well as the full 3D spatial information is employed. The the clustering algorithm, the cluster error calculation and the tracking resolution are discussed in this contribution.

  2. Future Upgrade and Physics Perspectives of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00033137

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proposes major detector upgrades to fully exploit the increase of the luminosity of the LHC in RUN~3 and to extend the physics reach for rare probes at low transverse momentum. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the main tracking and PID devices in the central barrel of ALICE. The maximum trigger rate of the TPC is currently limited to about 3.5 kHz by the operation of a gating grid system. In order to make full use of the luminosity in RUN 3, the TPC is foreseen to be operated in an ungated mode with continuous readout. The existing MWPC readout will be replaced by a Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) based readout, which provides intrinsic ion capture capability without gating. Extensive detector R\\&D employing Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and Micro-Mesh Gaseous detector (Micromegas) technologies, and simulation studies to advance the techniques for the corrections of space-charge distortions have been performed since 2012. In this pap...

  3. GEM Foil Quality Assurance For The ALICE TPC Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücken, Erik; Hildén, Timo

    2018-02-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is dedicated to heavy ion physics to explore the structure of strongly interacting matter. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of ALICE is a tracking detector located in the central region of the experiment. It offers excellent tracking capabilities as well as particle identification. After the second long shutdown (LS2) the LHC will run at substantially higher luminosities. To be able to increase the data acquisition rate by a factor of 100, the ALICE TPC experiment has to replace the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) -based readout chambers. The MWPC are operated with gating grid that limits the rate to O(kHz). The new ReadOut Chamber (ROC) design is based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology operating in continuous mode. The current GEM productions scheme foresees the production of more than 800 GEM foils of different types. To fulfill the requirements on the performance of the GEM TPC readout, necessitates thorough Quality Assurance (QA) measures. The QA scheme, developed by the ALICE collaboration, will be presented in detail.

  4. The Readout Control Unit of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, J A; Musa, L

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector of the central barrel of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), being constructed at CERN, Geneva. It is a 88 m$^{3}$ cylinder filled with gas and divided into two drift regions by the central electrode located at its axial center. The readout chambers of the TPC are multi-wire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout. About 570 000 pads are read-out by an electronics chain of amplification, digitalization and pre-processing. One of the challenges in designing the TPC for ALICE is the design of Front End Electronics (FEE) to cope with the data rates and the channel occupancy. The Readout Control Unit (RCU), which is presented in this work, is designed to control and monitor the Front End Electronics, and to collect and ship data to the High Level Trigger and the Data Acquisition System, via the Detector Data Link (DDL - optical fibre). The RCU must be capable of reading out up to 200 Mbytes/s f...

  5. Metal-core pad-plane development for ACTAR TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, J.; Pibernat, J.; Goigoux, T.; de Oliveira, R.; Grinyer, G. F.; Huss, C.; Mauss, B.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J. L.; Rebii, A.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Saillant, F.; Wittwer, G.

    2018-06-01

    With the recent development of active targets and time projection chambers (ACTAR TPC) as detectors for fundamental nuclear physics experiments, the need arose for charge collection planes with a high density of readout channels. In order to fulfill the mechanical constraints for the ACTAR TPC device, we designed a pad-plane based on a metal-core circuit with an conceptually simple design and routing for signal readout, named FAKIR (in reference to a fakir bed of nails). A test circuit has been equipped with a micro mesh gaseous structure (micromegas) for signal amplification and a dedicated readout electronics. Test measurements have been performed with an 55Fe X-ray source giving an intrinsic energy resolution (FWHM) of 22 ± 1% at 5 . 9 keV, and with a 3-alpha source for which a resolution of about 130 ± 20 keV at 4 . 8 MeV has been estimated. The pad-plane has been mounted into a reduced size demonstrator version of the ACTAR TPC detector, in order to illustrate charged particle track reconstruction. The tests preformed with the X-ray and the 3-alpha sources shows that results obtained from pads signals are comparable to the intrinsic result from the micro-mesh signal. In addition, a simple alpha particle tracks analysis is performed to demonstrate that the pad plane allows a precise reconstruction of the direction and length of the trajectories.

  6. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, C., E-mail: C.Lippmann@gsi.de

    2016-07-11

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb–Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  7. TPC track distortions IV: post tenebras lux

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Boyko, I; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Krumshtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion and summary of static and dynamic track distortions in the HARP TPC in terms of physical origin, mathematical modelling and correction algorithms. `Static' distortions are constant with time, while `dynamic' distortions are distortions that occur only during the 400 ms long accelerator spill. The measurement of dynamic distortions, their mathematical modelling and the correction algorithms build on our understanding of static distortions. In the course of corroborating the validity of our static distortion corrections, their reliability and precision was further improved. Dynamic TPC distortions originate dominantly from the `stalactite' effect: a column of positive-ion charge starts growing at the begin of the accelerator spill, and continues growing with nearly constant velocity out from the sense-wire plane into the active TPC volume. However, the `stalactite' effect is not able to describe the distortions that are present already at the start of the spill and which ha...

  8. Commissioning and calibration of the ALICE-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, Jens

    2009-04-21

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5 TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m{sup 3} and a total readout area of 32.5 m{sup 2} it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5 m long detector into two drift regions. Each readout side is subdivided into 18 inner and 18 outer multi-wire proportional read-out chambers. The readout area is subdivided into 557568 pads, where each pad is read out by an electronic chain. A complex calibration is needed in order to reach the design position-resolution of the reconstructed particle tracks of about 200 {mu}m. The work at hand presents results of the pedestal and noise behaviour of the front-end electronics (FEE), measurements of the pulse-shaping properties of the FEE using results obtained with a calibration pulser and measurements performed with the laser-calibration system. The data concerned were taken during two phases of the TPC commissioning. First measurements were performed in the clean room where the TPC was built. After the TPC was moved underground and built into the experiment, a second round of commissioning took place. Noise measurements in the clean room revealed a very large fraction of pads with noise values larger than the design specifications. Two modifications helped to reduce the 'ground bounce' effect: A desynchronisation in the the start of the readout of groups of channels and a modification in the grounding scheme of the FEE. Further noise measurements were carried out after the TPC has been moved to the experimental area underground. Here even a larger fraction of channels showed too large noise values. To study the shaping properties of the FEE a calibration pulser was used

  9. Commissioning and calibration of the ALICE-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechula, Jens

    2009-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5 TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m 3 and a total readout area of 32.5 m 2 it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5 m long detector into two drift regions. Each readout side is subdivided into 18 inner and 18 outer multi-wire proportional read-out chambers. The readout area is subdivided into 557568 pads, where each pad is read out by an electronic chain. A complex calibration is needed in order to reach the design position-resolution of the reconstructed particle tracks of about 200 μm. The work at hand presents results of the pedestal and noise behaviour of the front-end electronics (FEE), measurements of the pulse-shaping properties of the FEE using results obtained with a calibration pulser and measurements performed with the laser-calibration system. The data concerned were taken during two phases of the TPC commissioning. First measurements were performed in the clean room where the TPC was built. After the TPC was moved underground and built into the experiment, a second round of commissioning took place. Noise measurements in the clean room revealed a very large fraction of pads with noise values larger than the design specifications. Two modifications helped to reduce the 'ground bounce' effect: A desynchronisation in the the start of the readout of groups of channels and a modification in the grounding scheme of the FEE. Further noise measurements were carried out after the TPC has been moved to the experimental area underground. Here even a larger fraction of channels showed too large noise values. To study the shaping properties of the FEE a calibration pulser was used. To generate signals in

  10. Studies of field distortions in a time projection chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will allow to do precision measurements of Standard Model parameter and to search for new physics. The ILD detector concept, which is developed for the ILC, uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as central tracking device. The momentum resolution goal for the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t ) ≅ 10 -4 (GeV/c) -1 at a magnetic field of B=3.5 T. Field distortions of the magnetic or electric field inside the sensitive volume of the TPC distort the momentum measurements. Therefore, one needs to keep them under control and correct them with high precision. In this thesis the main sources of field distortions in the TPC are identified and their effects are determined. Furthermore, possibilities to reduce the identified field distortions are presented. One known source of distortions of the electric field are ions, produced by the gas amplification in the TPC anode, that drift into the sensitive volume of the TPC. In the first part of this work the creation of these ions in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), which are used for the gas amplification, is studied. It will be shown that the resulting field distortions are not acceptable at the ILD TPC. By tuning the parameters of the gas amplification at the anode the field distortion can be reduced, which is shown in measurements and simulations. In addition measurements using a modified GEM show that it is possible to further reduce the field distortions with such a GEM. In the second part of this work field distortions arising at boundaries between individual readout modules are investigated using simulation studies. It will be shown in simulations, which are verified by measurement results, that these field distortions significantly influence the readout module performance. Based on the simulation results the GEM based readout module developed at DESY is optimised and the field distortions are reduced. These performance improvements could also be verified in measurements. Finally, a laser

  11. Lossy compression of TPC data and trajectory tracking efficiency for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaucig, A.; Ivanov, M.; Mattavelli, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a quasi-lossless algorithm for the on-line compression of the data generated by the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector of the ALICE experiment at CERN is described. The algorithm is based on a lossy source code modeling technique, i.e. it is based on a source model which is lossy if samples of the TPC signal are considered one by one; conversely, the source model is lossless or quasi-lossless if some physical quantities that are of main interest for the experiment are considered. These quantities are the area and the location of the center of mass of each TPC signal pulse, representing the pulse charge and the time localization of the pulse. So as to evaluate the consequences of the error introduced by the lossy compression process, the results of the trajectory tracking algorithms that process data off-line after the experiment are analyzed, in particular, versus their sensibility to the noise introduced by the compression. Two different versions of these off-line algorithms are described, performing cluster finding and particle tracking. The results on how these algorithms are affected by the lossy compression are reported. Entropy coding can be applied to the set of events defined by the source model to reduce the bit rate to the corresponding source entropy. Using TPC simulated data according to the expected ALICE TPC performance, the compression algorithm achieves a data reduction in the range of 34.2% down to 23.7% of the original data rate depending on the desired precision on the pulse center of mass. The number of operations per input symbol required to implement the algorithm is relatively low, so that a real-time implementation of the compression process embedded in the TPC data acquisition chain using low-cost integrated electronics is a realistic option to effectively reduce the data storing cost of ALICE experiment

  12. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the COBRA GEM for the Application of the TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kohei; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito

    2014-09-01

    Suppression of the back-drifting ions from avalanche region to drift space (IBF: Ion Backflow) is the key for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) since IBF easily distorts the drift field. To suppress IBF, Gating Grid system is widely used for the TPC but this limits the data taking rate. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) has advantages in the reduction of IBF and high rate capability. By adopting GEM, it is possible to run a TPC continuously under high rate and high multiplicity conditions. Motivated by the study of IBF reduction for RICH with Thick COBRA, which has been developed by F. A. Amero et al., we developed COBRA GEMs for the application of a TPC. With a stack configuration, IBF reaches about 0.1 ~ 0.5%, which is ×5--10 better IBF than the standard GEMs. However, the measured energy resolution with COBRA is 20% (σ) and this is much worse than the resolution with standard GEMs. Measurement of long-time stability of gain indicates that gain of COBRA varies significantly due to charging up effect. Simulation studies based on Garfield++ are performed for understanding quantitatively the reasons of worse energy resolution and instability of gain. In this presentation, we will report the simulation studies together with the measured performance of the COBRA GEM.

  14. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhmer, F.V., E-mail: felix.boehmer@tum.de; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2013-08-11

    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P{sup ¯}ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm{sup −3} are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC.

  15. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhmer, F.V.; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P ¯ ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm −3 are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC

  16. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  17. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  18. A high-pressure hydrogen time projection chamber for the MuCap experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, J.; Fahrni, D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hofer, A.; Meier, L.; Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Andreev, V.A.; Ganzha, V.A.; Kravtsov, P.A.; Krivshich, A.G.; Maev, E.M.; Maev, O.E.; Petrov, G.; Semenchuk, G.G.; Vasilyev, A.A.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Vznuzdaev, M.E. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Banks, T.I. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, California (United States); Clayton, S.M. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Physics, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Gray, F.E. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, California (United States); Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, Denver, Colorado (United States); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kammel, P.; Kiburg, B.; Winter, P. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Physics, Urbana, Illinois (United States); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington (United States); Lauss, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, California (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The MuCap experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute performed a high-precision measurement of the rate of the basic electroweak process of nuclear muon capture by the proton, μ{sup -} + p → n + ν{sub μ}. The experimental approach was based on the use of a time projection chamber (TPC) that operated in pure hydrogen gas at a pressure of 10bar and functioned as an active muon stopping target. The TPC detected the tracks of individual muon arrivals in three dimensions, while the trajectories of outgoing decay (Michel) electrons were measured by two surrounding wire chambers and a plastic scintillation hodoscope. The muon and electron detectors together enabled a precise measurement of the μp atom's lifetime, from which the nuclear muon capture rate was deduced. The TPC was also used to monitor the purity of the hydrogen gas by detecting the nuclear recoils that follow muon capture by elemental impurities. This paper describes the TPC design and performance in detail. (orig.)

  19. A time projection chamber for the crystal barrel experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaab, Dimitri; Ball, Markus; Beck, Reinhard; Ketzer, Bernhard [HISKP, Bonn University (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment focuses on baryon spectroscopy by photoproduction processes off nucleons. For this purpose the experiment consists of an inner detector and an outer detector. The outer Crystal Barrel detector mainly measures photons from the decaying resonance. For charged particle identification and in order to obtain their direction, the Inner Detector consists of three layers of scintillating fibers. This inner detector will be replaced by a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It offers improved track reconstruction capabilities, a robust pattern recognition and, if operated in a magnetic field, an excellent momentum resolution. Moreover, one obtains a particle identification of charged particles via the specific energy loss. A TPC has been developed for the FOPI experiment which also fits to the Crystal Barrel dimensions. It operates in continuous mode using Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as pre-amplification stage. For the TPC detector the calibration of the detector is crucial since parameters such as drift velocity or field inhomogenities have a direct impact on the detector performance. For the CBELSA TPC a calibration system is planned, which is based on the T2K calibration system. Here, the photoelectric effect is used to release electrons at well-known positions on the cathode, which drift towards the readout plane and show the integrated spatial distortions.

  20. Development of a time projection chamber with micro-pixel electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Orito, Reiko; Takada, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Ueno, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    A time projection chamber (TPC) based on a gaseous chamber with micro-pixel electrodes (μ-PIC) has been developed for measuring three-dimensional tracks of charged particles. The μ-PIC with a detection area of 10x10 cm 2 consists of a double-sided printing circuit board. Anode pixels are formed with 0.4 mm pitch on strips aligned perpendicular to the cathode strips in order to obtain a two-dimensional position. In the TPC with drift length of 8 cm, 4 mm wide field cage electrodes are aligned at 1 mm spaces and a uniform electric field of about 0.4 kV/cm is produced. For encoding of the three-dimensional position a synchronous readout system has been developed using Field Programmable Gate Arrays with 40 MHz clock. This system enables us to reconstruct the three-dimensional track of the particle at successive points like a cloud chamber even at high event rate. The drift velocity of electrons in the TPC was measured with the tracks of cosmic muons for 3 days, during which the TPC worked stably with the gas gain of 3000. With a radioisotope of gamma-ray source the three-dimensional track of a Compton scattered electron was taken successfully

  1. Particle Identification in Jets and High-Multiplicity pp Events with the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683272; Vogelsang, Werner

    The spectra of identified particles in a collision experiment comprise crucial information about the underlying physical processes. The ALICE experiment has powerful Particle IDentification (PID) capabilities, which are unique at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this thesis, a statistical PID method based on the specific energy loss d$E$/d$x$ in the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is developed: the TPC Multi-Template Fit (MTF). The MTF allows for the extraction of identified charged particle spectra in a wide momentum range, which extends from about 150 MeV/$c$ to above 20 GeV/$c$. The TPC PID requires a detailed modelling of the TPC d$E$/d$x$ response for momenta above 2-3 GeV/$c$. A framework is developed that allows for the determination of the model parameters and for evaluating the PID information of charged particles. With the MTF, the transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ spectra of charged pions, kaons and protons at mid-rapidity ($|\\eta| < 0.9$) are measured for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ ...

  2. The ALICE TPC, a high resolution device for ultra-high particle multiplicities. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Marian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE apparatus is a large 3-dimensional tracking and particle identification device for ultra-high multiplicity collision events. It has been operated successfully at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, recording data from pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. Presently, LHC is in its first long shutdown (LS1), the next round of data taking will start in summer 2015 at or close to the LHC design energy and luminosity. During the second long shutdown (LS2), LHC will undergo a further increase in the Pb-Pb luminosity together with a major upgrade of ALICE. After the upgrade, the ALICE TPC will operate with Pb-Pb collisions at an interaction rate of 50 kHz. We present the performance in operation, calibration and reconstruction with the ALICE TPC together with ongoing work and plans for the near future and the coming 10 years.

  3. The 10 bar hydrogen time projection chamber of the MuCap experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Johny [Paul Scherrer Institute, Olga/019, CH - 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hildebrandt, Malte, E-mail: malte.hildebrandt@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institute, Olga/019, CH - 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Petitjean, Claude [Paul Scherrer Institute, Olga/019, CH - 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-02-01

    The experimental goal of the MuCap experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a high-precision measurement of the singlet capture rate of the nuclear muon capture on the free proton in the reaction {mu}{sup -}+p{yields}n+{nu}{sub {mu}.} The measuring principle is a lifetime measurement whereas the experimental approach is based on a specially developed Time Projection Chamber (TPC) operating with ultra-pure and deuterium-depleted hydrogen gas at a pressure of 10 bar. The TPC acts as an active muon stop detector and the 10 bar hydrogen operates as target and detector. Design, construction and operation of the Time Projection Chamber are presented.

  4. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  5. The ALICE time projection chamber - a technological challenge in LHC heavy ion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bächler, J

    2004-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is the main tracking detector in the central region of the ALICE experiment. This paper addresses the specific technological challenges for the detector and the solutions adopted to cope with the extreme particle densities in LHC heavy ion collisions. We will present the major components of the detector with an outlook of its expected performance in the LHC heavy ion program, as well as recent results from the comprehensive ALICE TPC test facility. (3 refs).

  6. Highly Integrated Mixed-Mode Electronics for the readout of Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    França Santos, Hugo Miguel; Musa, Luciano

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are one of the most prevalent particle trackers for high-energy physics experiments. Future planed TPCs for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) entail very high spatial resolution in large gas volumes, but impose low material budget for the end caps of the TPC cylinder. This constraint is not accomplished with the state-of-the-art front-end electronics because of its unsuited relatively large mass and of its associated water cooling system. To reach the required material budget, highly compact and power efficient dedicated TPC front-end electronics should be developed. This project aims at re-designing the different electronic elements with significant improvements in terms of performance, power efficiency and versatility, and developing an integrated circuit that merges all components of the front-end electronics. This chip ambitions a large volume production at low unitary cost and its employment in multiple detectors. The design of ...

  7. Extending the Dynamic Range of a Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estee, Justin; S πRIT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The use of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in intermediate heavy ion reactions faces some challenges in addressing the energy losses that range from the small energy loss of relativistic pions to the large energy loss of slow moving heavy ions. A typical trade-off can be to set the smallest desired signals to be well within the lower limits of the dynamic range of the electronics while allowing for some larger signals to saturate the electronics. With wire plane anodes, signals from readout pads further away from the track remain unsaturated and allow signals from tracks with saturated pads to be accurately recovered. We illustrate this technique using data from the SAMURAI Pion-Reconstruction and Ion-Tracker (S πRIT) TPC , which recently measured pions and light charged particles in collisions of Sn+Sn isotopes. Our method exploits knowledge of how the induced charge distribution depends on the distance from the track to smoothly extend dynamic range even when some of the pads in the track are saturated. To accommodate the analysis of slow moving heavy ions, we have extended the Bichsel energy loss distributions to handle slower moving ions as well. In this talk, I will discuss a combined approach which successfully extends the dynamic range of the TPC electronics. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014530, DE-NA0002923, US NSF Grant No. PHY-1565546 and the Japan MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 24105004.

  8. The Time Projection Chamber of the HARP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lundborg, A

    2002-01-01

    The hadron production experiment HARP aims to measure hadron collision cross sections with a 2-15 GeV particle beam and several targets. This energy regime is in a borderline zone between the low energy region dominated by resonance formation and the high energy domain where perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics is applicable. The emphasis of this master thesis is put on the HARP central tracker, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In the thesis work, Finite Element Method computations of the electric field in critical regions of the TPC have been performed to provide design input concerning the electrostatic configuration of the field cages and of the wire chamber. A first step in the chain of reconstruction of the information produced by the detector is the equalisation and monitoring of about 4000 analogue signals. An algorithm that processes the raw digitised signals, filters out electronics noise and extracts the pad gain from signal distributions has been produced and analysed for this purpose. The algori...

  9. Momentum scale in the HARP TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M

    2007-01-01

    Recently a claim was made that the reconstruction of the large angle tracks in the HARP TPC was affected by a momentum bias as large as 15% at 500 MeV/c transverse momentum. In the following we recall the main issues with the momentum measurement in the HARP TPC, and describe the cross-checks made to validate the momentum scale. Proton-proton elastic scattering data off the hydrogen target are used to alibrate the momentum of charged particles with a precision evaluated to be 3.5%. A full description of the time development of the dynamic distortions in the TPC during physics spills is now available together with a correction algorithm. This allows a new cross-check using an enlarged data set made by comparing positive and negative pion elasticscattering data collected with negative polarity of the solenoid magnet. These data confirm the absence of a bias in the sagitta measurement. The dE/dx versus momentum curves are revisited, and shown to provide a confirmation that the HARP momentum calibration is correc...

  10. Measurements of ion mobility and GEM discharge studies for the upgrade of the ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00507268

    2018-02-20

    ALICE is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quark-gluon plasma, which is predominantly produced in lead-lead collisions at LHC, is of particular interest for ALICE. After the long shut-down 2 (2019-2021) the LHC will provide lead-lead collisions at an increased interaction rate of 50 kHz. In order to examine every event at this interaction rate the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) needs to be upgraded. The TPC’s ReadOut Chambers (ROCs) are currently multi-wire proportional chambers. To prevent space charge build-up of slow ions, drifting from the ROCs into the TPC, a gating grid is used. The corresponding closure time imposes a dead time on the TPC read out, which prohibits data taking at a readout rate higher than 3 kHz. New ROCs have therefore been designed, relying on stacks of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for the gas amplification, allowing for continuous readout. With the new ROCs, a certain fraction of ions will be drifting at all time into the TPC. Knowing t...

  11. Development of the GEM-TPC X-ray Polarimeter with the Scalable Readout System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitaguchi Takao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC containing a single-layered foil of a gas electron multiplier (GEM to open up a new window on cosmic X-ray polarimetry in the 2–10 keV band. The micro-pattern TPC polarimeter in combination with the Scalable Readout System produced by the RD51 collaboration has been built as an engineering model to optimize detector parameters and improve polarimeter sensitivity. The polarimeter was characterized with unpolarized X-rays from an X-ray generator in a laboratory and polarized X-rays on the BL32B2 beamline at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. Preliminary results show that the polarimeter has a comparable modulation factor to a prototype of the flight one.

  12. A large area Micromegas TPC for tracking at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the fundamental building blocks of matter necessitates always more powerful accelerators. New particles are produced in high energy collisions of protons or electrons. The by-Products of these collisions are detected in large apparatus surrounding the interaction point. The 125 GeV Higgs particle discovered at LHC will be studied in detail in the next e + e - collider. The leading project for this is called ILC. The team that I joined is working on the R and D for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to detect the charged tracks by the ionization they leave in a gas volume, optimised for use at ILC. This primary ionization is amplified by the so-Called Micromegas device, with a charge-Sharing anode made of a resistive-Capacitive coating. After a presentation of the physics motivation for the ILC and ILD detector, I will review the principle of operation of a TPC (Chapter 2) and underline the advantages of the Micromegas readout with charge sharing. The main part of this PhD work concerns the detailed study of up to 12 prototypes of various kinds. The modules and their readout electronics are described in Chapter 3. A test-Bench setup has been assembled at CERN (Chapter 4) to study the response to a 55 Fe source, allowing an energy calibration and a uniformity study. In Chapter 5, the ion back-flow is studied using a bulk Micromegas and the gas gain is measured using a calibrated electronics chain. With the same setup, the electron transparency is measured as a function of the field ratio (drift/amplification). Also, several beam tests have been carried out at DESY with a 5 GeV electron beam in a 1 T superconducting magnet. These beam tests allowed the detailed study of the spatial resolution. In the final test, the endplate was equipped with seven modules, bringing sensitivity to misalignment and distortions. Such a study required software developments (Chapter 6) to make optimal use of the charge sharing and to reconstruct multiple tracks through several

  13. Studies of characteristics of triple GEM detector for the ALICE-TPC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Singaraju, R.N.; Ahammed, Z.; Nayak, T.K.; Biswas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a novel gas detector in the field of radiation detection. GEM detectors have tremendous advantages over other types gas detectors like high rate handling capability with high efficiency and very low ion back flow (IBF). These detectors are most suitable for the use in the future experiments in high-energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the LHC is a dedicated experiment for the study of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). In few years, the data taking rate for Pb-Pb collisions will increase by 100 times to 50 KHz. The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in ALICE. It is planned that by the year 2018, GEM detectors will replace the present readout planes of TPC. The goal of the present study is to characterize the GEM detector to achieve the performance goal of the TPC

  14. Lossy compression of TPC data and trajectory tracking efficiency for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaucig, A; Mattavelli, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a quasi-lossless algorithm for the on-line compression of the data generated by the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector of the ALICE experiment at CERN is described. The algorithm is based on a lossy source code modeling technique, i.e. it is based on a source model which is lossy if samples of the TPC signal are considered one by one; conversely, the source model is lossless or quasi-lossless if some physical quantities that are of main interest for the experiment are considered. These quantities are the area and the location of the center of mass of each TPC signal pulse, representing the pulse charge and the time localization of the pulse. So as to evaluate the consequences of the error introduced by the lossy compression process, the results of the trajectory tracking algorithms that process data off-line after the experiment are analyzed, in particular, versus their sensibility to the noise introduced by the compression. Two different versions of these off- line algorithms are described,...

  15. Building a large-area GEM-based readout chamber for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Gasik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019-2020, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate up to 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present read-out rate of the TPC. To fully exploit the LHC potential the TPC will be upgraded based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Outer Read-Out Chamber (OROC) was equipped with twelve large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current Multi Wire Proportional Chambers with the new technology. With a total area of $\\sim$0.76 m$^2$ it is the largest GEM-based detector built to date. The GEM OROC was installed within a test field cage and commissioned with radioactive sources.

  16. Building a large-area GEM-based readout chamber for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, P. [Physik Department E62, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Excellence Cluster ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’, Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019–2020, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate up to 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present read-out rate of the TPC. To fully exploit the LHC potential the TPC will be upgraded based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Outer Read-Out Chamber (OROC) was equipped with twelve large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current Multi Wire Proportional Chambers with the new technology. With a total area of ∼0.76 m{sup 2} it is the largest GEM-based detector built to date. The GEM OROC was installed within a test field cage and commissioned with radioactive sources.

  17. Building a large-area GEM-based readout chamber for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasik, P.

    2017-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019–2020, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate up to 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present read-out rate of the TPC. To fully exploit the LHC potential the TPC will be upgraded based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Outer Read-Out Chamber (OROC) was equipped with twelve large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current Multi Wire Proportional Chambers with the new technology. With a total area of ∼0.76 m 2 it is the largest GEM-based detector built to date. The GEM OROC was installed within a test field cage and commissioned with radioactive sources.

  18. Development of a Hough transformation track finder for time projection chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, Isa

    2013-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a planned particle physics experiment. One of the two detector concepts is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept for which a time projection chamber is foreseen as the main tracking device. In the ILD the particle flow concept is followed which leads to special requirements for the detector. Especially for the tracking system a very good momentum resolution is required. Several prototypes were build to prove that it is possible to build a TPC which fulfills the requirements for a TPC in the ILD. One is the Large Prototype with which different readout technologies currently under development are tested. In parallel reconstruction software is developed for the reconstruction of Large Prototype data. In this thesis the development of a track finding algorithm based on the Hough transformation is described. It can find curved tracks (with magnetic field) as well as straight tracks (without magnetic field). This package was mainly developed for Large Prototype testbeam data but was also tested on Monte Carlo simulation of tracks in the ILD TPC. Furthermore the analysis of testbeam data regarding the single point resolution is presented. The data were taken with the Large Prototype and a readout module with GEM (gas electron multiplier) amplification. For the reconstruction of these data the software package mentioned above was used. The single point resolution is directly related to the momentum resolution of the detector, thus a good single point resolution is needed to achieve a good momentum resolution.

  19. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  20. Development of a Hough transformation track finder for time projection chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, Isa

    2013-12-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a planned particle physics experiment. One of the two detector concepts is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept for which a time projection chamber is foreseen as the main tracking device. In the ILD the particle flow concept is followed which leads to special requirements for the detector. Especially for the tracking system a very good momentum resolution is required. Several prototypes were build to prove that it is possible to build a TPC which fulfills the requirements for a TPC in the ILD. One is the Large Prototype with which different readout technologies currently under development are tested. In parallel reconstruction software is developed for the reconstruction of Large Prototype data. In this thesis the development of a track finding algorithm based on the Hough transformation is described. It can find curved tracks (with magnetic field) as well as straight tracks (without magnetic field). This package was mainly developed for Large Prototype testbeam data but was also tested on Monte Carlo simulation of tracks in the ILD TPC. Furthermore the analysis of testbeam data regarding the single point resolution is presented. The data were taken with the Large Prototype and a readout module with GEM (gas electron multiplier) amplification. For the reconstruction of these data the software package mentioned above was used. The single point resolution is directly related to the momentum resolution of the detector, thus a good single point resolution is needed to achieve a good momentum resolution.

  1. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  2. A radiation tolerance study of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chengxin; Balk, Helge; Alme, Johan

    2017-11-17

    ALICE is a general-purpose detector that is designed to study the physics of quark-gluon plasma. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the major detectors of ALICE. The TPC electronics consists of 4356 Front-end cards (FECs), which are controlled by 216 Readout Control Units (RCU). Each RCU connects to between 18 and 25 FECs using a multi-drop bus. In LHC Run1, the Readout Control Unit 1 (RCU1) performed even better than specification. However, in Run2 the energy of colliding beams is increased from 8 TeV to 14 TeV (maximum value) and higher luminosity, which leads to larger event size and higher radiation load on the electronics. As a solution, the Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2) is designed to provide faster readout speed and improved radiation tolerance with respect to the RCU1. The RCU2 is conceptually similar to the RCU1 and it reuses the existing infrastructure and readout architecture of the TPC electronics. However, the multi-drop bus is split into four branches from the two branches and the bandw...

  3. Search for H-dibaryon at J-PARC with a Large Acceptance TPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available H-dibaryon has been predicted as a stable 6-quark color-singlet state. It has been searched for by many experiments but has never been discovered. Recent lattice QCD calculations predict H-dibaryon as a weakly bound or a resonant state close to the LL threshold. E224 and E522 experiments at KEK observed peaks in LL invariant mass spectra near the threshold in (K-, K+ reactions, which were statistically not significant. Therefore, we proposed a new experiment E42 at J-PARC. It will measure decay products of ΛΛ and Λπ-p in a (K-, K+ reaction. We design a large acceptance spectrometer based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC immersed in a dipole magnetic field. The TPC surrounds a target to cover nearly 4π acceptance, and accepts K- beams up to 106 counts per second. To suppress drift field distortion at high beam rates, we adopt Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs for electron amplification and a gating grid. We show an overview of the experiment, the design of the spectrometer, and the R&D status of the TPC prototype.

  4. Simulation and Calibration of the ALICE TPC including innovative Space Charge Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, S; Riegler, W; Betev, L

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four main particle detectors located around the LHC accelerator at CERN. It is particularly designed to study the physics of the quark-gluon plasma by means of nucleus--nucleus collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair. A Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) was chosen to be its central-sub-detector due to its low mass properties and its capabilities to provide a robust and accurate Particle Identification even within ultra-high multiplicity environments (up to 8000 tracks per unit of eta). To achieve the required physics performance, the space point resolution of the TPC must be in the order of 0.2 mm. Due to its gigantic size of 5~m in diameter and 5~m in length, corrections for static as well as dynamic effects are indispensable in order to accomplish the design goal. The research presented covers all major issues relevant for the final calibration and therefore the enhancement of the TPC performance in terms of resolution. The main focus was to distinguish between t...

  5. Status of the ALICE TPC upgrade for high-rate operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , D-85748, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018/2019, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. This will result in a significant improvement on the sensitivity of rare probes that are considered key observables to characterise the hot and dense QCD matter created in such collisions. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout chambers by Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors to overcome the rate limitations imposed by the present gated readout scheme. An extensive R and D program has been launched to reach the challenging requirements of the upcoming upgrade of the detector. In this presentation the most recent results are discussed concerning ion backflow suppression, gain stability, energy and dE/dx resolution and stability against discharges. The status of the upgrade of the online calibration and data reduction system, which includes advanced techniques for online corrections of space-charge distortions, as well as the development of a new readout electronics are reported.

  6. arXiv GEM Foil Quality Assurance For The ALICE TPC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00019412; Hildén, Timo

    2018-01-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is dedicated to heavy ion physics to explore the structure of strongly interacting matter. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of ALICE is a tracking detector located in the central region of the experiment. It offers excellent tracking capabilities as well as particle identification. After the second long shutdown (LS2) the LHC will run at substantially higher luminosities. To be able to increase the data acquisition rate by a factor of 100, the ALICE TPC experiment has to replace the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) –based readout chambers. The MWPC are operated with gating grid that limits the rate to O(kHz). The new ReadOut Chamber (ROC) design is based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology operating in continuous mode. The current GEM productions scheme foresees the production of more than 800 GEM foils of different types. To fulfill the requirements on the performance of the GEM TPC readout, nec...

  7. Investigations of the long-term stability of a GEM-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchuk, Oleksiy [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the International Large Detector (ILD) at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking detector. The gas amplification will be done by Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD). One option is to use Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM).While the applicability of GEMs for the gas amplification in a TPC readout has been shown, the focus of the current research is to improve the high voltage stability and reliability of the readout modules. This is a crucial requirement for the operation in the final ILD TPC. The main focus of the research presented in this talk is on studies of the discharge stability and operational features of large area 22 x 18 cm{sup 2} GEM foils. We present systematic studies of the stability of GEM foils under different operation conditions. These studies include measurements and calculations of the dynamic behavior of charges in the GEM foils after a trip. The results will be used to develop methods to avoid destructive discharges in the final readout module.

  8. Measurements of electron drift and diffusion properties in a large cylindrical drift chamber (TPC) with parallel electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    This work describes measurements on the drift of electrons in gases, using the TPC90, the prototype of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber. Tracks which were created by UV-Laser ionization have been drifted over distances of up to 1.3 m in parallel electric and magnetic fields. Electron drift properties have been systematically measured as a function of these, in several gas mixtures. (orig./HSI)

  9. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallermann, Lea

    2010-04-15

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallermann, Lea

    2010-04-01

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  11. Experimental observation of an extremely high electron lifetime with the ICARUS-T600 LAr-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M; Benetti, P; Boffelli, F; Bubak, A; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; Dabrowska, A; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; Falcone, A; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Lagoda, J; Mania, S; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Otwinowski, S; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Plonski, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Sala, P; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Sergiampietri, F; Stefan, D; Sulej, R; Szarska, M; Terrani, M; Torti, M; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Yang, X; Zalewska, A; Zani, A; Zaremba, K

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector, the largest liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) realized after many years of RD activities, was installed and successfully operated for 3 years at the INFN Gran Sasso underground Laboratory. One of the most important issues was the need of an extremely low residual electronegative impurity content in the liquid Argon, in order to transport the free electrons created by the ionizing particles with a very small attenuation along the drift path. The solutions adopted for the Argon re-circulation and purification systems have permitted to reach impressive results in terms of Argon purity and a free electron lifetime exceeding 15 ms, corresponding to about 20 parts per trillion of equivalent O2 contamination, a milestone for any future project involving LAr-TPC's and the development of higher detector mass scales.

  12. Control and supervision of a time projection chamber with GEM readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, David

    2014-01-01

    To get a deeper understanding of the structure of nucleons and the strong interaction binding the constituents inside, the CBELSA/TAPS experiment investigates the resonance spectrum of baryons by meson photoproduction within the scope of the SFB/TRR 16 ''Subnuclear Structure of Matter''. In order to support and expand the physical program, the existing Inner Detector will be replaced by a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) within the next few years. This allows for the detection of charged reaction channels, which can't be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment up to now, as well as for particle identification from the specific energy loss. A First prototype with GEM foils for charge amplification in front of the readout plane and suitable size for the CBELSA/TAPS experiment was built in collaboration with the TU Munich, the detector laboratory of the GSI in Darmstadt and the Stefan-Meyer-Institute of the University Vienna. The TPC has been commissioned successfully within the FOPI experiment at the GSI during several test beam campaigns. Additionally, systematic studies have been carried out with a smaller Test-TPC using a TestBench providing an accurate external track definition. As the electron drift velocity in the TPC volume is a crucial parameter for the exact track reconstruction, detailed simulations of the drift velocity and its dependency on external parameters, such as drift voltage, pressure, gas flow or temperature, have been carried out. The results of these simulations recommend a constant monitoring of all examined parameters to allow a reasonable use of the simulated drift velocities. For this purpose, and to ensure a safe and stable operation of the TPCs and the other detectors on the TestBench, the required hardware, the control software based on a data base and a graphical user interface were designed and constructed as the main part of this work. With this so-called SlowControl, it was possible to measure, control and store several parameters - e

  13. Time Overrun in Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I.; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Timely completion is the key criteria to achieve success in any project despite the industry. Unfortunately construction industry in Malaysia has been labelled as industry facing poor performance leading to failure in achieving effective time management. As the consequence most of the project face huge amount of time overrun. This study assesses the causes of construction projects time overrun in Malaysia using structured questionnaire survey. Each respondent is asked to assign a one-to-five rating for each of the 18 time factors identified from literature review. Out of the 50 questionnaires sent out, 33 were received back representing 68% of the response rate. Data received from the questionnaires were analysed and processed using the descriptive statistics procedures. Findings from the study revealed that design and documentation issues, project management and contract administration, ineffective project planning and scheduling, contractor’s site management, financial resource management were the major factors that cause the time overrun. This study is hoped to help the practitioners to implement the mitigation measure at planning stage in order to achieve successful construction projects.

