WorldWideScience

Sample records for toys st leitoyrgia

  1. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  2. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    the theoretical foundations of play and learning. In this presentation, we explore pedagogical potentials of new technologies and traditional toys integrated into a physical and virtual toy (hereinafter called integrated toy) with specific focus on the open-ended toy and non-formal learning. The integrated toy......Toys play a crucial role in supporting children’s learning and creation of meaning in their everyday life. Children also play with toys out of an interest to interact with others e.g. peers and adults. Tendencies of digital technology in toys have led to greater opportunities for manipulation...... and interaction supporting children’s play and learning such that technology is ever-present in the play environments of children. Although electronics have been deployed in tools for play and learning, most of it has facilitated individual learning. Computer games, for instance, most often are designed...

  3. Toy Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Petersson Brooks, Eva

    2016-01-01

    a mediating device between adults and children. The question then becomes, how does a display of static toys speak to a child’s culture of play? Through interviews with toy museum curators and personal observations it was found that the exhibition was designed to have adults share and reflect stories about...

  4. Toy superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvi, M.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Moxhay, P.

    1989-01-01

    Superstrings with critical dimension two and two real bosonic spacetime coordinates may serve as useful toy models for the study of string properties. We present details of several such toy superstrings including open, closed, and heterotic models. Conformal methods are used to establish the spectrum and dimensionality. The spin fields are provided and Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant vertex operators are constructed. Four-point tree-level and four-point one-loop amplitudes in these models are obtained. The closed and heterotic toy superstrings are shown to be modular invariant to this order

  5. Science toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    "I have a low boredom threshold," Tim Rowett explains, ushering in my son Alex and me. Rowett is a jovial, professorishlooking man with wire-rimmed glasses and a short, white beard. Alex and I have gone to his flat in Twickenham, on the edge of London, to see his collection of fun stuff - jokes, games, puzzles and other toys related to science. When I ask what they have in common, Rowett has a ready, if not illuminating, answer: "They're just things that make people go 'Wow!'."

  6. TACT glossary: toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, F; Von, Hofsten

    2010-01-01

    Toys denote objects used in playing. From the first examples of toys made of materials available in the environment and manufactured by parents or by children themselves only for recreational purpose, toys have evolved into more sophisticated devices which integrate mechanics, electronics and informatics (mechatronic toys) used in several different application fields. There are two main kinds of mechatronic toys: sensorized toys are passive toys equipped with a set of sensors used to record user/toy interactions; robotic toys are artefacts or computers, usually self-propelled with the help of motors, which collect information from the surrounding environment by sensors, and decode this information into behaviors consistent with them. This entry explores the use of the word "toys" from a technological point of view focussing on mechatronic toys and their applications.

  7. Toys for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    In emphasizing the importance of play and toys in a child's development, this article describes the kinds of toys suitable for preschool children of all ages. Floor toys, building and hammering toys, transport, and imaginative and creative play are some of the topics covered. (JK)

  8. Toy Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Toy designers at Hasbro, Inc. wanted to create a foam glider that a child could fly with little knowledge of aeronautics. But early in its development, the Areo Nerf gliders had one critical problem: they didn't fly so well. Through NASA's Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center, Hasbro was linked with aeronautical experts at Langley Research Center. The engineers provided information about how wing design and shape are integral to a glider's performance. The Hasbro designers received from NASA not only technical guidance but a hands-on tutorial on the physics of designing and flying gliders. Several versions of the Nerf glider were realized from the collaboration. For instance, the Super Soaring Glider can make long-range, high performance flights while the Ultra-Stunt Glider is ideal for performing aerial acrobatics.

  9. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  10. Toys in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The pictured toys will be carried aboard the Challenger on the STS 51-D mission as part of a study of physics in cooperation with the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences. The toys include a yoyo, paddleball, friction powered toy car, flipping mouse, top, ball and jacks, gyroscopes, Slinky and Wheelo.

  11. Lotus Effect Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2011-01-01

    This is a short article about Aqua Drop, a toy that employs a superhydrophobic surface. After defining superhydrophobic surface, its occurrence in nature, and its importance in science and technology, I describe the toy, followed by several student activities that can be performed with the toy and easily found natural objects.

  12. Toy Control Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; Ormond, C; Seeger, B R

    1991-08-01

    The Toy Control Program for the Apple IIe microcomputer is a software and hardware package developed for the training of single-switch scanning skills. The specially designed scanning programs provide on screen visual feedback and activate a battery-powered toy to reinforce performance. This study examined whether the training of preschool subjects in single-switch scanning skills with the Toy Control Program would result in increased task completion scores and increased levels of attention to task, as compared with conditions of toy activation only and microcomputer programs with screen reinforcement only. The results showed that the subjects paid significantly more attention to the toys as reinforcers (p less than .01). No significant difference was found for the performance results of the three conditions. These findings support the use of a program like the Toy Control Program, which integrates the instructional capabilities of a computer with the reinforcement potential of a toy and the creativity of a therapist.

  13. The Changing World of Toys and Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the changing world of toys and toy play. Children learn about themselves and their world from their play with toys. Over the past half century there has been a remarkable transformation of the toy world of children. Toys have changed in quantity, quality, and level of technology. Mass production has made…

  14. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  15. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other groups can help you make those buying decisions. Still, use your own best judgment — and consider your child's temperament, habits, and behavior whenever you buy a new toy. You may ...

  16. Toys in Space, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-54 Mission (Mario Runco, John Casper, Don McMonagle, Susan Helms, and Greg Harbaugh) explain how microgravity and weightlessness in space affects motion by using both mechanical and nonmechanical toys (gravitrons, slinkys, dart boards, magnetic marbles, and others). The gravitational effects on rotation, force, acceleration, magnetism, magnetic fields, center of axis, and velocity are actively demonstrated using these toys through experiments onboard the STS-54 Mission flight as a part of their spaceborne experiment payload. [Resource Guide referenced in the video is not available.

  17. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  19. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  20. Philosophical Toys Today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-196 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : philosophical toys * scientific instruments * modern visual culture Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  2. Digital games and toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes textual, social and design dimensions of artefacts for play and learning by giving examples from studies on relations between children, social activities, games and toys. This paper exhibits design as characteristics of artefacts intended to stage play and learning. Furthermore...... the paper exhibits learning as a process of competence creation. This kind of learning is usually not considered as learning in a formal sense, rather as play and exploration. Field-studies were implemented among user groups of children between 4 to 8 years of age. The results disclose that multimodality......, scaffolding, and intrinsic motivation are essential resources for playful learning experiences....

  3. From toys to tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    There is undoubtedly hype around drones and their applications for private and professional users. Based on a brief overview of the development of the drone industry in recent years, this article examines the co-evolution of drone technology and the entrepreneurial activity linked to it. Our...... results highlight the industry emergence described as concept validation, including product as well as market growth with different phases of technological meaning change. We argue that further steps are needed to develop drones from nice toys to professional tools—from photography and filming...

  4. Introducing Interactive Technology--"Toy Story 3"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    "To infinity and beyond!" is the catchphrase of Buzz Lightyear, Universe Protection Unit space ranger, a character in the Disney/Pixar "Toy Story" franchise. The three films in the franchise--"Toy Story," 1993; "Toy Story 2," 1999; and "Toy Story 3," 2010--incorporate an innovative blend of many different genres, having spun off video games and…

  5. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  6. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  7. History of European and national toys

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova E.O.; Sokolova M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the role of toys in the life and development of children. It traces the developmental trajectory of shaped toys in Europe and Russia from antiquity to the present day. It also shows the role of ideological factors in shaping the image of toys as well as long lasting contradiction between the developing features of toys and their market values. The article presents the comparative analysis of the image and the playing potential of the traditional and modern popular dolls. ...

  8. Children's Gender-Based Reasoning about Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined how preschool children used gender-based reasoning in making judgments about toy preferences for themselves and for others. Found that children used gender labels to guide their own preferences and their expectations of others. Even with very attractive toys, children liked the toys less if they were labeled as being for the…

  9. When the toys take over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    When a 60-year-old man with mild learning difficulties began obsessively collecting soft toys after his mother died, David O'Driscoll used the work of psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott to help the client manage his feelings of grief and loss.

  10. STS-54 Physics of Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Greg Vogt, NASA Headquarters Education Specialist, and Carolyn Sumners, Houston Museum of Natural Science, give an overview of the spaceborne experiments that will take place on the STS-54 Endeavour mission. Mr. Vogt discusses the objectives and procedures of the experiments, which are structured around using toys to show the effects of microgravity. Mr. Vogt and Ms. Sumners then answer questions from the press.

  11. Phthalates in toys available in Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sapna; Saikia, Nirmali; Sahu, Ramakant

    2011-06-01

    Twenty four children's toys and child care articles available in the local market of India were analyzed for eight phthalates as children toys are plasticized with phthalates. All toy samples showed the presence of one or more phthalates including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (96% of the samples), di-iso-nonyl phthalate and di-iso-decyl phthalate (42% of the samples) at a concentration ranging from 0.1% to 16.2%. Soft toys contain higher levels of phthalates as compared to hard toys as primary function of phthalates is softening of hard plastic materiel.

  12. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  13. History of European and national toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of toys in the life and development of children. It traces the developmental trajectory of shaped toys in Europe and Russia from antiquity to the present day. It also shows the role of ideological factors in shaping the image of toys as well as long lasting contradiction between the developing features of toys and their market values. The article presents the comparative analysis of the image and the playing potential of the traditional and modern popular dolls. Functions of toys as mediums and tools for the transmission of cultural norms is exemplifies by gender stereotypes: it shows how the peculiarity of toys for boys and girls, affects the nature of the game. In the conclusion the article examines the main trends and problems of development of the market of modern toys.

  14. Investigation of toy phenomenon in western psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the latest foreign psychological studies of toys. It presents the thematic variety of these studies and also different levels of analysis of the problem in the question. In terms of socio-cultural approach to toy it is regarded as a text, as a secondary artifact presenting real objects and tools. Some articles in this review are devoted to the problem of choosing toys in conditions of a contemporary market-oriented society. Some articles in this review, analyzing the historical background of toys, compare those of a past age with present time toys. In some studies the role of certain kinds of toys (like construction kits or doll's houses in child's life is discussed. The review also presents children's gender preferences in choice of toys.

  15. How Young Children and Their Mothers Experience Two Different Types of Toys: A Traditional Stuffed Toy versus an Animated Digital Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihyun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of digital toys, research evidence of how a digital toy's features affect children's development and the nature of parent-child interactions during play is limited. Objective: The present study aimed to examine how mother-child dyads experience a traditional stuffed toy and an animated digital toy by comparing…

  16. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  17. Bayesian decision theory : A simple toy problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, H.R.N.; Linger, R.O.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We give here a comparison of the expected outcome theory, the expected utility theory, and the Bayesian decision theory, by way of a simple numerical toy problem in which we look at the investment willingness to avert a high impact low probability event. It will be found that for this toy problem

  18. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  19. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  20. Toy models for wrapping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penedones, Joao; Vieira, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of local single trace gauge invariant operators in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be computed by diagonalizing a long range integrable Hamiltonian by means of a perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz. This formalism breaks down when the number of fields of the composite operator is smaller than the range of the Hamiltonian which coincides with the order in perturbation theory at study. We analyze two spin chain toy models which might shed some light on the physics behind these wrapping effects. One of them, the Hubbard model, is known to be closely related to N = 4 SYM. In this example, we find that the knowledge of the effective spin chain description is insufficient to reconstruct the finite size effects of the underlying electron theory. We compute the wrapping corrections for generic states and relate them to a Luscher like approach. The second toy models are long range integrable Hamiltonians built from the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. This construction is valid for any symmetry group. In particular, for non-compact groups it exhibits an interesting relation between wrapping interactions and transcendentality.

  1. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Nakamura, Nanami; Larsen, Rainer Rye

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared......Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... narratives by moving the objects around, they name them to handle the complexity, they experience what happens in the video through their hands, and they use the video together with objects to create alternative narratives, and thus alternative solutions to the problems they observe. In this paper we claim...

  2. Toys and games in play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschiany, A; Krontal, S

    1998-01-01

    The present article discusses the difference between play therapy with toys and play therapy with games from a psychodynamic point of view. Toys are regarded as offering the child an opportunity to develop a variety of transference reactions, while games, because of their inherent competitive characteristic, restrain the scope of possible transference reactions. The authors claim that therapists should consider these eventualities when choosing which games or toys are to be available in the therapy room. This choice might determine, in advance, the initial characteristics of the patient's transference.

  3. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... compliance than our existing regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns and toy guns not...

  4. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  5. Children's Reactions to Television Advertising for Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Gerald J.; Goldberg, Marvin E.