  14. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Chance, J.C.; Christie, W.F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Romero, J.L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C.E.; Warren, P.

    1997-01-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (equation of state) TPC and other EOS collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI. (orig.)

  15. Use of a time-projection chamber in multifragmentation experiments at the BEVALAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porile, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    An exclusive study of multifragmentation is described. The moments of the fragment charge distribution are used to extract the critical exponents associated with the phase transition to which the breakup is ascribed. The fragmentation of 1 GeV/nucleon La and Au is studied by reverse kinematics using a carbon target. Fragments with Z ≤ 6 will be identified with the EOS time projection chamber (TPC) while heavier fragments will be identified with a multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC). The experimental setup using these detectors will be described

  16. First 0ν half-life limit from the Gotthard xenon time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.T.; Boehm, F.; Fisher, P.

    1991-01-01

    A xenon Time Projection Chamber with an active volume of 207 liters has been built to study 0ν and 2ν double beta decay in 136 Xe. The TPC has been installed in the Gotthard Tunnel Underground Laboratory, and is currently taking data with 5 atm of xenon enriched in 62.5% 136 Xe. The first 166 hours of data are presented. Based on this data set, we deduce a half-life limit of T(0 + → 0 + ) > 6.2 x 10 21 years for the 0ν mode, at a 90% C.L. (author)

  17. Silicon ion interactions measured in the E-810 TPC at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Kruk, J.W.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Roberts, J.B.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The tracking detector of AGS Experiment 810 is a three-piece Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which measures all charged tracks in the forward hemisphere of the nucleon-nucleon center of mass system, i.e. forward of 20 degrees in the lab. A cut at multiplicity 50 was used to select more central collisions, yielding 2291 events from the gold sample, 2170 from the copper. This corresponds to cross sections of 0.59 and 0.20 barns, respectively, defining the 'central' sample for the charged particle distributions presented here. (orig./HSI)

  18. Track reconstruction of normal muon decays in the LAMPF TPC: one working scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A working scheme for track reconstruction of normal muon decays in the LAMPF TPC is here outlined. Muon tracks stopping in the TPC and helical electron tracks from muon decay are both identified and fitted for complete event reconstruction. Because of certain geometrical characteristics of the TPC, novel techniques are deployed to find the tracks. Normal road tracing methods do not work reliably; they are replaced by, among other things, a random search technique that locates the helix's planar projection and a carefully worked-out method for correctly putting each coordinate on its proper turn in the helix

  19. Real time data acquisition for a time projection chamber using a high speed DEC-RT11 to UNIX UDP-TCP/IP interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Douglas, M.; Watanabe, R.; Henrikson, H.E.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Mitchell, L.W.; O'Callaghan, B.M.G.; Wong, H.T.K.; Melvin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors built a high pressure xenon Time Projection Chamber to study double beta decay, a process of fundamental interest which, if observed, would indicate that the neutrino is a massive Majorana particle. Raw data rates from the TPC exceed 200 Kbytes per second. The TPC is operated through a CAMAC interface with a DEC LSI-11/73 computer networked to a Tektronix 6130 workstation. Data is transmitted at about 15 Kbytes per second although the network is capable of transmitting data at 80 Kbytes per second. The only system level programming required was to write a UDP-TCP/IP driver for the DEC-DEQNA Ethenet board on the 11/73

  20. Status of PEP and TPC/2γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapalac, G.

    1989-06-01

    The TPC/2γ program at PEP has been upgraded by increasing the PEP luminosity and by the adding of a vertex chamber to the TPC detector. These improvements will allow a strong program in B and τ physics, and will contribute to ongoing studies in two-photon physics and hadronization. 10 refs., 3 figs

  1. Diogene: a 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1980-10-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont-Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I shall first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, than recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams

  2. Investigation of a Huffman-based compression algorithm for the ALICE TPC read-out in LHC Run 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klewin, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Within the scope of the ALICE upgrade towards the Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, starting in 2020, the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will be reworked in order to allow for a continuous read-out. This rework includes not only a replacement of the current read-out chambers with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology, but also new front-end electronics. To be able to read out the whole data stream without loosing information, in particular without zero-suppression, a lossless compression algorithm, the Huffman encoding, was investigated and adapted to the needs of the TPC. In this talk, an algorithm, adapted for an FPGA implementation, is presented. We show its capability to reduce the data volume to less than 40% of its original size.

  3. Fast TPC Online Tracking on GPUs and Asynchronous Data Processing in the ALICE HLT to facilitate Online Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Breitner, Timo; Kretz, Matthias; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2015-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Heavy Ion Experiment) is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is today the most powerful particle accelerator worldwide. The High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online compute farm of about 200 nodes, which reconstructs events measured by the ALICE detector in real-time. The HLT uses a custom online data-transport framework to distribute data and workload among the compute nodes.ALICE employs several calibration-sensitive subdetectors, e.g. the TPC (Time Projection Chamber). For a precise reconstruction, the HLT has to perform the calibration online. Online- calibration can make certain Offline calibration steps obsolete and can thus speed up Offline analysis. Looking forward to ALICE Run III starting in 2020, online calibration becomes a necessity.The main detector used for track reconstruction is the TPC. Reconstructing the trajectories in the TPC is the most compute-intense step during event reconstruction. Therefore, a fast tracking implementation is of great importance. Reconstructed TPC tracks build the basis for the calibration making a fast online-tracking mandatory.We present several components developed for the ALICE High Level Trigger to perform fast event reconstruction and to provide features required for online calibration.As first topic, we present our TPC tracker, which employs GPUs to speed up the processing, and which bases on a Cellular Automaton and on the Kalman filter. Our TPC tracking algorithm has been successfully used in 2011 and 2012 in the lead-lead and the proton-lead runs. We have improved it to leverage features of newer GPUs and we have ported it to support OpenCL, CUDA, and CPUs with a single common source code. This makes us vendor independent.As second topic, we present framework extensions required for online calibration. The extensions, however, are generic and can be used for other purposes as well. We have extended the framework to support asynchronous compute chains

  4. Live event reconstruction in an optically read out GEM-based TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunbauer, F. M.; Galgóczi, G.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Oliveri, E.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; van Stenis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Combining strong signal amplification made possible by Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs) with the high spatial resolution provided by optical readout, highly performing radiation detectors can be realized. An optically read out GEM-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is presented. The device permits 3D track reconstruction by combining the 2D projections obtained with a CCD camera with timing information from a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the intuitive 2D representation of the tracks in the images and to automated control, data acquisition and event reconstruction algorithms, the optically read out TPC permits live display of reconstructed tracks in three dimensions. An Ar/CF4 (80/20%) gas mixture was used to maximize scintillation yield in the visible wavelength region matching the quantum efficiency of the camera. The device is integrated in a UHV-grade vessel allowing for precise control of the gas composition and purity. Long term studies in sealed mode operation revealed a minor decrease in the scintillation light intensity.

  5. DarkSide-20k: A 20 Tonne Two-Phase LAr TPC for Direct Dark Matter Detection at LNGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, C.E.; et al.

    2017-07-25

    Building on the successful experience in operating the DarkSide-50 detector, the DarkSide Collaboration is going to construct DarkSide-20k, a direct WIMP search detector using a two-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) with an active (fiducial) mass of 23 t (20 t). The DarkSide-20k LArTPC will be deployed within a shield/veto with a spherical Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV) inside a cylindrical Water Cherenkov Veto (WCV). Operation of DarkSide-50 demonstrated a major reduction in the dominant $^{39}$Ar background when using argon extracted from an underground source, before applying pulse shape analysis. Data from DarkSide-50, in combination with MC simulation and analytical modeling, shows that a rejection factor for discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils of $\\gt3\\times10^9$ is achievable. This, along with the use of the veto system, is the key to unlocking the path to large LArTPC detector masses, while maintaining an "instrumental background-free" experiment, an experiment in which less than 0.1 events (other than $\

  6. Methods and results for calibration and track separation of a GEM based TPC using an UV-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Markus

    2008-12-01

    In the last 30 years high energy physics could write an impressive story of success. Since the introduction of the Standard Model (SM), it has met every experimental test. However the final confirmation has to prove the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, which could not be confirmed yet. The most favored theory, which includes the introduction of a Higgs field, could not be verified experimentally. Furthermore there is clear evidence, that the SM is only a low energy description of nature and its principles, as the SM describes only 4 % of the known matter in the universe. There are two different approaches in accelerator driven high energy physics to clarify the open questions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have a good opportunity to measure some of the missing pieces with its high center of mass energy. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will then measure their parameters with high precision. To guarantee this high precision the detectors have to be able to identify every single particle and determine its properties with high accuracy. These high requirements to the single detectors as well as the interconnectivity between all detectors are summarised by the concept of particle flow (PFLOW). This means that all particles must be separable, which includes in particular the main tracking device. A possible candidate for the central tracking device is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In this work a TPC with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as gas amplification system was used. The GEMs replace the conventional wire amplification system of the TPC. In this PhD work a method to determine the drift velocity of a TPC was developed and tested using an ultraviolet laser. To ensure a high accuracy of the method all relevant gas parameters were measured with a slow control system. Furthermore the laser was used to investigate the separation capability of nearby tracks. Therefore an existing TPC prototype, which was developed to operate in a 5 T magnet facility

  7. Methods and results for calibration and track separation of a GEM based TPC using an UV-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Markus

    2008-12-15

    In the last 30 years high energy physics could write an impressive story of success. Since the introduction of the Standard Model (SM), it has met every experimental test. However the final confirmation has to prove the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, which could not be confirmed yet. The most favored theory, which includes the introduction of a Higgs field, could not be verified experimentally. Furthermore there is clear evidence, that the SM is only a low energy description of nature and its principles, as the SM describes only 4 % of the known matter in the universe. There are two different approaches in accelerator driven high energy physics to clarify the open questions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have a good opportunity to measure some of the missing pieces with its high center of mass energy. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will then measure their parameters with high precision. To guarantee this high precision the detectors have to be able to identify every single particle and determine its properties with high accuracy. These high requirements to the single detectors as well as the interconnectivity between all detectors are summarised by the concept of particle flow (PFLOW). This means that all particles must be separable, which includes in particular the main tracking device. A possible candidate for the central tracking device is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In this work a TPC with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as gas amplification system was used. The GEMs replace the conventional wire amplification system of the TPC. In this PhD work a method to determine the drift velocity of a TPC was developed and tested using an ultraviolet laser. To ensure a high accuracy of the method all relevant gas parameters were measured with a slow control system. Furthermore the laser was used to investigate the separation capability of nearby tracks. Therefore an existing TPC prototype, which was developed to operate in a 5 T magnet facility

  8. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzia I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD, allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs. Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  9. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, I.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Cassariti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2018-01-01

    Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD), allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  10. The TPC shielding of the CAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruz, J; Luzon, G; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Morales, J; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; RodrIguez, A; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Sunset solar axions traversing the intense magnetic field of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment may be detected in a TPC detector, placed at one side of the magnet, as point-like X-rays signals. This signal could be masked, however, by the inhomogeneous radioactive background of materials and experimental site. Here we present the shielding built to reduce and homogenize the radioactive background levels of the TPC detector

  11. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin. The tests identified problems with the cryogenic system and the 2800 refrigerator. Procedures for successful operation and quenching of the superconducting magnet were developed. 19 references

  12. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortesi Marco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC, the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2 and Helium (He. The detector consists of a MICROMEsh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS coupled to a two-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  13. Monitoring and calibration of the ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Dag Toppe

    The aim of the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) experiment at CERN is to study the properties of the Quark–Gluon Plasma (QGP). With energies up to 5.5 A T eV for Pb+Pb collisions, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) sets a new benchmark for heavy- ion collisions, and opens the door to a so far unexplored energy domain. A closer look at some of the physics topics of ALICE is given in Chapter 1. ALICE consists of several sub-detectors and other sub-systems. The various sub- detectors are designed for exploring different aspects of the particle production of an heavy-ion collision. Chapter 2 gives some insight into the design. The main tracking detector is the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It has more than half million read-out channels, divided into 216 Read-out Partitions (RPs). Each RP is a separate Front-End Electronics (FEE) entity, as described in Chapter 3. A complex Detector Control System (DCS) is needed for configuration, monitoring and control. The heart of it on the RP side is a small embedded ...

  14. 3-D tracking in a miniature time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahsen, S.E., E-mail: sevahsen@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hedges, M.T.; Jaegle, I.; Ross, S.J.; Seong, I.S.; Thorpe, T.N.; Yamaoka, J. [University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kadyk, J.A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    The three-dimensional (3-D) detection of millimeter-scale ionization trails is of interest for detecting nuclear recoils in directional fast neutron detectors and in direction-sensitive searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which may constitute the Dark Matter of the universe. We report on performance characterization of a miniature gas target Time Projection Chamber (TPC) where the drift charge is avalanche-multiplied with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and detected with the ATLAS FE-I3 Pixel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). We report on measurements of gain, gain resolution, point resolution, diffusion, angular resolution, and energy resolution with low-energy X-rays, cosmic rays, and alpha particles, using the gases Ar:CO{sub 2} (70:30) and He:CO{sub 2} (70:30) at atmospheric pressure. We discuss the implications for future, larger directional neutron and Dark Matter detectors. With an eye to designing and selecting components for these, we generalize our results into analytical expressions for detector performance whenever possible. We conclude by demonstrating the 3-D directional detection of a fast neutron source.

  15. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Joshua B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  16. A TPC-like readout method for high precision muon-tracking using GEM-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Bernhard; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Hertenberger, Ralf; Klitzner, Felix; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are well suited for tracking of charged particles. Three dimensional tracking in a single layer can be achieved by application of a time-projection-chamber like readout mode (μTPC), if the drift time of the electrons is measured and the position dependence of the arrival time is used to calculate the inclination angle of the track. To optimize the tracking capabilities for ion tracks drift gas mixtures with low drift velocity have been investigated by measuring tracks of cosmic muons in a compact setup of four GEM-detectors of 100 x 100 x 6 mm{sup 3} active volume each and an angular acceptance of -25 to 25 . The setup consists of three detectors with two-dimensional strip readout layers of 0.4 mm pitch and one detector with a single strip readout layer of 0.25 mm pitch. All strips are readout by APV25 frontend boards and the amplification stage in the detectors consists of three GEM-foils. Tracks are reconstructed by the μTPC-method in one of the detectors and are then compared to the prediction from the other three detectors defined by the center of charge in every detector. We report our study of Argon and Helium based noble gas mixtures with carbon-dioxide as quencher.

  17. Fast algorithm of track reconstruction for the Delphy TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, J.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple geometrical method (polar inversion) to reconstruct tracks. When the magnetic field is constant in magnitude and direction. This method uses geometrical properties of the trajectories. In the case of the DELPHI apparatus, the track reconstruction is done using TPC informations. After explaining the algorithm, we give results on ''GEANT'' simulated events using the ''Lund'' generator. Today we get a computer time of the order of 1.2 milliseconds on a CDC 7600 and an efficiency of 98% [fr

  18. Simulation studies for a high resolution time projection chamber at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muennich, A.

    2007-03-26

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be the next large accelerator. The ILC will be able to perform high precision measurements only possible at the clean environment of electron positron collisions. In order to reach this high accuracy, the requirements for the detector performance are challenging. Several detector concepts are currently under study. The understanding of the detector and its performance will be crucial to extract the desired physics results from the data. To optimise the detector design, simulation studies are needed. Simulation packages like GEANT4 allow to model the detector geometry and simulate the energy deposit in the different materials. However, the detector response taking into account the transportation of the produced charge to the readout devices and the effects ofthe readout electronics cannot be described in detail. These processes in the detector will change the measured position of the energy deposit relative to the point of origin. The determination of this detector response is the task of detailed simulation studies, which have to be carried out for each subdetector. A high resolution Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with gas amplification based on micro pattern gas detectors, is one of the options for the main tracking system at the ILC. In the present thesis a detailed simulation tool to study the performance of a TPC was developed. Its goal is to find the optimal settings to reach an excellent momentum and spatial resolution. After an introduction to the present status of particle physics and the ILC project with special focus on the TPC as central tracker, the simulation framework is presented. The basic simulation methods and implemented processes are introduced. Within this stand-alone simulation framework each electron produced by primary ionisation is transferred through the gas volume and amplified using Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The output format of the simulation is identical to the raw data from a

  19. Cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T; Gong, D; Liu, C; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Hou, S; Su, D-S; Teng, P-K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the cryogenic functionality of the components of data links for the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC), a potential far site detector technology of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). We have confirmed that an LVDS driver can drive a 20-meter CAT5E twisted pair up to 1 gigabit per second at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). We have verified that a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) serializer, a laser diode driver, laser diodes, optical fibers and connectors, and field-programming gate arrays (FPGA's) continue to function at 77 K. A variety of COTS resistors and capacitors have been tested at 77 K. All tests we have conducted show that the cryogenic digital data links for the liquid argon time projection chamber are promising.

  20. DarkSide-20k: A 20 tonne two-phase LAr TPC for direct dark matter detection at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Acerbi, F.; Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alici, A.; Alton, A. K.; Antonioli, P.; Arcelli, S.; Ardito, R.; Arnquist, I. J.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Barrado Olmedo, A. I.; Batignani, G.; Bertoldo, E.; Bettarini, S.; Bisogni, M. G.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Boulay, M.; Bunker, R.; Bussino, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Caminata, A.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cantini, C.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Castellani, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Cavuoti, S.; Cereseto, R.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Citterio, M.; Cocco, A. G.; Colocci, M.; Corgiolu, S.; Covone, G.; Crivelli, P.; D'Antone, I.; D'Incecco, M.; D'Urso, D.; Da Rocha Rolo, M. D.; Daniel, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Filippis, G.; De Guido, G.; De Rosa, G.; Dellacasa, G.; Della Valle, M.; Demontis, P.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Dolgov, A.; Dormia, I.; Dussoni, S.; Empl, A.; Fernandez Diaz, M.; Ferri, A.; Filip, C.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Froudakis, G. E.; Gabriele, F.; Gabrieli, A.; Galbiati, C.; Garcia Abia, P.; Gendotti, A.; Ghisi, A.; Giagu, S.; Giampa, P.; Gibertoni, G.; Giganti, C.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Gligan, M. L.; Gola, A.; Gorchakov, O.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grassi, M.; Grate, J. W.; Grigoriev, G. Y.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guerra, M. B. B.; Guerzoni, M.; Gulino, M.; Haaland, R. K.; Hallin, A.; Harrop, B.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horikawa, S.; Hosseini, B.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, An.; Jillings, C.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kim, S.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Kuss, M.; Kuźniak, M.; La Commara, M.; Lehnert, B.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lodi, G. U.; Loer, B.; Longo, G.; Loverre, P.; Lussana, R.; Luzzi, L.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A. A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marcante, M.; Margotti, A.; Mari, S. M.; Mariani, M.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Mascia, M.; Mayer, M.; McDonald, A. B.; Messina, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Moggi, A.; Moioli, S.; Monroe, J.; Monte, A.; Morrocchi, M.; Mount, B. J.; Mu, W.; Muratova, V. N.; Murphy, S.; Musico, P.; Nania, R.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Nikulin, I.; Nosov, V.; Nozdrina, A. O.; Nurakhov, N. N.; Oleinik, A.; Oleynikov, V.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmas, S.; Pandola, L.; Pantic, E.; Paoloni, E.; Paternoster, G.; Pavletcov, V.; Pazzona, F.; Peeters, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pellegrini, L. A.; Pelliccia, N.; Perotti, F.; Perruzza, R.; Pesudo, V.; Piemonte, C.; Pilo, F.; Pocar, A.; Pollmann, T.; Portaluppi, D.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Radics, B.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragusa, F.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Regazzoni, V.; Regenfus, C.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Retière, F.; Riffard, Q.; Rivetti, A.; Rizzardini, S.; Romani, A.; Romero, L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rubbia, A.; Sablone, D.; Salatino, P.; Samoylov, O.; Sánchez García, E.; Sands, W.; Sanfilippo, S.; Sant, M.; Santorelli, R.; Savarese, C.; Scapparone, E.; Schlitzer, B.; Scioli, G.; Segreto, E.; Seifert, A.; Semenov, D. A.; Shchagin, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Shemyakina, E.; Sheshukov, A.; Simeone, M.; Singh, P. N.; Skensved, P.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sobrero, G.; Sokolov, A.; Sotnikov, A.; Speziale, F.; Stainforth, R.; Stanford, C.; Suffritti, G. B.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Tosi, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vacca, A.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Verducci, M.; Viant, T.; Villa, F.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Wahl, J.; Walding, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Williams, R.; Wojcik, M. M.; Wu, S.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yllera de Llano, A.; Zappa, F.; Zappalà, G.; Zhu, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zullo, M.; Zullo, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-03-01

    Building on the successful experience in operating the DarkSide-50 detector, the DarkSide Collaboration is going to construct DarkSide-20k, a direct WIMP search detector using a two-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) with an active (fiducial) mass of 23 t (20 t). This paper describes a preliminary design for the experiment, in which the DarkSide-20k LAr TPC is deployed within a shield/veto with a spherical Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV) inside a cylindrical Water Cherenkov Veto (WCV). This preliminary design provides a baseline for the experiment to achieve its physics goals, while further development work will lead to the final optimization of the detector parameters and an eventual technical design. Operation of DarkSide-50 demonstrated a major reduction in the dominant 39Ar background when using argon extracted from an underground source, before applying pulse shape analysis. Data from DarkSide-50, in combination with MC simulation and analytical modeling, shows that a rejection factor for discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils of >3 × 109 is achievable. This, along with the use of the veto system and utilizing silicon photomultipliers in the LAr TPC, are the keys to unlocking the path to large LAr TPC detector masses, while maintaining an experiment in which less than < 0.1 events (other than ν-induced nuclear recoils) is expected to occur within the WIMP search region during the planned exposure. DarkSide-20k will have ultra-low backgrounds than can be measured in situ, giving sensitivity to WIMP-nucleon cross sections of 1.2 × 10^{-47} cm2 (1.1 × 10^{-46} cm2) for WIMPs of 1 TeV/c 2 (10 TeV/c 2) mass, to be achieved during a 5 yr run producing an exposure of 100 t yr free from any instrumental background.

  1. A gating grid driver for time projection chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangwancharoen, S.; Lynch, W.G.; Barney, J.; Estee, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Shane, R. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tsang, M.B., E-mail: tsang@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Y. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Isobe, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Murakami, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-shirakawa, Kyoto 606–8502 (Japan); Xiao, Z.G. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-05-01

    A simple but novel driver system has been developed to operate the wire gating grid of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This system connects the wires of the gating grid to its driver via low impedance transmission lines. When the gating grid is open, all wires have the same voltage allowing drift electrons, produced by the ionization of the detector gas molecules, to pass through to the anode wires. When the grid is closed, the wires have alternating higher and lower voltages causing the drift electrons to terminate at the more positive wires. Rapid opening of the gating grid with low pickup noise is achieved by quickly shorting the positive and negative wires to attain the average bias potential with N-type and P-type MOSFET switches. The circuit analysis and simulation software SPICE shows that the driver restores the gating grid voltage to 90% of the opening voltage in less than 0.20 µs, for small values of the termination resistors. When tested in the experimental environment of a time projection chamber larger termination resistors were chosen so that the driver opens the gating grid in 0.35 µs. In each case, opening time is basically characterized by the RC constant given by the resistance of the switches and terminating resistors and the capacitance of the gating grid and its transmission line. By adding a second pair of N-type and P-type MOSFET switches, the gating grid is closed by restoring 99% of the original charges to the wires within 3 µs.

  2. Status of the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisting, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    After the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) the LHC will provide lead-lead collisions at interaction rates as high as 50 kHz. In order to cope with such conditions the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) needs to be upgraded. After the upgrade the TPC will run in a continuous mode, without any degradation of the momentum and dE/dx resolution compared to the performance of the present TPC. Since readout by multi-wire proportional chambers is no longer feasible with these requirements, new technologies have to be employed. In the new readout chambers the electron amplification is provided by a stack of four Gas ElectronMultiplier (GEM) foils. Here foils with a standard hole pitch of 140 μm as well as large pitch foils (280 μm) are used. Their high voltage settings and orientation have been optimised to provide an energy resolution of σE/E ≤ 12% at the photopeak of 55Fe. At the same settings the Ion BackFlow into the drift volume is less than 1% of the effective number of ions produced during gas amplification and the primary ionisations. This is necessary to prevent the accumulation of space charge, which eventually will distort the field in the drift volume. To ensure stable operation at the high loads during LHC run 3 the chambers have to be robust against discharges, too. With the selected configuration in a quadruple GEMstack the discharge probability is kept at the level of 10-12 discharges per incoming hadron. An overview of the ALICE TPC upgrade activities will be given in these proceedings and the optimised settings foreseen for the GEM stacks of the future readout chambers are introduced. Furthermore the outcome of two beam time campaigns at SPS and PS (at CERN) in the end of 2014 is shown. At this campaigns the stability against discharges and the dE/dx performance of a full size readout chamber prototype was tested. In addition it is reported on charging-up studies of 4GEM stacks and on tests of electromagnetic sagging of large GEM foils.

  3. Electron Attenuation Measurement using Cosmic Ray Muons at the MicroBooNE LArTPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddage, Varuna [Kansas State U., Manhattan

    2017-10-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment at Fermilab uses liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) technology to study neutrino interactions in argon. A fundamental requirement for LArTPCs is to achieve and maintain a low level of electronegative contaminants in the liquid to minimize the capture of drifting ionization electrons. The attenuation time for the drifting electrons should be long compared to the maximum drift time, so that the signals from particle tracks that generate ionization electrons with long drift paths can be detected efficiently. In this talk we present MicroBooNE measurement of electron attenuation using cosmic ray muons. The result yields a minimum electron 1/e lifetime of 18 ms under typical operating conditions, which is long compared to the maximum drift time of 2.3 ms.

  4. μ-TPC: a future standard instrument for low energy neutron field characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Petit, M.; Billard, J.; Bourrion, O.; Bosson, G.; Guillaudin, O.; Lamblin, J.; Mayet, F.; Medard, J.; Muraz, J.F.; Richer, J.P.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.

    2013-06-01

    In order to measure energy of neutron fields, with energy ranging from 8 keV to 1 MeV, a new primary standard is being developed at the IRSN (Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety). This project, μ-TPC (Micro Time Projection Chamber), carried out in collaboration with the LPSC (Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie), is based on the nucleus recoil detector principle. The instrument will be presented with the associated method to measure the neutron energy. This article will emphasize the proton energy calibration procedure and energy measurements of a neutron field produced at 127 keV on the IRSN facility AMANDE. Finally the COMIMAC device, dedicated to the calibration, will be described. This original device, developed at the LPSC, is able to produce proton and electron beams with an accurate energy ranging from 1 keV to 50 keV. (authors)

  5. Study of Electromagnetic Interactions in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caratelli, David [Columbia U.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents results on the study of electromagnetic (EM) activity in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector. The LArTPC detector technology provides bubble-chamber like information on neutrino interaction final states, necessary to perform precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. Accelerator-based oscillation experiments heavily rely on the appearance channel ! e to make such measurements. Identifying and reconstructing the energy of the outgoing electrons from such interactions is therefore crucial for their success. This work focuses on two sources of EM activity: Michel electrons in the 10-50 MeV energy range, and photons from 0 decay in the 30-300 MeV range. Studies of biases in the energy reconstruction measurement, and energy resolution are performed. The impact of shower topology at different energies is discussed, and the importance of thresholding and other reconstruction effects on producing an asymmetric and biased energy measurement are highlighted. This work further presents a study of the calorimetric separation of electrons and photons with a focus on the shower energy dependence of the separation power.

  6. Control and supervision of a time projection chamber with GEM readout; Steuerung und Ueberwachung einer Zeitprojektionskammer mit GEM-Auslese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, David

    2014-02-03

    To get a deeper understanding of the structure of nucleons and the strong interaction binding the constituents inside, the CBELSA/TAPS experiment investigates the resonance spectrum of baryons by meson photoproduction within the scope of the SFB/TRR 16 ''Subnuclear Structure of Matter''. In order to support and expand the physical program, the existing Inner Detector will be replaced by a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) within the next few years. This allows for the detection of charged reaction channels, which can't be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment up to now, as well as for particle identification from the specific energy loss. A First prototype with GEM foils for charge amplification in front of the readout plane and suitable size for the CBELSA/TAPS experiment was built in collaboration with the TU Munich, the detector laboratory of the GSI in Darmstadt and the Stefan-Meyer-Institute of the University Vienna. The TPC has been commissioned successfully within the FOPI experiment at the GSI during several test beam campaigns. Additionally, systematic studies have been carried out with a smaller Test-TPC using a TestBench providing an accurate external track definition. As the electron drift velocity in the TPC volume is a crucial parameter for the exact track reconstruction, detailed simulations of the drift velocity and its dependency on external parameters, such as drift voltage, pressure, gas flow or temperature, have been carried out. The results of these simulations recommend a constant monitoring of all examined parameters to allow a reasonable use of the simulated drift velocities. For this purpose, and to ensure a safe and stable operation of the TPCs and the other detectors on the TestBench, the required hardware, the control software based on a data base and a graphical user interface were designed and constructed as the main part of this work. With this so-called SlowControl, it was possible to measure, control and

  7. Space charge calibration of the ALICE TPC operated with an open gating grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellbaer, Ernst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Ivanov, Marian [GSI (Germany); Wiechula, Jens [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle identification detector of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. High interaction rates of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb during the Run 3 period after 2020 require a major upgrade of the TPC readout. The currently used Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) will be replaced by readout chambers (ROCs) based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology which will be operated in a continuous mode. While the gating grid of the MWPCs prevents the positive ions of the amplification region from entering the drift volume, the GEM-based ROCs will introduce an ion backflow (IBF) of about 1%. In combination with the high-luminosity environment, this amount of back-drifting ions results in a considerable space charge density which distorts the drift path of the primary ionisation electrons significantly. In order to still provide a high tracking efficiency and cluster-to-track association, an efficient calibration scheme will be implemented. As a test ground for the new calibration scheme, pp collision data was taken during Run 1 with the gating grid operated in a transparent mode allowing the ions to enter the drift volume. The measured space point distortions due to the space charge are presented together with the corrected data and compared to simulations for Run 3.

  8. Performance of a MICROMEGAS-based TPC in a high-energy neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L.; Manning, B.; Bowden, N. S.; Bundgaard, J.; Casperson, R. J.; Cebra, D. A.; Classen, T.; Duke, D. L.; Gearhart, J.; Greife, U.; Hagmann, C.; Heffner, M.; Hensle, D.; Higgins, D.; Isenhower, D.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Loveland, W.; Magee, J. A.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Schmitt, K. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, R. S.; Walsh, N.; Watson, S.; Yao, L.; Younes, W.

    2018-02-01

    The MICROMEGAS (MICRO-MEsh GAseous Structure) charge amplification structure has found wide use in many detection applications, especially as a gain stage for the charge readout of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs). Here we report on the behavior of a MICROMEGAS TPC when operated in a high-energy (up to 800 MeV) neutron beam. It is found that neutron-induced reactions can cause discharges in some drift gas mixtures that are stable in the absence of the neutron beam. The discharges result from recoil ions close to the MICROMEGAS that deposit high specific ionization density and have a limited diffusion time. For a binary drift gas, increasing the percentage of the molecular component (quench gas) relative to the noble component and operating at lower pressures generally improves stability.

  9. Particle Identification Studies with an ALICE Test TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, P

    2007-01-01

    Using a test TPC, consisting of the ALICE TPC field cage prototype in combination with the final ALICE TPC readout and electronics, the energy loss distribution and resolution were measured for identified protons. The measurements were compared to theoretical calculations and good quantitative agreement was found when detector effects were taken into account. The implications for particle identification are discussed.

  10. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5 MBytes/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online

  11. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig

  12. Krypton calibration of time projection chambers of the NA61/SHINE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naskret, Michal

    The NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN is searching for the critical point in phase transition between quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter. To do so we use the most precise apparatus - Time Projection Chamber. Its main task is to find trajectories of particles created in a relativistic collision. In order to improve efficiency of TPCs, we introduce calibration using radioactive krypton gas. Simulation of events in a TPC cham- ber through a decay of excited krypton atoms gives us a spectrum, which is later fitted to the model spectrum of krypton from a Monte-Carlo simulation. The data obtained in such a way serves us to determine malfunctioning electronics in TPCs. Thanks to the krypton calibration we can create a map of pad by pad gains. In this thesis I will de- scribe in detail the NA61 experimental setup, krypton calibration procedure, calibration algorithm and results for recent calibration runs

  13. The $\\mu$TPC Method: Improving the Position Resolution of Neutron Detectors Based on MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Iakovidis, George; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Ropelewski, Leszek; Thuiner, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Due to the Helium-3 crisis, alternatives to the standard neutron detection techniques are becoming urgent. In addition, the instruments of the European Spallation Source (ESS) require advances in the state of the art of neutron detection. The instruments need detectors with excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities and unprecedented spatial resolution. The Macromolecular Crystallography instrument (NMX) requires a position resolution in the order of 200 um over a wide angular range of incoming neutrons. Solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are proposed to meet the new requirements. Charged particles rising from the neutron capture have usually ranges larger than several millimetres in gas. This is apparently in contrast with the requirements for the position resolution. In this paper, we present an analysis technique, new in the field of neutron detection, based on the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. Using a standard Single-GEM with the catho...

  14. For high energy heavy ion experiments TPC 4π detector 'Diogene'. What possibilities and what physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Cassagnou, Y.; Drouet, M.

    1981-05-01

    'Diogene' is the name of a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions. Exclusive measurements of all charged particles emitted in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions are becoming more and more necessary in this field of nuclear physics in order to answer some crucial questions such as: what is the degree of compression achieved in these collisions. What is the behavior of nuclear matter at high degree of excitation as well as compression. The possibility of handling high multiplicities up to 40 or 60; a momentum measurement of all particles, with not too bad a resolution, up to about 1.5 GeV/c; a good particle identification between π +- , p, d, t ..

  15. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-09-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R&D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk.

  16. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ 13 sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R and D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk

  17. Analysis of HARP TPC krypton data

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F

    2004-01-01

    This memo describes the procedure which was adopted to equalize the response of the 3972 pads of the HARP TPC, using radioactive 83mKr gas. The results obtained from the study of reconstructed krypton clusters in the calibration data taken in 2002 are reported. Two complementary methods were employed in the data analysis. Compatible results were obtained for channel-to-channel equalization constants. An estimate of the overall systematic uncertainty was derived.

  18. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J., E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: faznar@unizar.es, E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ P. Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of {sup 136}Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ∼ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ∼ 3% FWHM @ Q{sub ββ}. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ∼ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two

  19. A GEM-TPC prototype with low-Noise highly integrated front-end electronics for linear collider studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kappler, Steffen; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Müller, Thomas; Ronan, Michael T; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Settles, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Connected to the linear collider project, studies on the readout of time projection chambers (TPCs) based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM) are ongoing. Higher granularity and intrinsically suppressed ion feedback are the major advantages of this technology. After a short discussion of these issues, we present the design of a small and very flexible TPC prototype, whose cylindrical drift volume can be equipped with endcaps of different gas detector types. An endcap with multi-GEM readout is currently set up and successfully operated with a low-noise highly integrated front-end electronics. We discuss results of measurements with this system in high intensity particle beams at CERN, where 99.3 plus or minus 0.2% single-pad-row efficiency could be achieved at an effective gain of 2.5 multiplied by 10**3 only, and spatial resolutions down to 63 plus or minus 3 mum could be demonstrated. Finally, these results are extrapolated to the high magnetic field in a linear collider TPC. 5 Refs.