    This study investigated both the effects of expectancy and TV commercials using an expectancy-value model. In a 3 x 5 factorial design, eight- to ten-year-old boys (N=133) were presented with low, moderate or high expectancies of winning a toy, followed by exposure to 0, 1 or 3 repetitions of a TV commercial for the toy. High expectancy led to…

  6. Efficient distribution of toy products using ant colony optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, S.; Nurpraja, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    CV Atham Toys (CVAT) produces wooden toys and furniture, comprises 13 small and medium industries. CVAT always attempt to deliver customer orders on time but delivery costs are high. This is because of inadequate infrastructure such that delivery routes are long, car maintenance costs are high, while fuel subsidy by the government is still temporary. This study seeks to minimize the cost of product distribution based on the shortest route using one of five Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This study concludes that the best of the five is the Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm. The best route in 1st week gave a total distance of 124.11 km at a cost of Rp 66,703.75. The 2nd week route gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 71,095.13. The 3rd week best route gave a total distance of 122.70 km with a cost of Rp 65,951.25. While the 4th week gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 74,083.63. Prior to this study there was no effort to calculate these figures.

  7. Embedding Sensory Preference into Toys to Enhance Toy Play in Toddlers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Schepis, Maureen M.; Flynn, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Playing with toys as a means of environmental engagement has long been considered important in early child development (D. J. Messer, D. Rachford, M. E. McCarthy, & L. J. Yarrow, 1987; M. Wolery, M. G. Werts, & M. Holcombe, 1994). However, children with highly significant disabilities often engage in toy play less frequently than their peers…

  8. Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Eddy G. Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried; Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.

  9. Children's Gender-Typed Toy Interests: Does Propulsion Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Weisgram, Erica S; Fulcher, Megan

    2017-07-01

    Children's toy play is at the foundation of child development. However, gender differentiation in early play experiences may result in gender differences in cognitive abilities, social interactions, and vocational choices. We investigated gender-typing of toys and toys' propulsive properties (e.g., wheels, forward motion) as possible factors impacting children's toy interests, perceptions of other children's interests, and children's actual toy choices during free play. In Studies 1 and 2, 82 preschool children (42 boys, 40 girls; mean age = 4.90 years) were asked to report their interest and perceptions of other children's interests in toys. In Study 1, masculine, feminine, and neutral toys with and without propulsive properties were presented. Children reported greater interest in gender-typed toys and neutral toys compared to cross-gender-typed toys. In Study 2, unfamiliar, neutral toys with and without propulsive properties were presented. Propulsive properties did not affect children's interest across both studies. Study 3 was an observational study that assessed toy preferences among 42 preschool children (21 males, 21 females, mean age = 4.49 years) during a play session with masculine, feminine, and neutral toys with and without propulsive properties. Gender-typed toy preferences were less apparent than expected, with children showing high interest in neutral toys, and girls playing with a wide variety of masculine, feminine, and neutral toys. Gender differences in interest for toys with propulsion properties were not evident. Overall, gender differences in children's interest in toys as a function of propulsion properties were not found in the three experiments within this study.

  10. Market Analysis, Opportunity Recognition and Strategy Diagnosis in Toy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2018-01-01

    According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown...... for this misdirection were that the Iranian toy industry lacked a traditional structure, a strategic perspective and also absence of international cooperation. This research suggests that the Iranian toy industries need to move its focus from manufacturing, where the country has no competitive advantage, toward toy...

  11. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  12. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... to test and certify to the toy safety standard. We plan to use traditional and social media to... testing and certification requirements for children's toys and toy chests and their compliance with ASTM... manufacturers of children's toys must ensure that covered toys are tested for compliance with the toy safety...

  13. Tips for Teachers Selecting Toys to Facilitate Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee

    2011-01-01

    Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.

  14. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu); Calelia G. STOICA (Stanciu); Cornelia D. IVAN (Trandafiroiu)

    2014-01-01

    Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be pa...

  15. The potential of artificial intelligence toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process. Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more...... value for existing resources. It combines AI programs and common sensors to realize the function of intelligence input and output. Designers can use technology-based criteria to design and need to consider the possible issues in this new field. All of these aspects can be referenced from electronic game...

  16. Gifting with Purpose: Choose Learning Toys This Holiday Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Kids aged five and under learn best through play. Instead of buying just any toy, look for toys or activities with things to teach: like the alphabet or names of different animals, and more. Children will play with their new toy and not even realize they are learning while they play. This article focuses on gift ideas for the holiday season, with…

  17. Limiting hazardous noise exposure from noisy toys: simple, sticky solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Heather M; Jabbour, Noel; Levine, Samuel; Yueh, Bevan

    2013-09-01

    To assess noise levels of toys from the Sight & Hearing Association (SHA) 2010 Noisy Toys List and evaluate the change in noise of these toys after covering the speakers with tape or glue. One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. SHA 2010 Toys List (n = 18) toys were tested at distances of 0 and 25 cm from sound source in a soundproof booth using a digital sound-level meter. The dBA level of sound produced by toy was obtained. Toys with speakers (n = 16) were tested before and after altering speakers with plastic packing tape or nontoxic glue. Mean noise level for non-taped toys at 0 and 25 cm was 107.6 dBA (SD ± 8.5) and 82.5 dBA (SD ± 8.8), respectively. With tape, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 and 25 cm: 84.2 dBA and 68.2 dBA (P toys. However, there was no significant difference between tape or glue. Overall, altering the toy can significantly decrease the sound a child may experience when playing with toys. However, some toys, even after altering, still produce sound levels that may be considered dangerous. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Designing Toys to Support Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a study that aimed to contribute to the theory of good toy design in terms of the value of using toys for children development. Moreover, the study attempts to evaluate ways in which children play and study the toys they commonly use with respect to how it influence their adulthood. The authors firstly looked into the…

  19. Familiarizing with Toy Food: Preliminary Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. Methods: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized…

  20. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Section 106 of the... regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns refer to obsolete equipment, but the ASTM F963...

  1. Dimensions of Childhood Play and Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse play through a contemporary historical perspective, based upon pre-school teachers', students majoring in education, and teacher education students' descriptions of memories from their childhood regarding play and toys. The overall method is retrospective. The data consists of 111 interviews…

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Woodpecker Toy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leine, R.I.; Glocker, C.; Campen, van D.H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies bifurcations in systems with impact andfriction, modeled with a rigid multibody approach. Knowledgefrom the field of Nonlinear Dynamics is therefore combined withtheory from the field of Nonsmooth Mechanics. The nonlineardynamics is studied of a commercial wooden toy. The toyshows

  3. Toy Models of a Nonassociative Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, V.

    2007-01-01

    Toy models of a nonassociative quantum mechanics are presented. The Heisenberg equation of motion is modified using a nonassociative commutator. Possible physical applications of a nonassociative quantum mechanics are considered. The idea is discussed that a nonassociative algebra could be the operator language for the nonperturbative quantum theory. In such approach the nonperturbative quantum theory has observables and un observables quantities.

  4. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  5. Toy models of crossed Andreev reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, R; Jirari, H; Peysson, S

    2003-01-01

    We propose toy models of crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal hybrid structures containing out-of-equilibrium conductors. We apply the description to two possible experiments: (i) to a device containing a large quantum dot inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit, and (ii) to a device containing an Aharonov-Bohm loop inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit

  6. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc. to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  7. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. NOTE: Also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physic of Toys (ASPEC).

  8. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  9. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  10. Toys are a potential source of cross-infection in general practitioners' waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Eileen; Corwin, Paul; Ikram, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    The waiting rooms of general practitioners' surgeries usually have toys provided for children. The level of contamination of these toys and the effectiveness of toy decontamination was investigated in this study. Hard toys from general practitioners' waiting rooms had relatively low levels of contamination, with only 13.5% of toys showing any coliform counts. There were no hard toys with heavy contamination by coliforms or other bacteria. Soft toys were far more likely to be contaminated, with 20% of toys showing moderate to heavy coliform contamination and 90% showing moderate to heavy bacterial contamination. Many waiting-room toys are not cleaned routinely. Soft toys are hard to disinfect and tend to rapidly become recontaminated after cleaning. Conversely, hard toys can be cleaned and disinfected easily. Soft toys in general practitioners' waiting rooms pose an infectious risk and it is therefore recommended that soft toys are unsuitable for doctors' waiting rooms. PMID:11885823

  11. Security and Privacy Analyses of Internet of Things Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Gordon; Apthorpe, Noah; Feamster, Nick

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the security and privacy of Internet-connected children's smart toys through case studies of three commercially-available products. We conduct network and application vulnerability analyses of each toy using static and dynamic analysis techniques, including application binary decompilation and network monitoring. We discover several publicly undisclosed vulnerabilities that violate the Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule (COPPA) as well as the toys' individual pr...

  12. Noise Measurement and Frequency Analysis of Commercially Available Noisy Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Jalaie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise measurement and frequency analysis of commercially available noisy toys were the main purposes of the study. Materials and Methods: 181 noisy toys commonly found in toy stores in different zones of Tehran were selected and categorized into 10 groups. Noise measurement were done at 2, 25, and 50 cm from toys in dBA. The noisiest toy of each group was frequency analyzed in octave bands. Results: The highest and the lowest intensity levels belonged to the gun (mean=112 dBA and range of 100-127 dBA and to the rattle-box (mean=84 dBA and range of 74-95 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity levels significantly decreased with increasing distance except for two toys. Noise frequency analysis indicated energy in effective hearing frequencies. Most of the toys energies were in the middle and high frequency region. Conclusion: As intensity level of the toys is considerable, mostly more than 90 dBA, and also their energy exist in the middle and high frequency region, toys should be considered as a cause of the hearing impairment.

  13. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2015-10-01

    with fists out and aggressive faces (26%. Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer’s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to desensitize their children to violence.

  14. PLAY ACTIVITY WITH MILITARY TOYS AT PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53

  15. Respiratory viral RNA on toys in pediatric office waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Diane E; Hendley, J Owen; Schwartz, Richard H

    2010-02-01

    Toys in pediatric office waiting rooms may be fomites for transmission of viruses. Eighteen samples were taken from office objects on 3 occasions. Samples were tested for presence of picornavirus (either rhinovirus or enterovirus) on all 3 sample days; in addition, January samples were tested for respiratory syncytial virus and March samples were tested for influenza A and B. In addition, 15 samples were obtained from the sick waiting room before and after cleaning. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect picornavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A or B virus. Finally, 20 samples were obtained from the fingers of a researcher after handling different toys in the sick waiting room, and samples were then obtained from all the same toys; all samples were tested for picornavirus by polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected on 11 of 52 (21%) of toys sampled. Ten of the positives were picornavirus; 1 was influenza B virus. Three (30%) of 10 toys from the new toy bag, 6 of 30 (20%) in the sick child waiting room, and 2 of 12 (17%) in the well child waiting room were positive. Six (40%) of 15 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA before cleaning; after cleaning, 4 (27%) of 15 were positive in spite of the fact that RNA was removed from 4 of 6 of the original positives. Three (15%) of 20 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA, but RNA was not transferred to the fingers of the investigator who handled these toys. About 20% of the objects in a pediatric office may be contaminated with respiratory viral RNA, most commonly picornavirus RNA. Cleaning with a disinfectant cloth was only modestly effective in removing the viral RNA from the surfaces of toys, but transfer of picornaviral RNA from toys to fingers was inefficient.

  16. Toys That Squeak: Toy Type Impacts Quality and Quantity of Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L.; Lossia, Amanda; Suarez-Rivera, Catalina; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Given the dependent nature of parent-infant interactions necessary for language development, it is important to understand how context may influence these interactions. This study examines how contextual variables influence communicative, cognitive and social measures of parent-infant interactions. Specifically, how do feedback toys and…

  17. Neural network tagging in a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, Marko; Patel, Popat

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a comparison of Artificial Neural Network approach to HEP analysis against the traditional methods. A toy model used in this analysis consists of two types of particles defined by four generic properties. A number of 'events' was created according to the model using standard Monte Carlo techniques. Several fully connected, feed forward multi layered Artificial Neural Networks were trained to tag the model events. The performance of each network was compared to the standard analysis mechanisms and significant improvement was observed

  18. The LiC detector toy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard; Valentan, Manfred; Fruehwirth, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    This note describes the 'LiC Detector Toy' ('LiC' for Linear Collider) software tool which has been developed for detector design studies, aiming at investigating the resolution of reconstructed track parameters for the purpose of comparing and optimizing various detector setups. It consists of a simplified simulation of the detector measurements, taking into account multiple scattering, followed by full single track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. The tool is written in MATLAB and may be installed on a laptop. It can easily be used as a black-box tool by non-experts, but also adapted to individual needs

  19. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  20. Toys in Physics Lectures and Demonstrations--A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of toys in physics teaching is common. This brief review of the physics of toys intends to show that they are not only very useful in lectures and demonstrations in order to motivate students but also very interesting from a scientific point of view. However, since their physics is sometimes too cumbersome, the effect can be the opposite.…

  1. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  2. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  3. Investigating the Activities of Children toward a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that features a virtual space, which includes computer-based graphics and characters, and a real space, which includes plush toys, background cards, and a communication interface. When children put real objects on the receiver panel, the computer program shows related backgrounds and…

  4. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  5. Indonesian Traditional Toys and the Development of Batik Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Indrayana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide array of traditional toys in Indonesia. In the past, traditional toys played an important role for skill and creativity development of children. Today, the position of traditional toys in the society is displaced by toys from large-scale manufacturers. Given the critical role of traditional toys for children’s motoric and social development, there is a need to develop media that can be used to promote these traditional products and strengthen their position in the public. We propose to use Batik as a way to effectively disseminate and promote traditional toys to the general public. Apart from this, using traditional toys to create new Batik motifs can have an economic value for the producers of Batik, promote Indonesian products and enrich the Indonesian Batik. This study aims to explore the variety of traditional toys, mainly from Klaten and Magelang, in the Central Java province of Indonesia, and use them as the basis for the development of Batik motif creation. This study used Trilogi Keseimbangan (or Harmony Trilogy aesthetic theory analytical approach that explains the creation of craft consists of the following phases: exploration, design, and materialization. The creation method in this study adopts Tiga Tahap Enam Langkah (Three Phases, Six Steps method offered in the theory. The finding in the field found that the traditional toys material used in Klaten and Magelang, mostly made from waste wood, plywood, and zinc. The manufacturing process is done manually by two or three craftsmen using a simple technology. The traditional toys are designed by the artisans mostly, although there may be designs from the clients. In addition, we also found that the traditional toys have never been used as a Batik motif. The traditional toys Batik motif presented in this work is researcher’s design. For the purposes of this study, we first research the variety of traditional toys available in the market today in Indonesia. We look

  6. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  7. Role of toys in the development of healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-04-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu       Keywords: rehabilitation; development; gesture; toy use; parent–child interaction;       Abstract   Developmental outcomes in infants can be significantly improved thanks to promising use of approapriate toys. Objective assessment of their positive influence to functional achievements in healthy infants may completely change attitude to new generation of toys, developing motor, cognitive, and social skills. Despite advances in toys assessment their true influence remains incomplete. This study aims at assessment how current knowledge and experience influences principles of the toys selection and use in healthy infants.

  8. Toy model for two chiral nonets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility that nonets of scalar mesons might be described as mixtures of 'two quark' and 'four quark' components, we further study a toy model in which corresponding chiral nonets (containing also the pseudoscalar partners) interact with each other. Although the 'two quark' and 'four quark' chiral fields transform identically under SU(3) L xSU(3) R transformations, they transform differently under the U(1) A transformation which essentially counts total (quark+antiquark) content of the mesons. To implement this, we formulate an effective Lagrangian which mocks up the U(1) A behavior of the underlying QCD. We derive generating equations which yield Ward identity type relations based only on the assumed symmetry structure. This is applied to the mass spectrum of the low lying pseudoscalars and scalars, as well as their 'excitations'. Assuming isotopic spin invariance, it is possible to disentangle the amount of 'two quark' vs 'four quark' content in the pseudoscalar π,K,η-type states and in the scalar κ-type states. It is found that a small 'four quark' content in the lightest pseudoscalars is consistent with a large 'four quark' content in the lightest of the scalar κ mesons. The present toy model also allows one to easily estimate the strength of a 'four quark' vacuum condensate. There seems to be a rich and interesting structure

  9. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of sound pressure levels emitted by children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleifer, Pricila; Gonçalves, Maiara Santos; Tomasi, Marinês; Gomes, Erissandra

    2013-06-01

    To verify the levels of sound pressure emitted by non-certified children's toys. Cross-sectional study of sound toys available at popular retail stores of the so-called informal sector. Electronic, mechanical, and musical toys were analyzed. The measurement of each product was carried out by an acoustic engineer in an acoustically isolated booth, by a decibel meter. To obtain the sound parameters of intensity and frequency, the toys were set to produce sounds at a distance of 10 and 50cm from the researcher's ear. The intensity of sound pressure [dB(A)] and the frequency in hertz (Hz) were measured. 48 toys were evaluated. The mean sound pressure 10cm from the ear was 102±10 dB(A), and at 50cm, 94±8 dB(A), with ptoys was above 85dB(A). The frequency ranged from 413 to 6,635Hz, with 56.3% of toys emitting frequency higher than 2,000Hz. The majority of toys assessed in this research emitted a high level of sound pressure.

  11. Loudness and acoustic parameters of popular children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Yaser; Bhatt, Jay; Maducdoc, Marlon; Yau, Amy; Mahboubi, Hossein; Ziai, Kasra; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2015-12-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the loudness and acoustic parameters of toys designed for children. In addition, we investigated whether occluding the toys' speaker with tape would result in a significant loudness reduction; thereby potentially reducing the risk of noise induced hearing loss. Twenty-six toys were selected after an initial screening at two national retailers. Noise amplitudes at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8kHz were measured using a digital sound level meter at a distance of 0 and 30cm. The toys' speakers were then occluded using adhesive tape and the same acoustic parameters were re-measured. Mean maximum noise amplitude of the toys at 0cm and 30cm was 104dBA (range, 97-125dBA) and 76dBA (range, 67-86dBA), respectively. Mean maximum noise amplitude after occlusion at 0cm and 30cm distances was 88dBA (range, 73-110dBA) and 66dBA (range, 55-82dBA), respectively, with a p-value toys at a distant of 30cm between the speaker and the child's ear will likely not pose a risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, since most toys are used at closer distances, use of adhesive tape is recommended as an effective modification to decrease the risk of hearing loss. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Noise levels of toys for children between the ages of birth and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design was employed for this study. Subjects. Twenty toys, 5 from each of 4 categories, were chosen from a popular toy store in ... the noise levels of toys on the packaging and adherence to ASTM International standards for toy manufacturers are recommended.

  13. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  14. Asbestos in toys: an exemplary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Raffaell, Corrado; Veraldi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    DAS was an artificial clay which, once molded, hardened at room temperature. It was largely used as a toy between 1963 and 1975 in Italy, Netherlands, Germany, UK and Norway. This case report describes and reports the presence of asbestos in DAS. We investigated the presence of asbestos in DAS using light and electron microscopy on samples of the original material. We searched administrative documents at the State Archive of Turin and conducted interviews with past employees on annual production, suppliers, and purchasers. The analytical tests confirmed the presence of asbestos fibers in DAS: about 30% of its composition. The documents found at the State Archive confirmed the annual purchase of hundreds tons of raw asbestos from the Amiantifera di Balangero, the Italian asbestos mine. DAS was found to be used also within craftsmanship. Asbestos fibers in DAS may have caused exposure to production workers and a variety of users, including artists, teachers, and children. Over 13 years, about 55 million packs of DAS were produced and sold. The number of users is difficult to estimate but may have been in the order of millions. In Italy, a specific question on the use of DAS has been included in a routinely used mesothelioma questionnaire. As DAS was exported to other countries, our findings suggest that mesothelioma patients should be asked about their past use of DAS, in particular individuals not reporting a clear past asbestos exposure. Additionally, this discovery shows the incompleteness of records on asbestos uses and suggests to test items, including toys, imported from countries where asbestos is not forbidden.

  15. Social interactions and play patterns of parents and toddlers with feminine, masculine, and neutral toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, Y M; Huston, A C; O'Brien, M

    1989-02-01

    Children as young as 18 months display sex-stereotyped toy choices. The present study was designed to determine whether parents encourage involvement with sex-stereotyped toys or avoidance of cross-sex-stereotyped toys and to determine whether masculine and feminine toys lead to different patterns of parent-child interaction, regardless of gender. 40 parent-toddler dyads were videotaped while playing with 6 different sets of sex-stereotyped toys. Equal numbers of boys and girls were observed with mothers and fathers. The children showed greater involvement when playing with same-sex-typed toys than with cross-sex toys even when statistically controlling for parents' behaviors. Parents' verbal behaviors, involvement, and proximity to the child differed across toy groups, regardless of the parent's or child's gender. Parents' initial nonverbal responses to the toys, however, were more positive when the toys were stereotyped for the child's and parent's gender than when they were not.

  16. Food marketing to children through toys: response of restaurants to the first U.S. toy ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Hekler, Eric B; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Buman, Matthew P; Saelens, Brian E; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2012-01-01

    On August 9, 2010, Santa Clara County CA became the first U.S. jurisdiction to implement an ordinance that prohibits the distribution of toys and other incentives to children in conjunction with meals, foods, or beverages that do not meet minimal nutritional criteria. Restaurants had many different options for complying with this ordinance, such as introducing more healthful menu options, reformulating current menu items, or changing marketing or toy distribution practices. To assess how ordinance-affected restaurants changed their child menus, marketing, and toy distribution practices relative to non-affected restaurants. Children's menu items and child-directed marketing and toy distribution practices were examined before and at two time points after ordinance implementation (from July through November 2010) at ordinance-affected fast-food restaurants compared with demographically matched unaffected same-chain restaurants using the Children's Menu Assessment tool. Affected restaurants showed a 2.8- to 3.4-fold improvement in Children's Menu Assessment scores from pre- to post-ordinance with minimal changes at unaffected restaurants. Response to the ordinance varied by restaurant. Improvements were seen in on-site nutritional guidance; promotion of healthy meals, beverages, and side items; and toy marketing and distribution activities. The ordinance appears to have positively influenced marketing of healthful menu items and toys as well as toy distribution practices at ordinance-affected restaurants, but did not affect the number of healthful food items offered. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modern Toys: Risks and Dangers (Materials from the Workshop at the MSUPE Center for Play and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the seminar which is based on the “harmful” toys. This seminar was organized in the Centre of games and toys in MSUPE. The theme of the seminar is linked with the requirements of the public and parental controls to restrict the production and sale of these toys which can harm the mental health and the development of children. The discussion was attended by the leading child psychiatrists, psychotherapists and psychologists. They discussed the issues that were associated with the risks and hazards from the toys, and the possibility of studying the potential harmful effects of toys. All participants of this discussion were agree with this fact, that a toy itself cannot harm a mental health, while at the same time, a toy (along with cartoons, multimedia, games and so on. takes part in the formation of certain needs and views of children. This workshop demonstrated the complexity of the problem and the necessity for its further development.

  18. The popularity of toys and play of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents popularity of play and toys in pre-school period, influence of important factors on a play and selection of toys and differences in duration of the play, depending on children's age and gender. In the theoretical part we defined children's play and its importance, also we detaily described development of children's play and presented the meaning of toys. We classified toys according to the basic function and according to adequacy of toys for certain age group. We focu...

  19. Toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanhart, C.; Miller, G. A.; Myhrer, F.; Sato, T.; Kolck, U. van

    2001-01-01

    We develop a toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions that reproduces some of the features of the chiral Lagrangian calculations. We calculate the production amplitude and examine some common approximations

  20. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toy nanoindentation model and incipient plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans, I.; Carpio, A.; Bonilla, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    A toy model of two dimensional nanoindentation in finite crystals is proposed. The crystal is described by periodized discrete elasticity whereas the indenter is a rigid strain field of triangular shape representing a hard knife-like indenter. Analysis of the model shows that there are a number of discontinuities in the load vs penetration depth plot which correspond to the creation of dislocation loops. The stress vs depth bifurcation diagram of the model reveals multistable stationary solutions that appear as the dislocation-free branch of solutions develops turning points for increasing stress. Dynamical simulations show that an increment of the applied load leads to nucleation of dislocation loops below the nanoindenter tip. Such dislocations travel inside the bulk of the crystal and accommodate at a certain depth in the sample. In agreement with experiments, hysteresis is observed if the stress is decreased after the first dislocation loop is created. Critical stress values for loop creation and their final location at equilibrium are calculated.

  3. Using video modeling for generalizing toy play in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Claire R; Arco, Lucius

    2007-09-01

    The present study examined effects of video modeling on generalized independent toy play of two boys with autism. Appropriate and repetitive verbal and motor play were measured, and intermeasure relationships were examined. Two single-participant experiments with multiple baselines and withdrawals across toy play were used. One boy was presented with three physically unrelated toys, whereas the other was presented with three related toys. Video modeling produced increases in appropriate play and decreases in repetitive play, but generalized play was observed only with the related toys. Generalization may have resulted from variables including the toys' common physical characteristics and natural reinforcing properties and the increased correspondence between verbal and motor play.