  20. Readout and trigger electronics for the TPC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Jared, R.C.; McGathen, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Broeder, W.J.; Godfrey, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of the vertex chamber required the addition of new front-end electronics and a new 1024-channel, high-accuracy TDC system. The preamplifier/discriminator should be capable of triggering on the first electrons and the time digitzer should preserve the measurement resolution. For the TDC's, in order to maintain compatibility with the existing TPC readout system, an upgrade of a previous inner drift chamber digitizer system has been chosen. Tests of the accuracy and stability of the original design indicated that the new design specifications would be met. The TPC detector requires a fast pretrigger to turn on its gating grid within 500 ns of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ beam crossing time, to minimize the loss of ionization information. A pretrigger based on the Straw Chamber signals, operating at a rate of about 2 K/sec, will be used for charged particle final states. In addition, in order to reject low mass Two-Photon events at the final trigger level, an accurate transverse momentum cutoff will be made by the Straw Chamber trigger logic. In this paper, we describe the readout and trigger electronics systems which have been built to satisfy the above requirements. 5 refs., 8 figs

  1. Measurement of Isobaric Analogue Resonances of 47Ar with the Active-Target Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joshua William

    While the nuclear shell model accurately describes the structure of nuclei near stability, the structure of unstable, neutron-rich nuclei is still an area of active research. One region of interest is the set of nuclei near N=28. The shell model suggests that these nuclei should be approximately spherical due to the shell gap predicted by their magic number of neutrons; however, experiments have shown that the nuclei in this region rapidly become deformed as protons are removed from the spherical 48Ca. This makes 46Ar a particularly interesting system as it lies in a transition region between 48Ca and lighter isotones that are known to be deformed. An experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to measure resonant proton scattering on 46Ar. The resonances observed in this reaction correspond to unbound levels in the 47K intermediate state nucleus which are isobaric analogues of states in the 47Ar nucleus. By measuring the spectroscopic factors of these states in 47Ar, we gain information about the single-particle structure of this system, which is directly related to the size of the N=28 shell gap. Four resonances were observed: one corresponding to the ground state in 47Ar, one corresponding its first excited 1/2- state, and two corresponding to 1/2+ states in either 47Ar or the intermediate state nucleus. However, only a limited amount of information about these states could be recovered due to the low experimental statistics and limited angular resolution caused by pileup rejection and the inability to accurately reconstruct the beam particle track. In addition to the nuclear physics motivations, this experiment served as the radioactive beam commissioning for the Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC). The AT-TPC is a new gas-filled charged particle detector built at the NSCL to measure low-energy radioactive beams from the ReA3 facility. Since the gas inside the detector serves as both the tracking medium and

  2. Development and construction of a large TPC prototype for the ILC and study of τ polarisation in τ decays with the ILD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This thesis presents two studies which have been made in the framework of the detector development for the International Large Detector (ILD). In the preparation phase for the ILD, prototype studies are performed to develop and optimise the sub-detector technologies which will come into operation. Complementary to these hardware studies, expected physics scenarios are being investigated in full detector simulations. These simulations demonstrate the physics potential of the detector concept and are a benchmark for the detector and the accelerator design. The first part of this thesis gives an introduction to the physics questions addressed to the ILC. Also, the machine and the ILD detector concept are presented. The second part is dedicated to the development and the construction to a large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) prototype (LP). A TPC is foreseen as one of ILD's sub-detectors and shall measure the trajectories of charged particles with an accuracy unprecedented by TPCs operated before. The new prototype offers an infrastructure for the development of modern TPC readout structures which can fulfil the required criteria. Before construction, the design plans of the LP have been optimised for a low material budget of the structure and a very homogeneous drift field. During the manufacturing of the LP, experience with construction techniques has been gained for the construction of the ILD TPC. The third part deals with a simulation study for a polarisation measurement of τ leptons in the process e + e - → τ 1 τ 1 → χ 1 0 χ 1 0 ττ. Here, the τ 1 is the supersymmetric partner of the τ lepton. This simulation study shows the feasibility of the measurement in the chosen SUSY scenario and estimates the accuracy to be expected. Both studies address in particular the track reconstruction capabilities of the ILD detector. Conclusions of the discussed studies and an outlook are presented in part IV. (orig.)

  3. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  4. Water data: bad TPC pads, 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    Out of the 3972 pads of the HARP TPC, about 9% are 'bad' and not useful for the correct reconstruction of clusters. Bad pads comprise dead pads, noisy pads, and pads with low or undefined amplification. Pads may be bad at one time, but not at another. This memo discusses the sources of information which were used to declare a pad 'bad', and gives the list of bad pads for the water data (runs 19146 to 19301). Also, the 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems of the TPC readout are discussed, including the corrective measures which have been taken.

  5. A micromegas-based TPC for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhattacharya, Purba; Colas, Paul; Attié, David; Ganjour, Serguei; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    One of the two detector concepts for the ILC is the International Large Detector (ILD). The central tracking at the ILD is foreseen to be accomplished by a TPC (the ILD-TPC). A TPC has the benefits of truly continuous 3-D tracking and robust pattern recognition. In the baseline design, the length and the diameter of the ILD-TPC are 4.6 m and 3.6 m respectively. It will work in a 3.5 T magnetic field. Micromegas is a promising candidate for the ILD-TPC. Like any other MPGD, track reconstruction at the LPTPC with Micromegas has challenges. The electric field inhomogeneity near the gap between the modules results in track distortion and affects the performance of the TPC. The causes and effects of this distortion have been thoroughly studied by numerical methods. The results match closely with experiment. Possible hardware modifications to mitigate distortion effect have been explored in simulation

  6. Optimized iterative decoding method for TPC coded CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanmin; Lai, Penghui; Wang, Shilian; Xie, Shunqin; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Turbo Product Code (TPC) coded Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) system (TPC-CPM) has been widely used in aeronautical telemetry and satellite communication. This paper mainly investigates the improvement and optimization on the TPC-CPM system. We first add the interleaver and deinterleaver to the TPC-CPM system, and then establish an iterative system to iteratively decode. However, the improved system has a poor convergence ability. To overcome this issue, we use the Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) analysis to find the optimal factors for the system. The experiments show our method is efficient to improve the convergence performance.

  7. The liquid argon TPC for the ICARUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F

    1997-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realisation of a large liquid argon TPC to be run at the Underground Laboratories of Gran Sasso in Italy. An intense R&D; activity has put on firm grounds this new detector technology and experimentally confirmed its feasibility on a few ton scale. Based on these solid achievements, the collaboration is now confident of being able to build and safely operate a multi-kton detector. The reseach program of the experiment involves the systematic study of a wide spectrum of physical phenomena covering many orders of magnitude in the energy deposited in the detector: from the few MeV of solar neutrino interactions, to the about one GeV of the proton decay and atmospheric neutrinos, up to the higher energies of neutrinos from accelerators.

  8. Modular TPC's for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a TPC system for use in relativistic heavy ion experiments that permits the efficient reconstruction of high multiplicity events including events with decay vertices. It operates with the beam through the middle of the chamber giving good efficiency, two-track separation and spatial resolution. The three-dimensional points in this system allow the reconstruction of the complex events of interest. The use of specially developed hybrid electronics allows us to build a compact and cost-effective system. 11 figs

  9. Future prospects of the TPC idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, D R [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1981-04-01

    General aspects affecting TPC size, readout plane characteristics and operation in the LEP environment are presented, with the general conclusion that modest improvements relative to PEP-4 can be realized in several areas. The problem of positive ion reduction is discussed according to two qualitatively new operating modes, asynchronous and synchronous gating. Either gating mode appears to offer a means to eliminate almost completely the ion return flux. Some speculative ideas involving 3-component gas mixtures, low-mass components and parallel plane geometry are presented as future possibilities.

  10. Development of a TPC for energy and fluence references in low energies neutronic fields (from 8 keV to 5 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, Donovan

    2015-01-01

    In order to judge the measurement reliability, metrology requires to measure quantities with their uncertainties, in relation to a reference through a documented and unbroken chain of calibrations. In neutron radiation field, instrument response has to be known as a function of the neutron energy. Then detector calibrations are required using reference neutron fields. In France, primary reference neutron fields are held by the LNE-IRSN, at the Laboratory for Neutron Metrology and Dosimetry (LMDN). In order to improve reference neutron field characterization, the LNE-IRSN MIMAC μTPC has been developed. This detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), using a gas at low pressure (30 mbar abs. to 1 bar abs.). Nuclear recoils are generated by neutron elastic scattering onto gas atoms. By measuring the nuclear recoil energy and scattering angle, the μTPC detector is able to measure the energy distribution of the neutron fluence between 8 keV and 5 MeV. The main challenge was to perform accurate spectrometry of neutron fields in the keV range, following a primary procedure. First of all, a metrological approach was followed in order to master every physical process taking part in the neutron detection. This approach led to develop the direct and inverse models, representing the detector response function and its inverse function respectively. Using this detailed characterization, the energy distribution of the neutron fluence has been measured for a continuous neutron field of 27 keV. The reconstructed energy is 28,2 ± 4,5 keV, the difference between μTPC integral fluence measurement and other measurement methods is less than 6%. The LNE-IRSN MIMAC μTPC system becomes the only one system able to measure simultaneously energy and fluence at energies lower than 100 keV, following a primary procedure. The project goal is then reached. These measurements at energies lower than 100 keV shows also a non-linearity between the ionization charge and the ion kinetic energy

  11. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  12. Measurement of 1.7–74 MeV polarised γ rays with the HARPO TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerebaert, Y., E-mail: yannick.geerebaert@polytechnique.fr [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Gros, Ph., E-mail: philippe.gros@llr.in2p3.fr [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Amano, S. [LASTI, University of Hyôgo (Japan); Attié, D. [CEA, Irfu, CEA-Saclay (France); Bernard, D.; Bruel, P. [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Calvet, D.; Colas, P. [CEA, Irfu, CEA-Saclay (France); Daté, S. [JASRI/SPring8 (Japan); Delbart, A. [CEA, Irfu, CEA-Saclay (France); Frotin, M.; Giebels, B. [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Götz, D. [AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS – Université Paris Diderot (France); IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay (France); Hashimoto, S. [LASTI, University of Hyôgo (Japan); Horan, D. [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Kotaka, T. [LASTI, University of Hyôgo (Japan); Louzir, M. [LLR, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Minamiyama, Y.; Miyamoto, S. [LASTI, University of Hyôgo (Japan); Ohkuma, H. [JASRI/SPring8 (Japan); and others

    2017-02-11

    Current γ-ray telescopes based on photon conversions to electron-positron pairs, such as Fermi, use tungsten converters. They suffer of limited angular resolution at low energies, and their sensitivity drops below 1 GeV. The low multiple scattering in a gaseous detector gives access to higher angular resolution in the MeV–GeV range, and to the linear polarisation of the photons through the azimuthal angle of the electron-positron pair. HARPO is an R&D programme to characterise the operation of a TPC (Time Projection Chamber) as a high angular-resolution and sensitivity telescope and polarimeter for γ rays from cosmic sources. It represents a first step towards a future space instrument. A 30 cm cubic TPC demonstrator was built, and filled with 2 bar argon-based gas. It was put in a polarised γ-ray beam at the NewSUBARU accelerator in Japan in November 2014. Data were taken at different photon energies from 1.7 MeV to 74 MeV, and with different polarisation configurations. The electronics setup is described, with an emphasis on the trigger system. The event reconstruction algorithm is quickly described, and preliminary measurements of the polarisation of 11 MeV photons are shown.

  13. TREX-DM: a low-background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguaz, F.J.; Garza, J.G.; Castel, J.F.; Cebrian, S.; Dafni, T.; Garcia, J.A.; Irastorza, I.G.; Lagraba, A.; Luzon, G.; Peiro, A. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Aznar, F. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    If Dark Matter is made of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below ∝20 GeV, the corresponding nuclear recoils in mainstream WIMP experiments are of energies too close, or below, the experimental threshold. Gas Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) can be operated with a variety of target elements, offer good tracking capabilities and, on account of the amplification in gas, very low thresholds are achievable. Recent advances in electronics and in novel radiopure TPC readouts, especially micro-mesh gas structure (Micromegas), are improving the scalability and low-background prospects of gaseous TPCs. Here we present TREX-DM, a prototype to test the concept of a Micromegas-based TPC to search for low-mass WIMPs. The detector is designed to host an active mass of ∝0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∝0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee, and is fully built with radiopure materials. We will describe the detector in detail, the results from the commissioning phase on surface, as well as a preliminary background model. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique may go beyond current experimental limits for WIMPs of masses of 2-8 GeV. (orig.)

  14. The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2016-11-15

    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, la...

  15. The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00249819; Appelshauser, H.; Bablok, S.; Bialas, N.; Bolgen, R.; Bonnes, U.; Bramm, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Christiansen, P.; Dobrin, A.; Engster, C.; Fehlker, D.; Foka, Y.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C.; Gros, P.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Helstrup, H.; Hoch, M.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Junique, A.; Kalweit, A.; Keidel, R.; Kniege, S.; Kowalski, M.; Larsen, D.T.; Lesenechal, Y.; Lenoir, P.; Lindegaard, N.; Lippmann, C.; Mager, M.; Mast, M.; Matyja, A.; Munkejord, M.; Musa, L.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolic, V.; Oeschler, H.; Olsen, E.K.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Pikna, M.; Rehman, A.; Renault, G.; Renfordt, R.; Rossegger, S.; Rohrich, D.; Roed, K.; Richter, M.; Rueshmann, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sann, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siska, M.; Sitar, B.; Soegaard, C.; Soltveit, H.K.; Soyk, D.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Stenlund, E.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Ullaland, K.; Vranic, D.; Veenhof, R.; Westergaard, J.; Wiechula, J.; Windelband, B.

    2010-01-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m^3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb--Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate result...

  16. Tokamak plasma power balance calculation code (TPC code) outline and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Hirobumi; Murakami, Yoshiki; Sugihara, Masayoshi.

    1992-11-01

    This report is a detailed description on the TPC code, that calculates the power balance of a tokamak plasma according to the ITER guidelines. The TPC code works on a personal computer (Macintosh or J-3100/ IBM-PC). Using input data such as the plasma shape, toroidal magnetic field, plasma current, electron temperature, electron density, impurities and heating power, TPC code can determine the operation point of the fusion reactor (Ion temperature is assumed to be equal to the electron temperature). Supplied flux (Volt · sec) and burn time are also estimated by coil design parameters. Calculated energy confinement time is compared with various L-mode scaling laws and the confinement enhancement factor (H-factor) is evaluated. Divertor heat load is predicted by using simple scaling models (constant-χ, Bohm-type-χ and JT-60U empirical scaling models). Frequently used data can be stored in a 'device file' and used as the default values. TPC code can generate 2-D mesh data and the POPCON plot is drawn by a contour line plotting program (CONPLT). The operation manual about CONPLT code is also described. (author)

  17. New read-out electronics for ICARUS-T600 liquid Argon TPC. Description, simulation and tests of the new front-end and ADC system arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Bagby, L.; Bellini, V.; Bonesini, M.; Braggiotti, A.; Castellani, L.; Centro, S.; Cervi, T.; Cocco, A.G.; Fabris, F.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Fichera, F.; Franciotti, D.; Galet, G.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Guida, R.; Ketchum, W.; Marchini, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Menon, G.; Montanari, C.; Nessi, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Scaramelli, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Spanu, M.; Torti, M.; Tortorici, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Zani, A.; Zatti, P.G.

    The ICARUS T600, a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) detector mainly devoted to neutrino physics, underwent a major overhauling at CERN in 2016-2017, which included also a new design of the read-out electronics, in view of its operation in Fermilab on the Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) beam from 2019. The new more compact electronics showed capability of handling more efficiently the signals also in the intermediate Induction 2 wire plane with a significant increase of signal to noise (S/N), allowing for charge measurement also in this view. The new front-end and the analog to digital conversion (ADC) system are presented together with the results of the tests on 50 liters liquid argon TPC performed at CERN with cosmic rays.

  18. Development of a time projection chamber for Crystal Ball at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Gradl, Wolfgang [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Crystal Ball Collaboration uses energy tagged bremstrahlung photons produced from the MAMI electron beam to study photo-induced reactions on nucleons and nuclei. The Crystal Ball/TAPS 4π calorimeter setup is optimized for the detection of neutral final states. Charged particles are identified and measured by the inner detector system including a two layer MWPC. The increased rate of charged particles in current and future experiments exceeds the rate capability of these MWPCs. We are developing a small Time Projection Chamber with triple GEM readout meeting the stringent space requirements of the Crystal Ball experiment. This new tracking detector will feature higher rate capabilities and allows better track reconstruction. % A small GEM-TPC prototype has successfully been tested in the MAMI electron beam, showing good first results on rate capability and track reconstruction. Additional simulation studies on track resolution, detector geometry and acceptance are done to optimize the design. This poster gives an overview of the current status of the project and present the latest results.

  19. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Artrip, D; Baller, B; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Carls, B; Chen, H; Deptuch, G; Epprecht, L; Dharmapalan, R; Foreman, W; Hahn, A; Johnson, M; Jones, B J P; Junk, T; Lang, K; Lockwitz, S; Marchionni, A; Mauger, C; Montanari, C; Mufson, S; Nessi, M; Back, H Olling; Petrillo, G; Pordes, S; Raaf, J; Rebel, B; Sinins, G; Soderberg, M; Spooner, N J C; Stancari, M; Strauss, T; Terao, K; Thorn, C; Tope, T; Toups, M; Urheim, J; Van de Water, R; Wang, H; Wasserman, R; Weber, M; Whittington, D; Yang, T

    2015-01-01

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: $i)$ Argon Purity and Cryogenics, $ii)$ TPC and High Voltage, $iii)$ Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, $iv)$ Scintillation Light Detection, $v)$ Calibration and Test Beams, and $vi)$ Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  20. Diogene: A 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1981-01-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber, designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions. This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, then I recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams. (orig.)

  1. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  2. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  3. ArgonCube: a Modular Approach for Liquid Argon TPC Neutrino Detectors for Near Detector Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, M; Sinclair, JR

    2017-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) are an ideal detector candidate for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently under consideration at the future LBNF/DUNE facility in the United States. That particular endeavor would be on the very large mass scale of 40~kt. Following diverse and long standing R\\&D work conducted over several years, with contributions from international collaborators, we propose a novel LAr TPC based on a fully-modular, innovative design, ArgonCube. ArgonCube will demonstrate that LAr TPCs are a viable detector technology for high-energy and high-multiplicity environments, such as the DUNE near detector. Necessary R\\&D work is proceeding along two main pathways; the first, aimed at the demonstration of modular detector design and the second, at the exploration of new signal readout methods. This two-pronged approach has provided a hig...

  4. Neutron Fluence and Energy Reconstruction with the LNE-IRSN/MIMAC Recoil Detector MicroTPC at 27 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Querre, Ph. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, site of Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Guillaudin, O.; Muraz, J.F.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - LPSCCNRSIN2P3/ UJF/INP, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), designated by the French Metrology Institute (LNE) for neutron metrology, is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: microTPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 5 MeV with a primary procedure. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulation of the detector response. The μTPC is a new reliable detector able to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without unfolding procedure or prior neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The microTPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27 keV and 144 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector response simulation. This work

  5. Neutron fluence and energy reconstruction with the IRSN recoil detector μ-TPC at 27 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Richer, J.P. [IRSN, PRP-HOM, SDE, LMDN, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D. [CNRS/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, LPSC, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), associated to the French Metrology Institute (LNE), is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: μ-TPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize with a primary procedure the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 1 MeV. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors, which are able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulated detector response. The μ-TPC is a new reliable detector which enables to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without deconvolution or neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The μ-TPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27.2 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector simulation. This work shows the first direct

  6. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  7. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F.; Druillole, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G.; Porte, C.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Suen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm 2 pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics

  8. Characteristics of triple GEM detector for the ALICE TPC upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Singaraju, R.N.; Ahammed, Z.; Nayak, T.K.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Biswas, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, introduced by F. Sauliin 1997 and has been widely improved in last two decades for applications to high energy physics experiments and imaging. GEM detectors have several advantages, like good spatial resolution (∼100 μm), high detection efficiency (>98%), high rate handling capability (∼105 Hz/mm"2 ) and reasonable time response (∼5 ns). The unique features of the GEM detector make it suitable for experiments at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and FAIR at GSI. With the increase of beam luminosity of LHC for its next phase of running from the year 2020, the ALICE experiment is planning to take data for PbPb collisions at a rate of 50 kHz. The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will be upgraded by GEM based read-out to fulfil this future goal. In this report, results of a thorough test in the laboratory using a newly developed online data monitoring system are discussed

  9. Results from tests of the Delphi TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from beam tests of a half-scale sector of the Delphi TPC are presented. The spatial resolution is slightly higher than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, corresponding to an average value of about 300 μm. (orig.)

  10. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-01

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e + e - collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC

  11. Design of the cryogenic systems for the Near and Far LAr-TPC detectors of the Short-Baseline Neutrino program (SBN) at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Geynisman, M; Chalifour, M; Delaney, M; Dinnon, M; Doubnik, R; Hentschel, S; Kim, M J; Montanari, C; Montanari, D; Nichols, T; Norris, B; Sarychev, M; Schwartz, F; Tillman, J; Zuckerbrot, M

    2017-01-01

    The Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) physics program at Fermilab and Neutrino Platform (NP) at CERN are part of the international Neutrino Program leading to the development of Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) science project. The SBN program consisting of three Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) detectors positioned along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab includes an existing detector known as MicroBooNE (170-ton LAr-TPC) plus two new experiments known as SBN’s Near Detector (SBND, ~260 tons) and SBN’s Far Detector (SBN-FD, ~760 tons). All three detectors have distinctly different design of their cryostats thus defining specific requirements for the cryogenic systems. Fermilab has already built two new facilities to house SBND and SBN-FD detectors. The cryogenic systems for these detectors are in various stages of design and construction with CERN and Fermilab being responsible for delivery of specific sub-systems. This contribution prese...

  12. Design of the cryogenic systems for the Near and Far LAr-TPC detectors of the Short-Baseline Neutrino program (SBN) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geynisman, M. [Fermilab; Bremer, J. [CERN; Chalifour, M. [CERN; Delaney, M. [Fermilab; Dinnon, M. [Fermilab; Doubnik, R. [Fermilab; Hentschel, S. [Fermilab; Kim, M. J. [Fermilab; Montanari, C. [INFN, Pavia; Monatanari, D. [Fermilab; Nichols, T. [Fermilab; Norris, B. [Fermilab; Sarychev, M. [Fermilab; Schwartz, F. [Fermilab; Tillman, J. [Fermilab; Zuckerbrot, M. [Fermilab

    2017-08-31

    The Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) physics program at Fermilab and Neutrino Platform (NP) at CERN are part of the international Neutrino Program leading to the development of Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) science project. The SBN program consisting of three Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) detectors positioned along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab includes an existing detector known as MicroBooNE (170-ton LAr-TPC) plus two new experiments known as SBN’s Near Detector (SBND, ~260 tons) and SBN’s Far Detector (SBN-FD, ~760 tons). All three detectors have distinctly different design of their cryostats thus defining specific requirements for the cryogenic systems. Fermilab has already built two new facilities to house SBND and SBN-FD detectors. The cryogenic systems for these detectors are in various stages of design and construction with CERN and Fermilab being responsible for delivery of specific sub-systems. This contribution presents specific design requirements and typical implementation solutions for each sub-system of the SBND and SBN-FD cryogenic systems.

  13. Lifetime estimation of a time projection chamber x-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Brieda, Lubos; Dickens, Patsy L.; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Hawk, Douglas L.; Hayato, Asami; Jahoda, Keith; Mohammed, Jelila

    2013-09-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimeter Instrument (XPI) was designed to measure the polarization of 23 sources over the course of its 9 month mission. The XPI design consists of two telescopes each with a polarimeter assembly at the focus of a grazing incidence mirror. To make sensitive polarization measurements the GEMS Polarimeter Assembly (PA) employed a gas detection system based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) technique. Gas detectors are inherently at risk of degraded performance arising from contamination from outgassing of internal detector components or due to loss of gas. This paper describes the design and the materials used to build a prototype of the flight polarimeter with the required GEMS lifetime. We report the results from outgassing measurements of the polarimeter subassemblies and assemblies, enclosure seal tests, life tests, and performance tests that demonstrate that the GEMS lifetime is achievable. Finally we report performance measurements and the lifetime enhancement from the use of a getter.

  14. Search for a QGP with a TPC spectrometer, and QGP signals predicted by new event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice Collaboration has developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for OGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. Test data with 14.5 GeV/c /times/ A Oxygen ions incident on a Pb target has been obtained. These include a 78-prong nuclear interaction in the MPS magnet which was pattern recognized with an efficiency ∼75%. A cascade and plasma event generator has also been developed, the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals at AGS and RHIC. A 4π tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer has been proposed for RHIC. The new event generator predicts striking central rapidity bump QGP signals at RHIC for p, /bar p/, π/sup +-/, K/sup +-/, etc., produced by 100 GeV/c /times/ A Au on Au collisions and these are presented. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Direct Dark Matter Detection through the use of a Xenon Based TPC Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jonathan; Akerib, Daniel; LZ group at SLAC

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of matter in the universe is unaccounted for. Only 15% of the universe's mass density is visible matter, while the other 85% is Dark Matter (DM). The Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) is currently the frontrunner of the DM candidates. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) and next generation LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiments are designed to directly detect WIMPs. Both experiments are xenon-based Time Projection Chambers (TPC) used to observe possible WIMP interactions. These interactions produce photons and electrons with the photons being collected in a set of two photomultiplier tube (PMT) arrays and the electrons drifted upwards in the detector by a strong electric field to create a secondary production of photons in gaseous xenon. These two populations of photons are classified as S1 and S2 signals, respectively. Using these signals we reconstruct the energy and position of the interaction and in doing so we can eliminate background events that would otherwise “light up” the detector. My participation in the experiment, while at SLAC, was the creation of the grids that produce the large electric field, along with additional lab activities aimed at testing the grids. While at Stan State, I work on background modeling in order to distinguish a possible WIMP signal from ambient backgrounds.

  16. Electroluminescence pulse shape and electron diffusion in liquid argon measured in a dual-phase TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; et al.

    2018-02-05

    We report the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant in liquid argon with the DarkSide-50 dual-phase time projection chamber. The measurement is performed at drift electric fields of 100 V/cm, 150 V/cm, and 200 V/cm using high statistics $^{39}$Ar decays from atmospheric argon. We derive an expression to describe the pulse shape of the electroluminescence signal (S2) in dual-phase TPCs. The derived S2 pulse shape is fit to events from the uppermost portion of the TPC in order to characterize the radial dependence of the signal. The results are provided as inputs to the measurement of the longitudinal diffusion constant DL, which we find to be (4.12 $\\pm$ 0.04) cm$^2$/s for a selection of 140keV electron recoil events in 200V/cm drift field and 2.8kV/cm extraction field. To study the systematics of our measurement we examine datasets of varying event energy, field strength, and detector volume yielding a weighted average value for the diffusion constant of (4.09 $\\pm$ 0.09) cm$^2$ /s. The measured longitudinal diffusion constant is observed to have an energy dependence, and within the studied energy range the result is systematically lower than other results in the literature.

  17. Developing Light Collection Enhancements and Wire Tensioning Methods for LArTPC Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagliardi, Fabio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Liquid argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are becoming widely used as neutrino detectors because of their image-like event reconstruction which enables precision neutrino measurements. They primarily use ionisation charge to reconstruct neutrino events. It has been shown, however, that the scintillation light emitted by liquid argon could be exploited to improve their performance. As the neutrino measurements planned in the near future require large-scale experiments, their construction presents challenges in terms of both charge and light collection. In this dissertation we present solutions developed to improve the performance in both aspects of these detectors. We present a new wire tensioning measurement method that allows a remote measurement of the tension of the large number wires that constitute the TPC anode. We also discuss the development and installation of WLS-compound covered foils for the SBND neutrino detector at Fermilab, which is a technique proposed t o augment light collection in LArTPCs. This included preparing a SBND-like mesh cathode and testing it in the Run III of LArIAT, a test beam detector also located at Fermilab. Finally, we present a study aimed at understanding late scintillation light emitted by recombining positive argon ions using LArIAT data, which could affect large scale surface detectors.

  18. Energy calibration of a GEM-TPC with Kr83m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Roman [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: GEM-TPC-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout has been developed with an inner/outer radius of 5/15 cm and a total drift length of 73 cm. It has been used as an inner tracking upgrade for the FOPI experiment at GSI and is planned as a future upgrade to the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. A radioactive {sup 83m}Kr source has been produced and integrated into the setup in order to perform an accurate channel-wise relative gain calibration and monitor gain stability to achieve optimal dE/dx resolution. Its gaseous form makes it perfectly suitable for this purpose allowing a full coverage of the readout plane and providing a wide energy range of conversion peaks. Also its half-life of 1.83 h allows for normal detector operation after a short flushing period of several hours. Calibration method and measured energy resolution for different gas mixtures which have been compared to simulation results are presented in this talk. Also first results on gain stability and pressure/temperature-dependence are shown.

  19. First considerations for a readout system for the ILD TPC with the Timepix3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Tobias [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) two detectors are proposed. One of them, the International Large Detector (ILD) uses a Time Projektion Chamber (TPC) as the main tracking device. As a readout system for this TPC, pixel chips are one of the considered options. An integrated Micromegas stage is foreseen as gas amplification stage, which is built directly on top of the chip. Since first tests of a Pixel-TPC with 160 Timepix ASICs showed promising results, one is interested in developing a detector using the Timepix3 ASIC. It has several advantages, first of all its feature to measure ToT and a ToA at the same time and its significantly increased readout rate. For this purpose a readout system needs to be developed which fulfils the requirements of the Timpix3 ASIC and also has a high scalability. The main challenges are the high speed readout with a clock of up to 640 MHz and the reliability of the system. Also, the data driven as well as the frame-based readout of the Timepix3 needs to be considered for the implementation. The main goal is to provide a fast and parallel readout of several million channels. An overview and the status of the planning is given. Also, the development challenges are discussed.

  20. The electronics, trigger and data acquisition system for the liquid argon time projection chamber of the DarkSide-50 search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Asner, D. M.; Ave, M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cataudella, V.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicaló, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D' Angelo, D.; D' Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; de Candia, A.; Cecco, S. De; Deo, M. De; Filippis, G. De; Rosa, G. De; Vincenzi, M. De; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Eusanio, F. Di; Dionisi, C.; Pietro, G. Di; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machado, A.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Agasson, A. Navrer; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-12-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a search for dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber with 50 kg of low radioactivity argon as target. Light signals from interactions in the argon are detected by a system of 38 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), 19 above and 19 below the TPC volume inside the argon cryostat. We describe the electronics which processes the signals from the photo-multipliers, the trigger system which identifies events of interest, and the data-acquisition system which records the data for further analysis. The electronics include resistive voltage dividers on the PMTs, custom pre-amplifiers mounted directly on the PMT voltage dividers in the liquid argon, and custom amplifier/discriminators (at room temperature). After amplification, the PMT signals are digitized in CAEN waveform digitizers, and CAEN logic modules are used to construct the trigger, the data acquisition system for the TPC is based on the Fermilab "artdaq" software. The system has been in operation since early 2014.

  1. Project Management in Real Time: A Service-Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a service-learning assignment for a project management course. It is designed to facilitate hands-on student learning of both the technical and the interpersonal aspects of project management, and it involves student engagement with real customers and real stakeholders in the creation of real events with real outcomes. As…

  2. The Laser of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, G; Westergaard, J; GaardhOJe, J J

    2007-01-01

    The large TPC ($95 \\mathrm{m}^3$) of the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC was commissioned in summer 2006. The first tracks were observed both from the cosmic ray muons and from the laser rays injected into the TPC. In this article the basic principles of operating the $266 \\mathrm{nm}$ lasers are presented, showing the installation and adjustment of the optical system and describing the control system. To generate the laser tracks, a wide laser beam is split into several hundred narrow beams by fixed micro-mirrors at stable and known positions throughout the TPC. In the drift volume, these narrow beams generate straight tracks at many angles. Here we describe the generation of the first tracks and compare them with simulations.

  3. Accurate gamma and MeV-electron track reconstruction with an ultra-low diffusion Xenon/TMA TPC at 10 atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    González-Díaz, Diego; Borges, F.I.G.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A.L.; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gutiérrez, R.M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Herrera, D.C.; Irastorza, I.G.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopez-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; Mora, F.J.; Moutinho, L.M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J.L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F.P.; dos Santos, J.M.F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J.F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Villar, J.A.; Webb, R.; White, J.T.; Yahlali, N.; Azevedo, C.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Lagraba, A.; Le Coguie, A.; Mols, J.P.; Şahin, Ö.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruiz-Choliz, E.; Segui, L.; Tomás, A.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the performance of a 10 atm Xenon/trimethylamine time projection chamber (TPC) for the detection of X-rays (30 keV) and gamma-rays (0.511-1.275 MeV) in conjunction with the accurate tracking of the associated electrons. When operated at such a high pressure and in 1%-admixtures, trimethylamine (TMA) endows Xenon with an extremely low electron diffusion (1.3 +-0.13 mm-sigma (longitudinal), 0.8 +-0.15 mm-sigma (transverse) along 1 m drift) besides forming a convenient Penning-Fluorescent mixture. The TPC, that houses 1.1 kg of gas in its active volume, operated continuously for 100 live-days in charge amplification mode. The readout was performed through the recently introduced microbulk Micromegas technology and the AFTER chip, providing a 3D voxelization of 8mm x 8mm x 1.2mm for approximately 10 cm/MeV-long electron tracks. This work was developed as part of the R&D program of the NEXT collaboration for future detector upgrades in the search of the 0bbnu decay in 136Xe, specifically those based ...

  4. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woody Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ∼ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  5. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Craig; Azmoun, Babak; Majka, Richard; Phipps, Michael; Purschke, Martin; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2018-02-01

    A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ˜ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  6. Occupancy in the CLIC_ILD Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    KILLENBERG, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gg !hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons. In addition the particle composition of the backgrounds and the origin of back-scattering particles have been studied.

  7. Occupancy in the CLIC ILD Time Projection Chamber using Pixelised Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gamma gamma -> hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons is very high for conventional pad readout. We show that the occupancy for a pixelised TPC readout is moderate and might be a viable solution to operate a TPC at CLIC.

  8. pesticide residues in water from tpc sugarcane plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We report herein, the analysis of water samples collected from TPC Sugarcane Plantation and its environs in Kilimanjaro region, which is the earliest intensive user of pesticides in Tanzania. A total of 50 water samples collected from 18 sampling sites between 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for pesticide ...

  9. Assessing project worth at budget time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    All manager in business and industry routinely have to decide how to allocate discretionary resources, whether money or people, to optimize the performance of their organizations. These decisions invariably require choices among projects that produce fundamentally different kinds of effects on the organization. Some things are done to eliminate existing problems. Others are done to eliminate potential problems which may never develop. Still others are done to bring about predicted improvements, which also may or may not ever be achieved. This paper discusses the important characteristics required of good project evaluation systems and describes a practical implementation of such a system at several nuclear electric utilities

  10. Development of a triple GEM readout module for a time projection chamber and measurement accuracies of hadronic Higgs branching fractions in ννH at a 350 GeV ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The presented thesis addresses the development and evaluation of one of the detector concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC is a planned, future electron-positron linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 500 GeV in its first construction stage. The ILC is designed to perform precision measurements of the Standard Model, especially a model-independent reconstruction of the electroweak symmetry breaking sector. In 2012, the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC was an important first step and facilitates precision measurements of the Higgs boson coupling constants at the ILC. Challenging design goals have been defined for the ILC detectors in order to reach the desired measurement precisions. One of the two ILC detector concepts is the International Large Detector (ILD). A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the central tracking detector. In contrast to modern silicon tracking detectors, a TPC provides a large number of space points, and thus continuous sampling of the track parameters. Therefore, TPCs offer great pattern recognition capabilities including the identification of particle decays within the sensitive volume. The design momentum resolution of the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t )∼10 -4 GeV -1 which can be translated into a transverse spatial resolution of σ rφ ≤100 μm over the complete drift distance of 2.35 m. In the first part of the thesis, the development of a readout module for the TPC is presented which fulfills the performance requirements of the ILD TPC. The developed readout module is based on a stack of three ''Gas Electron Multiplier'' (GEM) foils and a pad readout. Thin ceramic grids are used as the support structure and spacers between the GEMs. The readout module was tested in a prototype TPC with a maximal drift distance of around 60 cm at the DESY II test beam. An additional guard ring at the upper edge of the module was introduced to minimize field distortions at the

  11. Process to process communication over Fastbus in the data acquisition system of the ALEPH TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusiani, A.

    1994-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the ALEPH TPC includes a VAX/VMS computer cluster and 36 intelligent Fastbus modules (ALEPH TPPS) running the OS9 multitasking real-time operating system. Dedicated software has been written in order to reliably exchange information over Fastbus between the VAX/VMS cluster and the 36 TPPs to initialize and co-ordinate the microprocessors, and to monitor and debug their operation. The functionality and the performance of this software will be presented together with an overview of the application that rely on it

  12. Dedicated supernova detection by a network of neutral current spherical TPC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergados, J. D.; Giomataris, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos can easily be detected by a spherical gaseous TPC detector measuring very low energy nuclear recoils. The expected rates are quite large for a neutron-rich target since the neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction yields a coherent contribution of all neutrons. As a matter of fact, for a typical supernova at 10 kpc, about 1000 events are expected using a spherical detector of radius 4 m with Xe gas at a pressure of 10 atm. A worldwide network of several such simple, stable, and low-cost supernova detectors with a running time of a few centuries is quite feasible

  13. Performance studies of a time projection chamber at the ILC and search for lepton flavour violation at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, M.E.

    2008-05-15

    It is expected, that new physics beyond the Standard Model can be discovered in the energy range of 1TeV. One of the next projects in high energy physics will be a linear collider. A proposal for such a machine is the International Linear Collider (ILC), where electrons and positrons are brought to collision with a centre of mass energy up to 500 GeV with the possibility to upgrade it to 1 TeV. The precision measurement of this new physics sets high requirements on the performance of the detector at the ILC. As the main tracking device for a detector at the ILC, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been proposed. To reach these requirements a new amplification techniques based on Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) is under investigation. In this thesis, data are analysed, that were taken using the prototype MediTPC, whose amplification system is based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). Different magnetic fields of up to 4 T, two gas mixtures and differed arrangement of the pads have also been investigated. The main part of this thesis deals with the study of the performance of two different approaches to determine track parameters. A new method based on a likelihood fit of the expected charge to the measured one is compared to a traditional approach using reconstructed space points and a {chi}{sup 2} minimisation technique. Different aspects such as the performance in the presence of non working channels and the angular dependency are investigated. Finally the determined spatial resolution (in the r{phi}-plane) is presented. At zero drift length a resolution of the order of 100 {mu}m can be achieved. In the second part of this thesis the results of a search for lepton flavour violation mediated by leptoquarks is presented. Data of electron-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 320 GeV taken with the H1 experiment are investigated. The analysis concentrates of the e{sup -}p data of the HERAII phase, which were taken in the years 2004-2006. They correspond

  14. Design Improvements and X-Ray Performance of a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter for Persistent Astronomical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Emmett, Thomas J.; Enoto, Teruaki; Jahoda, Keith M.; Kaaret, Philip; Nolan, David S.; Tamagawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The design of the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) Polarimeter for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was demonstrated to Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL-6)3 and the flight detectors fabricated, assembled and performance tested. A single flight detector was characterized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source with polarized X-rays at 10 energies from 2.3-8.0 keV at five detector positions. The detector met all of the GEMS performance requirements. Lifetime measurements have shown that the existing flight design has 23 years of lifetime4, opening up the possibility of relaxing material requirements, in particular the consideration of the use of epoxy, to reduce risk elsewhere. We report on design improvements to the GEMS detector to enable a narrower transfer gap that, when operated with a lower transfer field, reduces asymmetries in the detector response. In addition, the new design reduces cost and risk by simplifying the assembly and reducing production time. Finally, we report on the performance of the narrow-gap detector in response to polarized and unpolarized X-rays.

  15. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-01-01

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at ∼89 K) are discussed.

  16. Development of a GEM-based high rate TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, Sebastian; Hoeppner, Christian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Weitzel, Quirin; Paul, Stefan; Woerner, Lisa; Konorov, Igor; Mann, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A TPC is considered as the central tracker of the PANDA experiment, which is currently being planned at the new accelerator complex FAIR at Darmstadt. PANDA is designed as an internal target experiment at the antiproton storage ring HESR. The central tracker has to measure particle trajectories over a wide momentum range (0.1-8 GeV/c) from up to 2.10{sup 7} antiproton-proton annihilations/s. The continuous nature of the antiproton beam makes the use of a traditional ion gate impractical. Owing to their intrinsic ion suppression properties, GEM foils are planned as the amplification stage. A small prototype of this GEM-TPC (diameter 200 mm, drift length 77 mm) has been built and characterized with cosmic muons. Results such as spatial resolution, cluster distributions, and diffusion properties are presented in this talk.

  17. Development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, Christian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Mann, Alexander; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan; Weitzel, Quirin; Woerner, Lisa [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A TPC is considered as the central tracker of the PANDA experiment, which is currently being planned at the new accelerator complex FAIR at Darmstadt. PANDA is designed as an internal target experiment at the antiproton storage ring HESR. The central tracker has to measure particle trajectories over a wide momentum range (0.1-8 GeV/c) from up to 2.10{sup 7} antiproton-proton annihilations/s. The continuous nature of the antiproton beam makes the use of a traditional ion gate impractical. Owing to their intrinsic ion suppression properties, GEM foils are planned as the amplification stage. A small prototype of this GEM-TPC (diameter 200 mm, drift length 77 mm) has been built and characterized with cosmic muons. Results such as spatial resolution, cluster distributions, and diffusion properties are presented in this talk.

  18. The ICARUS 50 1 LAr TPC in the CERN $\

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F.; De Mitri, I.; Mazza, D.; Parlati, S.; Petrera, S.; Piano Mortari, Giovanni; Verdecchia, M.; Benetti, P.; Borio Di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Terrani, M.; Torre, P.; Vignoli, C.; Bettini, A.; Carpanese, C.; Centro, S.; Pepato, A.; Pietropaolo, F.; Ventura, S.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Calvi, M.; Curioni, A.; Cavalli, D.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Negri, P.; Paganoni, M.; Pullia, A.; Sala, P.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Tabarelli De Fatis, T.; Terranova, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Puccini, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Revol, J.P.; Cline, D.; Matthey, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Park, J.; Wang, H.; Woo, J.; Givoletti, J.; Lamarina, A.; Periale, R.; Picchi, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Periale, L.; Suzuki, S.; Sergiampietri, F.

    1999-01-01

    The 50 litre liquid Argon TPC is a detector built and successfully operated at CERN for R&D purposes within the ICARUS programme. In the year 1997 it has been exposed at the CERN neutrino beam for the entire SPS neutrino run period as proposed and approved at the SPSLC of January 1997. The detector, complemented with scintillators acting as veto, trigger counters and pre-shower counters, was installed in front of the NOMAD detector. The year 1997 was scheduled to be the last for the operation of the West Area Neutrino Facility. It was important to take this last opportunity for a parasitic exposure, which did not interfere with running experiments, of an already existing and operating liquid Argon TPC. As we had expected, the collected data brought important information for a better understanding of the performance of liquid Argon TPCs which should be useful for the entire ICARUS program. (9 refs).

  19. ARIADNE, a Photographic LAr TPC at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Nessi, M; Roberts, A; Smith, N A; Touramanis, C; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2016-01-01

    This letter of intent describes a novel and innovative two-phase LAr TPC with photographic capabilities as an attractive alternative readout method to the currently accepted segmented THGEMs which will require many thousands of charge readout channels for kton-scale two-phase TPCs. These colossal LAr TPCs will be used for the future long-baseline-neutrino-oscillation experiments. Optical readout also presents many other clear advantages over current readout techniques such as ease of scalability, upgrade, installation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness. This technology has already been demonstrated at the Liverpool LAr facility with the photographic capturing of cosmic muon tracks and single gammas using a 40-litre prototype. We have now secured ERC funding to develop this further with the ARIADNE programme. ARIADNE will be a 1-ton two-phase LAr TPC utilizing THGEM and EMCCD camera readouts in order to photograph interactions, allowing for track reconstruction and particle identification. We are request...

  20. Performance of an optical readout GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margato, L.M.S.; Fraga, F.A.F.; Fetal, S.T.G.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Balau, E.F.S.; Blanco, A.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A.J.P.L

    2004-01-01

    We report on the operation of a GEM-based small TPC using an optical readout. The detector was operated with a mixture of Ar+CF 4 using 5.48 MeV alpha particles obtained from a 241 Am source and the GEM scintillation was concurrently read by a CCD camera and a photomultiplier. Precision collimators were used to define the track orientation. Qualitative results on the accuracy of the track angle, length and charge deposition measurements are presented

  1. Status of the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisting Alexander

    2018-01-01

    After the upgrade the TPC will run in a continuous mode, without any degradation of the momentum and dE/dx resolution compared to the performance of the present TPC. Since readout by multi-wire proportional chambers is no longer feasible with these requirements, new technologies have to be employed. In the new readout chambers the electron amplification is provided by a stack of four Gas ElectronMultiplier (GEM foils. Here foils with a standard hole pitch of 140 μm as well as large pitch foils (280 μm are used. Their high voltage settings and orientation have been optimised to provide an energy resolution of σE/E ≤ 12% at the photopeak of 55Fe. At the same settings the Ion BackFlow into the drift volume is less than 1% of the effective number of ions produced during gas amplification and the primary ionisations. This is necessary to prevent the accumulation of space charge, which eventually will distort the field in the drift volume. To ensure stable operation at the high loads during LHC run 3 the chambers have to be robust against discharges, too. With the selected configuration in a quadruple GEMstack the discharge probability is kept at the level of 10-12 discharges per incoming hadron. An overview of the ALICE TPC upgrade activities will be given in these proceedings and the optimised settings foreseen for the GEM stacks of the future readout chambers are introduced. Furthermore the outcome of two beam time campaigns at SPS and PS (at CERN in the end of 2014 is shown. At this campaigns the stability against discharges and the dE/dx performance of a full size readout chamber prototype was tested. In addition it is reported on charging-up studies of 4GEM stacks and on tests of electromagnetic sagging of large GEM foils.

  2. Free electron lifetime achievements in Liquid Argon Imaging TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Baibussinov, B; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cieslik, K; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Meng, G; Pietropaolo, F; Rubbia, C; Varanini, F; Ventura, S

    2010-01-01

    A key feature for the success of the Liquid Argon TPC technology is the industrial purification against electro-negative impurities, especially Oxygen and Nitrogen remnants, which have to be initially and continuously kept at an exceptional purity. New purification techniques have been applied to a 120 litres LAr-TPC test facility in the INFN-LNL laboratory. Through-going muon tracks have been used to monitor the LAr purity. The short path length used (30 cm) is compensated by the high accuracy in the observation of the specific ionization of cosmic rays muons at sea level. A free electron lifetime of (21.4+7.3-4.3) ms, namely > 15.8 ms at 90 % C.L. has been observed under stable conditions over several weeks, corresponding to about 15 ppt (part per trillion) of Oxygen equivalent. At 500 V/cm, where the electron speed is approximately of 1.5 mm/us, the free electron lifetime >15 ms corresponds to an attenuation <15 % for a drift path of 5 m, opening the way to reliable operation of LAr TPC for exceptionall...

  3. Projective-anticipating, projective and projective-lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cunfang; Guan Wei; Wang Yinghai

    2013-01-01

    We investigate different types of projective (projective-anticipating, projective and projective-lag) synchronization in unidirectionally nonlinearly coupled time-delayed chaotic systems with variable time delays. Based on the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach, we find both the existence and sufficient stability conditions, using a general class of time-delayed chaotic systems related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Our method has the advantage that it requires only one nonlinearly coupled term to achieve different types of projective synchronization in time-delayed chaotic systems with variable time delays. Compared with other existing works, our result provides an easy way to achieve projective-anticipating, projective and projective-lag synchronization. Numerical simulations of the Ikeda system are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. (paper)

  4. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  5. Thin Time-Of-Flight PET project

    CERN Multimedia

    The pre-R&D aims at designing and producing a compact and thin Time-Of-Flight PET detector device with depth of interaction measurement capability, which employs layered silicon sensors as active material, with a readout consisting of a new generation of very-low noise and very fast electronics based on SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) components.

  6. arXiv Particle identification studies with a full-size 4-GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00180720; Aiola, S.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Amend, W.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arslandok, M.; Averbeck, R.; Ball, M.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bartsch, E.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Berger, M.; Bialas, N.; Bialas, P.; Bianchi, L.; Biswas, S.; Boldizsár, L.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Britton, C.L.; Brucken, E.J.; Caines, H.; Castro, A.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Christiansen, P.; Clonts, L.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Deisting, A.; Dittrich, S.; Dubey, A.K.; Ehlers, R.; Erhardt, F.; Ezell, N.B.; Fabbietti, L.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhøje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Gasik, P.; Gera, A.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.K.; Glässel, P.; Grachov, O.; Grein, A.; Gunji, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hehner, J.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Hilden, T.E.; Hohlweger, B.; Ivanov, M.; Jung, M.; Just, D.; Kangasaho, E.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S.A.; Kirsch, S.; Klemenz, T.; Klewin, S.; Knospe, A.G.; Kowalski, M.; Kumar, L.; Lang, R.; Langoy, R.; Lautner, L.; Liebske, F.; Lien, J.; Lippmann, C.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Llope, W.J.; Mahmood, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Majka, R.; Malzacher, P.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Masciocchi, S.; Mathis, A.; Matyja, A.; Meres, M.; Mihaylov, D.L.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mittelstaedt, T.; Morhardt, T.; Mulligan, J.; Munzer, R.H.; Münning, K.; Munhoz, M.G.; Muhuri, S.; Murakami, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Negrao De Oliveira, R.A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Oláh, L.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Paić, G.; Patra, R.N.; Peskov, V.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Planinic, M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Poljak, N.; Pompei, F.; Prasad, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A.; Putschke, J.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rasson, J.; Ratza, V.; Read, K.F.; Rehman, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richert, T.; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Rudzki, T.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Schaefer, B.; Schambach, J.; Scheid, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; V Schmidt, N.; Schulte, H.; Schweda, K.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Sharma, N.; Silvermyr, D.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sitar, B.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, S.P.; Sozzi, F.; Stachel, J.; Stenlund, E.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Tambave, G.; Terasaki, K.; Timmins, A.; Ullaland, K.; Utrobicic, A.; Varga, D.; Varma, R.; Velure, A.; Vislavicius, V.; Voloshin, S.; Voss, B.; Vranic, D.; Wiechula, J.; Winkler, S.; Wikne, J.; Windelband, B.; Zhao, C.

    A large Time Projection Chamber is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019/20, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 50 above the present readout rate of the TPC. This will result in a significant improvement on the sensitivity to rare probes that are considered key observables to characterize the QCD matter created in such collisions. In order to make full use of this luminosity, the currently used gated Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers will be replaced. The upgrade relies on continuously operated readout detectors employing Gas Electron Multiplier technology to retain the performance in terms of particle identification via the measurement of the specific energy loss by ionization d$E$/d$x$. A full-size readout chamber prototype was assembled in 2014 featuring a stack of four GEM foils as an amplification stage. The performance of the pr...

  7. PWR life time: the EDF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, R.; Reynes, L.; Mercier, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Operating a very large number of standardized PWR units which supply today 70% of French power generation, Electricite de France is highly interested in getting the best estimate of the safe and economical life of these plants. An extensive program of work has been undertaken in this respect. The studies have first to go through all available data on aging process, survey and maintenance of a limited number of major components. This review will lead to recommendation of complementary work in these fields. The first conclusions are that these units are able to perform a long service time, under provision of careful survey and maintenance [fr

  8. ANALYSIS OF TIME MANAGEMENT APPLIED TO A PROJECT OF OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Meireles Moreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Project management (PM efficient results in increased probability of success of activities and its completion as time, cost and scope planned. Since this triad (time, cost and scope is connected, any changes will affect within the scope and increase the cost of the project. This was a case study in a large company exploiting oil and gas. The research is focused on time management (TM in an oil project in order to examine the schedule of activities according to the time tool, the Gantt Chart in MS Project 2003 software. The study design was selected due to its long delay in implementation and lack of planning and managing this. By analyzing the Gantt Chart, activities were identified late. With this, the problems that caused delays were surveyed (the project documents and their parents questioned. Thus, it was proposed improvements to an effective control of time on the problems encountered.

  9. Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC

    CERN Multimedia

    \\textbf{Double beta decay without neutrino emission (0$\\upsilon$2$\\beta$)}, is the only process that may indicate wether neutrinos and antineutrinos are different or the same particle. It may happen for a dozen of nuclides. In this case neutrino would be the only known completely neutral fermion. However, the decay is expected to be extremely rare, much rarer that the already very rare (2$\\upsilon$2$\\beta$). In the latter two neutrinos and two electron are emitted, while only two electrons are emitted in the (0$\\upsilon$2$\\beta$) decay. Consequently, the sum of the electron energies have a well defined and known value in the latter case, while in the former has a continuous spectrum. The main experimental parameters are then the background index, BI, which is the number of counts due to background per unit energy interval (keV), unit isotope mass (kg) and unit live time (yr) in the known region of interest and the energy resolution (∆$\\textit{E}$ Full With Half Maximum). Indeed the total background for a gi...

  10. First measurement of the polarisation asymmetry of a gamma-ray beam between 1.7 to 74 MeV with the HARPO TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, P.; Amano, S.; Attié, D.; Bernard, D.; Bruel, P.; Calvet, D.; Colas, P.; Daté, S.; Delbart, A.; Frotin, M.; Geerebaert, Y.; Giebels, B.; Götz, D.; Hashimoto, S.; Horan, D.; Kotaka, T.; Louzir, Marc; Minamiyama, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.; Poilleux, Patrick; Semeniouk, I.; Sizun, P.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Wang, S.

    2016-07-01

    Current γ-ray telescopes suffer from a gap in sensitivity in the energy range between 100 keV and 100 MeV, and no polarisation measurement has ever been done on cosmic sources above 1 MeV. Past and present e+e- pair telescopes are limited at lower energies by the multiple scattering of electrons in passive tungsten converter plates. This results in low angular resolution, and, consequently, a drop in sensitivity to point sources below 1 GeV. The polarisation information, which is carried by the azimuthal angle of the conversion plane, is lost for the same reasons. HARPO is an R&D program to characterise the operation of a gaseous detector (a Time Projection Chamber or TPC) as a high angular-resolution and sensitivity telescope and polarimeter for γ-rays from cosmic sources. It represents a first step towards a future space instrument in the MeV-GeV range. We built and characterised a 30cm cubic demonstrator [SPIE 91441M], and put it in a polarised γ-ray beam at the NewSUBARU accelerator in Japan. Data were taken at photon energies from 1.74MeV to 74MeV and with different polarisation configurations. We describe the experimental setup in beam. We then describe the software we developed to reconstruct the photon conversion events, with special focus on low energies. We also describe the thorough simulation of the detector used to compare results. Finally we will present the performance of the detector as extracted from this analysis and preliminary measurements of the polarisation asymmetry. This beam-test qualification of a gas TPC prototype in a γ-ray beam could open the way to high-performance -ray astronomy and polarimetry in the MeV-GeV energy range in the near future.

  11. Heavy-ion test of detectors with conventional and resistive Micromegas used in TPC configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, Jean-Eric, E-mail: jean-eric.ducret@cea.f [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Legou, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lukasik, Jerzy [Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ-PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Boudard, Alain; Combet, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Czech, BronisLaw [Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ-PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Durand, Robert; Gorbinet, Thomas; Le Bourlout, Pascal; Leray, Sylvie [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Matousek, Vladislav [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 854 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Nizery, Francois [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); PawLowski, Piotr [Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ-PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Salsac, Marie-Delphine [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, IRFU, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Yordanov, Orlin [Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tzanigradsko chaussee Blvd, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-01

    We have performed tests of Micromegas detector prototypes using the heavy-ion beams from the SIS synchrotron of GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The beams varied from {sup 12}C{sup 6+} to {sup 179}Au{sup 65+} and from 250 to 1000 MeV per nucleon. We have tested two amplification technologies, conventional and resistive Micromegas, and two construction concepts, bulk-Micromegas and micro-meshes screwed on the PCB. The obtained position resolution below 200{mu}m for 5 mm wide strips implies that the bulk resistive Micromegas technology might meet the requirements of the future R3B TPC project. We also developed a fast and very low noise front-end electronics connected directly to the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) of the detector itself. This concept has shown very good performances and robustness.

  12. A basic framework for managing time of nuclear plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the crucial problems that faces managers of nuclear power plant projects is how to obtain more effective and efficient utilization of their company's resources. Analysis of this problem showed that improvement was necessary in the time management area. Time management is one of the primary functions of project groups. Much has been written about planning and scheduling, and there are many modern techniques (CPM, PERT, etc.) available to a project group to manage time. So, why is time management still a problem? One reason is that nuclear projects are generally very complex and involve many organizations requiring the same resources. It is the intent of this paper to present a comprehensive and basic framework on which to either build a time management system or use as a basis to assess an existing system

  13. Progress on a spherical TPC for low energy neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, S; Colas, P; Deschamps, H; Dolbeau, J; Fanourakis, G; Ribas, E Ferrer; Enqvist, T; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Y; Gorodetzky, P; Gounaris, G J; Gros, M; Irastorza, I G; Kousouris, K; Lepeltier, V; Morales, J; Patzak, T; Paschos, E A; Salin, P; Savvidis, I; Vergados, J D

    2006-01-01

    The new concept of the spherical TPC aims at relatively large target masses with low threshold and background, keeping an extremely simple and robust operation. Such a device would open the way to detect the neutrino-nucleus interaction, which, although a standard process, remains undetected due to the low energy of the neutrino-induced nuclear recoils. The progress in the development of the first 1 m 3 prototype at Saclay is presented. Other physics goals of such a device could include supernova detection, low energy neutrino oscillations and study of non-standard properties of the neutrino, among others

  14. A 4π tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Van Dijk, J.H.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K.; Biswas, N.; Kenney, P.; Piekarz, J.; Adams, D.L.; Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Empl, T.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.

    1990-01-01

    The primary physics objective of the 4π TPC magnetic spectrometer proposal is to search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In previous workshops we have discussed what the possible hadronic signatures of such a state of matter would be. Succinctly, the QGP is a direct prediction of non-perturbative QCD. Therefore the question of the existence of this new state of matter bears directly on the validity of non-perturbative QCD. However, since non-perturbative QCD has never been established, it is apparent that what may await us is a host of new phenomena that will go beyond the standard model

  15. ECO INVESTMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH TIME APPLYING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gvozdenović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he concept of project management expresses an indispensable approach to investment projects. Time is often the most important factor in these projects. The artificial neural network is the paradigm of data processing, which is inspired by the one used by the biological brain, and it is used in numerous, different fields, among which is the project management. This research is oriented to application of artificial neural networks in managing time of investment project. The artificial neural networks are used to define the optimistic, the most probable and the pessimistic time in PERT method. The program package Matlab: Neural Network Toolbox is used in data simulation. The feed-forward back propagation network is chosen.

  16. Timely loss recognition and termination of unprofitable projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, firms should discontinue projects that become unprofitable. Managers, however, continue to operate such projects because of their limited employment horizons and empire-building motivations (Jensen, 1986; Ball, 2001. Prior studies suggest that timely loss recognition in accounting earnings enables lenders, shareholders, and boards of directors to identify unprofitable projects; thereby, enabling them to force managers to discontinue such projects before large value erosion occurs. However, this conjecture has not been tested empirically. Consistent with this notion, we find that timely loss recognition increases the likelihood of timely closures of unprofitable projects. Moreover, managers, by announcing late discontinuations of such projects, reveal their inability to select good projects and/or to contain losses, when projects turn unprofitable. Accordingly, thereafter, the fund providers and board of directors are likely to demand improved timeliness of loss recognition and stringent scrutiny of firms’ capital expenditure plans. Consistently, we find that firms that announce large discontinuation losses reduce capital expenditures and improve timeliness of loss recognition in subsequent years. Our study provides evidence that timely loss reporting affects “real” economic decisions and creates economic benefits.

  17. Study of a multi-module Micromegas TPC prototype for tracking at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb-Sankar

    2017-01-01

    My work mainly concerns Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) which is a type of MPGD. At the DESY synchrotron facility, seven resistive Micromegas (MM) modules have been tested at the LPTPC with an electron beam of energy ranging from 1 GeV to 6 GeV, under a magnetic field of 1 T. Detailed analysis for the track reconstruction have been performed. Two different resistive materials have been tested during the beam tests. A comparison between them has been presented. Due to the large packing density of the electronic components within a very limited space, the heat dissipated by the electronics increases the temperature of the Micromegas modules. If the heat is not removed within a reasonable time, it will cause potential damage to the electronics. I have performed numerical studies which show that efficient cooling is necessary for the anode plates of the ILD-TPC. I contributed in the hardware development of the two-phase CO 2 cooling for the Micromegas modules. It has been first applied to a single Micromegas module and, after the successful first test, the same is applied to all the seven Micromegas modules uninterruptedly for more than 80 hours during beam tests at DESY. The readout plane of a Micromegas module is surrounded by a copper frame which is grounded. As a result, very close to the anode plane of the LPTPC, the electric field near the boundary of a module remains no longer parallel to the TPC axis. This causes signal loss along the boundaries of the MM modules as well as distortion in the reconstructed track. In presence of magnetic field, the distorted electric field introduces vector-E * vector-B effect. Track distortion significantly contributes to the residuals of the pad row hits and degrades the spatial resolution of the detector. Therefore, the effect of distortion is calculated and reduced during analysis in the MarlinTPC framework. I have performed a detailed numerical study to understand the features of the electric field distortion

  18. The impact of project management on nuclear construction lead times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlaver, M.A.; Bauman, D.S.; Chapel, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A two-year study of lead times for nuclear power plants found that construction time is affected by six fundamental influences. One of the six is project management. An analysis of construction management teams at 26 nuclear units found that many of the most successful shared five general characteristics: nuclear power experience, skill in project control, adaptability and initiative, commitment to success, and communication and coordination skill

  19. Neutrino Event Reconstruction in a Liquid Argon TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Gary, E-mail: G.J.Barker@Warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-25

    We present some preliminary findings and results from activities in Europe and the USA working towards an automated, algorithmic, reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chambers.

  20. First operation and performance of a 200 lt double phase LAr LEM-TPC with a 40x76 $\\cm^2$ readout

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Degunda, U; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Natterer, D Lussi G; Nguyen, K; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Viant, T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, construction, and operation of a first large area double-phase liquid argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC). The detector has a maximum drift length of 60 cm and the readout consists of a $40\\times 76$ cm$^2$ LEM and 2D projective anode to multiply and collect drifting charges. Scintillation light is detected by means of cryogenic PMTs positioned below the cathode. To record both charge and light signals, we have developed a compact acquisition system, which is scalable up to ton-scale detectors with thousands of charge readout channels. The acquisition system, as well as the design and the performance of custom-made charge sensitive preamplifiers, are described. The complete experimental setup has been operated for a first time during a period of four weeks at CERN in the cryostat of the ArDM experiment, which was equipped with liquid and gas argon purification systems. The detector, exposed to cosmic rays, recorded events with a single-ch...

  1. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z

  2. Overlapping Boundaries of the Project Time Management and Project Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PODEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on utility function, milestones during project and/or the end of projects or programme may be categorized in what are called soft-deadline and hard-deadline. In contrast with the soft-end projects, the hard-end projects posses a decrease of utility function with a vertical asymptote character around the deadline for project completion. In extreme situations, the utility function itself may fall under zero (projects may generate losses to both constructor and customer. Existing risk analysis methodologies observe risks from monetary terms. The typical risks are correlated with an increase in final project costs. In order to estimate harddeadline milestones and/or end of projects or programme is critical to employ the time dimension rather than the typical cost-based risk analysis. Here, we comprehensively describe a structured methodology that focuses on minimizing and mitigating project specific delay risks. The method may supplement existing cost-based risk analysis in projects. We aim to elegantly combine moderation techniques to reveal the intrinsic risk of the projects. In addition to the technical risks, the moderation techniques are able to bring evidence of risks as the team efficacy, diverse un-correlations or miss-understanding about the roles of the team members in the team – most of the project soft risk. Described methodology encourages the common understanding of risks for participants, crystallizing the essence of what can go wrong in complex situations and where the opportunities can be unlocked.

  3. Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber : Recent R&D Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Ahlen, S.; Chernicoff, M.; Deaconu, C.; Dujmic, D.; Dushkin, A.; Fisher, P.; Henderson, S.; Inglis, A.; Kaboth, A.; Kirsch, L.; Lopez, J. P.; Monroe, J.; Ouyang, H.; Sciolla, G.; Tomita, H.; Wellenstein, H.

    2012-02-01

    The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The 10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is described here.

  4. Investigating Time-Varying Drivers of Grid Project Emissions Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Pal, Seemita; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-15

    The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies depend heavily on their context and vary not only by geographical location, but by time of year. The same technology operated to meet the same objective may increase the emissions associated with energy generation for part of the year and decrease emissions during other times. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) tool provides the ability to estimate these seasonal variations and garner insight into the time-varying drivers of grid project emissions impacts. This work leverages GridPIQ to examine the emissions implications across years and seasons of adding energy storage technology to reduce daily peak demand in California and New York.

  5. Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel finite-time analysis is given to investigate the global projective synchronization on coloured networks. Some less conservative conditions are derived by utilizing finite-time control techniques and Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, two illustrative numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of ...

  6. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  7. Topological signature in the NEXT high pressure xenon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Paola; NEXT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe in a high-pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescence to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to use the topology of events with energies close to Qββ as an extra tool to reject background. In these proceedings we show with data from prototypes that an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 ± 1.4 (stat.)% can be achieved, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 ± 1.% for signal events. The performance expected in NEW, the next stage of the experiment, is to improve to 12.9% ± 0.6% background acceptance for 66.9% ± 0.6% signal efficiency.

  8. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with adjacent resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  9. Projected space-time and varying speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Bellucci, S.; Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper starting from El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and our model of projected Universe, we consider its properties in connection with varying speed of light. A possible way-out of the related problem is provided by the Fantappie group approach

  10. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with Adjacent Resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  11. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W. [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  12. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Projection displays and MEMS: timely convergence for a bright future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1995-09-01

    Projection displays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have evolved independently, occasionally crossing paths as early as the 1950s. But the commercially viable use of MEMS for projection displays has been illusive until the recent invention of Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing TM (DLP) technology. DLP technology is based on the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD) microchip, a MEMS technology that is a semiconductor digital light switch that precisely controls a light source for projection display and hardcopy applications. DLP technology provides a unique business opportunity because of the timely convergence of market needs and technology advances. The world is rapidly moving to an all- digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. In the near future, most of the technologies necessary for this infrastrucutre will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make commercially viable an all-digital chain (capture, compression, transmission, reception decompression, hearing, and viewing). Unfortunately, the digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's televisions. Digital video is the final link in the all-digital infrastructure and DLP technoogy provides that link. DLP technology is an enabler for digital, high-resolution, color projection displays that have high contrast, are bright, seamless, and have the accuracy of color and grayscale that can be achieved only by digital control. This paper contains an introduction to DMD and DLP technology, including the historical context from which to view their developemnt. The architecture, projection operation, and fabrication are presented. Finally, the paper includes an update about current DMD business opportunities in projection displays and hardcopy.

  14. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q anti qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q anti q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c 2 . During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of π - π - π + final state events were recorded within a few days of data taking. A full partial wave analysis (PWA) of these data has been performed for this dissertation, concentrating on the kinematic domain of large momentum transfer (t' element of [0.1, 1.0] GeV 2 /c 2 ). While well-known mesons are resolved with high quality, also a strong signal consistent with the much disputed hybrid candidate π 1 (1600) is observed in the spin-exotic J PC = 1 -+ partial wave. A Breit-Wigner parameterization yields a mass and width of 1.660 +0.010 -0.074 and 0.269 +0.063 -0.085 GeV/c 2 , respectively. In addition, a first PWA of events with small momentum transfer (t' element of [10 -3 ,10 -2 ] GeV 2 /c 2 ) has been carried out, yielding several high-mass radial-excitation states. In the future, the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will perform highprecision spectroscopy in the charm-sector employing anti pp annihilations. Due to its excellent tracking capabilities for charged particles, a time projection chamber (TPC

  15. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-09-24

    . Due to its excellent tracking capabilities for charged particles, a time projection chamber (TPC) has been proposed for the central tracker of PANDA. A continuous operation without ion gate is foreseen, which constitutes a novel development in high-rate particle physics experiments. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils offer an intrinsic ion back-flow suppression combined with high gains, and will therefore be used for gas amplification. A small-size GEM-TPC test chamber has been constructed during this thesis and commissioned using both X-rays and muons from cosmic-ray air-showers. From the latter data, a spatial resolution down to 140 {mu}m has been achieved. The detector has been operated stably for many months with Ar/CO{sub 2} (70/30) and at typical gas amplification factors of (5-10).10{sup 3}. (orig.)

  16. Review of Time Management for the Research Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kook-Nam; Park, Su-Jin; Choi, Min-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hyeonil; Lee, Eung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the processes for the time management, which have actually been implemented for JRTR, are presented. In JRTR, a master schedule was submitted in December 2012 whereas the project was contracted in October 2010. The schedule includes fixing the Engineering Deliverable List (EDL), the list of equipment, the actual issue date, the results of Primavera, a piece of software to manage progress, the progress rate and the issuance of the schedule based on the Project level III. Afterwards JAEC approved to the extension of the schedule from 56 months to 70.5 months mainly due to late preparation of the Jordanian nuclear legislative system. The project schedule was updated up to the fifth revision to compensate the delay by recovering measures such as for design, purchase, construction, and finally the owner of the project, Jordanian Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) approved in August 2014. Construction work, the prerequisite for commissioning stage A had been finished in February 2016, and commissioning stage A has been being performed

  17. Review of Time Management for the Research Reactor Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kook-Nam; Park, Su-Jin; Choi, Min-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Mo; Kim, Hyeonil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Jae [DAEWOO E and C, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the processes for the time management, which have actually been implemented for JRTR, are presented. In JRTR, a master schedule was submitted in December 2012 whereas the project was contracted in October 2010. The schedule includes fixing the Engineering Deliverable List (EDL), the list of equipment, the actual issue date, the results of Primavera, a piece of software to manage progress, the progress rate and the issuance of the schedule based on the Project level III. Afterwards JAEC approved to the extension of the schedule from 56 months to 70.5 months mainly due to late preparation of the Jordanian nuclear legislative system. The project schedule was updated up to the fifth revision to compensate the delay by recovering measures such as for design, purchase, construction, and finally the owner of the project, Jordanian Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) approved in August 2014. Construction work, the prerequisite for commissioning stage A had been finished in February 2016, and commissioning stage A has been being performed.

  18. Project scheduling method with time using MRP system – A case study: Construction project in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ali Imetieg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Materials Requirements and Planning (MRP is a system of production planning and inventory control, which is used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based and are used to ensure that the materials are available for production, that the products are available for delivery to customers, that the lowest possible material and product level is maintained in store, as well as to plan delivery schedules and purchasing activities. Upon completion of scheduling, begins the process of follow-up, which includes the achievement of the project goals in terms of quantity, quality and costs in accordance with deadlines. MRP system was applied to project of 5000 housing units in Solug area, which is close to Benghazi city, Libya, with the aim to provide necessary cash flow to pay dues on time without delay to all involved project sub-contractors and material suppliers, to ensure the smooth flow of operations, as well as to diminish costs by reduction of temporary storages and rented areas. There is a correlation between time and cost of each activity. If the required time is shorter than the scheduled time of the certain activity, it would demand more resources, which further leads to the increase in direct costs of the given activity. Therefore, the output of MRP is important since commands are issued through planning in order to launch the suggested orders with the required quantities and within the limited time period.

  19. Religious affiliation at time of death - Global estimates and projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Todd, Megan; Stonawski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories. We present estimates of religious affiliation at the time of death as of 2010, projections up to and including 2060, taking into account trends in mortality, religious conversion, intergenerational transmission of religion, differential fertility, and gross migration flows, by age and sex. We find that Christianity continues to be the most common religion at death, although its share will fall from 37% to 31% of global deaths between 2010 and 2060. The share of individuals identifying as Muslim at the time of death increases from 21% to 24%. The share of religiously unaffiliated will peak at 17% in 2035 followed by a slight decline thereafter. In specific regions, such as Europe, the unaffiliated share will continue to rises from 14% to 21% throughout the period. Religious affiliation at the time of death is changing globally, with distinct regional patterns. This could affect spatial variation in healthcare and social customs relating to death and dying.

  20. Near-intrinsic energy resolution for 30–662 keV gamma rays in a high pressure xenon electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T.H.V.T.; Díaz, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, data and results from the NEXT prototype for Double Beta and Dark Matter (NEXT-DBDM) detector, a high-pressure gaseous natural xenon electroluminescent time projection chamber (TPC) that was built at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is a prototype of the planned NEXT-100 136 Xe neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) experiment with the main objectives of demonstrating near-intrinsic energy resolution at energies up to 662 keV and of optimizing the NEXT-100 detector design and operating parameters. Energy resolutions of ∼1% FWHM for 662 keV gamma rays were obtained at 10 and 15 atm and ∼5% FWHM for 30 keV fluorescence xenon X-rays. These results demonstrate that 0.5% FWHM resolutions for the 2459 keV hypothetical neutrino-less double beta decay peak are realizable. This energy resolution is a factor 7–20 better than that of the current leading 0νββ experiments using liquid xenon and thus represents a significant advancement. We present also first results from a track imaging system consisting of 64 silicon photo-multipliers recently installed in NEXT–DBDM that, along with the excellent energy resolution, demonstrates the key functionalities required for the NEXT-100 0νββ search

  1. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  2. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  3. Liquid Argon TPC Signal Formation, Signal Processing and Hit Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baller, Bruce [Fermilab

    2017-03-11

    This document describes the early stage of the reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions requires knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise.

  4. Optimizing the Time Performance of Subcontractors in Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy K.W Ng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contractors of Hong Kong building projects tend to subcontract most of their work. However, many of the subcontractors complain that they are not being fully utilized due main contractors’ poor site coordination of temporary works and interfacing works and plant supports etc. A list of critical site coordination problems caused by main contractors that had adversely influence to the time performance of subcontractors was prepared. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data to generate multiple regression equations that explain how the critical site coordination problems affected the time performance of different types of subcontractor. The survey results were validated by neural network analysis. Backward elimination method was adopted to identify the ‘most critical’ site coordination problems that enable main contractors to formulate measures to enhance their site management system.

  5. Development of a triple GEM readout module for a time projection chamber and measurement accuracies of hadronic Higgs branching fractions in ννH at a 350 GeV ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Felix

    2016-07-15

    The presented thesis addresses the development and evaluation of one of the detector concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC is a planned, future electron-positron linear collider with a center-of-mass energy of up to 500 GeV in its first construction stage. The ILC is designed to perform precision measurements of the Standard Model, especially a model-independent reconstruction of the electroweak symmetry breaking sector. In 2012, the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC was an important first step and facilitates precision measurements of the Higgs boson coupling constants at the ILC. Challenging design goals have been defined for the ILC detectors in order to reach the desired measurement precisions. One of the two ILC detector concepts is the International Large Detector (ILD). A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the central tracking detector. In contrast to modern silicon tracking detectors, a TPC provides a large number of space points, and thus continuous sampling of the track parameters. Therefore, TPCs offer great pattern recognition capabilities including the identification of particle decays within the sensitive volume. The design momentum resolution of the ILD TPC is δ(1/p{sub t})∼10{sup -4} GeV{sup -1} which can be translated into a transverse spatial resolution of σ{sub rφ}≤100 μm over the complete drift distance of 2.35 m. In the first part of the thesis, the development of a readout module for the TPC is presented which fulfills the performance requirements of the ILD TPC. The developed readout module is based on a stack of three ''Gas Electron Multiplier'' (GEM) foils and a pad readout. Thin ceramic grids are used as the support structure and spacers between the GEMs. The readout module was tested in a prototype TPC with a maximal drift distance of around 60 cm at the DESY II test beam. An additional guard ring at the upper edge of the module was introduced to minimize field

  6. New product development projects evaluation under time uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto de Oliveira Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time is one of the key factors that contribute to the new product development success. In spite of that, the impact of the time uncertainty on the development has been not fully exploited, as far as decision supporting models to evaluate this kind of projects is concerned. In this context, the objective of the present paper is to evaluate the development process of new technologies under time uncertainty. We introduce a model which captures this source of uncertainty and develop an algorithm to evaluate projects that incorporates Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming. The novelty in our approach is to thoroughly blend the stochastic time with a formal approach to the problem, which preserves the Markov property. We base our model on the distinction between the decision epoch and the stochastic time. We discuss and illustrate the applicability of our model through an empirical example.O tempo de desenvolvimento é um dos fatores-chave que contribuem para o sucesso do desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Apesar disso, o impacto da incerteza de tempo no desenvolvimento tem sido pouco considerado em modelos de avaliação e valoração deste tipo de projetos. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar projetos de desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias mediante o tempo incerto. Introduzimos um modelo capaz de captar esta fonte de incerteza e desenvolvemos um algoritmo para a valoração do projeto que integra Simulação de Monte Carlo e Programação Dinâmica. A novidade neste trabalho é conseguir integrar meticulosamente o tempo estocástico a uma estrutura formal para tomada de decisão que preserva a propriedade de Markov. O principal ponto para viabilizar este fato é distinção entre o momento de revisão e o tempo estocástico. Ilustramos e discutimos a aplicabilidade deste modelo por meio de um exemplo empírico.