  4. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  5. Quantification of toy sword kinematics with male pediatric volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research in toy safety has been performed, data is unavailable with regard to the kinematics of toy swords. To improve upon design criteria, knowledge of a child’s physical capacity is essential. The purpose of this study was to quantify the linear and angular velocities generated by children swinging toy swords. A total of 36 male subjects, ages 4-14 years old, each participated in one trial. Subjects were instructed to swing a toy sword as fast and hard as possible for ~10 seconds. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture subject and sword kinematics. Peak linear and angular sword velocities were calculated. A strong correlation was identified between age and velocity. The 8-14 year old males were not significantly different. The 4 year old males generated significantly lower velocities than the 8-14 year old males. The 6 year old males produced significantly lower velocities than the 10- 14 year old males. It was concluded that age had a significant effect on the linear and angular velocities generated by children. The trends observed within this study likely result from typical pediatric and adolescent development. By accounting for the physical capabilities of a specific population, toys can be designed with decreased inherent risks of injury.

  6. Magic, science and masculinity: marketing toy chemistry sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2009-12-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, toy chemistry sets have featured in standard scripts of the achievement of eminence in science, and they remain important in constructions of scientific identity. Using a selection of these toys manufactured in Britain and the United States, and with particular reference to the two dominant American brands, Gilbert and Chemcraft, this paper suggests that early twentieth-century chemistry sets were rooted in overlapping Victorian traditions of entertainment magic and scientific recreations. As chemistry set marketing copy gradually reoriented towards emphasising scientific modernity, citizenship, discipline and educational value, pre-twentieth-century traditions were subsumed within domestic-and specifically masculine-tropes. These developments in branding strategies point to transformations in both users' engagement with their chemistry sets and the role of scientific toys in domestic play. The chemistry set serves here as a useful tool for measuring cultural change and lay engagement with chemistry.

  7. Inhalation exposure of children to fragrances present in scented toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, I; Hutzler, C; Jann, O; Luch, A

    2011-12-01

    When utilized in the perfuming of children's toys, fragrances capable of inducing contact allergy in human skin may also become bioavailable to children via the inhalation route. The aim of this study was to determine the area-specific emission rates of 24 fragrances from a plasticized PVC reference material that was meant to mimic a real plastic toy. This material was introduced into an emission chamber for 28 days at handling conditions or at worst-case conditions. As a result, fragrances can be separated into three categories according to their emission rates ranging from 0.0041 to 16.2 mg/m² × h, i.e., highly volatile, semivolatile, and low-volatile compounds. Compounds of the first and second categories were monitored with decreasing emission rates. Substances of the third category were detected with increasing emission rates over time. Further, higher temperatures led to higher emission rates. The emission concentration of fragrances from four real scented toys varied between 1.10 and 107 μg/m³ at day 1 in the test chamber. Therefore, short-term inhalation exposure to fragrances originating from toys was in the range of 0.53-2700 ng/kg BW/d for the children of age 1 and older. Long-term exposure to these fragrances was calculated in the range of 2.2-220 ng/kg BW/d. Besides household products and cosmetics, fragrances can be found in toys for children. Some fragrances are known contact allergens in the skin, but there is a lack of information on their effects in the human respiratory tract. Here, we analyzed and categorized fragrances present in a plasticized PVC reference material according to their emission profiles and volatility. We also demonstrate that volatile fragrances are being emitted from real toys and thus may get inhaled under consumer conditions to different extents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Play Therapy Utilizing the Sony EyeToy®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    An international collaborative explorative pilot study is detailed between hospitals in Denmark and Sweden involving rehabilitation medical staff and children where the affordable, popular and commercially available Sony Playstation 2 EyeToy® is used to investigate our goal in enquiring to the po......An international collaborative explorative pilot study is detailed between hospitals in Denmark and Sweden involving rehabilitation medical staff and children where the affordable, popular and commercially available Sony Playstation 2 EyeToy® is used to investigate our goal in enquiring...

  9. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  10. 77 FR 45297 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Proposed Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1199 [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0040] Children's Toys... containing phthalates does not apply to any component part of children's toys or child care articles that is... guidance on inaccessible component parts in children's toys or child care articles subject to section 108...

  11. 78 FR 10503 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Final Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0040] 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys... does not apply to any component part of children's toys or child care articles that is not accessible... parts in children's toys or child care articles subject to section 108 of the CPSIA. DATES: This rule is...

  12. 25 CFR 309.21 - What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.21 What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products? Dolls, toys, and related items made by an Indian, including, but not limited to, no face dolls...

  13. A study on the visual effect of toy in children life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Azarbouyeh Dinaky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying features and visual qualities of images in toys and toys packaging. This research is trying to find answers for toys and toys packaging processes from design to production, what should be considered by an illustrator and also collecting information for interested people and students in arrival to the labor market and recognizing the existing challenges. This research method was fundamental and theoretical and the most important research question was that, what is the first impression of images on the toys and packaging surfaces containing toys? And what are the most important features of images on the toys and toys packaging surfaces? The most important obtained results were that although the quick attraction of the purchaser is the most effective factor in images, it cannot be the first effect on toys and toys packaging surfaces. Features such as color, attractive design and revealing the inside containing of the packaging are the most important features of images in this packaging. Now we can say that images as visual part of the toys and toys packaging have the most important role in introducing the capabilities, function and the attractiveness of a production. Images especially for children who have a closer relationship with fiction world is more attractive than other visual elements and also despite of the visual attraction such as color coordination, adaptation of plan with packaging and etc.

  14. Development of Gender Discrimination: Effect of Sex-Typical and Sex-Atypical Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.

    Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…

  15. 78 FR 2281 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2930] Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof, DN 2930... States after importation of certain robotic toys and components thereof. The complaint names as...

  16. Multi-technique quantitative analysis and socioeconomic considerations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in children's toys and toy jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Margot M; Finch, Lauren E; Cerel, Alisha S; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Leopold, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    A wide spectrum and large number of children's toys and toy jewelry items were purchased from both bargain and retail vendors and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, and lead metal content using multiple analytical techniques, including flame and furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Particularly dangerous for young children, metal concentrations in toys/toy jewelry were assessed for compliance with current Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) regulations (F963-11). A conservative metric involving multiple analytical techniques was used to categorize compliance: one technique confirmation of metal in excess of CPSC limits indicated a "suspect" item while confirmation on two different techniques warranted a non-compliant designation. Sample matrix-based standard addition provided additional confirmation of non-compliant and suspect products. Results suggest that origin of purchase, rather than cost, is a significant factor in the risk assessment of these materials with 57% of toys/toy jewelry items from bargain stores non-compliant or suspect compared to only 15% from retail outlets and 13% if only low cost items from the retail stores are compared. While jewelry was found to be the most problematic product (73% of non-compliant/suspect samples), lead (45%) and arsenic (76%) were the most dominant toxins found in non-compliant/suspect samples. Using the greater Richmond area as a model, the discrepancy between bargain and retail children's products, along with growing numbers of bargain stores in low-income and urban areas, exemplifies an emerging socioeconomic public health issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  18. Exploring Theoretical Computer Science Using Paper Toys (for kids)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...

  19. Unitary truncations and critical gravity : a toy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Haan, Sjoerd; Merbis, Wout; Porrati, Massimo; Rosseel, Jan

    We investigate a higher-derivative scalar field model in a fixed d+1 dimensional AdS background as a toy model for a gravitational dual to a higher-rank logarithmic CFT. The holographic two-point correlation functions on the boundary agree with higher-rank LCFT correlation functions. For odd rank,

  20. Redefining toys, games and entertainment products by designing playful interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Nemeth, A.G.G.E.; Mendels, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how students are taught to design (computer) games and toys in a broad sense of the word at the Department of Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The curriculum is highly project driven, which means that students acquire a large amount of hands-on

  1. A Toy Model for QCD: Hadrons, Penta- and Heptaquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, M.; Hess, P.O.; Civitarese, O.; Reboiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    A toy model for QCD is presented and applied to the hadron spectrum. As a byproduct the structure of penta- and hepta-quarks is obtained. A complete classification of the states is given. One essential feature of the model is the non-conservation of particle number

  2. Distal antebrachial fractures in toy-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, P.

    1997-01-01

    Antebrachial fractures account for approximately 17% of all canine fractures, with motor vehicle trauma cited as one of the primary causes. However, antebrachial fractures in toy-breed dogs are often sustained after apparently minimal trauma, such as jumping or falling, and are usually distal. The cause of antebrachial fractures in toy breeds is not well understood. Complications after treatment of distal antebrachial fractures in toy-breed dogs, including delayed union, nonunion, and malunion, are common and are potentially serious because they may necessitate limb amputation. This article reports on distal antebrachial fractures in 26 toy-breed dogs that wee presented to the University of California, Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from April 1987 to March 1996. The author found that (1) these fractures typically occur in growing or adolescent dogs; (2) the presence of complications of union is typically associated with prior treatment using intramedullary pinning or external coaptation; and (3) successful healing of this type of fracture is obtained via rigid stabilization with bone plating in combination with cancellous bone autograft

  3. Toy Talk: Simple Strategies to Create Richer Grammatical Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Walsh, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this initial feasibility study was to determine whether brief instruction in toy talk would change grammatical properties of adult language, specifically 3rd person lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects. Method: Eighteen college students participated in the study. The use of 3rd person subjects was examined before and after…

  4. Sensorized toys for measuring manipulation capabilities of infants at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passetti, Giovanni; Cecchi, Francesca; Baldoli, Ilaria; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Beani, Elena; Cioni, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants, i.e. babies born after a gestation period shorter than 37 weeks, spend less time exploring objects. The quantitative measurement of grasping actions and forces in infants can give insights on their typical or atypical motor development. The aim of this work was to test a new tool, a kit of sensorized toys, to longitudinally measure, monitor and promote preterm infants manipulation capabilities with a purposive training in an ecological environment. This study presents preliminary analysis of grasping activity. Three preterm infants performed 4 weeks of daily training at home. Sensorized toys with embedded pressure sensors were used as part of the training to allow quantitative analysis of grasping (pressure and acceleration applied to toys while playing). Each toy was placed on the midline, while the infant was in supine position. Preliminary data show differences in the grasping parameters in relation to infants age and the performed daily training. Ongoing clinical trial will allow a full validation of this new tool for promoting object exploration in preterm infants.

  5. Design and Development of a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    Because computers generally make children passive listeners, new technological devices need to support children's storytelling activities. This article introduces the StoryTech, a smart toy that includes a virtual space comprised of computer-based graphics and characters as well as a real space that involves stuffed animals, background cards…

  6. Programmable Toys and Free Play in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Christopher Paul; Cooper, Martin; Cordery, Zina

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the ways that young children interact with discrete programmable digital toys in a free play setting. One intention was to see whether this interaction would address some of the requirements of the Digital Technologies subject in the Australian Curriculum. The study was implemented in two phases in…

  7. Manometry of the gastrointestinal tract: toy or tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the eyes of scientific researchers, there are various manometric techniques that are useful tools for studying the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinicians, however, regard most of these techniques as toys, either because they do not lead to clinically relevant results, or because they

  8. Spring-Wound Toy Cars--Experiments in Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Use of spring-wound toy cars in kinematics experiments is described. The cars, used in place of traditional dynamics carts rolling down an inclined plane, are inexpensive, motivational, and give reproducible results. Details of acceleration experiments and suggestions for additional experiments are provided. (JN)

  9. Investigating Solids, Liquids, and Gases with TOYS: States of Matter and Changes of State. Activities for Middle School Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Jerry; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Mickey; Woodward, Linda

    The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical…

  10. Qualitative Differences Among Gender-Stereotyped Toys: Implications for Cognitive and Social Development in Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia L.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates a system of toy classification developed to improve the assessment of gender differences in cognitive and social development. One hundred adults rated 50 children's toys on 122 "functional" dimensions. Results showed that these toys could be reliably described according to multidimensional similarities, and confirmed that toys considered…

  11. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. PMID:18452921

  12. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H.; Guerra, Laura A.; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is a pervasive problem in the United States. Toys, far from trivial playthings, are a reflection of society, including its beliefs and values. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which violent toys are marketed in online weekly flyers of popular retailers, how the violence is manifested, and whether violent toys are marketed differentially to boys and girls. Methods: For this cross-sectional observational study, online circulars from 5 major retailers were downloaded and examined each week for 14 weeks during the fall of 2014. For each retailer, the total number of toys, as well as the total number of violent and non-violent toys, was recorded. In addition, each violent toy was categorized into one of five groups: picturing a figure with a weapon, a figure with intent to strike (with fists drawn or an angry face), a toy with a violent name, a toy that was a weapon itself, or a set of toys that included two or more of these criteria. Results: A total number of 3,459 toys were observed, of which 1,053 (30%) were deemed violent. Of the violent toys, 95% were marketed to boys (n=1,003) versus 5% to girls (n=50). The most prevalent violent category was a figure with a weapon such as a sword, knife or gun (29%), followed by figures with fists out and aggressive faces (26%). Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer‟s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to de-sensitize their children to violence PMID:26634197

  13. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  14. Percentage of toxic trace elements; Pb, Cr and Cd in certain plastic toys, Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kavehzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have detected the presence of significant levels of heavy metals (chromium, lead and cadmium in toys and other PVC products manufactured for children. In some countries, addition of compounds containing toxic metals to toys are limited or prohibited. Methods: To evaluate the safety of some of the plastic toys in the city of Isfahan with respect to toxic trace metals, pb, cr and cd, 75 samples of three types of toys were collected from the toy shop’s and were digested with acid with the two methods ISIRI and ASTM. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Variance analysis and T-test were used for data analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that the products tested contained lead, chromium and cadmium and the highest and lowest concentration were related to Pb and Cd, respectively. The statistical analysis of the samples showed that there are no significant differences between ASTM and ISIRI digestion methods. The study revealed that none of the heavy metals in the toy samples exceeded the recommended standard levels. Highest average concentration of Pb and Cd were related to toys with green color and the highest Cr concentration was related to yellow toys in this study. Conclusion: Extensive studies are required to evaluate the quality of the toys being used by children and the toxic trace elements should be eliminated from the plastic materials used for making toys.