  7. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  8. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  9. TPC cathode read-out with C-pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.; Pikna, M.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.

    2009-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber with 'C' like shaped cathode pads was built and tested. It offers a low gas gain operation, a good pulse shape and a lightweight construction. The Pad Response Function (PRF), the cathode to anode pulse height ratios and the pad pulse shapes of the C-pad structure were measured and compared with planar cathode structures in two different wire geometries. The cathode to anode signal ratio was improved from between 0.2 and 0.4 up to 0.7. The PRF was considerably improved, it has a Gaussian shape and is narrower than in the case of the planar pads. The pulse shape from the C-pad read-out is similar to the pulse shape from a detector with a cylindrical shape of electrodes. A method for aluminum pad mass production based on a precise cold forging was developed and tested.

  10. TPC cross-talk correction: CERN-Dubna-Milano algorithm and results

    CERN Document Server

    De Min, A; Guskov, A; Krasnoperov, A; Nefedov, Y; Zhemchugov, A

    2003-01-01

    The CDM (CERN-Dubna-Milano) algorithm for TPC Xtalk correction is presented and discussed in detail. It is a data-driven, model-independent approach to the problem of Xtalk correction. It accounts for arbitrary amplitudes and pulse shapes of signals, and corrects (almost) all generations of Xtalk, with a view to handling (almost) correctly even complex multi-track events. Results on preamp amplification and preamp linearity from the analysis of test-charge injection data of all six TPC sectors are presented. The minimal expected error on the measurement of signal charges in the TPC is discussed. Results are given on the application of the CDM Xtalk correction to test-charge events and krypton events.

  11. Dysregulation of lysosomal morphology by pathogenic LRRK2 is corrected by TPC2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Leanne N; Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Eden, Emily R; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen; Futter, Clare E; Schapira, Anthony H; Marchant, Jonathan S; Patel, Sandip

    2015-01-15

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal ion channels implicated in Ca(2+) signalling from acidic organelles. The relevance of these ubiquitous proteins for human disease, however, is unclear. Here, we report that lysosomes are enlarged and aggregated in fibroblasts from Parkinson disease patients with the common G2019S mutation in LRRK2. Defects were corrected by molecular silencing of TPC2, pharmacological inhibition of TPC regulators [Rab7, NAADP and PtdIns(3,5)P2] and buffering local Ca(2+) increases. NAADP-evoked Ca(2+) signals were exaggerated in diseased cells. TPC2 is thus a potential drug target within a pathogenic LRRK2 cascade that disrupts Ca(2+)-dependent trafficking in Parkinson disease. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. TPC track distortions: correction maps for magnetic and static electric inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y

    2003-01-01

    Inhomogeneities of the magnetic and electric fields in the active TPC volume lead to displacements of cluster coordinates, and therefore to track distortions. In case of good data taking conditions, the largest effects are expected from the inhomogeneity of the solenoidal magnetic field, and from a distortion of the electric field arising from a high voltage misalignment between the outer and inner field cages. Both effects are stable over the entire HARP data taking. The displacements are large compared to the azimuthal coordinate resolution but can be corrected with sufficient precision, except at small TPC radius. The high voltage misalignment between the outer and inner field cages is identified as the likely primary cause of sagitta distortions of TPC tracks. The position and the length of the target plays an important role. Based on a detailed modelling of the magnetic and static electric field inhomogeneities, precise correction maps for both effects have been calculated. Predictions from the correctio...

  13. Peach Bottom Turbine Trip Simulations with RETRAN Using INER/TPC BWR Transient Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Lainsu; Chiang, Show-Chyuan

    2005-01-01

    The work described in this paper is benchmark calculations of pressurization transient turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor (BWR). It is part of an overall effort in providing qualification basis for the INER/TPC BWR transient analysis method developed for the Kuosheng and Chinshan plants. The method primarily utilizes an advanced system thermal hydraulics code, RETRAN02/MOD5, for transient safety analyses. Since pressurization transients would result in a strong coupling effect between core neutronic and system thermal hydraulics responses, the INER/TPC method employs the one-dimensional kinetic model in RETRAN with a cross-section data library generated by the Studsvik-CMS code package for the transient calculations. The Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT) tests, including TT1, TT2, and TT3, have been successfully performed in the plant and assigned as standards commonly for licensing method qualifications for years. It is an essential requirement for licensing purposes to verify integral capabilities and accuracies of the codes and models of the INER/TPC method in simulating such pressurization transients. Specific Peach Bottom plant models, including both neutronics and thermal hydraulics, are developed using modeling approaches and experiences generally adopted in the INER/TPC method. Important model assumptions in RETRAN for the PBTT test simulations are described in this paper. Simulation calculations are performed with best-estimated initial and boundary conditions obtained from plant test measurements. The calculation results presented in this paper demonstrate that the INER/TPC method is capable of calculating accurately the core and system transient behaviors of the tests. Excellent agreement, both in trends and magnitudes between the RETRAN calculation results and the PBTT measurements, shows reliable qualifications of the codes/users/models involved in the method. The RETRAN calculated peak neutron fluxes of the PBTT

  14. Contribution of a Liquid Argon TPC to T2K Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, A.; Rubbia, A.

    2006-08-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment. Different physics scenarios are considered and for each one the role of a LAr TPC in enhancing the ultimate sensitivity on theta 13 is studied. The large sample of neutrino interactions in the GeV region would provide crucial information for the study of different types of reactions and of nuclear effects, whereas the inner target would give a direct measurement of the cross sections ratio between Water and Argon. Such a detector would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique providing an extremely valuable experience for future large LAr detectors.

  15. Project finance risks - getting it right first time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, F.

    1996-01-01

    Bankers seeking to invest in the construction of new power stations by independent power producers, face greater risks than those lending to companies. Independent risk and insurance advisers are used to assess project risk. ''Project finance'' has become increasingly popular as it allows projects to go ahead that could not be supported from sponsors' own resources. In addition, project finance means that various equity partners can join together in a joint venture company and limit their individual risk. Project finance can be delayed by differences between the needs of sponsors, financiers and insurers. The process can be speeded up by foreknowledge of bankers' requirements. (UK)

  16. Short-time home coming project in evacuation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) forced neighboring residents to evacuate, and evacuation zone (20 km radius from NPPs) was defined as highly contaminated and designated as no-entry zones. Residents had been obliged to live a refugee life for a longer period than expected. Short-time home coming project was initiated according to their requests. They came to the meeting place called transfer place (20 - 30 km radius from NPPs), wore protective clothing and personal dosimeter with having drinking water and came home in evacuation zone with staffs by bus. Their healthcare management professionals were fully prepared for emergency. After collecting necessary articles at home within two hours, they returned to the meeting place by bus for screening and dressing, and went back to refuge house. If screening data were greater than 13 kcpm using GM counters, partial body decontamination had been conducted by wiping and if greater than 100 kcpm, whole body decontamination was requested but not conducted. Dose rate of residents and staffs was controlled less than 1 mSv, which was alarm level of personal dosimeter. Stable iodine was prepared but actually not used. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Using fuzzy logic to improve the project time and cost estimation based on Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Habibi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Among different factors, correct scheduling is one of the vital elements for project management success. There are several ways to schedule projects including the Critical Path Method (CPM and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Due to problems in estimating dura-tions of activities, these methods cannot accurately and completely model actual projects. The use of fuzzy theory is a basic way to improve scheduling and deal with such problems. Fuzzy theory approximates project scheduling models to reality by taking into account uncertainties in decision parameters and expert experience and mental models. This paper provides a step-by-step approach for accurate estimation of time and cost of projects using the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT and expert views as fuzzy numbers. The proposed method included several steps. In the first step, the necessary information for project time and cost is estimated using the Critical Path Method (CPM and the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. The second step considers the duration and cost of the project activities as the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and then, the time and cost of the project are recalculated. The duration and cost of activities are estimated using the questionnaires as well as weighing the expert opinions, averaging and defuzzification based on a step-by-step algorithm. The calculating procedures for evaluating these methods are applied in a real project; and the obtained results are explained.

  18. Study of electron recombination in liquid argon with the ICARUS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoruso, S.; Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bekman, B.; Benetti, P.; Bischofberger, M.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Bruzzese, R.; Bueno, A.; Buzzanca, M.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carbonara, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, D.; Chen, D.B.; Chen, Y.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.; Cocco, A.G.; Dai, Z.; De Vecchi, C.; Dabrowska, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Dolfini, R.; Ereditato, A.; Felcini, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferri, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galli, S.; Ge, Y.; Gibin, D.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Graczyk, K.; Grandi, L.; Guglielmi, A.; He, K.; Holeczek, J.; Huang, X.; Juszczak, C.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Laffranchi, M.; Lagoda, J.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mangano, G.; Markiewicz, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Meng, G.; Messina, M.; Montanari, C.; Muraro, S.; Navas-Concha, S.; Otwinowski, S.; Ouyang, Q.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Periale, L.; Piano Mortari, G.B.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Polopek, W.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rico, J.; Rondio, E.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Santorelli, R.; Scannicchio, D.; Segreto, E.; Seo, Y.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Spinelli, N.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Terrani, M.; Velotta, R.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zalewska, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhen, S.; Zipper, W.

    2004-01-01

    Electron recombination in liquid argon (LAr) is studied by means of charged particle tracks collected in various ICARUS liquid argon TPC prototypes. The dependence of the recombination on the particle stopping power has been fitted with a Birks functional dependence. The simulation of the process of electron recombination in Monte Carlo calculations is discussed. A quantitative comparison with previously published data is carried out

  19. Front-end electronics and readout system for the ILD TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Hedberg, V; Lundberg, B; Mjörnmark, U; Oskarsson, A; Österman, L; De Lentdecker, G; Yang, Y; Zhang, F

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution TPC is the main option for a central tracking detector at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). It is planned that the MPGD (Micro Pattern Gas Detector) technology will be used for the readout. A Large Prototype TPC at DESY has been used to test the performance of MPGDs in an electron beam of energies up to 6 GeV. The first step in the technology development was to demonstrate that the MPGDs are able to achieve the necessary performance set by the goals of ILC. For this ’proof of principle’ phase, the ALTRO front-end electronics from the ALICE TPC was used, modified to adapt to MPGD readout. The proof of principle has been verified and at present further improvement of the MPGD technology is going on, using the same readout electronics. The next step is the ’feasibility phase’, which aims at producing front-end electronics comparable in size (few mm2) to the readout pads of the TPC. This development work is based on the succeeding SALTRO16 chip, which combines the analogue ...

  20. Measuring Cross-Section and Estimating Uncertainties with the fissionTPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Manning, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seilhan, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The purpose of this document is to outline the prescription for measuring fission cross-sections with the NIFFTE fissionTPC and estimating the associated uncertainties. As such it will serve as a work planning guide for NIFFTE collaboration members and facilitate clear communication of the procedures used to the broader community.

  1. ALICE TPC gas system is the first of the LHC experiments to be put on line

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Picture 01 : the Physics Department's DT1 gas systems team in their laboratory. Picture 02 : Chilo Garabatos (ALICE) and Stefan Haider (PH-DT1-GS) in front of the gas system for the ALICE TPC which has just been put on line.

  2. Relationship between time management in construction industry and project management performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Najuwa; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Radzuan, Kamaruddin

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, construction industry particularly in Malaysia struggle in achieving status of eminent time management for construction project. Project managers have a great responsibility to keep the project success under time of project completion. However, studies shows that delays especially in Malaysian construction industry still unresolved due to weakness in managing the project. In addition, quality of time management on construction projects is generally poor. Due to the progressively extended delays issue, time performance becomes an important subject to be explored to investigate delay factors. The method of this study is review of literature towards issues in construction industry which affecting time performance of project in general by focusing towards process involved for project management. Based on study, it was found that knowledge, commitment, cooperation are the main criteria as an overall to manage the project into a smooth process during project execution until completion. It can be concluded that, the strength between project manager and team members in these main criteria while conducting the project towards good time performance is highly needed. However, there is lack of establishment towards factors of poor time performance which strongly related with project management. Hence, this study has been conducted to establish factors of poor time performance and its relations with project management.

  3. Project time boxing and milestones as drivers for open design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    is very positive and that the structure, strict enforcement and rolling project management responsibility in a group work setting really helps them drive the project forward with high motivation. The main challenge lies in the balance between loading the teams with too many challenges and just providing......The Curriculums and programs in Problem Based Learning (PBL) utilizes the project-format in a team based setting for rehearsing the competencies of applying the design-oriented skills and knowledge learned in courses and workshops. If the project period is self-organised, there is a tendency......, because of the facilitated format where ‘disturbances’ are eliminated. If successful the state of creative flow is achieved. So how can we create a sense of urgency in longer project periods, not just workshop format, that would help a team of design students to engage and drive the project from the start...

  4. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Program, and of benefit to the federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is to provide services or programs, must be started within one year from grant approval. The grant project term... stages. Funding of one stage of a multi-staged proposal in no way implies that subsequent stages will...

  5. Time, Place and Identity in Project Work on the Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2005-01-01

    This chapter identifies some of the fundamental conditions and factors that affect collaborative project work on the Net. Understanding them is fundamental to developing key qualities in Net-based collaborative learning such as confidence, reliability, and trust. We argue that: (1) Collaboration...... of Computer-Mediated Communication program at Roskilde University, Denmark....

  6. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Wu, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...

  7. Time for Decarbonization of Conservation and Development Projects? The Political Ecology of Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre L. Ibisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The globe's first carbon projects were designed and implemented approximately 20 years ago following scientific insights that emissions of greenhouse gases needed to be mitigated. Visible in some of these early projects were the important aspects of social governance and local benefit sharing. The projects promised to be a panacea to environmental, social and economic problems in remote rural areas of developing countries. However, it took another decade before a wave of hundreds of carbon projects were launched. Many of the projects were offered under the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, plus the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement, as well as under a variety of voluntary schemes and national programs, public-private partnerships, and forestry-based investment initiatives. As decision-makers prepare the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change in Paris (COP21, Earthscan has released a book entitled `Carbon conflicts and forest landscapes in Africa', edited by Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones. According to the editors, the focus of the book is on what happens on the ground when carbon forestry projects arrive, what types of projects work, and, equally important, what doesn’t work.

  8. Development of Time Projection Chambers with Micromegas for Rare Event Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas, Alfredo; Villar, J A

    The Rare Event Searches is a heterogeneous field from the point of view of their physical motivations: double betha neutrinoless decay experiments, direct detection of WIMPs as well as axions and other WISPs (candidates for the DM, but also motivated by other questions from Particle Physics). The field is rather defined by the requirements of these experiments, essentially a very sensitive detector with low background which is usually operated in underground laboratories. The availability of a rich description of the event registered by the detector is a powerful tool for the discrimination of the signal from the background. The topological description of the interaction that can be delivered by a gaseous TPC is a useful source of information about the event. The generic requirements for a gaseous TPC that is intended for rare event searches are very good imaging capabilities, high gain and efficiency, stability and reliability and radio-purity, which could imply working with particular gases, in absence of q...

  9. A mathematical model for crashing projects by considering time, cost, quality and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employers are looking for reducing execution time and maintaining the quality of the projects that are the main objective of the projects. In this article, we focus on crashing projects by con-sidering different factors such as cost, time, quality and risk. For the proposed integer linear model, cost of conformance and cost of non-conformance are considered as parts of the costs of quality of deliverables in projects. The cost of conformance consists of the costs of training the project team, inspection and test of deliverables. The cost of non-conformance also includes costs of rework and scrap. Project risk management is one of the important aspects of the pro-jects. The present study also considers the impact of risks, which is highly applicable in projects with a high level of uncertainty. Results are presented using integer programming approach with the aim of minimizing the costs of the project.

  10. Magnetic Field Requirements for a Detector at the Linear Collider Using a TPC as Main Tracking Device

    CERN Document Server

    Klempt, W

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the requirements to the magnetic field which occur in an ILD like detector at ILC or CLIC. In particular we describe requirements introduced by choosing a TPC as main tracking detector.

  11. Results on search for a QGP with a TPC magnetic spectrometer at AGS and plans for an ∼4π TPC magnetic spectrometer at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a search for a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) with a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer at AGS by the BNL/CCNY/Johns Hopkins/Rice (E-810) Collaboration is discussed. At AGS energies the expected increase in baryon density is near maximum. If a QGP is formed even rarely this approach provides a sensitive method for its detection. We have found some interesting phenomena including strangeness enhancement, multi-Λ and K s 0 events and an increased slope for π - (corresponding to a reduced temperature) in the usual temperature plot for p perpendicular < 0.2 GeV/c. We plan to increase the statistics with the 14.5 GeV/c x A Si ions on targets from light to heavy and then to continue the program with incident Au ions. In Part 2 we discuss the BNL/CCNY/Notre Dame/Rice proposal for an ∼ 4π TPC Magnetic Spectrometer for RHIC which we believe will be a sensitive probe for hadronic QGP signals, and also capable of observing departures from QCD should they occur. 8 refs., 12 figs

  12. On distortions of TPC coordinates: inhomogeneities of electric and magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F

    2003-01-01

    After a general discussion of electron drift in a gas volume with electric and magnetic fields, distortions in the r and r phi coordinates arising from inhomogeneities of the electric and magnetic fields in the HARP TPC are calculated. Inhomogeneities of the electric field arise from i) positive ions released by cosmic rays, ii) positive ions released by interaction secondaries, iii) positive ions released by beam muons, iv) positive ions released from beam particles downstream of the inner field cage, and v) a high voltage misalignment between the outer and inner field cages. Also, distortions arising from the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field are calculated. These effects resolve the controversy on unphysical numbers of 'wrong-charge' TPC tracks. The bad news are that effects are too big to be neglected. The good news are that, with enough sweat and tears, they can be adequately corrected.

  13. Performance Of A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Exposed To The WANF Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F.; Bonesini, M.; di Tigliole, A.Borio; Boschetti, B.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Casagrande, F.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, E.; Cline, D.; Curioni, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Ferrari, A.; Ghezzi, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Kisiel, J.; Mannocchi, G.; de la Ossa, A.Martinez; Matthey, C.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Navas, S.; Negri, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Paganoni, M.; Palamara, O.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Mortari, G.Piano; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Puccini, A.; Pullia, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Redaelli, N.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sobczyk, J.; Suzuki, S.; de Fatis, T.Tabarelli; Terrani, M.; Terranova, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.; Zalewska, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low multiplicity neutrino interactions.

  14. Ensuring long time access to DELPHI data: the IDEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporesi, T.; Charpentier, P.; Elsing, M.; Liko, D.; Smirnov, N.; Wicke, D.

    2001-01-01

    The long term accessibility of its data is an important concern of the DELPHI collaboration. It is the authors' assumption that the storage of the data itself will be a minor issue due to the progress in storage technologies. Therefore DELPHI focuses on a reorganisation of the data, which should provide a flexible and coherent framework for physics analysis in the future. The authors describe the current status of the IDEA (Improved DElphi Analysis) project which will ensure usability of DELPHI data for future generations of physicists

  15. Simulation of double beta decay in the 'SeXe' TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, F [LPC Caen and University of Caen, ENSICAEN, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN CEDEX 4 (France)

    2007-04-15

    In 2004, the NEMO collaboration has started some preliminary studies for a next-generation double beta decay experiment: SuperNEMO. The possibility to use a large gaseous TPC has been investigated using simulation and extrapolation of former experiments. In this talk, I report on the reasons why such techniques have not been selected in 2004 and led the NEMO collaboration to reuse the techniques implemented within the NEMO3 detector.

  16. Simulation of double beta decay in the ''SeXe'' TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, F.

    2007-04-01

    In 2004, the NEMO collaboration has started some preliminary studies for a next-generation double beta decay experiment: SuperNEMO. The possibility to use a large gaseous TPC has been investigated using simulation and extrapolation of former experiments. In this talk, I report on the reasons why such techniques have not been selected in 2004 and led the NEMO collaboration to reuse the techniques implemented within the NEMO3 detector.

  17. First performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chengxin; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Appelshäuser, Harald; Bratrud, Lars Karlot Stubberud; Castro, Andrew; Costa, Filippo; David, Ernö; Gunji, Tako; Kirsch, S; Kiss, Tivadar; Langøy, Rune; Lien, Jørgen; Lippmann, C; Oskarsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    - This paper presents the first performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). With the upgraded hardware typology and the new readout scheme in FPGA design, the RCU2 is designed to achieve twice the readout speed of the present Readout Control Unit. Design choices such as using the flash-based Microsemi Smartfusion2 FPGA and applying mitigation techniques in interfaces and FPGA design ensure a high degree of radiation tolerance. This paper presents the system level ir...

  18. Beleaguered Egypt project running out of funds and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Started in 1979 as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Family of the Future (FOF) social marketing project accounts for 35% of all contraceptives used in Egypt. FOF left the IPPF in 1981 to work as a nonprofit, semiprivate organization under the supervision of Egypt's Ministry of Health and has become the third largest social marketing project in the world. FOF has, however, gone through 5 executive directors in the last 6 years, prompting critics to think that the Board of Directors is hand-picked by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. additional allegations of financial mismanagement have caused the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to cancel over $1.5 million in annual funding and product support for the program. Until recently, FOF has benefited from products and operations and technical assistance totalling near $20 million as part of a USAID 10-year, $118-million Egyptian effort. FOF has responded to the funding cut by downsizing its staff and preparing to raise contraceptive prices. Even though USAID has solicited proposals for competitive replacement programs, the new executive director is optimistic that funding cuts leading to organizational change and price increases will ultimately help FOF become self-sufficient. Once USAID-provided supplies have been depleted, FOF will most likely turn to IPPF for assistance.

  19. Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald V.

    The Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) experiment was based on three innovations in data processing technology: (1) the advent of computer time-sharing on third-generation machines, (2) the development of general-purpose file-management software and (3) the introduction of large, library-oriented data bases. The main body of the…

  20. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, The Maruti Project. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    REAL - TIME OPERATING SYSTEM , THE MARUTI PROJECT Part 1 of 2 Ashok K. Agrawala Satish K. Tripathi Department of Computer Science University of Maryland...Hard Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s) 5c. Project # DRPB Ashok K. Agrawala...SdSA94), a real - time operating system developed at the I3nversity of Maryland, and conducted extensive experiments under various task

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Tae Yong; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  2. Structure of Voltage-gated Two-pore Channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Weizhong; Chen, Qingfeng; Lee, Changkeun; Chen, Liping; Yang, Yi; Cang, Chunlei; Ren, Dejian; Jiang, Youxing

    2015-01-01

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) contain two copies of a Shaker-like six-transmembrane (6-TM) domain in each subunit and are ubiquitously expressed in both animals and plants as organellar cation channels. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a vacuolar two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtTPC1, which functions as a homodimer. AtTPC1 activation requires both voltage and cytosolic Ca2+. Ca2+ binding to the cytosolic EF-hand domain triggers conformational changes coupled to the pair of pore-lining inner helices (IS6 helices) from the first 6-TM domains, whereas membrane potential only activates the second voltage-sensing domain (VSD2) whose conformational changes are coupled to the pair of inner helices (IIS6 helices) from the second 6-TM domains. Luminal Ca2+ or Ba2+ can modulate voltage activation by stabilizing VSD2 in the resting state and shifts voltage activation towards more positive potentials. Our Ba2+ bound AtTPC1 structure reveals a voltage sensor in the resting state, providing hitherto unseen structural insight into the general voltage-gating mechanism among voltage-gated channels. PMID:26689363

  3. Energy resolution studies of an IROC GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, Andreas [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , D-85748, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE collaboration (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is planning an upgrade of its central barrel detectors, to be able to cope with the increased LHC luminosity beyond 2018. In order to fully exploit the increase in collision rate to about 50 kHz in Pb-Pb, the TPC is foreseen to be operated in an ungated mode with continuous readout. This demands for a replacement of the currently used, gated MWPC by GEM-based readout chambers, while retaining the present tracking and particle identification capabilities of the TPC via measurement of the specific energy loss (dE/dx). The present baseline solution for the TPC upgrade consists of a stack of four large-sized GEM foils as amplification stage, containing both Standard (S, 140 μm) and Large Pitch (LP, 280 μm) GEM foils arranged in the order S-LP-LP-S. This arrangement has been proven as advantageous in terms of ion backflow and energy resolution. A prototype of an ALICE IROC (Inner Readout Chamber) was equipped with such a quadruple GEM stack, installed inside a field cage and exposed to a beam of electrons and pions from the CERN PS. The performance of the prototype in terms of energy resolution has been evaluated and is presented.

  4. Evaluating a Real-Time Bio Surveillance Program : Pilot Project ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza and tuberculosis continue to pose a serious threat to the world's most vulnerable countries. There is growing consensus that timely and effective information on the incidence of disease at the ...

  5. A new timing detector for the CT-PPS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcidiacono, R. [INFN – Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    The CT-PPS detector will be installed close to the beam line on both sides of CMS, 200 m downstream the interaction point. This detector will measure forward scattered protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive hadron physics and Central Exclusive Production. The main components of the CT-PPS detector are a silicon tracking system and a timing system. In this contribution we present the proposal of an innovative solution for the timing system, based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are a novel concept of silicon detectors potentially able to obtain the necessary time resolution (∼20 ps on the proton arrival time). The use of UFSD has also other attractive features as its material budget is small and the pixel geometries can be tailored to the precise physics distribution of protons. UFSD prototypes for CT-PPS have been designed by CNM (Barcelona) and FBK (Trento): we will present the status of the sensor productions and of the low-noise front-end electronics currently under development and test.

  6. Automobile Engine: Basic Ignition Timing. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, James E.

    These two vocational instructional modules on basic automobile ignition timing and on engine operation, four-stroke cycle, are two of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the…

  7. Finite-time analysis of global projective synchronization on coloured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The earliest research of modern network theory could be traced back to the ..... ference between the two examples is that while the first example studies ... method – a finite-time control technique – was applied to achieve synchronization of the.

  8. Measurement of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV using TPC and EMCal detectors with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Cristiane

    Heavy-ion collisions are a powerful tool to study hot and dense QCD matter, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Since heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are dominantly produced in the early stages of the collision, they experience the complete evolution of the system. Measurements of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decay is one possible way to study the interaction of these particles with the QGP. With ALICE at LHC, electrons can be identified with high efficiency and purity. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour decay electrons has been observed at high $p_{m T}$ in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Measurements in p-Pb collisions are crucial to understand cold nuclear matter effects on heavy-flavour production in heavy-ion collisions. The spectrum of electrons from the decays of hadrons containing charm and beauty was measured in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt = 5.02$ TeV. The heavy flavour decay electrons were measured by using the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) detec...

  9. DOTD support for UTC project : travel time estimation using bluetooth, [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Travel time estimates are useful tools for measuring congestion in an urban area. Current : practice involves using probe vehicles or video cameras to measure travel time, but this is a laborintensive and expensive means of obtaining the information....

  10. Improving value of travel time savings estimation for more effective transportation project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Estimates of value of time (VOT) and value of travel time savings (VTTS) are critical elements in benefitcost : analyses of transportation projects and in developing congestion pricing policies. In addition, : differences in VTTS among various modes ...

  11. Adaptive Control and Function Projective Synchronization in 2D Discrete-Time Chaotic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Chen Yong; Li Biao

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive control and function projective synchronization problems between 2D Rulkov discrete-time system and Network discrete-time system. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate the function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems. In addition, the adaptive control function is applied to achieve the state synchronization of two discrete-time systems. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  12. Developer’s time spent in a software project part using the SGD framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesluk, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resource management is important for software projects to be successful. Time is one of these resources that needs to be managed. To do this you need to know how time resources are spent. Currently the existence of published material on time resources spent in a software project is almost none. In this thesis a research was conducted on how time resources are spent by an individual developer in a software project. The Self-Governance Developer framework was the tool used to gather these resou...

  13. Half Double Methodology – Leading projects to impact in half the time with double the impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Michael; Svejvig, Per

    this presentation to learn about the three core elements of the half-double methodology so that you can lead your projects to double the impact in half the time. Objectives: Summarize the half-double methodology and core elements of impact, flow, and leadership; explain how PMI’s project management tools can......Despite developments in agile methodologies over the last 20 years, the potential for optimization in projects is still significant. Current research shows that there are methodologies that can be used to reduce lead time and increase value creation of projects by 30% or more. Join...

  14. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.

  15. Risk assessment framework on time impact: Infrastructure projects in soft soil during construction stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W. W.; Wong, K. S.; Lee, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    With the growth of economy and population, there is an increase in infrastructure construction projects. As such, it is unavoidable to have construction projects on soft soil. Without proper risk management plan, construction projects are vulnerable to different types of risks which will have negative impact on project’s time, cost and quality. Literature review showed that little or none of the research is focused on the risk assessment on the infrastructure project in soft soil. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a risk assessment framework in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage. This research was focused on the impact of risks on project time and internal risk factors. The research method was Analytical Hierarchy Process and the sample population was experienced industry experts who have experience in infrastructure projects. Analysis was completed and result showed that for internal factors, the five most significant risks on time element are lack of special equipment, potential contractual disputes and claims, shortage of skilled workers, delay/lack of materials supply, and insolvency of contractor/sub-contractor. Results indicated that resources risk factor play a critical role on project time frame in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase in time benefits, but vary depending on the projects....

  17. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  18. TPC2 polymorphisms associated with a hair pigmentation phenotype in humans result in gain of channel function by independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Kai; Schludi, Verena; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth; Nguyen, O N Phuong; Müller, Martin; Krüger, Jens; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Ben-Johny, Manu; Vollmar, Angelika M; Berking, Carola; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Grimm, Christian

    2017-10-10

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens such as Ebola virus or bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera toxin). In a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics two coding variants of TPC2, rs35264875 (encoding M484L) and rs3829241 (encoding G734E), have been found to be associated with a shift from brown to blond hair color. In two recent follow-up studies a role for TPC2 in pigmentation has been further confirmed. However, these human polymorphic variants have not been functionally characterized until now. The development of endolysosomal patch-clamp techniques has made it possible to investigate directly ion channel activities and characteristics in isolated endolysosomal organelles. We applied this technique here to scrutinize channel characteristics of the polymorphic TPC2 variants in direct comparison with WT. We found that both polymorphisms lead to a gain of channel function by independent mechanisms. We next conducted a clinical study with more than 100 blond- and brown/black-haired individuals. We performed a genotype/phenotype analysis and subsequently isolated fibroblasts from WT and polymorphic variant carriers for endolysosomal patch-clamp experimentation to confirm key in vitro findings.

  19. The International Pulsar Timing Array project: using pulsars as a gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, G; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Archibald, A [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arzoumanian, Z [CRESST/USRA, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Backer, D [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Burgay, M [Universita di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, SP Monserrato-Sestu km 0.7, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Cognard, I; Desvignes, G; Ferdman, R D [Station de Radioastronomie de Nanay, Observatoire de Paris, 18330 Nancay (France); Coles, W [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Cordes, J [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Demorest, P [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Finn, L [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Freire, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf Dem Huegel 69, 53121, Bonn (Germany); Gonzalez, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, J [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hotan, A, E-mail: george.hobbs@csiro.a [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2010-04-21

    The International Pulsar Timing Array project combines observations of pulsars from both northern and southern hemisphere observatories with the main aim of detecting ultra-low frequency (approx 10{sup -9}-10{sup -8} Hz) gravitational waves. Here we introduce the project, review the methods used to search for gravitational waves emitted from coalescing supermassive binary black-hole systems in the centres of merging galaxies and discuss the status of the project.

  20. Quality assurance of GEM foils in the framework of the TPC upgrade in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, Melih Arslan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the TPC upgrade of the ALICE Experiment, new readout chambers will be installed during the LHC long shutdown 2, which is scheduled to start in July 2018. The current MWPCs (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers) will be replaced by readout chambers consisting of GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) foils in order to meet the increasing readout rate requirements. QA (Quality Assurance) tests on the GEMs are performed to classify the foils. In this report we present the work done during the CERN Summer Student Programme 2016.

  1. {sup 11}C- and {sup 18}F Production at TPC RK2 Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, O.; Johansson, S.; Eriksson, P-O.; Rajander, J.; Kokkomäki, E.; Helin, S.; Arponen, E.; Aromaa, J.; Savisto, N.; Bergman, J.; Heselius, S-J. [Turku PET Centre, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory and Accelerator Laboratory, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Four gas targets for production of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} and [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 4} as well as static and one circulating water target for [{sup 18}F]fluoride production have been installed on the external beam line of the CC18/9 cyclotron (Efremov Institute for Electrophysical Apparatuses, St. Petersburg, Russia) at TPC. The cyclotron is capable of accelerating 18 MeV protons (9 MeV deuterons) at particle beam intensities in excess of 100 μA. The aim with these radionuclide production systems is high yield, high specific radioactivity precursor production for PET radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. Operation of a LAr-TPC equipped with a multilayer LEM charge readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibussinov, B.; Centro, S.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Meng, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Zatrimaylov, K.

    2018-03-01

    A novel detector for ionization signals in a single phase LAr-TPC has been experimented in the ICARINO test facility at the INFN Laboratories in Legnaro. It is based on the adoption of a multilayer Large Electron Multiplier (LEM) replacing the traditional anodic wire arrays. Cosmic muon tracks were detected allowing the measurement of energy deposition and a first determination of the signal to noise ratio. The analysis of the recorded events demonstrated the 3D reconstruction capability of this device for ionizing events in liquid Argon. The collected fraction of ionization charge is close to about 90%, with signal to noise ratio similar to that measured with more traditional wire chambers.

  3. A Continuously Running High-Rate GEM-TPC for P-bar ANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, F.V., E-mail: felix.valentin.boehmer@cern.ch [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Physik Department, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Angerer, H.; Dorheim, S.; Hoeppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Zhang, X. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Physik Department, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Berger, M.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany); Beck, R.; Kaiser, D.; Lang, M.; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Winnebeck, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The P-bar ANDA fixed target experiment planned at FAIR will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It makes use of a cooled antiproton beam (momentum: 1.5 to 15GeV/c) and will reach luminosities of up to 2.10{sup 32}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, yielding a p-bar p-annihilation rate of 2.10{sup 7}s{sup -1}. One option for the central tracker of P-bar ANDA is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running TPC with GEM-based gas amplification stage.

  4. A Continuously Running High-Rate GEM-TPC for P-bar ANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, F.V.; Angerer, H.; Dorheim, S.; Hoeppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Zhang, X.; Berger, M.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Beck, R.; Kaiser, D.; Lang, M.; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Winnebeck, A.

    2011-01-01

    The P-bar ANDA fixed target experiment planned at FAIR will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It makes use of a cooled antiproton beam (momentum: 1.5 to 15GeV/c) and will reach luminosities of up to 2.10 32 cm -2 s -1 , yielding a p-bar p-annihilation rate of 2.10 7 s -1 . One option for the central tracker of P-bar ANDA is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running TPC with GEM-based gas amplification stage.

  5. τ physics using the TPC/2γ facility at HiLum PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Plans for a TPC/2γ facility program using HiLum PEP for τ physics are presented. The detector and its performance are described in some detail. The possibilities for a τ physics program with an integrated luminosity of 1 fb -1 are discussed. The physics issues are reviewed, particularly the τ'1-prong' problem, and preliminary results on τ → ν τ K +- X + X - + ≥ 0 Neutrals are shown. The performance of HiLum PEP is also presented, and expectations for the future are discussed. (R.P.) 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Causes of time overrun of education trust fund building projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study surveyed Education Trust Fund building projects in some tertiary institutions in north central Nigeria with the aim of ascertaining the causes of time overrun of these projects. The survey was carried out with the help of a structured questionnaire administered to clients, consultants and contractors' alike.

  7. The International Pulsar Timing Array project: using pulsars as a gravitational wave detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbs, G.; Archibald, A.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Cognard, I.; Coles, W.; Cordes, J.; Demorest, P.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R.D.; Finn, L.; Freire, P.; Gonzalez, M.; Hessels, J.; Hotan, A.; Janssen, G.; Jenet, F.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Kaspi, V.; Kramer, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Lazio, J.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K.J.; Levin, Y.; Lommen, A.; Lorimer, D.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Nice, D.; Oslowski, S.; Pilia, M.; Possenti, A.; Purver, M.; Ransom, S.; Reynolds, J.; Sanidas, S.; Sarkissian, J.; Sesana, A.; Shannon, R.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Theureau, G.; van Haasteren, R.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Yardley, D.R.B.; You, X.P.