  15. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, J.; Wong, C. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are required for such extreme volatility and seasonality are proposed. Originality/value - It reveals actual SCM practices in a volatile and seasonal supply chain, such that theoretical and practical gaps are identified. Also, it proposes a model to match manufacturing SCM-practices with retailer SCM-practices....

  16. Effects of age on associating virtual and embodied toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Sandra Y

    2004-08-01

    Technologies such as videos, toys, and video games are used as tools in delivering education to young children. Do children spontaneously transfer between virtual and real-world mediums as they learn? Fifty-six children learned facts about a toy dog presented through varying levels of technology and interactivity (e.g., video game, stuffed animal, picture books). They then met a similar dog character in a new embodiment (e.g., as a stuffed animal if first met the dog as video character). Would children spontaneously generalize the facts they learned about the dog character across mediums (dynamic and static environments)? Results indicate that younger children were more likely to generalize facts across mediums. Specific aspects of the level of technology and interactivity had little effect.

  17. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t(bar t) events at the Tevatron

  18. CPsup(N-1) model: a toy model for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cant, R.J.; Davis, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examine the CP 2 sup(N-1) models and discuss their relevance as toy models for QCD 4 . Specifically, they study the role of instantons, theta vacua, and confinement in the 1/N expansion. The results, and comparisons with other two-dimensional models, suggest that most of the interesting features of these models are peculiarities of two-dimensional space-time and cannot be expected to reappear in QCD 4 . (Auth.)

  19. A toy model for higher spin Dirac operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eelbode, D.; Van de Voorde, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the higher spin Dirac operator Q 2,1 acting on functions taking values in an irreducible representation space for so(m) with highest weight (5/2, 3/2, 1/2,..., 1/2). . This operator acts as a toy model for generalizations of the classical Rarita-Schwinger equations in Clifford analysis. Polynomial null solutions for this operator are studied in particular.

  20. Quantum toy model for black-hole backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Clovis; Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    We propose a simple quantum field theoretical toy model for black-hole evaporation and study the backreaction of Hawking radiation onto the classical background. It turns out that the horizon is also ''pushed back'' in this situation (i.e., the interior region shrinks) though this backreaction is not caused by energy conservation but by momentum balance. The effective heat capacity and induced entropy variation can have both signs--depending on the parameters of the model

  1. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; /Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  2. Testing for lead in toys at day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martha; Stolz, Julie; Chacon-Baker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to lead-based paint or material has been found to impact children's cognitive and behavioral development at blood lead levels far below current standards. The purpose of the project was to screen for lead in toy items in daycare centers in order to raise awareness of inside environmental lead exposures and minimize lead-based exposures for children. Occupational therapy students in a service learning class tested for lead in ten daycare or public centers using the XRF Thermo Scientific Niton XL3t, a method accepted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). A total of 460 items were tested over a two-month period for an average of 66 toys per setting. Fifty six (56) items tested > 100 ppm, which represented 12% of the entire sample. Items with high lead levels included selected toys constructed with lead-based paint, lead metals, plastics using lead as a color enhancer, and decorative objects. While the actual number of lead-based products is small, the cumulative exposure or habitual use may pose an unnecessary risk to children. Indoor exposures occurred for all day care centers regardless of socio-economic levels. Recommendations to minimize exposures are provided.

  3. Safe Energy Source in Battery-operated Toys for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Vignola, Silvia; Nason, Francesca; Boschetti, Federica; Bramerio, Manuela; Bailini, Alessandro; Pinarello, Giordano

    2017-11-01

    Serious and even fatal consequences of disk batteries ingestion in children are well known. Among other applications, disk batteries are used to power small toys, from which they can be unexpectedly extracted and swallowed. We tested a new cell intended for little toys (green cell [GC]), after 6 and 12 hours of in vitro close contact with esophageal swine mucosa. The GC was compared with lithium and silver button batteries under the same experimental conditions. Tissues in contact with the GC did not show pH variations nor histological alterations after 6 and 12 hours. In such conditions, statistically significant differences were found between the GC and the lithium and silver batteries. So far, multidisciplinary medical effort has been driven to both emergency approach and subsequent operative strategies in children with ingested batteries. Our trial demonstrates the possibility to primarily prevent battery-induced damages by designing new-generation safe cells with no tissue toxicity to power little toys intended for children.

  4. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children.

  5. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2015-05-01

    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Design of an inclusive & interactive educational textile toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C.; Cunha, J.

    2017-10-01

    The market for educational toys is scarce in products specifically developed for blind and low sighted children, aiming not only at their motor and cognitive development as well as to the non-stigmatization of these children. Considering the development of educational toys, and based in previous research work [1], we found that textile materials offer an enormous application capability in this regard due not only to their flexibility in use and maintenance of properties, but also because of our familiarity with these materials. The main goal of this project is the study of the emotional response to an interactive educational textile toy by children with visual impairments - blind or partially sighted. In this way the project is based on four main axes: knowing the user, identifying his specific needs; knowing the product-user relationship with a special focus on tactile and emotional perception; study textile structures to best fit the design; and, finally, evaluate the user’s response to the developed product by evaluating the product experience.

  7. [Benefits from the use of toys during nursing care delivered to hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michele Ferraz; dos Santos, Rosane Maria; Favero, Luciane

    2010-06-01

    It is a qualitative research study, descriptive-exploratory in nature, which aims to verify the benefits from the use of toys during nursing care to hospitalized children. Ten subjects participated in the study: three children and seven mothers of hospitalized children. Data were collected between May and July, 2008 by means of specific instruments for each age group and further organized in thematic categories: the use of toys to lessen hospitalization stress; toys facilitating understanding and acceptance of procedures; and the experience of using toys and hospitalization process. The results show that the use of toys is an excellent nursing resource to render care to admitted children. The features of the toys facilitated communication, participation, acceptance of procedure and child motivation, what enabled them to keep their individuality, lessen the stress and the possibility to implement children's and families' non-traumatic care.

  8. Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has...

  9. Kaleidoscope on the Internet of Toys: Safety, security, privacy and societal insights

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDRON STEPHANE; DI GIOIA Rosanna; GEMO Monica; HOLLOWAY Donell; MARSH Jackie; MASCHERONI Giovanna; PETER Jochen; YAMADA-RICE Dylan

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an insight on safety, security, privacy and scocietal questions emerging from the rise of the Internet of Toys, meaning Internet Connected Toys that participate along with the wave of other domestic connected objects, the Internet of Things in increasing the ubiquity of the ICT within our everyday, closer to ourselves and our children more than ever. What changes and challenges 24/7 Internet connected devices, and Connected Toys particularly, will bring in our Society? What p...

  10. Fission yield calculation using toy model based on Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubaidah; Kurniadi, Rizal

    2015-01-01

    Toy model is a new approximation in predicting fission yield distribution. Toy model assumes nucleus as an elastic toy consist of marbles. The number of marbles represents the number of nucleons, A. This toy nucleus is able to imitate the real nucleus properties. In this research, the toy nucleons are only influenced by central force. A heavy toy nucleus induced by a toy nucleon will be split into two fragments. These two fission fragments are called fission yield. In this research, energy entanglement is neglected. Fission process in toy model is illustrated by two Gaussian curves intersecting each other. There are five Gaussian parameters used in this research. They are scission point of the two curves (R c ), mean of left curve (μ L ) and mean of right curve (μ R ), deviation of left curve (σ L ) and deviation of right curve (σ R ). The fission yields distribution is analyses based on Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that variation in σ or µ can significanly move the average frequency of asymmetry fission yields. This also varies the range of fission yields distribution probability. In addition, variation in iteration coefficient only change the frequency of fission yields. Monte Carlo simulation for fission yield calculation using toy model successfully indicates the same tendency with experiment results, where average of light fission yield is in the range of 90

  11. Systematic assessment of noise amplitude generated by toys intended for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Oliaei, Sepehr; Badran, Karam W; Ziai, Kasra; Chang, Janice; Zardouz, Shawn; Shahriari, Shawn; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the noise generated by toys targeted for children and to compare the results over the course of 4 consecutive holiday shopping seasons. Experimental study. Academic medical center. During 2008-2011, more than 200 toys marketed for children older than 6 months were screened for loudness. The toys with sound output of more than 80 dBA at speaker level were retested in a soundproof audiometry booth. The generated sound amplitude of each toy was measured at speaker level and at 30 cm away from the speaker. Ninety different toys were analyzed. The mean (SD) noise amplitude was 100 (8) dBA (range, 80-121 dBA) at the speaker level and 80 (11) dBA (range, 60-109 dBA) at 30 cm away from the speaker. Eighty-eight (98%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at speaker level, whereas 19 (26%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at a 30-cm distance. Only the mean noise amplitude at 30 cm significantly declined during the studied period (P toys specified for different age groups. Our findings demonstrate the persistence of extremely loud toys marketed for very young children. Acoustic trauma from toys remains a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss in this age group, warranting promotion of public awareness and regulatory considerations for manufacture and marketing of toys.

  12. Fission yield calculation using toy model based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubaidah, E-mail: jubaidah@student.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science – State University of Medan. Jl. Willem Iskandar Pasar V Medan Estate – North Sumatera, Indonesia 20221 (Indonesia); Kurniadi, Rizal, E-mail: rijalk@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Toy model is a new approximation in predicting fission yield distribution. Toy model assumes nucleus as an elastic toy consist of marbles. The number of marbles represents the number of nucleons, A. This toy nucleus is able to imitate the real nucleus properties. In this research, the toy nucleons are only influenced by central force. A heavy toy nucleus induced by a toy nucleon will be split into two fragments. These two fission fragments are called fission yield. In this research, energy entanglement is neglected. Fission process in toy model is illustrated by two Gaussian curves intersecting each other. There are five Gaussian parameters used in this research. They are scission point of the two curves (R{sub c}), mean of left curve (μ{sub L}) and mean of right curve (μ{sub R}), deviation of left curve (σ{sub L}) and deviation of right curve (σ{sub R}). The fission yields distribution is analyses based on Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that variation in σ or µ can significanly move the average frequency of asymmetry fission yields. This also varies the range of fission yields distribution probability. In addition, variation in iteration coefficient only change the frequency of fission yields. Monte Carlo simulation for fission yield calculation using toy model successfully indicates the same tendency with experiment results, where average of light fission yield is in the range of 90

  13. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  14. Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has successfully developed cooperative play toys. Compared to the traditional game therapy for autism, cooperative play toy therapy can significantly improve the interactions between autistic children and their peers. [Conclusion] The most critical design theme of cooperative play toys focuses on captivating the interest of autistic children. Based on the needs of the individual cases, the design of the therapeutic toy set was specifically tailored, i.e., by reinforcing the sound and light effects to improve the attractiveness of the toys. In the future, different play modes can be combined with this toy set to further enhance the degree of interaction of autistic children and improve their quality of life and social skills.

  15. What do children do when they play? Acts of game with a doll and a toy car

    OpenAIRE

    Zborníková, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Game is a key activity in preschool age, theme of my thesis is therefore related to acts of game and a role of toys in this particular age. Aim of my research is to describe gaming activities with toys, primarily with a doll and a toy car, which are the most typical toys for preschool children. It is very important for kindergarten teachers to know childrens preferences and attitude to the most used types of toys, because it is them, who choose the offer of toys and equipment of class. In the...

  16. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Brominated flame retardants in children's toys: concentration, composition, and children's exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Da; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in children's toys purchased from South China. The median BFR concentrations in the hard plastic toys were 53,000, 5540 ng/g, 101.1 ng/g, and 27.9 ng/g, fortotal PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBBs, respectively,which were notably higher than values in other toys. The PBDE concentrations were below the threshold limit (1000 ppm) required bythe European Commission's Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives in all of the toys, except for one hard plastic toy with a total PBDE concentration of 5,344,000 ng/g. The BFR profiles in the toys were consistent with the patterns of their current production and consumption in China, where PBDEs, specifically decaBDE product, were the dominant BFR, followed by the emerging DBDPE. The relatively high concentrations of octa- and nonaBDEs in the foam toys and the results of principal component analysis (PCA) may suggest the decomposition of highly brominated BDEs during the manufacturing processes of the toys. Daily total PBDE exposures associated with toys via inhalation, mouthing, dermal contact, and oral ingestion ranged from 82.6 to 8992 pg/kg bw-day for children of 3 months to 14 years of age. Higher exposures, predominantly contributed through the mouthing pathway, were observed for infants and toddlers than for the other subgroups. In most cases, children's BFR exposure via the toys likely accounts for a small proportion of their daily BFR exposure, and the hazard quotients for noncancer risk evaluation were far below 1. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the concentrations of BFRs in toys, and the potential exposures to children.

  18. Periodontal Health vs. Various Preventive Means in Toy Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Capík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used six toy Chihuahua dogs in relationship. They underwent four 8 week periods differing in type of food (dry, soft, dental diet and preventive means of periodontitis (tooth-brushing and enzymatic chewing strips. The results showed nonsignificant influence of food consistency on dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores. Dental diet nonsignificantly decreased dental calculus deposition in comparison to common commercial food. The best results were achieved with toothbrushing. The enzymatic chewing strips significantly decreased dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores only on carnassial teeth. These results confirm that there are no absolute preventive measures of periodontitis.

  19. Contamination by ten harmful elements in toys and children's jewelry bought on the North American market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2013-06-04

    Toys and children's jewelry may contain metals to which children can be orally exposed. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine total concentrations (TC's) of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se in toys and jewelry (n = 72) bought on the North American market and compare TC's to regulatory limits, and (2) to estimate oral metal bioavailability in selected items (n = 4) via bioaccessibility testing. For metallic toys and children's jewelry (n = 24) 20 items had TC's exceeding migratable concentration limits (European Union). Seven of seventeen jewelry items did not comply with TC limits in U.S. and Canadian regulations. Samples included articles with very high Cd (37% [w/w]), Pb (65%), and Cu (71%) concentrations. For plastic toys (n = 18), toys with paint or coating (n = 12), and brittle or pliable toys (n = 18), TC's were below the EU migration limits (except in one toy for each category). Bioaccessibility tests showed that a tested jewelry item strongly leached Pb (gastric: 698 μg, intestinal: 705 μg) and some Cd (1.38 and 1.42 μg). Especially in metallic toys and jewelry, contamination by Pb and Cd, and to a lesser extent by Cu, Ni, As, and Sb, still poses an acute problem in North America.

  20. Archaeology and Developmental Psychology: A Brief Survey of Ancient Athenian Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Maria; Sommer, Dion

    2017-01-01

    The authors note that ancient Athens, in important ways, connected children, toys, and play. But they also find the scholarship of toys sparse and scattered. They discuss obstacles that can skew our modern view of the Greek mind, and they caution that modern eyes should not see play where the Greeks saw ritual and religious devotion. With these…

  1. Noise producing toys and the efficacy of product standard criteria to protect health and education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Stuart J; Page, Wyatt H; Parker, Lou; Rushton, Martin

    2013-12-19

    An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71) on safety of toys.

  2. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  3. Hazardous metals in vintage plastic toys measured by a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gillian Zaharias; Harris, Zoe E

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 plastic toys from the 1970s and 1980s, both polyvinyl chloride ("vinyl") and nonvinyl, were analyzed in the study described here using a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to quantify hazardous metal content. A sampling of recent vinyl toys was also tested. The majority of nonvinyl samples were Fisher Price brand toys. The vinyl toys consisted largely of Barbie dolls and other dolls. Overall, lead or cadmium was found in 67% of vintage plastic toys, frequently at concentrations exceeding current U.S. and European limits. Arsenic was detected at levels of concern in 16% of the samples. In the nonvinyl toys, heavy metal content was found to correlate with certain colors of plastic. The likely sources of the detected metals are discussed. None of the contemporary vinyl toys contained detectable cadmium, lead, or arsenic. Given that vintage toys remain in widespread use by children in homes and other locations, the results illuminate a potential source of heavy metal exposure for children.

  4. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  5. Quantifying infant physical interactions using sensorized toys in a natural play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vatsala; Torres, Wilson; Rai, Roshan; Shofer, Frances; Bogen, Daniel; Bryant, Phillip; Prosser, Laura; Johnson, Michelle J

    2017-07-01

    Infants with developmental delays must be detected early in their development to minimize the progression of motor and neurological impairments. Our objective is to quantify how sensorized toys in a natural play environment can promote infant-toy physical interactions. We created a hanging elephant toy, equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a pressure transducer, and multiple feedback sensors, to be a hand-grasping toy. We used a 3 DoF robotic model with inputs from the IMU to calculate multiple kinematic metrics and an equation to calculate haptic metrics from the pressure transducer. Six typical infants were tested in the gym set-up. Three infants interacted with the toy for more than half the trial time. The youngest infant exhibited the largest toy displacement with ΔD = 27.6 cm, while the oldest infant squeezed the toy with the largest mean pressure of 4.5 kPa. More data on on both typical and atypical infants needs to be collected. After testing atypical infants in the SmarToyGym set-up, we will be able to identify interaction metrics that differentiate atypical and typical infants.

  6. Noise Producing Toys and the Efficacy of Product Standard Criteria to Protect Health and Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. McLaren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71 on safety of toys.

  7. Toys as Tools for Skill-building and Creativity in Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Heljakka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous understandings of adult use of toys are connected with ideas of collecting and hobbying, not playing. This study aims to address toys as play objects employed in imaginative scenarios and as learning devices. This article situates toys (particularly, character toys such as Blythe dolls as socially shared tools for skill-building and learning in adult life. The interviews with Finnish doll players and analyses of examples of their productive, toy-related play patterns showcased in both offline and digital playscapes reveal how toy play leads to skill-building and creativity at a mature age.The meanings attached to and developed around playthings expand purposely by means of digital and social media. (Audiovisual content-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, Pinterest, Instagram and YouTube, invite mature audiences to join playful dialogues involving mass-produced toys enhanced through do-it-yourself practices. Activities circulated in digital play spaces, such as blogs and photo management applications, demonstrate how adults, as non-professional ‘everyday players’, approach, manipulate and creatively cultivate contemporary playthings. Mature players educate potential players by introducing how to use and develop skills by sharing play patterns associated with their playthings. Producing and broadcasting tutorials on how to play creatively with toys encourage others to build their skills through play.

  8. Preferences for "Gender-Typed" Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brenda K.; Barry, John A.; Thommessen, Sara A. O.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy…

  9. The Role of Peers' Gender in Children's Naturally Occurring Interest in Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Rita; Eisenberg, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Examined the effect of observation of gender-related information in the peer group on preschoolers' attention to toys that were not clearly delineated as appropriate for one sex or the other. Contemporaneous peer involvement was significantly associated with children's toy adoption, but cumulative peer involvement was not. (Author/BB)

  10. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  11. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  12. Hygiene of Toys in Day Care Centers: a Care With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Pires Cogo Simão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate how the hygiene of the toys used in day care centers and the possible tendencies in the processes are done. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, having as a unit of observation 51 day care centers. The object of investigation was the toy hygiene procedure, in which the information on the variables was obtained by interview and recorded in an online questionnaire. Results: It was observed that water and soap was the most used method of hygiene (72.5% and the periodicity of cleaning was 2 times a month or more in 50% of the units interviewed, and six nurseries declared no Such procedure. Conclusion: there was no standardized procedures in the toy hygiene technique used in the sample of nurseries studied. Although most institutions demonstrate intent to carry out the toy hygiene procedure, it is necessary to equip practitioners to deal with this issue. Descriptors: Day Care Centers; Fomites; Disinfection; Play Sets and Toys; Nursing.

  13. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  14. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  15. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or...) Paint and other similar surface-coating materials containing lead and toys, children's articles, and...

  16. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  17. Toys and confectionery--a legally hazardous combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, J S; Pape, S M

    1998-01-01

    "What kind of magic has Nestlé worked on FDA?" Many in the confectionery business were asking this very question after seeing the company introduce onto the market in July 1997 - without any immediate agency intervention - a chocolate product surrounding an inedible plastic sphere enclosing a toy, bearing the moniker Nestlé Magic(R). A spate of recent publicity 1 on the controversy engendered by the new product has focused public attention on a little-known provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), specifically section 402(d)(1). Adding fuel to the proverbial regulatory fire was the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) signaling of a possible reversal of its long-standing policy prohibiting the marketing of combination "confectionery and toy" products that contain nonfunctional, nonnutritive objects. After the product was launched, FDA, in response to a petition filed by Nestlé USA, stated its intention to 1) issue a guidance document that would purport to sanction such products on an interim basis, and 2) promulgate a regulation setting safety standards for such products and thereby authorize their marketing. Although Nestlé subsequently announced its withdrawal of the product,2 questions remain about the applicable law and FDA's authority. This article critically examines the agency's authority to authorize marketing of such products through a regulation that addresses the criteria set forth in section 402(d)(1).

  18. Emergence of geometry: A two-dimensional toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jorge; Espriu, Domene; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral Lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D)xGL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zweibein is generated from a topological theory without any preexisting metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several nonstandard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective Lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared regulator. The low-energy expansion is valid for momenta k>M, i.e. for supra-horizon scales. We briefly discuss a possible implementation of a similar mechanism in four dimensions.

  19. Monte Carlo based toy model for fission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, R.; Waris, A.; Viridi, S.

    2014-01-01

    There are many models and calculation techniques to obtain visible image of fission yield process. In particular, fission yield can be calculated by using two calculations approach, namely macroscopic approach and microscopic approach. This work proposes another calculation approach in which the nucleus is treated as a toy model. Hence, the fission process does not represent real fission process in nature completely. The toy model is formed by Gaussian distribution of random number that randomizes distance like the distance between particle and central point. The scission process is started by smashing compound nucleus central point into two parts that are left central and right central points. These three points have different Gaussian distribution parameters such as mean (μ CN , μ L , μ R ), and standard deviation (σ CN , σ L , σ R ). By overlaying of three distributions, the number of particles (N L , N R ) that are trapped by central points can be obtained. This process is iterated until (N L , N R ) become constant numbers. Smashing process is repeated by changing σ L and σ R , randomly

  20. The emergence of geometry: a two-dimensional toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Jorge; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D) X GL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zwei-bein is generated from a topological theory without any pre-existing metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several non-standard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared re...

  1. St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position.

  2. Peter St. John | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John Photo of Peter St. John Peter St. John Researcher III-Chemical Engineering Peter.StJohn @nrel.gov | 303-384-7969 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7928-3722 Education Peter St. John received his engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2015. During his Ph.D., St. John applied

  3. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  4. Detection of pathogenic micro-organisms on children's hands and toys during play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastidas, T; Castro-del Campo, N; Mena, K D; Castro-del Campo, N; León-Félix, J; Gerba, C P; Chaidez, C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if the children's leisure activities impact the presence of pathogens on their hands and toys. To assess the microbiological hazard in playground areas, a pilot study that included 12 children was conducted. We then conducted an intervention study; children's hands and toys were washed before playing. Faecal coliforms, pathogenic bacteria and Giardia lamblia were quantified by membrane filtration, selective media and flotation techniques, respectively; rotavirus, hepatitis A and rhinovirus by RT-PCR. Pilot study results revealed faecal contamination on children's hands and toys after playing on sidewalks and in public parks. Pathogenic bacteria, hepatitis A and G. lamblia on children's hands were also found. In the intervention study, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found on children's hands at concentrations up to 2·5 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(4) CFU hands(-1), respectively. E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae were detected on toys (2·4 × 10(3) and 2·7 × 10(4) CFU toy(-1), respectively). Salmonella spp, Serratia spp and G. lamblia cysts were also present on toys. Children's play activities influence microbial presence on hands and toys; the transfer seems to occur in both ways. Control strategy needs to be implemented to protect children from infectious diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Estimating children's exposure to toxic elements in contaminated toys and children's jewelry via saliva mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Nguyen, Alain; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-09-19

    Children's potential for exposure to potentially toxic elements in contaminated jewelry and toys via mouth contact has not yet been fully evaluated. Various toys and jewelry (metallic toys and jewelry [MJ], plastic toys, toys with paint or coating, and brittle/pliable toys; n = 32) were tested using the saliva extraction (mouthing) compartment of the DIN and RIVM bioaccessibility protocols to assess As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se mobilization via saliva. Total concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb were found elevated in analyzed samples. Four metals were mobilized to saliva from 16 MJ in significant quantities (>1 μg for highly toxic Cd and Pb, >10 μg for Cu and Ni). Bioaccessible concentrations and hazard index values for Cd exceeded limit values, for young children between 6 mo- and 3 yr-old and according to both protocols. Total and bioaccessible metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, encouraging the use of bioaccessibility for more accurate hazard assessments. Bioaccessibility increased with increasing extraction time. Overall, the risk from exposure to toxic elements via mouthing was high only for Cd and for MJ. Further research on children's exposure to toxic elements following ingestion of toy or jewelry material is recommended.