    2010-01-01

    The International Pulsar Timing Array project combines observations of pulsars from both northern and southern hemisphere observatories with the main aim of detecting ultra-low frequency (similar to 10(-9)-10(-8) Hz) gravitational waves. Here we introduce the project, review the methods used to

  8. Space-time least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection in nonlinear model reduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngsoo [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Extreme-scale Data Science and Analytics Dept.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Extreme-scale Data Science and Analytics Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Our work proposes a space-time least-squares Petrov-Galerkin (ST-LSPG) projection method for model reduction of nonlinear dynamical systems. In contrast to typical nonlinear model-reduction methods that first apply Petrov-Galerkin projection in the spatial dimension and subsequently apply time integration to numerically resolve the resulting low-dimensional dynamical system, the proposed method applies projection in space and time simultaneously. To accomplish this, the method first introduces a low-dimensional space-time trial subspace, which can be obtained by computing tensor decompositions of state-snapshot data. The method then computes discrete-optimal approximations in this space-time trial subspace by minimizing the residual arising after time discretization over all space and time in a weighted ℓ2-norm. This norm can be de ned to enable complexity reduction (i.e., hyper-reduction) in time, which leads to space-time collocation and space-time GNAT variants of the ST-LSPG method. Advantages of the approach relative to typical spatial-projection-based nonlinear model reduction methods such as Galerkin projection and least-squares Petrov-Galerkin projection include: (1) a reduction of both the spatial and temporal dimensions of the dynamical system, (2) the removal of spurious temporal modes (e.g., unstable growth) from the state space, and (3) error bounds that exhibit slower growth in time. Numerical examples performed on model problems in fluid dynamics demonstrate the ability of the method to generate orders-of-magnitude computational savings relative to spatial-projection-based reduced-order models without sacrificing accuracy.

  9. Schedule evolution during the life-time of the LHC project

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; Gaillard, H; Hauviller, Claude; Weisz, S

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider Project was approved by the CERN Council in December 1994. The CERN management opted from the beginning of the project for a very aggressive installation planning based on a just-in-time sequencing of all activities. This paper aims to draw how different factors (technical development, procurement, logistics and organization) have impacted on the schedule evolution through the lifetime of the project. It describes the cause effect analysis of the major rescheduling that occurred during the installation of the LHC and presents some general conclusions potentially applicable in other projects.

  10. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  11. Function Projective Synchronization in Discrete-Time Chaotic System with Uncertain Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Li Xin

    2009-01-01

    The function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems is presented. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate function projective synchronization (FPS) of discrete-time chaotic systems with uncertain parameters. With the aid of symbolic-numeric computation, we use the proposed scheme to illustrate FPS between two identical 3D Henon-like maps with uncertain parameters. Numeric simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of our scheme. (general)

  12. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2003-01-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems

  13. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  14. Characterization of UV-enhanced SiPMs for Imaging in High Pressure Xenon Electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahlali, Nadia; Lorca, David; Fernandes, L.M.P.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of recording charged particle tracks in an electro-luminescent xenon gas TPC is investigated using a SiPM-based tracking system, operated in the demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 ββ decay experiment. The tracks of the ββ0ν events from the decay of the 136 Xe isotope have a distinctive topology, which allows their discrimination against single-electron events from the natural radioactivity that populates the region of interest of the neutrinoless decay in the ββ energy spectrum. Combined to the near-intrinsic energy resolution of the gaseous detector, this tracking capability provides a powerful background rejection tool for the search of the neutrinoless ββ decay aimed by the experiment. The NEXT-100 detector concepts and sensitivity and the first results of its demonstrator prototype are presented. The characterization studies relevant for the operation of UV-enhanced SiPMs used for imaging in an electro-luminescent TPC are reviewed. (authors)

  15. Identifying Charged Hadrons on the Relativistic Rise Using the ALICE TPC at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The chain from hadron collisions to the physics results requires several important links. First the outcome of the collision is measured by the detectors. Then, the signal from the detector is processed and transformed into information relevant for the study of the physics processes. The data is made available to physicists to be analysed and used to improve theories. This thesis presents work done on no most of these steps for the ALICE experiment at LHC. First a study of the main processes in the TPC detector for ALICE was done using simulation and test beam data. The results are shown in paper I. The study was deepened with the analysis of test beam data from a TPC prototype for the ILC, as shown in paper III. Concurrently, a study on the Grid – computing framework for distributed computing and storage resources – was performed. This involved the development of an interface module between the ALICE software AliEn and the ARC software developped in the Nordic countries. This work is presented in paper I...

  16. Implementation of lean construction techniques for minimizing the risks effect on project construction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Hamed Issa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction projects involve various risk factors which have various impacts on time objective that may lead to time-overrun. This study suggests and applies a new technique for minimizing risk factors effect on time using lean construction principles. The lean construction is implemented in this study using the last planner system through execution of an industrial project in Egypt. Evaluating the effect of using the new tool is described in terms of two measurements: Percent Expected Time-overrun (PET and Percent Plan Completed (PPC. The most important risk factors are identified and assessed, while PET is quantified at the project start and during the project execution using a model for time-overrun quantification. The results showed that total project time is reduced by 15.57% due to decreasing PET values, while PPC values improved. This is due to minimizing and mitigating the effect of most of the risk factors in this project due to implementing lean construction techniques. The results proved that the quantification model is suitable for evaluating the effect of using lean construction techniques. In addition, the results showed that average value of PET due to factors affected by lean techniques represents 67% from PET values due to all minimized risk factors.

  17. Projective Synchronization in Modulated Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using an Active Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)

  18. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, the Maruti Project. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s...The maruti hard real - time " operating system . A CM SIGOPS, Operating Systems Review. 23:90-106, July 1989. 254 !1 110) C. L. Liu and J. Layland...February 14, 1995 Abstract The Maruti Real - Time Operating System was developed for applications that must meet hard real-time constraints. In order

  19. Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF TIMES AND COSTS OF PROJECT OF HORIZONTAL LAMINATOR PRODUCTION USING PERT/CPM TECHNICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Lermen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time.  In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations.  When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.

  1. Real-Time Projection-Based Augmented Reality System for Dynamic Objects in the Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case study of applying projection-based augmented reality, especially for dynamic objects in live performing shows, such as plays, dancing, or musicals. Our study aims to project imagery correctly inside the silhouettes of flexible objects, in other words, live actors or the surface of actor’s costumes; the silhouette transforms its own shape frequently. To realize this work, we implemented a special projection system based on the real-time masking technique, that is to say real-time projection-based augmented reality system for dynamic objects in performing arts. We installed the sets on a stage for live performance, and rehearsed particular scenes of a musical. In live performance, using projection-based augmented reality technology enhances technical and theatrical aspects which were not possible with existing video projection techniques. The projected images on the surfaces of actor’s costume could not only express the particular scene of a performance more effectively, but also lead the audience to an extraordinary visual experience.

  2. Transverse Position Reconstruction in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber using Principal Component Analysis and Multi-Dimensional Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew William

    2017-08-01

    One of the most enduring questions in modern physics is the dark matter problem. Measurements of galactic rotation curves taken in the middle of the twentieth century suggest that there are large spherical halos of unseen matter permeating and surrounding most galaxies, stretching far beyond their visible extents. Although some of this mass discrepancy can be attributed to sources like primordial black holes or Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs), these theories can only explain a small percentage of this "missing matter". One approach which could account for the entirety of this missing mass is the theory of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or "WIMPs". As their name suggests, WIMPs interact only through the weak nuclear force and gravity and are quite massive (100 GeV/c2 to 1 TeV/c2). These particles have very small cross sections ( ≈ 10-39 cm2) with nucleons and therefore interact only very rarely with "normal" baryonic matter. To directly detect a dark matter particle, one needs to overcome this small cross-section barrier. In many experiments, this is achieved by utilizing detectors filled with liquid noble elements, which have excellent particle identification capabilities and are very low-background, allowing potential WIMP signals to be more easily distinguished from detector noise. These experiments also often apply uniform electric fields across their liquid volumes, turning the apparatus into Time Projection Chambers or "TPCs". TPCs can accurately determine the location of an interaction in the liquid volume (often simply called an "event") along the direction of the electric field. In DarkSide-50 ("DS-50" for short), the electric field is aligned antiparallel to the z-axis of the detector, and so the depth of an event can be determined to a considerable degree of accuracy by measuring the time between the first and second scintillation signals ("S1" and "S2"), which are generated at the interaction point itself and in a small gas

  3. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Veltin, J.; Turkenburg, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of drag reducing polymers on the Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) of vertical air-water flows at near atmospheric conditions. The effect of polymer concentration, liquid and gas flow rates on the pressure drop curve (Tubing Performance Curve) was investigated

  4. Common risks affecting time overrun in road construction projects in Palestine: Contractors’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector is one of the key economic sectors and is the main force motivating the Palestinian national economy. However, it suffers from number of problems that affect time, cost and quality performances. This study aims at identifying the common risks affecting time overrun in road construction projects in the West Bank in Palestine from contractors’ viewpoint. 45 factors that might cause delays of road construction projects were defined through a detailed literature review. A questionnaire survey was performed to rank the considered factors in terms of severity and frequency. The analysis of the survey indicated that the top risks affecting time overrun in road construction projects in Palestine are: financial status of the contractors, payments delay by the owner, political situation, segmentation of the West Bank, poor communication between construction parties, lack of equipment efficiency, and high competition in bids.

  5. Amplification and scintillation properties of oxygen-rich gas mixtures for optical-TPC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, L; Gai, M; Breskin, A; Chechik, R; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Weller, H R

    2006-01-01

    We studied electron amplification and light emission from avalanches in oxygen-containing gas mixtures. The mixtures investigated in this work included, among others, CO 2 and N 2 O mixed with Triethylamine (TEA) or N 2 . Double-Step Parallel Gap (DSPG) multipliers and THick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) were investigated. High light yields were measured from CO 2 + N 2 and CO 2 + TEA, though with different emission spectra. We observed the characteristic wave-length emission of N 2 and of TEA and used a polymer wave-length shifter to convert TEA UV-light into the visible spectrum. The results of these measurements indicate the applicability of optical recording of ionizing tracks in a TPC target-detector designed to study the cross-sections of the 16 O(γ, α) 12 C reaction, a central problem in nuclear astrophysics

  6. First measurement of dE/dx with a GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhmer, F.V.; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Eckstein, K.; Hönle, A.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Uhl, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Berger, M.; Berger-Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Gasik, P.; Münzer, R.; Arora, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the first measurement of the specific energy loss (dE/dx) and an analysis of the resulting charged-particle identification (PID) capabilities of a large-scale TPC with GEM-based gas amplification. The data has been recorded inside the FOPI spectrometer at GSI, Germany, using reactions of 1.7 GeV/c pions impinging on a carbon target. In the specific energy loss spectrum clear bands for pions, kaons, protons and deuterons are observed. The specific energy loss resolution is studied as a function of the total particle momentum and as a function of the track length. It is found to be ∼15%, consistent with expectations

  7. First measurement of dE/dx with a GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhmer, F.V., E-mail: felix.boehmer@tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Eckstein, K.; Hönle, A.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Uhl, S.; Vandenbroucke, M. [Technische Universität München, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Berger, M.; Berger-Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Gasik, P.; Münzer, R. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arora, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-02-11

    In this work we present the first measurement of the specific energy loss (dE/dx) and an analysis of the resulting charged-particle identification (PID) capabilities of a large-scale TPC with GEM-based gas amplification. The data has been recorded inside the FOPI spectrometer at GSI, Germany, using reactions of 1.7 GeV/c pions impinging on a carbon target. In the specific energy loss spectrum clear bands for pions, kaons, protons and deuterons are observed. The specific energy loss resolution is studied as a function of the total particle momentum and as a function of the track length. It is found to be ∼15%, consistent with expectations.

  8. Meson and baryon correlation studies using the PEP-TPC/2γ Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1991-03-01

    Results on vector meson, and strange and charmed-baryon production are presented for data taken during the period 1982--1986 using the TPC/2γ detector at PEP. Vector mesons (ρ 0 , K * and φ) with 0, 1 and 2 strange quarks are used to obtain redundant measures of strange-quark suppression and of the vector to pseudoscalar ratio in hadronization. Measurements of the production rates of Λ, Ξ - , Ω and Ξ *0 hyperons and for the Λ c and of rapidity correlations between Λ bar Λ pairs provide sensitive tests of baryon production in fragmentation models. In addition, two- and three-particle correlations between like sign pions provide further evidence for the Bose-Einstein effect in e + e - interactions including the relativistic motion of particle sources. 9 refs., 7 figs

  9. Genetic algorithm for project time-cost optimization in fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md. Ariful Haque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research is to develop a more realistic approach to solve project time-cost optimization problem under uncertain conditions, with fuzzy time periods. Design/methodology/approach: Deterministic models for time-cost optimization are never efficient considering various uncertainty factors. To make such problems realistic, triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of a-cut method in fuzzy logic theory are employed to model the problem. Because of NP-hard nature of the project scheduling problem, Genetic Algorithm (GA has been used as a searching tool. Finally, Dev-C++ 4.9.9.2 has been used to code this solver. Findings: The solution has been performed under different combinations of GA parameters and after result analysis optimum values of those parameters have been found for the best solution. Research limitations/implications: For demonstration of the application of the developed algorithm, a project on new product (Pre-paid electric meter, a project under government finance launching has been chosen as a real case. The algorithm is developed under some assumptions. Practical implications: The proposed model leads decision makers to choose the desired solution under different risk levels. Originality/value: Reports reveal that project optimization problems have never been solved under multiple uncertainty conditions. Here, the function has been optimized using Genetic Algorithm search technique, with varied level of risks and fuzzy time periods.

  10. Usefulness of time-resolved projection MRA on evaluation of hemodynamics in cerebral occlusive diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Katsusuke; Nochide, Ichiro; Igase, Keiji; Harada, Hironobu; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagasawa, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics using time-resolved projection MRA was studied in normal volunteers and patients of cerebrovascular diseases. Six normal volunteers and ten patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases including 6 of IC occlusion and 4 of post EC/IC bypass surgery underwent time-resolved projection MRA on a 1.5 T clinical MRI system. Projection angiograms are acquired with 2D-fast SPGR sequence with a time resolution of approximately one image per second, 40 images being acquired consecutively before and after bolus injection Gd-DTPA. And all images were calculated by complex subtraction from the background mask in a work station. In normal volunteers, the quality of images of time-resolved projection MRA was satisfactory. The arteries from internal carotid artery through M2 segment of middle cerebral artery and all major venous systems were well portrayed. In 4 cases of IC occlusion who were assessed the collateral flow through the anterior communicating artery and posterior communicating artery, there were delayed to demonstrate the ipsilateral MCA. However, in 2 cases of IC occlusion that were assessed the collateral flow through leptomeningeal anastomosis, ipsilateral MCA and collateral circulation were not demonstrated. In all patients of post EC/IC bypass surgery, the patency of EC/IC bypass could be evaluated as properly with time-resolved projection MRA as 3D-TOF MRA. Although the temporal and spatial resolutions are insufficient, time-resolved projection MRA was power-full non-invasive method to evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics vis the basal communicating arteries in IC occlusion and identify the patency of EC/IC bypass. (author)

  11. Flow and spectra for light fragments from Au+Au collisions in the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisa, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We study the effects of the collective motion (flow) on distributions and yields of light fragments produced in heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac/SIS energy range. p, d, t, 3 He and α fragments emitted from Au+Au collisions at 0.25 - 1.15 AGeV bombarding energy were measured with the EOS TPC. The TPC has high and seamless acceptance in the forward hemisphere of the CM system, and excellent particle identification for light fragments. Analyses of the sidewards flow, squeeze-out, and radial flow signals are presented as a function of bombarding energy and centrality of the collision. The fragment mass systematics of the flow signals are seen to be consistent with a simple coalescence picture for the light particles studied. A unifying framework for describing many of the systematic features of the different types of flow (e.g. the p T dependence of squeeze-out) in terms of 3 parameters is discussed. Consistent with previous studies, the parameter describing squeeze-out is seen to be most sensitive to the Equation of State within a Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The effect on extracted temperature of various radial flow profiles is discussed. Finally, a preliminary study of light particle yields in terms of the Quantum Statistical Model (QSM) is presented. It is found that the beam energy dependence of the 'chemical' temperature obtained from the yields tracks with the 'kinetic' temperature obtained from the spectral fits, if one accounts for a flow profile. However, discrepancies between different implementations (computer codes) of the QSM must be resolved before drawing final conclusions about agreement. (authors)

  12. Speeding up development activities in student projects with time boxing and scrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This research project investigates how procedures from agile software development can be of benefit to development activities in projects of design engineering students. The agile methods Scrum and Time boxing are evaluated through a student workshop focusing on near-future concepts for design...... competitions. Scrum meetings within the student design teams are conducted and video documented each hour throughout the workshop activities as a structured process evaluation tool. Based on a subsequent student survey it is argued that scrum and time boxing are strengthening the focus, communication...

  13. project SENSE : multimodal simulation with full-body real-time verbal and nonverbal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miri, Hossein; Kolkmeier, Jan; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal simulation system, project-SENSE, that combines virtual reality and full-body motion capture technologies with real-time verbal and nonverbal communication. We introduce the technical setup and employed hardware and software of a first prototype. We discuss the

  14. Using linear time-invariant system theory to estimate kinetic parameters directly from projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    It is common practice to estimate kinetic parameters from dynamically acquired tomographic data by first reconstructing a dynamic sequence of three-dimensional reconstructions and then fitting the parameters to time activity curves generated from the time-varying reconstructed images. However, in SPECT, the pharmaceutical distribution can change during the acquisition of a complete tomographic data set, which can bias the estimated kinetic parameters. It is hypothesized that more accurate estimates of the kinetic parameters can be obtained by fitting to the projection measurements instead of the reconstructed time sequence. Estimation from projections requires the knowledge of their relationship between the tissue regions of interest or voxels with particular kinetic parameters and the project measurements, which results in a complicated nonlinear estimation problem with a series of exponential factors with multiplicative coefficients. A technique is presented in this paper where the exponential decay parameters are estimated separately using linear time-invariant system theory. Once the exponential factors are known, the coefficients of the exponentials can be estimated using linear estimation techniques. Computer simulations demonstrate that estimation of the kinetic parameters directly from the projections is more accurate than the estimation from the reconstructed images

  15. Space Versus Time: Unimodular Versus Non-Unimodular Projective Ring Geometries?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saniga, M.; Pracna, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2010), s. 719-735 ISSN 2159-063X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : projective ring lines * smallest ring of ternions * Germas: of space-time Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://journalofcosmology.com/Multiverse4.html

  16. An investigation of multiple time graphical analysis applied to projection data : Theory and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, RP; Calonder, C; Leenders, KL

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The determination of tissue time-activity course and pharmokinetics in PET is normally performed by region-of-interest analysis of reconstructed images. However, in some cases, the same analysis may equally well be performed on the data in projections before reconstruction, avoiding the

  17. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  18. Analog-to-digital conversion using custom CMOS analog memory for the EOS time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.L.; Arthur, A.A.; Jones, R.W.; Matis, H.S.; Nakamura, M.; Kleinfelder, S.A.; Ritter, H.G.; Wienman, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the multiplexing scheme of custom CMOS analog memory integrated circuits, 16 channels x 256 cells, into analog to digital converters (ADC's) to handle 15,360 signal channels of a time projection, chamber detector system. Primary requirements of this system are high density, low power and large dynamic range. The analog memory device multiplexing scheme was designed to digitize the information stored in the memory cells. The digitization time of the ADC's and the settling times for the memory unit were carefully interleaved to optimize the performance and timing during the multiplexing operation. This kept the total number of ADC's, a costly and power dissipative component, to an acceptable minimum

  19. Design and implementation of real-time wireless projection system based on ARM embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhaohua; Tang, Hao; Huang, Junhua

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the shortage of existing real-time screen sharing system, a real-time wireless projection system is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed system, a weight-based frame deletion strategy combined sampling time period and data variation is proposed. By implementing the system on the hardware platform, the results show that the system can achieve good results. The weight-based strategy can improve the service quality, reduce the delay and optimize the real-time customer service system [1].

  20. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... with the information sharing during NPD projects is limited; therefore, this study of longitudinal objective email data (4658 emails) during a NPD project contributes to theory and practice by advancing our understanding of when and how the project manager establishes relationships with different core actors inside...

  1. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-01-22

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  2. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Conceptual Design Report Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Adams, C.; Adamson, P.; Adhikari, S.; Ahmad, Z.; Albright, C.H.; Alion, T.; Amador, E.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Anghel, I.; Anjos, J. d.; Ankowski, A.; Antonello, M.; Aranda Fernandez, A.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Aristizabal, D.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aryal, K.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.; Athar, M.S.; Auger, M.; Aurisano, A.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Avila, M.; Back, J.J.; Bai, X.; Baibussinov, B.; Baird, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Ballett, P.; Bambah, B.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Barker, G.J.; Barletta, W.A.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Bartosz, B.; Bartoszek, L.; Bashyal, A.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Beacom, J.; Behera, B.R.; Bellettini, G.; Bellini, V.; Beltramello, O.; Benekos, N.; Benetti, P.A.; Bercellie, A.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Berns, H.; Bernstein, R.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhandari, B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Bishai, M.; Blackburn, T.; Blake, A.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blaufuss, E.; Bleakley, B.; Blucher, E.; Bocean, V.; Boffelli, F.; Boissevain, J.; Bolognesi, S.; Bolton, T.; Bonesini, M.; Boone, T.; Booth, C.; Bordoni, S.; Borysova, M.; Bourguille, B.; Boyd, S.B.; Brailsford, D.; Brandt, A.; Bremer, J.; Brice, S.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brown, G.; Brown, R.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Buchanan, N.; Budd, H.; Bugg, B.; Calafiura, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calvo, E.; Camilleri, L.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Carls, B.; Carr, R.; Cascella, M.; Castromonte, C.; Mur, E.Catano; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Chalifour, M.; Chandratre, V.B.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaussard, L.; Chembra, S.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, M.; Cherdack, D.; Chi, C.; Childress, S.; Choubey, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christodoulou, G.; Christofferson, C.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cline, D.; Coan, T.; Cocco, A.; Coelho, J.; Cole, P.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.; Corey, R.; Corwin, L.; Cranshaw, J.; Crivelli, P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Curioni, A.; Cushing, J.; Adams, D.L.; Dale, D.; Das, S.R.; Davenne, T.; Davies, G.S.; Davies, J.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; de Gouvea, A.; de Jong, J.K.; de Jong, P.; De Lurgio, P.; Decowski, M.; Delbart, A.; Densham, C.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhingra, N.; Di Luise, S.; Diamantopoulou, M.; Diaz, J.S.; Diaz Bautista, G.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolph, J.; Drake, G.; Duchesneau, D.; Duvernois, M.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dye, S.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Edgecock, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elliott, S.; Elnimr, M.; Emery, S.; Endress, E.; Eno, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escobar, C.O.; Evans, J.; Falcone, A.; Falk, L.; Farbin, A.; Farnese, C.; Farzan, Y.; Fava, A.; Favilli, L.; Felde, J.; Felix, J.; Fernandes, S.; Fields, L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Fleming, B.; Forest, T.; Fowler, J.; Fox, W.; Fried, J.; Friedland, A.; Fuess, S.; Fujikawa, B.; Gago, A.; Gallagher, H.; Galymov, S.; Gamble, T.; Gandhi, R.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Gardiner, S.; Garvey, G.; Gehman, V.M.; Gendotti, A.; Geronimo, G. d.; Ghag, C.; Ghoshal, P.; Gibin, D.; Gil-Botella, I.; Gill, R.; Girardelli, D.; Giri, A.; Glavin, S.; Goeldi, D.; Golapinni, S.; Gold, M.; Gomes, R.A.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.C.; Gorbunov, D.; Goswami, S.; Graf, N.; Graf, N.; Graham, M.; Gramelini, E.; Gran, R.; Grant, C.; Grant, N.; Greco, V.; Greenlee, H.; Greenler, L.; Greenley, C.; Groh, M.; Grullon, S.; Grundy, T.; Grzelak, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Guarino, V.; Guarnaccia, E.; Guedes, G.P.; Guenette, R.; Guglielmi, A.; Habig, A.T.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Hadavand, H.; Haenni, R.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, M.D.; Haines, T.; Hamernik, T.; Handler, T.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Hartnell, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hays, S.; Hazen, E.; Headley, M.; Heavey, A.; Heeger, K.; Heise, J.; Hennessy, K.; Hewes, J.; Higuera, A.; Hill, T.; Himmel, A.; Hogan, M.; Holanda, P.; Holin, A.; Honey, W.; Horikawa, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; Howard, B.; Howell, J.; Hurh, P.; Huston, J.; Hylen, J.; Imlay, R.; Insler, J.; Introzzi, G.; Ioanisyan, D.; Ioannisian, A.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jackson, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; James, C.; James, E.; Jediny, F.; Jen, C.; Jhingan, A.; Jimenez, S.; Jo, J.H.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, J.; Jones, B.J.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Jung, C.K.; Junk, T.; Kaboth, A.; Kadel, R.; Kafka, T.; Kalousis, L.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karasavvas, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, P.; Kayser, B.; Kazaryan, N.; Kearns, E.; Keener, P.; Kemboi, S.; Kemp, E.; Kettell, S.H.; Khabibullin, M.; Khandaker, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Klein, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kohn, S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopylov, A.; Kordosky, M.; Kormos, L.; Kose, U.; Kostelecky, A.; Kramer, M.; Kreslo, I.; Kriske, R.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kulagin, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, G.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kutter, T.; Laminack, A.; Lande, K.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Lanni, F.; Learned, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Lee, W.M.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Libo, J.; Lin, C.S.; Lin, S.; Ling, J.; Link, J.; Liptak, Z.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.; Loew, T.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, K.; Lopes, M.D.L.; Lopez, J.P.; Losecco, J.; Louis, W.; Lowery, J.; Luethi, M.; Luk, K.; Lundberg, B.; Lundin, T.; Luo, X.; Lux, T.; Lykken, J.; Machado, A.A.; Macier, J.R.; Magill, S.; Mahler, G.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Malhotra, S.; Malon, D.; Mammoliti, F.; Mancina, S.; Mandal, S.K.; Mandodi, S.; Manly, S.L.; Mann, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marciano, W.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Marino, A.; Marshak, M.; Marshall, C.; Marshall, J.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Martinez, D.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mayilyan, D.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McCluskey, E.; McConkey, N.; McDonald, K.; McFarland, K.S.; McGowan, A.M.; McGrew, C.; McKeown, R.; McNulty, D.; McTaggart, R.; Mefodiev, A.; Mehrian, M.; Mehta, P.; Mei, D.; Mena, O.; Menary, S.; Mendez, H.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Meng, Y.; Mertins, D.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M.; Metcalf, W.; Mewes, M.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Milincic, R.; Miller, W.; Mills, G.; Mineev, O.; Miranda, O.; Mishra, C.S.; Mishra, S.R.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanta, R.; Mokhov, N.; Montanari, C.; Montanari, D.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C.; Morfin, J.; Morgan, B.; Morris, C.; Morse, W.; Moss, Z.; Mossey, C.; Moura, C.A.; Mousseau, J.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, S.; Musser, J.; Musser, R.; Nakajima, Y.; Naples, D.; Napolitano, J.; Navarro, J.; Navas, D.; Nelson, J.; Nessi, M.; Newcomer, M.; Ng, Y.; Nichol, R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nikolics, K.; Niner, E.; Norris, B.; Noto, F.; Novakova, P.; Novella, P.; Nowak, J.; Nunes, M.S.; O'Keeffe, H.; Oldeman, R.; Oliveira, R.; Olson, T.; Onishchuk, Y.; Osta, J.; Ovsjannikova, T.; Page, B.; Pakvasa, S.; Pal, S.; Palamara, O.; Palazzo, A.; Paley, J.; Palomares, C.; Pantic, E.; Paolone, V.; Papadimitriou, V.; Park, J.; Parke, S.; Parsa, Z.; Pascoli, S.; Patterson, R.; Patton, S.; Patzak, T.; Paulos, B.; Paulucci, L.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pawloski, G.; Peeters, S.; Pennacchio, E.; Perch, A.; Perdue, G.N.; Periale, L.; Perkin, J.D.; Pessard, H.; Petrillo, G.; Petti, R.; Petukhov, A.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potenza, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Poudyal, N.; Prokofiev, O.; Pruthi, N.; Przewlocki, P.; Pushka, D.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Raboanary, R.; Radeka, V.; Radovic, A.; Raffelt, G.; Rakhno, I.; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramachers, Y.A.; Rameika, R.; Ramsey, J.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.; Ratoff, P.; Rebel, B.; Regenfus, C.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reitzner, D.; Remoto, A.; Renshaw, A.; Rescia, S.; Richardson, M.; Rielage, K.; Riesselmann, K.; Robinson, M.; Rochester, L.; Rodrigues, O.B.; Rodrigues, P.; Roe, B.; Rosen, M.; Roser, R.M.; Ross-Lonergan, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Rucinski, R.; von Rohr, C.Rudolph; Russell, B.; Ruterbories, D.; Saakyan, R.; Sahu, N.; Sala, P.; Samios, N.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez, M.; Sands, B.; Santana, S.; Santorelli, R.; Santucci, G.; Saoulidou, N.; Scaramelli, A.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmitt, R.; Schmitz, D.; Schneps, J.; Scholberg, K.; Schukraft, A.; Schwehr, J.; Segreto, E.; Seibert, S.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shahi, J.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shanahan, P.; Shankar, S.U.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, R.K.; Shaw, T.; Shrock, R.; Shyrma, I.; Simos, N.; Sinev, G.; Singh, I.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Sinnis, G.; Sippach, W.; Smargianaki, D.; Smy, M.; Snider, E.; Snopok, P.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Solomey, N.; Sondheim, W.; Sorel, M.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Spitz, J.; Spooner, N.J.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Steiner, H.M.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Stoica, S.; Stone, J.; Strait, J.; Strait, M.; Strauss, T.; Striganov, S.; Sulej, R.; Sullivan, G.; Sun, Y.; Suter, L.; Sutera, C.M.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Talaga, R.; Tamsett, M.; Tariq, S.; Tatar, E.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, D.; Terao, K.; Thiesse, M.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Thorpe, M.; Tian, X.; Tiedt, D.; Timm, S.C.; Tonazzo, A.; Tope, T.; Topkar, A.; Torres, F.R.; Torti, M.; Tortola, M.; Tortorici, F.; Toups, M.; Touramanis, C.; Tripathi, M.; Tropin, I.; Tsai, Y.; Tsang, K.V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Tull, C.; Turner, J.; Tzanov, M.; Tziaferi, E.; Uchida, Y.; Urheim, J.; Usher, T.; Vagins, M.; Vahle, P.; Valdiviesso, G.A.; Valerio, L.; Vallari, Z.; Valle, J.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Varanini, F.; Varner, G.; Vasseur, G.; Vaziri, K.; Velev, G.; Ventura, S.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vieira, T.V.; Vignoli, C.; Vilela, C.; Viren, B.; Vrba, T.; Wachala, T.; Wahl, D.; Wallbank, M.; Walsh, N.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.; Wang, T.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Wascko, M.; Waters, D.; Watson, T.B.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wei, W.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, D.; Wenman, D.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.; Wilking, M.; Willhite, J.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winslow, L.; Wittich, P.; Wojcicki, S.; Wong, H.H.; Wood, K.; Worcester, E.; Worcester, M.; Wu, S.; Xin, T.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yarritu, K.; Ye, J.; Yeh, M.; Yershov, N.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zang, L.; Zani, A.; Zani, A.; Zavala, G.; Zeller, G.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Zito, M.; Zwaska, R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  3. A combined AHP-GP model to allocate internal auditing time to projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Kruger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal allocation of internal auditing time among competing projects is a multi-criteria problem that includes both qualitative and quantitative factors. This paper discusses an integrated approach where the analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to deal with qualitative risk assessments and a goal programming (GP model to distribute available hours in such a way that risk is minimised. Additional considerations, such as maximum and minimum allowable project hours, risk reducing factors and risk levels, are also taken into account. Following a description of the models and framework, a brief case study is presented in which the framework was empirically evaluated.

  4. Coalescence measurements for evolving foams monitored by real-time projection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagotin, A; Helfen, L; Baumbach, T

    2009-01-01

    Real-time radiographic projection imaging together with novel spatio-temporal image analysis is presented to be a powerful technique for the quantitative analysis of coalescence processes accompanying the generation and temporal evolution of foams and emulsions. Coalescence events can be identified as discontinuities in a spatio-temporal image representing a sequence of projection images. Detection, identification of intensity and localization of the discontinuities exploit a violation criterion of the Fourier shift theorem and are based on recursive spatio-temporal image partitioning. The proposed method is suited for automated measurements of discontinuity rates (i.e., discontinuity intensity per unit time), so that large series of radiographs can be analyzed without user intervention. The application potential is demonstrated by the quantification of coalescence during the formation and decay of metal foams monitored by real-time x-ray radiography

  5. Timely integration of safeguards and security with projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Blount, P.M.; Garcia, S.W.; Gonzales, R.L.; Salazar, J.B.; Campbell, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    The Safeguards and Security (S and S) Requirements Integration Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and implemented an innovative management process that will be described in detail. This process systematically integrates S and S planning into construction, facility modifications or upgrades, mission changes, and operational projects. It extends and expands the opportunities provided by the DOE project management manual, DOE M 413.3-1. Through a series of LANL documents, a process is defined and implemented that formally identifies an S and S professional to oversee, coordinate, facilitate, and communicate among the identified S and S organizations and the project organizations over the life cycle of the project. The derived benefits, namely (1) elimination/reduction of re-work or costly retrofitting, (2) overall project cost savings because of timely and improved planning, (3) formal documentation, and (4) support of Integrated Safeguards and Security Management at LANL, will be discussed. How many times, during the construction of a new facility or the modification of an existing facility, have the persons responsible for the project waited until the last possible minute or until after construction is completed to approach the security organizations for their help in safeguarding and securing the facility? It's almost like, 'Oh, by the way, do we need access control and a fence around this building and just what are we going to do with our classified anyway?' Not only is it usually difficult; it's also typically expensive to retrofit or plan for safeguards and security after the fact. Safeguards and security organizations are often blamed for budget overruns and delays in facility occupancy and program startup, but these problems are usually due to poor front-end planning. In an effort to help projects engage safeguards and security in the pre-conceptual or conceptual stages, we implemented a high level formality of operations. We

  6. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  7. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  8. A 4 tonne demonstrator for large-scale dual-phase liquid argon time projection chambers arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Aimard, B.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Badoi, M.M.; Balaceanu, A.; Balik, G.; Balleyguier, L.; Bechetoille, E.; Belver, D.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Bourgeois, N.; Bourguille, B.; Bremer, J.; Brown, G.; Brunetti, G.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calvo, E.; Campanelli, M.; Cankocak, K.; Cantini, C.; Carlus, B.; Cautisanu, B.M.; Chalifour, M.; Chappuis, A.; Charitonidis, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chiriacescu, A.; Chiu, P.; Conforti, S.; Cotte, Ph.; Crivelli, P.; Cuesta, C.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; De La Taille, C.; Delbart, A.; Desforge, D.; Di Luise, S.; Dimitru, B.S.; Doizon, F.; Drancourt, C.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulucq, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Duval, F.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Esanu, T.; Falcone, A.; Fusshoeller, K.; Gallego-Ros, A.; Galymov, V.; Geffroy, N.; Gendotti, A.; Gherghel-Lascu, M.; Giganti, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Girerd, C.; Gomoiu, M.C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Hamada, E.; Hanni, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Holin, A.; Horikawa, S.; Ikeno, M.; Jiménez, S.; Jipa, A.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasai, S.; Kasami, K.; Kishishita, T.; Kreslo, I.; Kryn, D.; Lastoria, C.; Lazanu, I.; Lehmann-Miotto, G.; Lira, N.; Loo, K.; Lorca, D.; Lutz, P.; Lux, T.; Maalampi, J.; Maire, G.; Maki, M.; Manenti, L.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Mathez, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Misitano, G.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Molina Bueno, L.; Moreno Martínez, C.; Mols, J.Ph.; Mosu, T.S.; Mu, W.; Munteanu, A.; Murphy, S.; Nakayoshi, K.; Narita, S.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Negishi, K.; Nessi, M.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Nita, L.; Noto, F.; Noury, A.; Onishchuk, Y.; Palomares, C.; Parvu, M.; Patzak, T.; Pénichot, Y.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Pietropaolo, F.; Piret, Y.; Popov, B.; Pugnere, D.; Radics, B.; Redondo, D.; Regenfus, C.; Remoto, A.; Resnati, F.; Rigaut, Y.A.; Ristea, C.; Rubbia, A.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez, F.; Santos, C.; Scarpelli, A.; Schloesser, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sendai, K.; Sergiampietri, F.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shoji, M.; Sinclair, J.; Soto-Oton, J.; Stanca, D.L.; Stefan, D.; Stroescu, P.; Sulej, R.; Tanaka, M.; Toboaru, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tromeur, W.; Trzaska, W.H.; Uchida, T.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vilalte, S.; Weber, M.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    A 10 kilo-tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC is one of the detector options considered for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The detector technology relies on amplification of the ionisation charge in ultra-pure argon vapour and others several advantages compared to the traditional single-phase liquid argon TPCs. A 4.2 tonne dual-phase liquid argon TPC prototype, the largest of its kind, with an active volume of 3 x1x1 m^3 has been constructed and operated at CERN. In this paper we describe in detail the experimental setup and detector components as well as report on the operation experience. We also present the first results on the achieved charge amplification, prompt scintillation and electroluminiscence detection, and purity of the liquid argon from analyses of a collected sample of cosmic ray muons.

  9. Performance of 20:1 multiplexer for large area charge readouts in directional dark matter TPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Robinson, M.; Robinson, N.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Yuriev, L.

    2018-02-01

    More target mass is required in current TPC based directional dark matter detectors for improved detector sensitivity. This can be achieved by scaling up the detector volumes, but this results in the need for more analogue signal channels. A possible solution to reducing the overall cost of the charge readout electronics is to multiplex the signal readout channels. Here, we present a multiplexer system in expanded mode based on LMH6574 chips produced by Texas Instruments, originally designed for video processing. The setup has a capability of reducing the number of readouts in such TPC detectors by a factor of 20. Results indicate that the important charge distribution asymmetry along an ionization track is retained after multiplexed signals are demultiplexed.

  10. Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rework is a menace that leads to undesired and unnecessary loss of efforts, it degrades project cost and schedule performance of construction projects, both at design and construction phases. This study therefore, analyzed the impact of cost of rework on time and cost performance of building construction projects in Nigerian, using selected commercial building project within the country’s capital. A pro forma was adopted for gathering data on rework cost, project cost and time of selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the likely measures for reducing rework incidences from construction professionals that were involved in the delivery of the identified projects. Regression analysis, relative importance index and Kruskal-Walis test were employed for data analysis. The study revealed a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project cost of delivering commercial buildings, as an average of 3.53% impact on the initial project cost, 46.60% contribution to cost overrun, and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. For the project delivery time, a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project duration, as an average of 7.35% impact on the initial delivery time, extra 19 days and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. Team building and education, management commitment, employee involvement, were some of the best possible measures to minimized rework problems.

  11. Adaptive modified function projective synchronization of multiple time-delayed chaotic Rossler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we consider modified function projective synchronization of unidirectionally coupled multiple time-delayed Rossler chaotic systems using adaptive controls. Recently, delay differential equations have attracted much attention in the field of nonlinear dynamics. The high complexity of the multiple time-delayed systems can provide a new architecture for enhancing message security in chaos based encryption systems. Adaptive control can be used for synchronization when the parameters of the system are unknown. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two chaotic systems are function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controllers.

  12. Streamflow timing of mountain rivers in Spain: Recent changes and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Rahman, Kazi; Beniston, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Changes in streamflow timing are studied in 27 mountain rivers in Spain, in the context of climate warming. The studied rivers are characterized by a highflows period in spring due to snowmelt, although differences in the role of snow and consequently in the timing of flows are observed amongst cases. We calculated for every year of the studied period (1976-2008) various hydrological indices that enable locating the timing of spring flows within the annual hydrologic regime, including the day of 75% of mass, and the day of spring maximum. The evolution of these indices was compared with that of seasonal precipitation and temperature, and trends in time were calculated. Results show a general negative trend in the studied indices which indicates that spring peaks due to snowmelt are shifting earlier within the hydrological year. Spring temperatures, which show a significant increasing trend, are the main co-variable responsible for the observed changes in the streamflow timing. In a second set of analyses we performed hydrological simulations with the SWAT model, in order to estimate changes in streamflow timing under projected warming temperatures. Projections show further shifting of spring peak flows along with a more pronounced low water level period in the summer. The simulations also allowed quantifying the role of snowfall-snowmelt on the observed changes in streamflow.

  13. Search for “anomalies” from neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations at $\\Delta_m^{2} ≈ 1eV^{2}$ with muon spectrometers and large LAr–TPC imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M; Baibussinov, B; Bilokon, H; Boffelli, F; Bonesini, M; Calligarich, E; Canci, N; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; Dequal, D; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; De Gerone, M; Dussoni, S; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Garvey, G T; Gatti, F; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Guber, F; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Ivashkin, A; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Kurepin, A; Łagoda, J; Lucchini, G; Louis, W C; Mania, S; Mannocchi, G; Marchini, S; Matveev, V; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Mills, G B; Montanari, C; Nicoletto, M; Otwinowski, S; Palczewski, T J; Passardi, G; Perfetto, F; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Płonski, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Sala, P; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Stefan, D; Stepaniak, J; Sulej, R; Suvorova, O; Terrani, M; Tlisov, D; Van de Water, R G; Trinchero, G; Turcato, M; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H G; Yang, X; Zani, A; Zaremba, K; Benettoni, M; Bernardini, P; Bertolin, A; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Collazuol, G; Creti, P; Dal Corso, F; De Mitri, I; De Robertis, G; De Serio, M; Degli Esposti, L; Di Ferdinando, D; Dore, U; Dusini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Fiore, G; Garfagnini, A; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Grella, G; Guandalini, C; Guerzoni, M; Kose, U; Laurenti, G; Laveder, M; Lippi, I; Loddo, F; Longhin, A; Loverre, P; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marsella, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mengucci, A; Mezzetto, M; Michinelli, R; Muciaccia, M T; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Rescigno, R; Rosa, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Stellacci, S; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Ventura, M; Zago, M

    2012-01-01

    This proposal describes an experimental search for sterile neutrinos beyond the Standard Model with a new CERN-SPS neutrino beam. The experiment is based on two identical LAr-TPC's followed by magnetized spectrometers, observing the electron and muon neutrino events at 1600 and 300 m from the proton target. This project will exploit the ICARUS T600, moved from LNGS to the CERN "Far" position. An additional 1/4 of the T600 detector will be constructed and located in the "Near" position. Two spectrometers will be placed downstream of the two LAr-TPC detectors to greatly complement the physics capabilities. Spectrometers will exploit a classical dipole magnetic field with iron slabs, and a new concept air-magnet, to perform charge identification and muon momentum measurements in a wide energy range over a large transverse area. In the two positions, the radial and energy spectra of the nu_e beam are practically identical. Comparing the two detectors, in absence of oscillations, all cross sections and experimenta...

  14. Commissioning and Charge Readout Calibration of a 5 Ton Dual Phase Liquid Argon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2098555

    Dual phase time projection chambers with amplification of ionization electrons provide a novel technique for measuring and analyzing rare events with excellent spatial resolution and great calorimetric properties. This thesis describes the commissioning of the WA105 3 x 1 x 1 m3 dual phase liquid argon detector, built to demonstrate the performance of this kind of detector on large scales in order to determine the viability of giant dual phase time projection chambers in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The properties of the insulation and the main tank vessel are described and analyzed, such as the pressure, temperature and argon purity requirements during operation in order to guarantee stable conditions and good event tracking. As signals are induced due to electrons from ionizing radiation, crosstalk is caused by capacitive couplings between strips of the charge readout plane and in the electronics of the data acquisition. These induced signals are studied and compared to capacitance and pu...

  15. arXiv Status of the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Deisting, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    In order to cope with the high interaction rates provided by the LHC after the long shut-down 2, the ALICE TPC needs to be upgraded. After the upgrade the TPC will run in a continuous mode, without any degradation of the momentum and $\\textrm{d}E/\\textrm{d}x$ resolution compared to the performance of the present TPC. Since readout by MWPCs is no longer feasible with these requirements, new technologies have to be employed. In the new readout the electron amplification is provided by a stack of four GEM foils. Here foils with a standard hole pitch of 140um as well as large pitch foils (280um) are used. Their high voltage settings and orientation have been optimised to provide an energy resolution of $\\sigma_{{E}}/{E}\\leq12\\%$ at the photopeak of $^{55}\\textrm{Fe}$. At the same settings the Ion BackFlow into the drift volume is less than 1% of the effective number of ions produced during gas amplification and the primary ionisations. This is necessary to prevent the accumulation of space charge, which eventuall...

  16. Effects of different extracts of curcumin on TPC1 papillary thyroid cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Angelica; De Luca, Antonio; Adelfi, Laura; Pasquale, Tammaro; Varriale, Bruno; Esposito, Teresa

    2018-02-15

    The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. The vast majority of TCs (> 90%) originate from follicular cells and are defined as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and the two histological subtypes are the papillary TC with its variants and the follicular TC. Curcumin possesses a wide variety of biological functions, and thanks to its properties, it has gained considerable attention due to its profound medicinal values (Prasad, Gupta, Tyagi, and Aggarwal, Biotechnol Adv 32:1053-1064, 2014). We have undertaken the present work in order to define the possible role of curcumin in modulating the genetic expression of cell markers and to understand the effectiveness of this nutraceutical in modulating the regression of cancer phenotype. As a template we used the TPC-1 cells treated with the different extracts of turmeric, and examined the levels of expression of different markers (proliferative, inflammatory, antioxidant, apoptotic). Treatment with the three different curcumin extracts displays anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties and it is able to influence cell cycle with slightly different effects upon the extracts. Furthermore curcumin is able to influence cell metabolic activity vitality. In conclusion curcumin has the potential to be developed as a safe therapeutic but further studies are needed to verify its antitumor ability in vivo.

  17. Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Sun; Chang-Yan, Zeng; Li-Xin, Tian

    2009-01-01

    Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand–supply of energy resource in some regions of China

  18. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2014-10-31

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  19. Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Zeng, Chang-Yan; Tian, Li-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand-supply of energy resource in some regions of China.

  20. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Lee, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  1. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J., E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: faznar@unizar.es, E-mail: jfcastel@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ P. Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza, 50009 Spain (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10{sup −6} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ∼10{sup −7} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ∼10{sup −8} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 10{sup 5} better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with g{sub a}γ down to few 10{sup 12} GeV{sup −1}, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ∼ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∼ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ∼10{sup −44} cm{sup 2} for

  2. LArSoft: toolkit for simulation, reconstruction and analysis of liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, E. L.; Petrillo, G.

    2017-10-01

    LArSoft is a set of detector-independent software tools for the simulation, reconstruction and analysis of data from liquid argon (LAr) neutrino experiments The common features of LAr time projection chambers (TPCs) enable sharing of algorithm code across detectors of very different size and configuration. LArSoft is currently used in production simulation and reconstruction by the ArgoNeuT, DUNE, LArlAT, MicroBooNE, and SBND experiments. The software suite offers a wide selection of algorithms and utilities, including those for associated photo-detectors and the handling of auxiliary detectors outside the TPCs. Available algorithms cover the full range of simulation and reconstruction, from raw waveforms to high-level reconstructed objects, event topologies and classification. The common code within LArSoft is contributed by adopting experiments, which also provide detector-specific geometry descriptions, and code for the treatment of electronic signals. LArSoft is also a collaboration of experiments, Fermilab and associated software projects which cooperate in setting requirements, priorities, and schedules. In this talk, we outline the general architecture of the software and the interaction with external libraries and detector-specific code. We also describe the dynamics of LArSoft software development between the contributing experiments, the projects supporting the software infrastructure LArSoft relies on, and the core LArSoft support project.

  3. Stone Soup Projects: Using real-time resources and creative partnering to meet multiple needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, S.; Searle, R.; Zala, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada oversees the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada undersea cabled observatories. Its Centre for Enterprise and Engagement communicates the scientific discoveries and technological innovations happening at the two systems. Not surprisingly, funders in ocean science are interested in seeing evidence of increased recruitment of Highly Qualified Personnel into marine science and industry. This demand creates a series of opportunities for inspiring students, ranging from graduate school down to middle school, to pursue studies in chemistry, biology, physics, geology, engineering, and beyond. As the Engagement section is a small operation, we partner with others to produce educational assets incorporating real-time data from VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories that enable frontline educators to create exciting ocean science experiences for students and the public. In one project, the lab component of an entire undergraduate course lets students conduct their own investigations into marine oxygen levels by using VENUS data. In another, Fine Arts graduate and undergraduate students are using high-tech tools to create a series of webisodes that map the principles of Ocean Literacy onto the science themes of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada. In a third project, we hosted a website for a collaborative expedition to small coastal towns that focused on the marine science happening in the Salish Sea, British Columbia. Our projects and challenges for engaging students and the public with ocean science using real-time and other data offer strategies for outreach and education sections of similar organizations.

  4. A comprehensive search for “anomalies” from neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations at large mass differences (Δm^2 ~ 1eV^2) with two LAr–TPC imaging detectors at different distances from the CERN-PS.

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, C; Bagliani, D; Baibussinov, B; Bilokon, H; Boffelli, F; Bonesini, M; Calligarich, E; Canci, N; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; De Gerone, M; Dequal, D; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; Dussoni, S; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Garvey, G T; Gatti, F; Gibin, D; Gigli Berzolari, A; Gninenko, S; Guber, F; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Ivashkin, A; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Kurepin, A; Łagoda, J; Louis, W C; Lucchini, G; Mania, S; Mannocchi, G; Matveev, V; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Mills, G B; Montanari, C; Otwinowski, S; Palczewski, T J; Perfetto, F; Periale, L; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Płoński, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Sala, P; Scantamburlo, E; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Sergiampietri, F; Suvorova, O; Stefan, D; Stepaniak, J; Sulej, R; Terrani, M; Testera, G; Tlisov, D; Trinchero, G; Van de Water, R G; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H G; Yang, X; Zani, A; Zaremba, K

    2011-01-01

    The present proposal describes an experimental search of sterile neutrinos beyond the Standard Model with the CERN-PS beam and the innovative technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic liquid Argon. The proposal is based on two strictly identical LAr-TPC detectors observing the electron-neutrino signal in the ”Far” and “Near” positions, the first one of about 600 tons placed 850 m the second one of about 150 tons at about 6.5 times shorter distance from the proton target. This project will exploit the ICARUS T600 — now running in the underground experiment CNGS2 with neutrinos from the CERN-SPS — moved from GranSasso to the CERN “Far” position. The additional T150 will be constructed and located in the “Near” position. In the two positions, the radial and energy spectra of the nu_e beam are practically identical. Comparing the two detectors, in absence of oscillations, all cross sections and experimental biases cancel out and the two experimentally observed event distributions must be ...

  5. Parent-adolescent joint projects involving leisure time and activities during the transition to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scheduling of House Development Projects with CPM and PERT Method for Time Efficiency (Case Study: House Type 36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholil, Muhammad; Nurul Alfa, Bonitasari; Hariadi, Madjumsyah

    2018-04-01

    Network planning is one of the management techniques used to plan and control the implementation of a project, which shows the relationship between activities. The objective of this research is to arrange network planning on house construction project on CV. XYZ and to know the role of network planning in increasing the efficiency of time so that can be obtained the optimal project completion period. This research uses descriptive method, where the data collected by direct observation to the company, interview, and literature study. The result of this research is optimal time planning in project work. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that the use of the both methods in scheduling of house construction project gives very significant effect on the completion time of the project. The company’s CPM (Critical Path Method) method can complete the project with 131 days, PERT (Program Evaluation Review and Technique) Method takes 136 days. Based on PERT calculation obtained Z = -0.66 or 0,2546 (from normal distribution table), and also obtained the value of probability or probability is 74,54%. This means that the possibility of house construction project activities can be completed on time is high enough. While without using both methods the project completion time takes 173 days. So using the CPM method, the company can save time up to 42 days and has time efficiency by using network planning.

  7. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  9. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  10. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  11. A real-time stack radioactivity monitoring system and dose projection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.; Michael, P.A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Bernstein, H.J. [Bernstein & Sons, Bellport, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a commercial Low- and High-Range Air Effluent Monitor has become operational at the 60 Mw (t) High Flux Beam Reactor. Its output data is combined with that from ground-level and elevated meteorological sensors to provide a real-time projection of the down-wind dose rates from noble gases and radioiodines released from the HFBR`s 100 m stack. The output of the monitor, and the meteorological sensors and the dose projections can be viewed at emergency response terminals located in the Reactor Control Room, its Technical Support Center and at the laboratory`s separately located Meteorological Station and Monitoring and Assessment Center.

  12. The Bonus Detector: A Radial Time Projection Chamber for tracking Spectator Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard Fenker

    2004-01-01

    A GEM-based Radial Time Projection Chamber is being developed as a spectator-proton tracker for an experiment at Jefferson Lab. The purpose of the experiment is the study of the structure of nearly free neutrons. Interactions on such neutrons can be identified by the presence of a backward-moving proton in the final state of a beam-deuterium collision. The detector must be of very low mass in order to provide sensitivity to the slowest possible protons. The ionization electron trail left by the protons will drift radially outward to an amplification structure composed of curved GEMs, and the resulting charge will be collected on pads on the outer layer of the detector. Unique design challenges are imposed by the cylindrical geometry and the low mass requirement. The status of the project and results of prototype tests are presented

  13. The NOVA project: maximizing beam time efficiency through synergistic analyses of SRμCT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Heuveline, Vincent; Lösel, Philipp; Becker, Jürgen; Beckmann, Felix; Schluenzen, Frank; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kopmann, Andreas; Mexner, Wolfgang; Vogelgesang, Matthias; Jerome, Nicholas Tan; Betz, Oliver; Beutel, Rolf; Wipfler, Benjamin; Blanke, Alexander; Harzsch, Steffen; Hörnig, Marie; Baumbach, Tilo; van de Kamp, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Beamtime and resulting SRμCT data are a valuable resource for researchers of a broad scientific community in life sciences. Most research groups, however, are only interested in a specific organ and use only a fraction of their data. The rest of the data usually remains untapped. By using a new collaborative approach, the NOVA project (Network for Online Visualization and synergistic Analysis of tomographic data) aims to demonstrate, that more efficient use of the valuable beam time is possible by coordinated research on different organ systems. The biological partners in the project cover different scientific aspects and thus serve as model community for the collaborative approach. As proof of principle, different aspects of insect head morphology will be investigated (e.g., biomechanics of the mouthparts, and neurobiology with the topology of sensory areas). This effort is accomplished by development of advanced analysis tools for the ever-increasing quantity of tomographic datasets. In the preceding project ASTOR, we already successfully demonstrated considerable progress in semi-automatic segmentation and classification of internal structures. Further improvement of these methods is essential for an efficient use of beam time and will be refined in the current NOVAproject. Significant enhancements are also planned at PETRA III beamline p05 to provide all possible contrast modalities in x-ray imaging optimized to biological samples, on the reconstruction algorithms, and the tools for subsequent analyses and management of the data. All improvements made on key technologies within this project will in the long-term be equally beneficial for all users of tomography instrumentations.

  14. Proposal to Measure Hadron Scattering with a Gaseous High Pressure TPC for Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andreopoulos, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S; Brailsford, D; Brice, S; Catanesi, G; Chen-Wishart, Z; Denner, P; Dunne, P; Giganti, C; Gonzalez Diaz, D; Haigh, J; Hamacher-Baumann, P; Hallsjo, S; Hayato, Y; Irastorza, I; Jamieson, B; Kaboth, A; Korzenev, A; Kudenko, Y; Leyton, M; Luk, K-B; Ma, W; Mahn, K; Martini, M; McCauley, N; Mermod, P; Monroe, J; Mosel, U; Nichol, R; Nieves, J; Nonnenmacher, T; Nowak, J; Parker, W; Raaf, J; Rademacker, J; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Roth, S; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shitov, Y; Sobczyk, J; Soler, F; Touramanis, C; Valder, S; Walding, J; Ward, M; Wascko, M; Weber, A; Yokoyama, M; Zalewska, A; Ziembicki, M

    2017-01-01

    We propose to perform new measurements of proton and pion scattering on argon using a prototype High Pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (HPTPC) detector, and by doing so to develop the physics case for, and the technological readiness of, an HPTPC as a neutrino detector for accelerator neutrino oscillation searches. The motivation for this work is to improve knowledge of final state interactions, in order to ultimately achieve 1-2% systematic error on neutrino-nucleus scattering for oscillation measurements at 0.6 GeV and 2.5 GeV neutrino energy, as required for the Charge-Parity (CP) violation sensitivity projections by the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment (Hyper-K) and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The final state interaction uncertainties in neutrino-nucleus interactions dominate cross-section systematic errors, currently 5–10% at these energies, and therefore R&D is needed to explore new approaches to achieve this substantial improvement.

  15. TIME SPAN AND CRITERIA FOR WOMEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT APPLICABLE FOR TURKISH GRAMEEN MICROCREDIT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemin Ashrafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Grameen Micro Credit Project (TGMP is quite new in Turkey which started from 2003, works as a part of Grameen Bank Bangladesh replication program. Through this female based micro credit services women can be self sufficient, empowered and raise their family's socio economic condition at the same time. As a whole TGMP is a big scope for the poorest part in the society to gain economic empowerment. This paper analyzes the relationship and association of loans in form of amount and number with membership time period for the achievement of economic empowerment and graduation of a member. An analysis is made on the basis of a regression model where economic graduaiton and empowerment of a member is quantified interms of time after which they cease to take the loans even still be the members of TGMP. Using some poverty free indicators declared by TGMP, this study also examines how the members can achieve socio-economic empowerment gradually.

  16. Recording A Sunrise: A Citizen Science Project to Enhance Sunrise/set Prediction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones, with their ever increasing capabilities, are becoming quite instrumental for data acquisition in a number of fields. Understanding refraction and how it affects what we see on the horizon is no exception. Current algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. A thorough investigation of the problem requires a substantial data set of observed rise/set times and corresponding meteorological data from around the world, which is currently lacking. We have developed a mobile application so that this data can be taken using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The app allows the viewer to submit a video of sunrise/set and attaches geographic location along with meteorological data taken from a local weather station. The project will help increase scientific awareness in the public by allowing members of the community to participate in the data-taking process, and give them a greater awareness of the scientific significance of phenomenon they witness every day. The data from the observations will lead to more complete rise/set models that will provide more accurate times to the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen. The app will be available on the Google Play Store.

  17. The spin project: safety and performance indicators in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Becker, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Safety and performance indicators have been under discussion for many years in several countries and international organisations. If those indicators refer to the long term safety of the total disposal system, they are often called safety indicators. If they refer to the performance of subsystems or the total system from a more technical point of view, they are sometimes called performance indicators. The need for indicators other than dose rates derives e.g. from the long time frames involved in safety assessments of waste disposal systems and the increasing uncertainty in dose rate calculations over time due to uncertainty in evolution of the surface environment and of behaviour of man. Before introducing additional indicators into a safety case of a potential repository site, the applicability and usefulness of different indicators have to be investigated and evaluated. The systematic analysis and testing of safety and performance indicators for use in different time horizons after closure of the disposal facility is the task of the SPIN project. This is done by re-calculating four recent studies concerning repository projects in granite formations. (authors)

  18. Mengurangi Perilaku Merokok Siswa melalui Konseling Pendekatan REBT dengan Teknik Time Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ganang bachtiar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted based on the phenomenon that occurs in students at SMP N 2 Jaken which has a high smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to investagate tingat smoking behavior of students before and after counseling services as well as the effectiveness of the counseling approach rational emotive behavior therapy time projection techniques in reducing smoking behavior of students. This type of research is experimental research. Experimental research is research used to seek treatment effect tenterntu. This research carried out with 5 times the provision of treatment to students with a number of research subjects 2 students. Data collection method used is the psychological scale, observation, and interviews. Data were analyzed using analysis deskiptif percentage and Wilcoxon test. The results showed the smoking behavior in the high category R1 (69.5% and R2 (68%. After being given treatment decline in smoking behavior in the low category R1 (55.5% and R2 (55%. It shows that the smoking behavior of students can be lowered to 2 with counseling approach rational emotive behavior therapy time projection technique.

  19. MENGURANGI PERILAKU MEROKOK SISWA MELALUI KONSELING PENDEKATAN REBT DENGAN TEKNIK TIME PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ganang bachtiar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted based on the phenomenon that occurs in students at SMP N 2 Jaken which has a high smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to investagate tingat smoking behavior of students before and after counseling services as well as the effectiveness of the counseling approach rational emotive behavior therapy time projection techniques in reducing smoking behavior of students. This type of research is experimental research. Experimental research is research used to seek treatment effect tenterntu. This research carried out with 5 times the provision of treatment to students with a number of research subjects 2 students. Data collection method used is the psychological scale, observation, and interviews. Data were analyzed using analysis deskiptif percentage and Wilcoxon test. The results showed the smoking behavior in the high category R1 (69.5% and R2 (68%. After being given treatment decline in smoking behavior in the low category R1 (55.5% and R2 (55%. It shows that the smoking behavior of students can be lowered to 2 with counseling approach rational emotive behavior therapy time projection technique.

  20. Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Different Neural Networks with Mixed Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized projective synchronization (GPS between two different neural networks with nonlinear coupling and mixed time delays is considered. Several kinds of nonlinear feedback controllers are designed to achieve GPS between two different such neural networks. Some results for GPS of these neural networks are proved theoretically by using the Lyapunov stability theory and the LaSalle invariance principle. Moreover, by comparison, we determine an optimal nonlinear controller from several ones and provide an adaptive update law for it. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  1. Construction and assembly of the wire planes for the MicroBooNE Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Danaher, J.; Fleming, B. T.; Gardner, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Raaf, J. L.; Soderberg, M.; John, J. St.; Strauss, T.; Szelc, A. M.; Yu, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we describe how the readout planes for the MicroBooNE Time Projection Chamber were constructed, assembled and installed. We present the individual wire preparation using semi-automatic winding machines and the assembly of wire carrier boards. The details of the wire installation on the detector frame and the tensioning of the wires are given. A strict quality assurance plan ensured the integrity of the readout planes. The different tests performed at all stages of construction and installation provided crucial information to achieve the successful realization of the MicroBooNE wire planes.

  2. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  3. The double beta decay spectrum of 100Mo as measured with a TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A time projection chamber with 8.3 grams of enriched 100 MoO 3 as the central electrode has been operating approximately five months in an underground laboratory. A preliminary analysis of the two-electron sum energy spectrum, the spectrum of those same electrons taken singly, and the opening angle distribution yields a half life of 1.16 -0.08 +0.34 x10 19 y at the 68% confidence level for two-neutrino double beta decay of 100 Mo. (author)

  4. Photodisintegration of 4He studied with TPC using 22-32 MeV real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, T.; Baba, T.; Kii, T.; Takahashi, T.; Naito, S.; Nagai, Y.; Ohgaki, H.; Toyokawa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The photodisintegration of 4 He at the γ-ray energy of about 25 MeV provides a useful tool to investigate the problems of the electromagnetic transition strength in the reaction and the charge symmetry in nuclear force. In this study we made a new exclusive measurement of the photodisintegration of 4 He using a laser-Compton-backscattered γ beam and a time projection chamber with an active target. The preliminary result indicates no anomalous violation of the charge symmetry and suppression of the transition strength compared to the expected one from the E1 sum rule. (author)

  5. Characterization of Monoenergetic Low Energy Neutron Fields with the {mu}TPC Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabek, C.; Lebreton, L.; Petit, M. [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Billard, J.; Grignon, C.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Mayet, F.; Richer, J.-P.; Santos, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph (France)

    2011-12-13

    The AMANDE facility produces monoenergetic neutron fields from 2 keV to 20 MeV for metrological purposes. To be considered as a reference facility, fluence and energy distributions of neutron fields have to be determined by primary measurement standards. For this purpose, a micro Time Projection Chamber is being developed to be dedicated to measure neutron fields with energy ranging from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. We present simulations showing that such a detector, which allows the measurement of the ionization energy and the 3D reconstruction of the recoil nucleus, provides the determination of neutron energy and fluence of such low energy neutron fields.

  6. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E

  7. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of ΔE/E -4 . Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  8. The ICARUS project. An underground observatory for astro-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ereditato, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ICARUS project aims at the realization of a large-mass, high-sensitivity observatory at the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory for the observation of rare astro-particle reactions, such as the interaction of astrophysical and accelerator neutrinos, and the nucleon decay. The detection technique exploits large-volume Time Projection Chambers filled with liquid Argon (LAr TPC). The general principles of this technique are briefly recalled, together with the milestones in the establishment of the present status. The main focus is given to the realization and tests of the first large-mass (600 ton) detector module, built with fully industrial methods, suitable to be cloned in order to reach the final detector mass of about 3000 ton by 2006. (author)

  9. The CI-ROB project: real time monitoring for a robotic prostate curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, X.; Lartigau, E.; Coelen, V.; Merzouki, R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a project which is still at the proto-typing stage and for which hardware and software are still being developed, and which aims at developing a full line for a robotic curietherapy. It comprises an articulated robotic arm with six degree of freedom, and is based on an auto-regulated loop with real time monitoring and control. An echographic probe acquires the prostate images in real time. An adaptive detection defines the prostate contour. This is performed in a virtual environment which comprises the prostate phantom, the robot and the intervention table. The target is defined in the virtual environment (image coordinates) and coordinates are transmitted to the robot controller which defines the robot movements by using the inverse geometric model. Short communication

  10. Application of Project Time Management Tools and Techniques to the Construction Industry in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sawalhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the level of applying theproject time management tools and techniques by public ownersand construction contractors in the Gaza Strip. This study hasbeen conducted by means of a survey questionnaire. Seventythreequestionnaires were distributed to target constructioncontractors and twenty-five questionnaires to public owners. Sixtycompleted questionnaires from contractors and twenty-threequestionnaires from public owners were received and analysed.The survey results indicated that contemporary project timemanagement tools and techniques are not widely used amonglocal contractors and owners. Lack of subcontractor’s knowledgeand awareness of the importance of project time managementtools and techniques are still major obstacles toward the efficientutilisation of such tools. This study recommended that there is anurgent need to establish a professional industry body such as anInstitute of Building to review and evaluate existing local projectmanagement practices. This professional body may be establishedby the government through the Ministry of Housing and PublicWorks or by the local university in cooperation with a similarinternational professional industry body. Current training effortshould be tailored to encourage owners and contractors to usework breakdown structures, resource optimisation, and networkscheduling.

  11. The LTDP ALTS Project: Contributing to the Continued Understanding and Exploitation of the ATSR Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hannah; Done, Fay; Casadio, Stefano; Mackin, Stephen; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Castelli, Elisa

    2016-08-01

    The long time-series of observations made by the Along Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) missions represents a valuable resource for a wide range of research and EO applications.With the advent of ESA's Long-TermData Preservation (LTDP) programme, thought has turned to the preservation and improved understanding of such long time-series, to support their continued exploitation in both existing and new areas of research, bringing the possibility of improving the existing data set and to inform and contribute towards future missions. For this reason, the 'Long Term Stability of the ATSR Instrument Series: SWIR Calibration, Cloud Masking and SAA' project, commonly known as the ATSR Long Term Stability (or ALTS) project, is designed to explore the key characteristics of the data set and new and innovative ways of enhancing and exploiting it.Work has focussed on: A new approach to the assessment of Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) channel calibration.; Developmentof a new method for Total Column Water Vapour (TCWV) retrieval.; Study of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA).; Radiative Transfer (RT) modelling for ATSR.; Providing AATSR observations with their location in the original instrument grid.; Strategies for the retrieval and archiving of historical ATSR documentation.; Study of TCWV retrieval over land; Development of new methods for cloud masking This paper provides an overview of these activities and illustrates the importance of preserving and understanding 'old' data for continued use in the future.

  12. A linear projection for the timing of unprecedented climate in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Chung, Il-Ung

    2017-11-01

    Recently we have had abnormal weather events worldwide that are attributed by climate scientists to the global warming induced by human activities. If the global warming continues in the future and such events occur more frequently and someday become normal, we will have an unprecedented climate. This study intends to answer when we will have an unprecedented warm climate, focusing more on the regional characteristics of the timing of unprecedented climate. Using an in-situ observational data from weather stations of annual-mean surface air temperature in Korea from 1973 to 2015, we estimate a timing of unprecedented climate with a linear regression method. Based on the in-situ data with statistically significant warming trends at 95% confidence level, an unprecedented climate in Korea is projected to occur first in Cheongju by 2043 and last in Haenam by 2168. This 125-year gap in the timing indicates that a regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate is considerably large in Korea. Despite the high sensitivity of linear estimation to the data period and resolution, our findings on the large regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate can give an insight into making policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation, not only for the central government but for provincial governments.

  13. Gating of the two-pore cation channel AtTPC1 in the plant vacuole is based on a single voltage-sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaślan, D; Mueller, T D; Becker, D; Schultz, J; Cuin, T A; Marten, I; Dreyer, I; Schönknecht, G; Hedrich, R

    2016-09-01

    The two-pore cation channel TPC1 operates as a dimeric channel in animal and plant endomembranes. Each subunit consists of two homologous Shaker-like halves, with 12 transmembrane domains in total (S1-S6, S7-S12). In plants, TPC1 channels reside in the vacuolar membrane, and upon voltage stimulation, give rise to the well-known slow-activating SV currents. Here, we combined bioinformatics, structure modelling, site-directed mutagenesis, and in planta patch clamp studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of voltage-dependent channel gating in TPC1 in its native plant background. Structure-function analysis of the Arabidopsis TPC1 channel in planta confirmed that helix S10 operates as the major voltage-sensing site, with Glu450 and Glu478 identified as possible ion-pair partners for voltage-sensing Arg537. The contribution of helix S4 to voltage sensing was found to be negligible. Several conserved negative residues on the luminal site contribute to calcium binding, stabilizing the closed channel. During evolution of plant TPC1s from two separate Shaker-like domains, the voltage-sensing function in the N-terminal Shaker-unit (S1-S4) vanished. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Presenting a Model Based on Fuzzy Application to Optimize the Time of IBS Projects in Gas Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderpour Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the construction industry has started to embrace IBS as a method of attaining better construction quality and productivity and reducing risks related to occupational safety and health. The built of pre-fabricated component in factories reduces many problems related to lack of purposing uncertainty in scheduling calculation and time management of projects. In the case of using IBS method for managing time in projects, former studies such as Allan Tay’s research, indicates that this method can save up at least 29% of overall completion period versus the conventional method. But beside mentioned advantages of this technical method, the projects could be optimized more and more in scheduling calculations. This issue is critical in gas refineries, since special parameters such as risk of spreading poison H2S gas and mandatory of performing projects in short time period events such as maintenance overhauls demands to perform projects in optimum time. Custom scheduling calculation of project planning uses the Critical Path Method (CPM as a tool for Planning Project’s activities. The researches of this paper’s authors indicated that Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM is the best technique to manage the uncertainty in project scheduling and can save up the construction project’s time versus the custom methods. This paper aims to present a model based on fuzzy application in CPM calculations to optimize the time of Industrial Building System.

  15. Development of a time projection chamber for Crystal Ball at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Crystal Ball Collaboration uses energy tagged bremstrahlung photons produced from the MAMI electron beam to study photo-induced reactions on nucleons and nuclei. The Crystal Ball/TAPS 4π calorimeter setup is optimized for the detection of neutral final states. Charged particles are identified and measured by the inner detector system including a two layer MWPC. The increased rate of charged particles in current and future experiments exceeds the rate capability of these MWPCs. We are developing a small Time Projection Chamber with triple GEM readout meeting the stringent space requirements of the Crystal Ball experiment. This new tracking detector will feature higher rate capabilities and allows better track reconstruction. We are investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) to build light but strong chamber walls. First tests with carbon fiber prepregs show promising results. In addition we are using the PLUTO event generator to study the detector acceptance under our experiment conditions. Similar simulations are done to optimize the number and the shape of the readout pads. This poster gives an overview of the current status of the project and present the latest results.

  16. First Detection of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Corey James [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    Electron neutrino appearance is the signature channel to address the most pressing questions in neutrino oscillations physics, at both long and short baselines. This includes the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector, which the U.S. flagship neutrino experiment DUNE will address. In addition, the Short Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab (MicroBooNE, SBND, ICARUS-T600) searches for new physics, such as sterile neutrinos, through electron neutrino appearance. Liquid argon time projection chambers are the forefront of neutrino detection technology, and the detector of choice for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This work presents the first experimental observation and study of electron neutrinos in the 1-10 GeV range, the essential oscillation energy regime for the above experiments. The systematic uncertainties for an electron neutrino appearance search for the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program are carefully quantified, and the characterization of separation between electrons and high energy photons is examined.

  17. AEP Ohio gridSMART Demonstration Project Real-Time Pricing Demonstration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek; Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.

    2014-02-01

    This report contributes initial findings from an analysis of significant aspects of the gridSMART® Real-Time Pricing (RTP) – Double Auction demonstration project. Over the course of four years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) worked with American Electric Power (AEP), Ohio and Battelle Memorial Institute to design, build, and operate an innovative system to engage residential consumers and their end-use resources in a participatory approach to electric system operations, an incentive-based approach that has the promise of providing greater efficiency under normal operating conditions and greater flexibility to react under situations of system stress. The material contained in this report supplements the findings documented by AEP Ohio in the main body of the gridSMART report. It delves into three main areas: impacts on system operations, impacts on households, and observations about the sensitivity of load to price changes.

  18. Study of 2 proton radioactivity of 54Zn with a time projection chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascher, P.

    2011-11-01

    The study of nuclei at the proton drip-line is a recent and efficient tool to prove the nuclear structure far from stability. In particular, the two-proton radioactivity phenomenon predicted in 1960 has been discovered in 2002. This work concerns an experiment performed at GANIL, in order to study the two-proton radioactivity of 54 Zn with a time projection chamber, developed for the individual detection of each proton and the reconstruction of their tracks in three dimensions. The data analysis allowed to determine the correlations in energy and angle between the two protons. They have been compared to a theoretical model, which takes into account the dynamics of the emission, giving information about the structure of the emitter. However, due to the very low statistics, the interpretation of the results is limited but these results open very interesting prospects for further studies of nuclei at the limits of the existence. (author)

  19. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  20. Search for space charge effects in the ICARUS T600 LAr-TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Space charge in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is due to the accumu- lation of positive ions, produced by ionizing tracks crossing the detector, which slowly flow toward the cathode. As a consequence, electric field distortions may arise, thus hindering the possibility to produce faithful 3D images of the ionizing events. The presence of space charge becomes relevant for large TPCs operating at surface or at shallow depths, where cosmic ray flux is high. These effects could interest the next phase of the ICARUS T600 detector, which will be deployed at shallow depths as a Far Detector for Short Baseline Neutrino experiment at FNAL dedicated to sterile neutrino searches. In 2001, the first ICARUS T600 module (T300) operated at surface in Pavia (Italy), recording cosmic ray data. In this work, a sample of cosmic muon tracks from the 2001 run was analyzed and results on space charge effects in LAr-TPCs are shown.

  1. Search for space charge effects in the ICARUS T600 LAr-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Space charge in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is due to the accumu- lation of positive ions, produced by ionizing tracks crossing the detector, which slowly flow toward the cathode. As a consequence, electric field distortions may arise, thus hindering the possibility to produce faithful 3D images of the ionizing events. The presence of space charge becomes relevant for large TPCs operating at surface or at shallow depths, where cosmic ray flux is high. These effects could interest the next phase of the ICARUS T600 detector, which will be deployed at shallow depths as a Far Detector for Short Baseline Neutrino experiment at FNAL dedicated to sterile neutrino searches. In 2001, the first ICARUS T600 module (T300) operated at surface in Pavia (Italy), recording cosmic ray data. In this work, a sample of cosmic muon tracks from the 2001 run was analyzed and results on space charge effects in LAr-TPCs are shown

  2. BoNus: Development and use of a radial TPC using cylindrical GEMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Baillie, N.; Bradshaw, P.; Bueltmann, S.; Burkert, V.; Christy, M.; Dodge, G.; Dutta, D.; Ent, R.; Evans, J.; Fersch, R.; Giovanetti, K.; Griffioen, K.; Ispiryan, M.; Jayalath, C.; Kalantarians, N.; Keppel, C.; Kuhn, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.