  6. Investigating the obesogenic effects of marketing snacks with toys: an experimental study in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Casella, Adriana; Stefanini, Giulia; de Sousa Alves, Rogenia; Franchin, Laura; Amador, Ignacio; Da Silva, Neila Maria Almedia; Dibildox, Javier

    2013-07-10

    The inclusion of toys in food packages is a common marketing practice, and it is suspected of promoting obesogenic behaviours. This study aimed to determine whether toys packaged with food are indeed increasing the amount of food eaten by children, and if this effect is enhanced by contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising. A total of 600 children (balanced according to gender and age groups, 3-6 and 7-10 years old) were randomized in three school facilities in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and exposed to food (snacks) alone or food associated with toys in an experimental setting. All of the children received the same meal at lunchtime. The products were packages in which chocolate was associated with toys in an egg-shaped container partially filled by chocolate. The children were asked to eat ad libitum for 20 minutes during the afternoon break. In addition, the children were randomized into two groups and either shown or not shown a movie cartoon, with three different levels of exposure to commercials in the TV viewing condition (1, 2 or 3 advertisements). No significant differences emerged between the "toys" and "no toys" groups even after taking into account exposure to TV, commercials and other confounding factors. The inclusion of toys in food packages was not shown per se to lead to an increase in the caloric intake of children.

  7. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  8. [Determination of 21 fragrance allergens in toys by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qing; Zang, Qing; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Kang, Suyuan; Wang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    A method of gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the determination of 21 fragrance allergens in sticker toys, plush toys and plastic toys. The experimental conditions, such as sample pretreatment conditions, and the analytical conditions of GC-IT-MS, were optimized. The sticker toy samples and plush toy samples were extracted with acetone by ultrasonic wave, and the extracts were separated on an Agilent HP-1 MS column (50 m x 0.2 mm x 0.5 microm), then determined by IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The plastic toy samples were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation approach, cleaned up with an Envi-carb solid phase extraction column and concentrated by rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing, then determined by GC-IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.002-50 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 8. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > 10) were 0.02-40 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the target compounds spiked in the sample at three concentration levels were in the range of 82.2%-110.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.6%-10.5%. These results show that this method is accurate and sensitive for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 21 fragrance allergens in the 3 types of toys.

  9. Nickel and cobalt release from children's toys purchased in Denmark and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Jellesen, Morten S; Jacob, Sharon E; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release from children's toys. We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released cobalt. Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test reactions should be told that toys may release nickel and be a potential chemical source in the manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reimann

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories, but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories, would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles. A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42 participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P < .001, suggesting that children can be incentivized to choose less food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125, suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  11. Increasing Toy Play among Toddlers with Multiple Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom: A More-to-Less, Child-Directed Intervention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Reid, Dennis H.; Stricklin, Sarintha B.

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a more-to-less, child-directed continuum of intervention to increase toy play among six toddlers with multiple disabilities. Toddlers were provided with repeated choices of preferred toys in a child-directed manner. Nonprompted toy play for two toddlers increased. Toy play also increased for another child after staff prompts and…

  12. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  13. Estimation of Lead (Pb in Toys Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipayan Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead exists extensively in the environment and it is a heavy metal, which is neurotoxic in nature which is harmful to children. In contrast to trace elements such as iron (Fe and zinc (Zn, lead has no recognized benecial effects in human body. With the economic development in India in recent years, the concentration of lead has increased in the environment and henceforth, lead pollution has become a severe problem in the country. Lead poisoning can create an immense damage and irreversible harm to foetal growth, the growth of teenagers and psychological, behavioural and cognitive development. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the lead content in the sample of toys. Material and Methods: 97 different toys were collected and coded as TS, these toys were kept in plastic lock cover which were lead proof. At rst the toys were arranged in order according to the serial number of the code (TS1 – TS97. The FP X-ray uorescence (Innov-X ray analyzer instrument was placed with the window of the analyzer on the surface of the toy vertically in such a way that there was no gap between the toy surface and the sampling window. The parts per million (ppm values of all toys were recorded. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 22 samples were above permissible limits. The different materials demonstrate signicant correlation with the lead content in ppm. Lead is used as a stabilizer in some toys as well as children's items made from PVC plastic. Baby toys made up of plastic have higher concentration of lead. Lead can leach out of products when children handle and swallow them involuntarily.

  14. Physics of the mechanical toy Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Badin, Matej; Plesch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle is a seemingly simple mechanical toy consisting of a wooden stick and a second stick that is made up of a series of notches with a propeller at its end. When the wooden stick is pulled over the notches, the propeller starts to rotate. Despite its simplicity, physical principles governing the motion of the stick and the propeller are rather complicated and interesting. Here we provide a thorough analysis of the system and parameters influencing the motion. We show that contrary to the results published on this topic so far, neither elliptic motion of the stick nor frequency synchronization is needed for starting a stable motion of the propeller.

  15. Towards the graviton from spinfoams: the 3d toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speziale, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a proposal has appeared for the extraction of the 2-point function of linearised quantum gravity, within the spinfoam formalism. This relies on the use of a boundary state, which introduces a semi-classical flat geometry on the boundary. In this paper, we investigate this proposal considering a toy model in the (Riemannian) 3d case, where the semi-classical limit is better understood. We show that in this limit the propagation kernel of the model is the one for the harmonic oscillator. This is at the origin of the expected 1/l behaviour of the 2-point function. Furthermore, we numerically study the short scales regime, where deviations from this behaviour occur

  16. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  17. Preferences for 'Gender-typed' Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, B.; Barry, J.A.; Thommessen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have found that a majority of boys and girls prefer to play with toys that are typed to their own gender but there is still uncertainty about the age at which such sex differences first appear, and under what conditions. Applying a standardized research protocol and using a selection of gender-typed toys, we observed the toy preferences of boys and girls engaged in independent play in UK nurseries, without the presence of a parent. The 101 boys and girls fell into three age group...

  18. Nickel and Cobalt Release From Children's Toys Purchased in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R.

    2014-01-01

    from children's toys. Methods : We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. Results : A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released......Background : Nickel is the most common allergen detected by patch testing in children. There is an increasing number of cases in children who have not had exposure to piercing. Although the clinical relevance of nickel patch test reactions in children is sometimes uncertain, continued vigilance...

  19. Brinquedo, gênero e educação na brinquedoteca Toys, gender and education in a toy library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa realizada com crianças de 2 a 10 anos de idade, freqüentadoras da Brinquedoteca da Faculdade de Educação da USP, de março de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo como objetivo o estabelecimento de relações entre brinquedo, gênero e educação. A pesquisa qualitativa, etnográfica, utiliza: diário de bordo, filmagens, transcrições de episódios de brincadeira e relatos. A partir da teoria pós-estruturalista feminista, que usa uma concepção de subjetividade precária, contraditória e constantemente se reconstituindo no discurso, propomos uma concepção de gênero performativa, instaurada pela performance repetida de atores sociais, para desenvolver a eqüidade no brincar de meninos e meninas. Os resultados indicam a difícil tarefa de eliminar os preconceitos de gênero, que dependem de fatores externos à Brinquedoteca, mas há indícios de mudança, reforçando a crença de que é possível adotar uma política de valorização de eqüidade no brincar infantil, estimulando meninos e meninas a brincarem juntos.This text is about a research project carried out with children ranging from age 2 to 10, at the Education College Toy Library at the University of São Paulo from March 2005 to March 2006, with the objective of establishing relations between toys, gender and education. The qualitative and ethnographic research includes a logbook, video recordings, transcriptions of episodes in which children are playing and personal stories. Drawing on the post-structural feminist theory, based on a conception of subjectivity as precarious, contradictory and constantly reconstructed in discourse, the author suggests a concept of gender based on the performance of social actors as a means to develop equity in playing for both boys and girls. The results show the difficult task of eliminating gender preconceptions, which depends on factors that are external to the Toy Library environment. They also reveal the evidence of

  20. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  1. 78 FR 44971 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Trade Commission has determined not to review the administrative law judge's (``ALJ'') initial..., Tortola, British Virgin Islands; Zuru Ltd. of Kowloon, Hong Kong; and Zuru Toys Inc. of Cambridge, New...

  2. Lead migration from toys by anodic stripping voltammetry using a bismuth film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M Fernanda C; Catarino, Rita I L; Pimenta, Adriana M; Souto, M Renata S; Afonso, Christelle S; Fernandes, Ana F Q

    2016-09-02

    Metals may be released from toys via saliva during mouthing, via sweat during dermal contact, or via gastric and intestinal fluids after partial or whole ingestion. In this study, we determined the lead migration from toys bought on the Portuguese market for children below 3 years of age. The lead migration was performed according to the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3, which proposes a 2-hour migration test that simulates human gastric conditions. The voltammetric determination of migrated lead was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE). For all the analyzed toys, the values of migrated lead did not exceed the limits imposed by the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3 (90 mg kg -1 ) and by the EU Directive 2009/48/EC (13.5 mg kg -1 ) on the safety of toys.

  3. Stability and replica symmetry in the ising spin glass: a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Dominicis, C.; Mottishaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Searching for possible replica symmetric solutions in an Ising spin glass (in the tree approximation) we investigate a toy model whose bond distribution has two non vanishing cumulants (instead of one only as in a gaussian distribution)

  4. Investigating the Quality of Time Kindergarten Children Spend with Television, Computer, Books, and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇAKMAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the place of four stimuli in lives of children attending early childhood; television, computer, books and toys. In the present study, data obtained from children’s drawing and interviews was analyzed. Fifty-one children between the age of 5 and 6 participated in the study. They were attending three private kindergartens. First, the children were asked to draw themselves with a television, computer, books and toys. Then, they were interviewed to learn about their use of television, computer, books and toys. Following, the pictures and interview transcripts were analyzed and coding categories were determined via content analysis. The findings indicate that children mention watching cartoons most; and they draw themselves as playing with popular cartoon characters. Children have positive feelings towards all of the stimuli; however, they used more powerful and detailed explanations of their feelings towards books and toys

  5. An Empiric Study about the Construction of Social Identity of Toy Art Consumer´s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Andreoni Barboza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of seemingly childish goods directed to adult consumers is a recent and growing market phenomenon. Having Toy Arts as an exemplar of such products, this investigation aims to understand how Toy Art consumers use it to build and manage their social identity, exploring the factors that trigger a process of extension of self. A qualitative study was conducted with in-depth interviews with 14 Toy collectors, male and female, between 19 and 38 years old, living in Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo and Distrito Federal, during July and August 2009. Results show that informants use Toy Arts to build and manage their social identities, relying on it as a form of social expression and differentiation.

  6. Cat, dog and house dust mite allergen levels on children's soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Ting, Ming-Hui; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2014-02-01

    Children's soft toys are known to harbour house dust mite (HDM) allergens, but little is known whether they harbour cat or dog allergens. The objective of the study was to measure cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and HDM allergens on children's soft toys. Dust was collected from 40 children's soft toys and their mattresses. Data were collected on pet ownership. Dust samples were analysed for Fel d 1, Can f 1, Der p 1 and Der f 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results are expressed as median levels with inter-quartile ranges. Thirty-five (87.5%) soft toys had detectable Fel d 1 levels (median: 0.73 µg/g; inter-quartile range: 0.26-2.56 µg/g) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (1.20 µg/g; 0.53-2.68). Correspondingly, 32 (80%) mattresses had detectable Fel d 1 levels (0.18 µg/g, 0.07-1.01) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (0.50 µg/g; 0.33-1.06). All mattresses and soft toys had detectable HDM allergen (Der p 1 + Der f 1) levels with soft toys containing about three times higher levels than mattresses. In homes with cats (n = 10) Fel d 1 levels were higher on soft toys than homes without cats (2.49 versus 0.48 µg/g; p = 0.0009). In homes with dogs (n = 25) Can f 1 levels were generally higher on soft toys (1.38 versus 0.63 µg/g; p = 0.10). This study has shown that soft toys can harbour cat and dog allergen as well as HDM allergens, some with very high levels. Cat and dog ownership resulted in higher Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels on soft toys and mattresses. The levels of Fel d 1, Can f 1 and HDM allergens on soft toys could be of importance to sensitized asthmatic children.