    2008-01-01

    A specialized system of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab to provide new access to information about neutron structure from electron-neutron interactions. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e - d→e - p s X scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat. This article provides details about the development and construction of the detector, its performance, and the analysis of the data from the successful running of its first physics experiment

  3. A {mu}TPC detector for the characterization of low energy neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabek, C., E-mail: cedric.golabek@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Billard, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France); Allaoua, A. [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Grignon, C.; Guillaudin, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France); Lebreton, L., E-mail: lena.lebreton@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Mayet, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France); Petit, M. [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Richer, J.-P.; Santos, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)

    2012-06-21

    The AMANDE facility produces monoenergetic neutron fields from 2 keV to 20 MeV for metrological purposes. To be considered as a reference facility, fluence and energy distributions of neutron fields have to be determined by primary measurement standards. For this purpose, a micro Time Projection Chamber is being developed to be dedicated to measure neutron fields with energy ranging from 8 keV up to 1 MeV. In this work we present simulations showing that such a detector, which allows the measurement of the ionization energy and the 3D reconstruction of the recoil nucleus, provides the determination of neutron energy and fluence of these neutron fields.

  4. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  5. Balancing creativity and time efficiency in multi-team R&D projects: The alignment of formal and informal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, Jan; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Lettl, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    and their effect on the challenge to balance project creativity and time efficiency. In order to analyse this issue data in two multi-team R&D projects in space industry are collected. There are two intriguing findings that are partly contradicting the state-of-the art knowledge. First, formally ascribed design...... with the team's creativity, whereas it negatively impacts the team's time efficiency....

  6. Search for anomalies in the neutrino sector with muon spectrometers and large LArTPC imaging detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, A.; Baibussinov, B.; Bilokon, H.; Boffelli, F.; Bonesini, M.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.B.; Cocco, A.G.; Dequal, D.; Dermenev, A.; Dolfini, R.; De Gerone, M.; Dussoni, S.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Garvey, G.T.; Gatti, F.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guber, F.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Kurepin, A.; Lagoda, J.; Lucchini, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mania, S.; Mannocchi, G.; Marchini, S.; Matveev, V.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Mills, G.B.; Montanari, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Palczewki, T.J.; Passardi, G.; Perfetto, F.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Suvorova, O.; Terrani, M.; Tlisov, D.; Van de Water, R.G.; Trinchero, G.; Turcato, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.G.; Yang, X.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K; Benettoni, M.; Bernardini, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Calabrese, M.; Cecchetti, A.; Cecchini, S.; Collazuol, G.; Creti, P.; Corso, F.Dal; Del Prete, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Robertis, G.; De Serio, M.; Esposti, L.Degli; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dore, U.; Dusini, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Fanin, C.; Fini, R.A.; Fiore, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Guandalini, C.; Guerzoni, M.; Kose, U.; Laurenti, G.; Laveder, M.; Lippi, I.; Loddo, F.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Mengucci, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Michinelli, R.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Papadia, G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Rosa, G.; Sahnounm, Z.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Stanco, L.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Ventura, M.; Zago, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new experiment with an intense ~2 GeV neutrino beam at CERN SPS is proposed in order to definitely clarify the possible existence of additional neutrino states, as pointed out by neutrino calibration source experiments, reactor and accelerator experiments and measure the corresponding oscillation parameters. The experiment is based on two identical LAr-TPCs complemented by magnetized spectrometers detecting electron and muon neutrino events at Far and Near positions, 1600 m and 300 m from the proton target, respectively. The ICARUS T600 detector, the largest LAr-TPC ever built with a size of about 600 ton of imaging mass, now running in the LNGS underground laboratory, will be moved at the CERN Far position. An additional 1/4 of the T600 detector (T150) will be constructed and located in the Near position. Two large area spectrometers will be placed downstream of the two LAr-TPC detectors to perform charge identification and muon momentum measurements from sub-GeV to several GeV energy range, greatly comple...

  7. TPC2 is a novel NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ release channel, operating as a dual sensor of luminal pH and Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Samantha J; Funnell, Tim M; Sitsapesan, Mano; Venturi, Elisa; Rietdorf, Katja; Ruas, Margarida; Ganesan, A; Gosain, Rajendra; Churchill, Grant C; Zhu, Michael X; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Sitsapesan, Rebecca

    2010-11-05

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a molecule capable of initiating the release of intracellular Ca(2+) required for many essential cellular processes. Recent evidence links two-pore channels (TPCs) with NAADP-induced release of Ca(2+) from lysosome-like acidic organelles; however, there has been no direct demonstration that TPCs can act as NAADP-sensitive Ca(2+) release channels. Controversial evidence also proposes ryanodine receptors as the primary target of NAADP. We show that TPC2, the major lysosomal targeted isoform, is a cation channel with selectivity for Ca(2+) that will enable it to act as a Ca(2+) release channel in the cellular environment. NAADP opens TPC2 channels in a concentration-dependent manner, binding to high affinity activation and low affinity inhibition sites. At the core of this process is the luminal environment of the channel. The sensitivity of TPC2 to NAADP is steeply dependent on the luminal [Ca(2+)] allowing extremely low levels of NAADP to open the channel. In parallel, luminal pH controls NAADP affinity for TPC2 by switching from reversible activation of TPC2 at low pH to irreversible activation at neutral pH. Further evidence earmarking TPCs as the likely pathway for NAADP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release is obtained from the use of Ned-19, the selective blocker of cellular NAADP-induced Ca(2+) release. Ned-19 antagonizes NAADP-activation of TPC2 in a non-competitive manner at 1 μM but potentiates NAADP activation at nanomolar concentrations. This single-channel study provides a long awaited molecular basis for the peculiar mechanistic features of NAADP signaling and a framework for understanding how NAADP can mediate key physiological events.

  8. Leadership in Real Time : A Model of Attributes Needed by a Project Manager in ERP Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunson, John; De Blasis, Jean-Paul; Neary, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics and organizational impacts of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementation Project requires highly professional Project Manager skills and attributes. Some may be learned or bought but the more important skills need to be part of the Project Manager's personal makeup. Coaching, mentoring and leadership skills (and beyond) help the Project Manager to take right decisions as even unknown-unknown situations arise during the implementation. This paper contributes to id...

  9. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  10. The hands-on project office guaranteeing ROI and on-time delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    THE THREE PILLARS OF IT DELIVERY - PROBLEM RESOLUTION, SERVICE REQUESTS, AND PROJECTSIntroduction The Business Context The Internal Economy for Investing in IT Services and ProjectsThe Three Pillars of IT Delivery Managing Service DeliveryManaging Project Commitments IT Metrics and Reporting Tools THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE BUSINESS MODELIntroduction: Revisiting the IT Organization IT Service and Project Delivery RolesThe Role of the Project Management Office: Measuring its ROI The PMO Value Proposition: An Initial ROI Estimate ALIGNMENT AND PLANNING - DOING THE RIGHT THINGS Introduction Ge

  11. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to

  12. Clinical Digital Libraries Project: design approach and exploratory assessment of timely use in clinical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccall, Steven L

    2006-04-01

    The paper describes and evaluates the use of Clinical Digital Libraries Project (CDLP) digital library collections in terms of their facilitation of timely clinical information seeking. A convenience sample of CDLP Web server log activity over a twelve-month period (7/2002 to 6/2003) was analyzed for evidence of timely information seeking after users were referred to digital library clinical topic pages from Web search engines. Sample searches were limited to those originating from medical schools (26% North American and 19% non-North American) and from hospitals or clinics (51% North American and 4% non-North American). Timeliness was determined based on a calculation of the difference between the timestamps of the first and last Web server log "hit" during each search in the sample. The calculated differences were mapped into one of three ranges: less than one minute, one to three minutes, and three to five minutes. Of the 864 searches analyzed, 48% were less than 1 minute, 41% were 1 to 3 minutes, and 11% were 3 to 5 minutes. These results were further analyzed by environment (medical schools versus hospitals or clinics) and by geographic location (North America versus non-North American). Searches reflected a consistent pattern of less than 1 minute in these environments. Though the results were not consistent on a month-by-month basis over the entire time period, data for 8 of 12 months showed that searches shorter than 1 minute predominated and data for 1 month showed an equal number of less than 1 minute and 1 to 3 minute searches. The CDLP digital library collections provided timely access to high-quality Web clinical resources when used for information seeking in medical education and hospital or clinic environments from North American and non-North American locations and consistently provided access to the sought information within the documented two-minute standard. The limitations of the use of Web server data warrant an exploratory assessment. This

  13. Clinical Digital Libraries Project: design approach and exploratory assessment of timely use in clinical environments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The paper describes and evaluates the use of Clinical Digital Libraries Project (CDLP) digital library collections in terms of their facilitation of timely clinical information seeking. Design: A convenience sample of CDLP Web server log activity over a twelve-month period (7/2002 to 6/2003) was analyzed for evidence of timely information seeking after users were referred to digital library clinical topic pages from Web search engines. Sample searches were limited to those originating from medical schools (26% North American and 19% non-North American) and from hospitals or clinics (51% North American and 4% non-North American). Measurement: Timeliness was determined based on a calculation of the difference between the timestamps of the first and last Web server log “hit” during each search in the sample. The calculated differences were mapped into one of three ranges: less than one minute, one to three minutes, and three to five minutes. Results: Of the 864 searches analyzed, 48% were less than 1 minute, 41% were 1 to 3 minutes, and 11% were 3 to 5 minutes. These results were further analyzed by environment (medical schools versus hospitals or clinics) and by geographic location (North America versus non-North American). Searches reflected a consistent pattern of less than 1 minute in these environments. Though the results were not consistent on a month-by-month basis over the entire time period, data for 8 of 12 months showed that searches shorter than 1 minute predominated and data for 1 month showed an equal number of less than 1 minute and 1 to 3 minute searches. Conclusions: The CDLP digital library collections provided timely access to high-quality Web clinical resources when used for information seeking in medical education and hospital or clinic environments from North American and non–North American locations and consistently provided access to the sought information within the documented two-minute standard. The limitations of the use of

  14. Alternative strategies: A means for saving money and time on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is undertaking studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for disposal of high level nuclear waste. Yucca Mountain is located in an arid environment. Many processes that could contribute to mobilization of radionuclides are either absent or minimized in a dry site. Therefore, Yucca Mountain should have the potential of being a veryfavorable site for disposal of waste. The determination of suitability has no precedence, and the characterization of an and site is complex, requiring intensive studies to determine suitability. The studies undertaken by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are very costly. By a process called performance allocation, the YMP determined strategies to satisfy regulations or meet performance while minimizing costs and schedules. Those involved recognized that allocations should be reviewed as additional information became available. The allocation has not been reviewed nor revised since the initial allocation in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The purpose of this paper is to outline alternative allocations that the author feels should be considered based on the additional information that is available at this time

  15. Diffractive Photon Dissociation in a High Pressure Hydrogen Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Gregory Roy [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1983-11-01

    We have performed an experiment at the Tagged Photon Facility of Fermilab to study the diffraction dissociation of high energy photons on hydrogen y + p -+ x + p in the region 0.02 < $\\mid t \\mid$ < 0.1 $(GeV/c)^2$, $M_x$ $^2/s$ < 0.1. In this process, incident photons whose energies range from 70 to 140 GeV transform coherently to massive hadronic states in the mass range M < 5 GeV/c 2 • x We measure the inclusive differential cross section$\\frac{d^20}{dt dM_x ^2}$) The behavior of this cross section, especially when compared to the corresponding cross sections for the diffraction dissociation of incident hadrons (pions, kaons, and protons), reveals some fundamental characteristics of photon hadronic interactions. We use the Recoil Technique to determine the missing mass, $M_x$, and the square of the 4-momentum transfer, t. The recoil detector, TREAD, is a cylindrical time projection chamber filled with high pressure hydrogen gas which serves both as the target and as the drift medium for the ionization track created by recoil protons. The ionization drifts up to 75 cm in a high axial electric field. Concentric sense wires mounted on endplates sample different parts of the track, yielding the polar angle of the recoil. The energy of the recoil is determined by stopping the proton in scintillation counters located inside the high pressure vessel....

  16. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  17. Investment timing under uncertain renewable energy policy: An empirical study of small hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnerud, Kristin; Andersson, Ane Marte; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Policy uncertainty can be a powerful deterrent to immediate investments. Based on panel data of 214 licenses to construct small run-of-the-river hydropower plants, we examine whether the prospect of a common Swedish–Norwegian market for green certificates (i.e., a renewable portfolio standard scheme) affected the timing of investments. Our results show that traditional utilities and other professional investors in the energy market acted in accordance with a real options investment rule, and the prospect of possible future subsidies delayed their investment decision. On the other hand, our results do not show that farmers and other non-professional investors incorporated timing considerations in their investment decisions. Rather, our results indicate that these investors behaved as if their investment opportunity is now-or-never, investing if the project is profitable according to a net present value investment rule, ignoring the opportunity to create additional value by waiting. The observed difference in behavior between professional and non-professional investors is interesting given the distributed nature of many renewable energy technologies, and can help planners and policymakers better understand the forces shaping the future market for electricity. - Highlights: • We examine whether the prospect of introducing subsidies delayed investments in hydropower. • We find that professional and non-professional investors behaved differently. • Professional investors explored the opportunity to create additional value by waiting. • Farmers behaved as if their investment opportunity was now-or-never. • These observations are interesting given the distributed nature of renewable energy technologies

  18. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs. Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. Methods The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data. Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. Discussion The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  19. A dual-phase xenon TPC for scintillation and ionisation yield measurements in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, Laura; Biondi, Yanina; Capelli, Chiara; Galloway, Michelle; Kazama, Shingo; Kish, Alexander; Pakarha, Payam; Piastra, Francesco; Wulf, Julien

    2018-05-01

    A small-scale, two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber ( Xurich II) was designed, constructed and is under operation at the University of Zürich. Its main purpose is to investigate the microphysics of particle interactions in liquid xenon at energies below 50 keV, which are relevant for rare event searches using xenon as target material. Here we describe in detail the detector, its associated infrastructure, and the signal identification algorithm developed for processing and analysing the data. We present the first characterisation of the new instrument with calibration data from an internal ^83{m} Kr source. The zero-field light yield is 15.0 and 14.0 photoelectrons/keV at 9.4 and 32.1 keV, respectively, and the corresponding values at an electron drift field of 1 kV/cm are 10.8 and 7.9 photoelectrons/keV. The charge yields at these energies are 28 and 31 electrons/keV, with the proportional scintillation yield of 24 photoelectrons per one electron extracted into the gas phase, and an electron lifetime of 200 μ s. The relative energy resolution, σ /E, is 11.9 and 5.8% at 9.4 and 32.1 keV, respectively using a linear combination of the scintillation and ionisation signals. We conclude with measurements of the electron drift velocity at various electric fields, and compare these to literature values.

  20. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  1. Opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search (OMOSOS for time, cost, quality and work continuity tradeoff in repetitive projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Hoc Tran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction managers often face with projects containing multiple units wherein activities repeat from unit to unit. Therefore effective resource management is crucial in terms of project duration, cost and quality. Accordingly, researchers have developed several models to aid planners in developing practical and near-optimal schedules for repetitive projects. Despite their undeniable benefits, such models lack the ability of pure simultaneous optimization because existing methodologies optimize the schedule with respect to a single factor, to achieve minimum duration, total cost, resource work breaks or various combinations, respectively. This study introduces a novel approach called “opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search” (OMOSOS for scheduling repetitive projects. The proposed algorithm used an opposition-based learning technique for population initialization and for generation jumping. Further, this study integrated a scheduling module (M1 to determine all project objectives including time, cost, quality and interruption. The proposed algorithm was implemented on two application examples in order to demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of repetitive construction projects. The results indicate that the OMOSOS approach is a powerful optimization technique and can assist project managers in selecting appropriate plan for project. Keywords: Symbiotic organisms search, Multi-objective analysis, Resource tradeoff, Schedules, Repetitive

  2. Search for QGP signals at AGS with a TPC spectrometer, and comparison of our event generator predictions for plasma model and cascade interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for QGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. We also developed a cascade and plasma event generator the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. The efficacy of Jackson drain in the application to be a tunnel pleural catheter (TPC) in the management of malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheikuna, Jamsak; Thomrongpairoj, Preecha; Disayabutr, Suppareurg

    2011-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common clinical problem in patients with advanced cancer and portends a poor prognosis, which means survival of less than six months. In June 1997, the US-FDA approved an indwelling TPC with a one-way drainage valve to be used in the management of MPE. Although popularity of this TPC has increased over the past few years, the experience with this device remains limited in Thai patients. One of the reasons is its high cost. Assess the efficacy and the safety of customary indwelling TPC by using Jackson drain in the management of patients with symptomatic MPE. Ten patients with symptomatic MPE were receiving these catheters (18 Fr Silicone catheters with 25 cm fenestrated length) to drain effusion via plastic vacuum bottles (250 ml) every other day or as needed to relieve dyspnea. The patient's dyspnic respiration, quality of life, and comfort during the catheter's application were quantified with a Borg score, the St. George Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the comfort's score, respectively. These parameters were recorded at initial (before insertion) and 2-week follow-up visit. Pain after 24 hours of each insertion was quantified by visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Patients were followed until either death or catheter removal. The Borg score, SGRQ, and comfort's score showed significant improvement at 2-week visit (p drain was effective in the treatment of MPE as a TPC without early complications.

  4. Radiation tolerance studies using fault injection on the Readout Control FPGA design of the ALICE TPC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alme, J.; Fehlker, D.; Lippmann, C.; Mager, M.; Rehman, A. U.; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.

    2013-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEUs) are a major concern for the TPC Readout Control Unit (RCU) of the ALICE experiment. A SEU is defined as a radiation related bit-flip in a memory cell, and a SEU in the onboard SRAM based FPGA of the RCU may lead to corrupted data or, even worse, a system malfunction. The latter situation will affect the operation of the ALICE detector since it causes a premature end of data taking. Active partial reconfiguration is utilized in a dedicated reconfiguration solution on the RCU, and this makes it possible to implement fault injection. Fault injection means inserting bit flips in the configuration memory of the FPGA in a controlled laboratory environment. This paper presents the results of the fault injection study and shows how this result can be combined with SEU measurements to estimate the functional failure rate as a function of luminosity.

  5. Final Project Report: Imaging Fault Zones Using a Novel Elastic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Ting [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, Sirui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Imaging fault zones and fractures is crucial for geothermal operators, providing important information for reservoir evaluation and management strategies. However, there are no existing techniques available for directly and clearly imaging fault zones, particularly for steeply dipping faults and fracture zones. In this project, we developed novel acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion methods for high-resolution velocity model building. In addition, we developed acoustic and elastic reverse-time migration methods for high-resolution subsurface imaging of complex subsurface structures and steeply-dipping fault/fracture zones. We first evaluated and verified the improved capabilities of our newly developed seismic inversion and migration imaging methods using synthetic seismic data. Our numerical tests verified that our new methods directly image subsurface fracture/fault zones using surface seismic reflection data. We then applied our novel seismic inversion and migration imaging methods to a field 3D surface seismic dataset acquired at the Soda Lake geothermal field using Vibroseis sources. Our migration images of the Soda Lake geothermal field obtained using our seismic inversion and migration imaging algorithms revealed several possible fault/fracture zones. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with Cyrq Energy, Inc. to refine the geologic interpretation at the Soda Lake geothermal field. Trenton Cladouhos, Senior Vice President R&D of AltaRock, was very interested in our imaging results of 3D surface seismic data from the Soda Lake geothermal field. He planed to perform detailed interpretation of our images in collaboration with James Faulds and Holly McLachlan of University of Nevada at Reno. Using our high-resolution seismic inversion and migration imaging results can help determine the optimal locations to drill wells for geothermal energy production and reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.

  6. Identification and evaluation of factors influencing the timing of dismantling projects; Identifizierung und Bewertung von Einflussfaktoren zur Terminsteuerung bei Rueckbauprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami-Far, Hedjeh [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Technologie und Management des Rueckbaus Kerntechnischer Anlagen (TMRK)

    2013-07-01

    The problem of reactor dismantling projects is the amount of overshooting with respect to the planned project time. The question on the origin of this fact is raised together with the possibility of an early problem identification and possible counter measures to fulfill the timing plan. The main issues for the interrogation of personnel, specialists and operators were organization, competence preservation and technology concerning conditioning, storage/disposal and licensing procedures. The contribution includes details on the questions and the evaluation of answers including recommendations for the future approach.

  7. Real-Time Probabilistic Structural Health Management Using Machine Learning and GPU Computing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project seeks to deliver an ultra-efficient, high-fidelity structural health management (SHM) framework using machine learning and graphics processing...

  8. Formal Specification and Run-time Monitoring Within the Ballistic Missile Defense Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caffall, Dale S; Cook, Thomas; Drusinsky, Doron; Michael, James B; Shing, Man-Tak; Sklavounos, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    .... Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Battle Manager (ABM) project in an effort that is amongst the most comprehensive application of formal methods to a large-scale safety-critical software application ever reported...

  9. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  10. MONDO Project: real time ocean monitoring through Lagrangian drifters during offshore drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafra, Tatiana [Eni Oil do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fragoso, Mauricio da Rocha; Santos, Francisco Alves dos; Cruz, Leonardo M. Marques A.; Pellegrini, Julio A.C.; Cerrone, Bruna Nogueira [Prooceano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assireu, Arcilan Trevenzoli [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring the ocean conditions during offshore operations is essential for both operational and environmental aspects. Environmentally, not only to know better the environment where the activity is taking place, but also to be able to provide fast and accurate response in case of accidents. MONDO Project (Monitoring by Ocean Drifters) is a pioneer initiative from ENI Oil do Brasil and PROOCEANO that aimed to monitor currents as a part of a metoceanographic data monitoring project of drilling operations in Brazilian Waters, in Santos Basin throughout September to November 2007, 40 satellite tracked ocean drifters were deployed will be transmitting data up to November 2008. The results of this project can be used to study a wide range of subjects about ocean dynamics. Following the principles of social and environmental responsibility, MONDO Project aims to benefit the local ecosystem in increasing the scientific knowledge of the area to calibrate hydrodynamic models that will lead to more accurate modeling results and, as a consequence, to a better management of contingency plans. Based on these principles, the project will also provide unrestricted access to oceanographic data even after the end of operations. (author)

  11. Construction and assembly of the wire planes for the MicroBooNE Time Projection Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Danaher, J.; Fleming, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    As x-ray and electron tomography is pushed further into the nanoscale, the limitations of rotation stages become more apparent, leading to challenges in the alignment of the acquired projection images. Here we present an approach for rapid post-acquisition alignment of these projections to obtain high quality three-dimensional images. Our approach is based on a joint estimation of alignment errors, and the object, using an iterative refinement procedure. With simulated data where we know the alignment error of each projection image, our approach shows a residual alignment error that is a factor of a thousand smaller, and it reaches the same error level in the reconstructed image in less than half the number of iterations. We then show its application to experimental data in x-ray and electron nanotomography.

  12. Time-dependent Flow and Transport Calculations for Project Opalinus Clay (Entsorgungsnachweis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakowski, G.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes two specific assessment cases used in the safety assessment for a proposed deep geological repository for spent fuel, high level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste, sited in the Opalinus Clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland (Project Entsorgungsnachweis, NAG RA, 2002d). In this study the influence of time dependent flow processes on the radionuclide transport in the geosphere is investigated. In the Opalinus Clay diffusion dominates the transport of radionuclides, but processes exist that can locally increase the importance of the advective transport for some time. Two important cases were investigated: (1) glaciation-induced flow due to an additional overburden in the form of an ice shield of up to 400 m thickness and (2) fluid flow driven by tunnel convergence. For the calculations the code FRAC3DVS (Therrien and Sudicky, 1996) was used. FRAC3DVS solves the three-dimensional flow and transport equation in porous and fractured media. For the case of glaciation-induced flow (1) a two-dimensional reference model without glaciations was calculated. During the glaciations the geosphere release-rates are up to a factor of about 1.7 higher compared to the reference model. The influence of glaciations on the transport of cations or neutral species is less than for anions, since the importance of the advective transport for anions is higher due to the lower accessible porosity for anions. The increase in the release rates during glaciations is lower for sorbing compared to non-sorbing radionuclides. The influence of the tunnel convergence (2) on the transport of radionuclides in the geosphere is very small. Due to the higher source term the geosphere release rates are slightly higher if tunnel convergence is considered. In addition to the two assessment cases this report investigates the applicability of the one-dimensional approximation for modelling transport through the Opalinus Clay. For the reference case of the safety

  13. Projection of radiation-induced cancer risks across time and populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods can be used to project the risks of radiation-induced cancer estimated in cohort studies beyond the period of follow-up and to other populations. The choice of risk projection model is reviewed based on data from studies such as those of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and UK ankylosing spondylitis patients given X ray therapy. Risk estimates applicable to a UK population are calculated on the basis of various models, including those developed by the BEIR V Committee. It is emphasised that the continued follow-up of populations such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors is of great importance in estimating lifetime risks. (author)

  14. Time, Space and Structure in an E-Learning and E-Mentoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro-Koechlin, Cecilia; Allan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a project, "EMPATHY Net-Works," which developed a learning community as a means of encouraging women to progress into employment and management positions in the logistics and supply chain industries (LaSCI). Learning activities were organised in the form of a taught module containing face-to-face and online elements and…

  15. Spatial regression methods capture prediction uncertainty in species distribution model projections through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan K. Swanson; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Andrew O. Finley; James H. Thorne; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with species distribution model (SDM) projections is poorly characterized, despite its potential value to decision makers. Error estimates from most modelling techniques have been shown to be biased due to their failure to account for spatial autocorrelation (SAC) of residual error. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) have the ability to...

  16. The federated ontology of the pal project interfacing ontologies and integrating time-dependent data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieger, H.U.; Peters, R.; Kiefer, B.; Van Bekkum, M.A.; Kaptein, F.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing work carried out in the European project PAL which will support childre in their diabetes self-management as well as assist health professionals and parents involved in the diabete regimen of the child. Here, we will focus on the construction of the PAL ontology which

  17. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task suffers some risk of delay and changed cost. Ignoring budget constraints, we use Monte Carlo simulation of the duration of each task in the project to infer the probability distribution of the project completion time...

  18. Parental modeling, education and children's sports and TV time: The ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Singh, A.S.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as

  19. Completion of construction and installation of travel time signs on I-35 in Austin : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Drivers desire real-time information when : traveling in order to make route choice : decisions. One type of information that can be : provided is current (dynamic) travel times on : two possible routes that serve a common : destination. In this way,...

  20. Parallelism at Cern: real-time and off-line applications in the GP-MIMD2 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiura, P.

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of general purpose high-energy physics applications, ranging from Monte Carlo simulation to data acquisition, from interactive data analysis to on-line filtering, have been ported, or developed, and run in parallel on IBM SP-2 and Meiko CS-2 CERN large multi-processor machines. The ESPRIT project GP-MIMD2 has been a catalyst for the interest in parallel computing at CERN. The project provided the 128 processor Meiko CS-2 system that is now succesfully integrated in the CERN computing environment. The CERN experiment NA48 was involved in the GP-MIMD2 project since the beginning. NA48 physicists run, as part of their day-to-day work, simulation and analysis programs parallelized using the message passing interface MPI. The CS-2 is also a vital component of the experiment data acquisition system and will be used to calibrate in real-time the 13000 channels liquid krypton calorimeter. (orig.)

  1. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  2. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient’s breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient’s respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient’s anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT. (paper)

  3. The effectiveness of Microsoft Project in assessing extension of time under PAM 2006 standard form of contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, S. K.; Wong, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    Time is equal to money; and it is applies in the construction industry where time is very important. Most of the standard form of contracts provide contractual clauses to ascertain time and money related to the scenarios while Extension of Time (EOT) is one of them. Under circumstance and delays, contractor is allow to apply EOT in order to complete the works on a later completion date without Liquidated Damages (LD) imposed to the claimant. However, both claimants and assessors encountered problems in assessing the EOT. The aim of this research is to recommend the usage of Microsoft Project as a tool in assessing EOT associated with the standard form of contract, PAM 2006. A quantitative method is applied towards the respondents that consisted of architects and quantity surveyors (QS) in order to collect data on challenges in assessing EOT claims and the effectiveness of Microsoft Project as a tool. The finding of this research highlighted that Microsoft Project can serve as a basis to perform EOT tasks as this software can be used as a data bank to store handy information which crucial for preparing and evaluating EOT.

  4. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  5. Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Elg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  6. Self-calibration for lab-μCT using space-time regularized projection-based DVC and model reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jailin, C.; Buljac, A.; Bouterf, A.; Poncelet, M.; Hild, F.; Roux, S.

    2018-02-01

    An online calibration procedure for x-ray lab-CT is developed using projection-based digital volume correlation. An initial reconstruction of the sample is positioned in the 3D space for every angle so that its projection matches the initial one. This procedure allows a space-time displacement field to be estimated for the scanned sample, which is regularized with (i) rigid body motions in space and (ii) modal time shape functions computed using model reduction techniques (i.e. proper generalized decomposition). The result is an accurate identification of the position of the sample adapted for each angle, which may deviate from the desired perfect rotation required for standard reconstructions. An application of this procedure to a 4D in situ mechanical test is shown. The proposed correction leads to a much improved tomographic reconstruction quality.

  7. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  8. Improving value of travel time savings estimation for more effective transportation project evaluation : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The daily commute to a job is a cost of working. Workers may share stories about the extent or rigors of their commute, or they may enjoy the time with reading, music, or drive-time radio personalities. For any trip, many factors contribute to a trav...

  9. A GEM-TPC in twin configuration for the Super-FRS tracking of heavy ions at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, F.; Grahn, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kaya, C.; Kunkel, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Risch, H.; Rusanov, I.; Schmidt, C. J.; Simon, H.; Simons, C.; Turpeinen, R.; Voss, B.; Äystö, J.; Winkler, M.

    2018-03-01

    The GEM-TPC described herein will be part of the standard beam-diagnostics equipment of the Super-FRS. This chamber will provide tracking information for particle identification at rates up to 1 MHz on an event-by-event basis. The key requirements of operation for these chambers are: close to 100% tracking efficiency under conditions of high counting rate, spatial resolution below 1 mm and a superb large dynamic range covering projectiles from Z = 1 up to Z = 92. The current prototype consists of two GEM-TPCs inside a single vessel, which are operating independently and have electrical drift fields in opposite directions. The twin configuration is done by flipping one of the GEM-TPCs on the middle plane with respect to the second one. In order to put this development in context, the evolution of previous prototypes will be described and its performances discussed. Finally, this chamber was tested at the University of Jyväskylä accelerator with proton projectiles and at GSI with Uranium, Xenon, fragments and Carbon beams. The results obtained have shown a position resolution between 120 to 300 μm at moderate counting rate under conditions of full tracking efficiency.

  10. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of ∼2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of ∼25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Characterizing opto-electret based paper speakers by using a real-time projection Moiré metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ling; Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    Advancement of distributed piezo-electret sensors and actuators facilitates various smart systems development, which include paper speakers, opto-piezo/electret bio-chips, etc. The array-based loudspeaker system possess several advantages over conventional coil speakers, such as light-weightness, flexibility, low power consumption, directivity, etc. With the understanding that the performance of the large-area piezo-electret loudspeakers or even the microfluidic biochip transport behavior could be tailored by changing their dynamic behaviors, a full-field real-time high-resolution non-contact metrology system was developed. In this paper, influence of the resonance modes and the transient vibrations of an arraybased loudspeaker system on the acoustic effect were measured by using a real-time projection moiré metrology system and microphones. To make the paper speaker even more versatile, we combine the photosensitive material TiOPc into the original electret loudspeaker. The vibration of this newly developed opto-electret loudspeaker could be manipulated by illuminating different light-intensity patterns. Trying to facilitate the tailoring process of the opto-electret loudspeaker, projection moiré was adopted to measure its vibration. By recording the projected fringes which are modulated by the contours of the testing sample, the phase unwrapping algorithm can give us a continuous phase distribution which is proportional to the object height variations. With the aid of the projection moiré metrology system, the vibrations associated with each distinctive light pattern could be characterized. Therefore, we expect that the overall acoustic performance could be improved by finding the suitable illuminating patterns. In this manuscript, the system performance of the projection moiré and the optoelectret paper speakers were cross-examined and verified by the experimental results obtained.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of discrete time-cost tradeoff problem in project networks using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    The time-cost tradeoff problem is one of the most important and applicable problems in project scheduling area. There are many factors that force the mangers to crash the time. This factor could be early utilization, early commissioning and operation, improving the project cash flow, avoiding unfavorable weather conditions, compensating the delays, and so on. Since there is a need to allocate extra resources to short the finishing time of project and the project managers are intended to spend the lowest possible amount of money and achieve the maximum crashing time, as a result, both direct and indirect costs will be influenced in the project, and here, we are facing into the time value of money. It means that when we crash the starting activities in a project, the extra investment will be tied in until the end date of the project; however, when we crash the final activities, the extra investment will be tied in for a much shorter period. This study is presenting a two-objective mathematical model for balancing compressing the project time with activities delay to prepare a suitable tool for decision makers caught in available facilities and due to the time of projects. Also drawing the scheduling problem to real world conditions by considering nonlinear objective function and the time value of money are considered. The presented problem was solved using NSGA-II, and the effect of time compressing reports on the non-dominant set.

  13. Timing Sunsets with Smartphones: Proof of Concept for a Citizen Science Project that Quantifies the Atmosphere and Supports Astronomical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Kantamneni, A.; Bartlett, J. L.; Nemiroff, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Current models that predict the times of sunrise and sunset are only accurate, typically, to a few minutes. Variations in atmospheric refraction contribute to the differences between computed and observed times. At high latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause the Sun to remain continuously above the horizon instead of appearing to set. A substantial collection of observations would help constrain atmospheric models, which should, in turn, complement astronomical observations through improved understanding of air stability, refraction, and transparency. We report on a small project recording data from a few smartphones as a proof of concept for a possible larger scale citizen science effort.

  14. Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Lodwick, Rebecca K; Smith, Colette J

    2012-01-01

    positive in 2010. The effect of altering the diagnosis rate was investigated. Results: Assuming a high rate of HIV diagnosis (median CD4 cell count at diagnosis, 432¿cells/µl), projected median age at death (life expectancy) was 75.0 years. This implies 7.0 years of life were lost on average due to HIV......Background and objectives: Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has contributed greatly toward survival for people with HIV, yet many remain undiagnosed until very late. Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART...... and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis on life expectancy. Methods: A stochastic computer simulation model of HIV infection and the effect of ART was used to estimate life expectancy and determine the distribution of potential lifetime outcomes of an MSM, aged 30 years, who becomes HIV...

  15. A new EU-funded project for enhanced real-time imaging for radiotherapy

    CERN Multimedia

    KTT Life Sciences Unit

    2011-01-01

    ENTERVISION (European training network for digital imaging for radiotherapy) is a new Marie Curie Initial Training Network coordinated by CERN, which brings together multidisciplinary researchers to carry out R&D in physics techniques for application in the clinical environment.   ENTERVISION was established in response to a critical need to reinforce research in online 3D digital imaging and to train professionals in order to deliver some of the key elements for early detection and more precise treatment of tumours. The main goal of the project is to train researchers who will help contribute to technical developments in an exciting multidisciplinary field, where expertise from physics, medicine, electronics, informatics, radiobiology and engineering merges and catalyses the advancement of cancer treatment. With this aim in mind, ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres, as well as the two leading European companies in particle therapy, IBA and Siemens. &ldq...

  16. Real-Time Structural Overload Control via Control Allocation Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This control methodology utilizes real-time vehicle structural load and shape measurements to actively respond to and protect against vehicle damage due to...

  17. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the OCTOPUS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A L

    2012-06-13

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.

  18. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the octopus project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A.; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2012-06-01

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.

  19. Time-dependent density-functional theory in massively parallel computer architectures: the octopus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Rubio, Angel; Strubbe, David A; Louie, Steven G; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Marques, Miguel A L

    2012-01-01

    Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures. (topical review)

  20. A general theory on frequency and time-frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods - Part 2: Extension to time-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Geophysical time series are sometimes sampled irregularly along the time axis. The situation is particularly frequent in palaeoclimatology. Yet, there is so far no general framework for handling the continuous wavelet transform when the time sampling is irregular. Here we provide such a framework. To this end, we define the scalogram as the continuous-wavelet-transform equivalent of the extended Lomb-Scargle periodogram defined in Part 1 of this study (Lenoir and Crucifix, 2018). The signal being analysed is modelled as the sum of a locally periodic component in the time-frequency plane, a polynomial trend, and a background noise. The mother wavelet adopted here is the Morlet wavelet classically used in geophysical applications. The background noise model is a stationary Gaussian continuous autoregressive-moving-average (CARMA) process, which is more general than the traditional Gaussian white and red noise processes. The scalogram is smoothed by averaging over neighbouring times in order to reduce its variance. The Shannon-Nyquist exclusion zone is however defined as the area corrupted by local aliasing issues. The local amplitude in the time-frequency plane is then estimated with least-squares methods. We also derive an approximate formula linking the squared amplitude and the scalogram. Based on this property, we define a new analysis tool: the weighted smoothed scalogram, which we recommend for most analyses. The estimated signal amplitude also gives access to band and ridge filtering. Finally, we design a test of significance for the weighted smoothed scalogram against the stationary Gaussian CARMA background noise, and provide algorithms for computing confidence levels, either analytically or with Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. All the analysis tools presented in this article are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.