  7. Mean transverse momenta correlations in hadron-hadron collisions in MC toy model with repulsing strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altsybeev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions

  8. Parents as a Team: Mother, Father, a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a Spinning Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.; McDonald, T. A.; Stickle, Trini

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder. A young boy finds a toy that he can hold with one hand and spin with another. In order to retrieve the toy and leave it in the clinic, the parents engage in a team effort. We describe this achievement in terms of two styles of practice or…

  9. Not Just Fun and Games: Toy Advertising on Television Targeting Children Promotes Sedentary Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Velkers, Clive

    2017-10-01

    To examine the volume of television toy advertising targeting Canadian children and to determine if it promotes active or sedentary play, targets males or females more frequently, and has changed over time. Data for toy/game advertising from 27 television stations in Toronto for the month of May in 2006 and 2013 were licensed from Neilsen Media Research (Montreal, Quebec, Canada). A content analysis was performed on all ads to determine what age group and gender were targeted and whether physical or sedentary activity was being promoted. Comparisons were made between 2006 and 2013. There were 3.35 toy ads/h/children's specialty station in 2013 (a 15% increase from 2006). About 88% of toy ads promoted sedentary play in 2013, a 27% increase from 2006 levels, while toy ads promoting active play decreased by 33%. In both 2006 and 2013, a greater number of sedentary toy ads targeted males (n = 1519, May 2006; n = 2030, May 2013) compared with females (n = 914, May 2006; n = 1619, May 2013), and between 2006 and 2013, these ads increased significantly for both males and females. Future research should explore whether such advertising influences children's preferences for activities and levels of physical activity.

  10. The Public Health Challenge of Consumer Non-Compliance to Toy Product Recalls and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayang Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the public health issue of toy product recalls in the United States, an under-addressed topic in scholarly literature, yet highly relevant to the prevention of pediatric injuries. Toy-related injuries led to 274,000 emergency room visits and seven fatalities in 2016 in the United States, and toy-related injury rates have remained stable over the last five years despite declining incidences of recalls. While dangerous toys not being recalled and the misuse of “safe” products are possible contributing factors, consumer non-response to recall notices also contributes to unintentional child injury from dangerous toys. We discuss the process of recalling toys, and the role of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in that process. We also review potential factors behind significant consumer non-response to recall notifications, citing economic and psychological theories as explanations for the actions of multiple stakeholders in the recall process. We close by proposing reforms at the regulatory, consumer, and retailer levels that might boost compliance with recall notifications and ultimately reduce injury morbidity and mortality.

  11. Determination of 48 fragrance allergens in toys using GC with ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Li, Wentao; Li, Haiyu; Li, Pi; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Xianshuang; Qi, Meiling; Bai, Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a method for the simultaneous determination of 48 fragrance allergens in four types of toys (plastic toys, play clays, plush toys, and paper toys) based on GC with ion trap MS/MS. Compared with single-stage MS, MS/MS is superior in terms of the qualification and quantification of a large range of compounds in complicated matrices. Procedures for extraction and purification were optimized for each toy type. The method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentrations for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0.9768 and 0.9999. Validation parameters, namely, LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.005-5.0 and from 0.02-20 mg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries of target compounds (spiked at three concentration levels) were in the range of 79.5-109.1%. Intraday and interday repeatabilities of the proposed method varied from 0.7-10.5% and from 3.1-13.4%, respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor fragrance allergens in commercial toy products. Our findings indicate that this method is an accurate and effective technique for analyzing fragrance allergens in materials composed of complex components. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  13. A quantal toy model for heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.

    1987-01-01

    A one-dimensional toy model of moving finite boxes is analysed with respect to quantal phenomena associated with heavy-ion dynamics at low and intermediate energies. Special attention is payed to the relation between energy and momentum of the nucleons inside and outside the time-dependent mean field. A Wigner transformation of the one-body density matrix in space and time allows for a unique comparison with classical phase-space dynamics. It is found that high momentum components of the nuclear groundstate wave function approximately become on-shell during the heavy-ion reaction. This leads to the emission of energetic nucleons which do not appear classically. It is furthermore shown, that the low lying eigenstates of the dinuclear system for fixed time are only partly occupied throughout the reaction at intermediate energies. This opens up final phase space for nucleons after producing e.g. a pion or energetic photon. Through the present model does not allow for a reliable calculation of double differential nucleon spectra, pion or photon cross sections, it transparently shows the peculiar features of quantum dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  14. Projective limits of state spaces III. Toy-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013) [1,2], which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). A strategy to implement the dynamics in this formalism was presented in our first paper Lanéry and Thiemann (2017) (see also Lanéry, 2016, section 4), which we now test in two simple toy-models. The first one is a very basic linear model, meant as an illustration of the general procedure, and we will only discuss it at the classical level. In the second one, we reformulate the Schrödinger equation, treated as a classical field theory, within this projective framework, and proceed to its (non-relativistic) second quantization. We are then able to reproduce the physical content of the usual Fock quantization.

  15. A Toy Cosmology Using a Hubble-Scale Casimir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. McCulloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visible mass of the observable universe agrees with that needed for a flat cosmos, and the reason for this is not known. It is shown that this can be explained by modelling the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon. This model of “horizon wave censorship” is equivalent to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This incomplete toy model is presented to stimulate discussion. It predicts a minimum mass and acceleration for the observable universe which are in agreement with the observed mass and acceleration, and predicts that the observable universe gains mass as it expands and was hotter in the past. It also predicts a suppression of variation on the largest cosmic scales that agrees with the low-l cosmic microwave background anomaly seen by the Planck satellite.

  16. Home-based, early intervention with mechatronic toys for preterm infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (CARETOY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including motor, cognitive or behavioural problems, which may potentially be modified by early intervention. The EU CareToy Project Consortium (http://www.caretoy.eu) has developed a new modular system for intensive...... parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue...

  17. Toys in the upper aerodigestive tract: evidence on their risk as emerging from the ESFBI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Passàli, Desiderio; Bellussi, Luisa; Caruso, Giuseppe; Passàli, Francesco Maria; Passàli, Giulio Cesare

    2011-10-01

    Foreign body inhalation/aspiration or ingestion is a relatively common event in young children and, despite many efforts made in several Countries to reach acceptable safety levels for products devoted to children, small toys or toy parts are frequently mentioned among risky foreign bodies. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to toys inhalation/aspiration or ingestion according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics and FB location, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the ESFBI study. A retrospective study in major hospitals of 19 European Countries was realized on children aged 0-14 having inhaled/aspired or ingested a toy, with regard to the characteristics of the child and the FB (shape, volume, consistency), the FB location, the hospitalization's details and the occurrence of complications. In the years 2000-2003 a total of 2094 FB injuries occurred in children aged 0-14 years. Among them 121 (5.8%) were due to toys (mainly parts of toys) and 95 (4.5%) occurred in the lower/upper aero-digestive tract. 58 children needed hospitalization. The first determinant of a damage requiring hospitalization is the rigid consistence of the object. Almost 27% of toys related injuries happened under adults' supervision. Despite the adoption of preventive strategies, including products modification by manufacturers, has resulted in a decrease of children's mortality rate for choking in the last decades, our results seem to testify that preventive strategies imposing a regulation of industrial production, even if fundamental, are not sufficient and need to be integrated with other preventive intervention addressed to improve parents ability to be conscious of FB injuries and attentive toward a proper surveillance of children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The emissions of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from small polymeric toys placed in chocolate food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2015-10-15

    The article presents findings on the emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from children's toys placed in chocolate food products. The emission test system involved the application of a new type of microscale stationary emission chamber, μ-CTE™ 250. In order to determine the type of the applied polymer in the manufacture of the tested toys, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry were used. It was found that the tested toy components or the whole toys (figurines) are made of two main types of polymers: polyamide and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Total number of studied small polymeric toys was 52. The average emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from studied toys made of polyamide were as follows: benzene: 0.45 ± 0.33 ng/g; toluene: 3.3 ± 2.6 ng/g; ethylbenzene: 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/g; p,m-xylene: 2.5 ± 4.5 ng/g; and styrene: 8.2 ± 9.9 ng/g. In the case of studied toys made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer the average emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbeznene, p,m-xylene and styrene were: 0.31 ± 0.29 ng/g; 2.5 ± 1.4 ng/g; 4.6 ± 8.9 ng/g; 1.4 ± 1.1 ng/g; and 36 ± 44 ng/g, respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Petersen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1 six common complex toys; (2 Lego blocks; and (3 the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the user over 75% of the cost of commercially available true alternative toys and over 90% for recyclebot filament. Overall, these results indicate a single 3D printing repository among dozens is saving consumers well over $60 million/year in offset purchases. The most common savings fell by 40%–90% in total savings, which came with the ability to make novel toys and games. The results of this study show consumers can generate higher value items for less money using the open source distributed manufacturing paradigm. It appears clear that consumer do-it-yourself (DIY manufacturing is set to have a significant impact on the toy and game markets in the future.

  20. Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-01-21

    Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

  1. Plastic toys as a source of exposure to bisphenol-A and phthalates at childcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Manickavachagam, Muruganandham; Suri, Rominder

    2018-01-06

    Infants and toddlers are constantly exposed to toys at childcare facilities. Toys are made of a variety of plastics that often use endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates as their building blocks. The goal of this study was to assess the non-dietary exposure of infants and toddlers to BPA and phthalates via leaching. We have successfully developed wipe tests to evaluate the leachability of BPA and phthalates from toys used at several day care facilities in Philadelphia. Our studies have shown an average leaching of 13-280 ng/cm 2 of BPA and phthalates. An estimate of total exposure of infants to BPA and phthalates is reported. The leaching of the chemicals was observed to be dependent on the washing procedures and the location of the day care facilities. Using bleach/water mixture two or more times a week to clean the toys seems to reduce the leaching of chemicals from the toys. There is a huge data gap in the estimated intake amounts and reported urinary concentrations; this is the first study that provides valuable information to address these data gaps in the existing literature.

  2. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: A Spanish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Belis, V.; Bovea, M.D.; Simó, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumption/disposal habits of waste electrical and electronic toys. • Environmental education as a key factor to improve WEEE management. • Three environmental education actions to increase the collection of waste toys. - Abstract: This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected

  3. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: A Spanish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Belis, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Bovea, M.D., E-mail: bovea@uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Simó, A. [Department of Mathematics, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, E12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Consumption/disposal habits of waste electrical and electronic toys. • Environmental education as a key factor to improve WEEE management. • Three environmental education actions to increase the collection of waste toys. - Abstract: This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected.

  4. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  5. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed......Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  6. Modified ride-on toy cars for early power mobility: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Han; Galloway, James C

    2012-01-01

    Children with significantly decreased mobility have limited opportunities to explore their physical and social environment. A variety of assistive technologies are available to increase mobility; however, no single device provides the level of functional mobility that children developing typically enjoy. The purpose of this technical report is to formally introduce a new power mobility option--the modified ride-on toy car. This report will provide (a) an overview of toy car features, (b) examples of basic electrical and mechanical modifications, and (c) a brief clinical case. With creative use and customized modifications, toy cars can function as a "general learning environment" for use in the clinic, home, and school. As such, we anticipate that these cars will become a multiuse clinical tool to address not only mobility goals but also goals involving body function and structure such as posture and movement impairments.

  7. The implications of information sharing on bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed Mostafa; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares actual bullwhip effects provided by retailers who shared downstream demand information and retailers who did not share in a three-level (divergent) toy supply chain. The toy supply chain faces high forecast errors and bullwhip effects due to unpredictable and seasonal demand...... demand information. To reduce the bullwhip effect, two solutions using the shared information are tested. They are a proposed premature replenishment rule and a simple forecast updating mechanism. Both solutions are proven capable in reducing bullwhip effects of the toy supply chain even without...... patterns. The results indicate a reduction of the bullwhip effect and an improvement of the fill rate due to the increase of retailers who shared downstream demand information. This paper also addresses two main causes of the bullwhip effect, which are the supply variability and limited use of the shared...

  8. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3....... An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is warranted....

  9. Measuring the Effects of Toys on the Problem-Solving, Creative and Social Behaviours of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Russell, Heather; Swaminathan, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the effects of various environmental influences on young children's play, the influence of toys has rarely been examined. This paucity of toy studies is due to a lack of a scientifically constructed observation system to evaluate the impact of play materials across developmental domains. The purpose of this…

  10. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  11. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  12. Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    The early language environment of a child influences language outcome, which in turn affects reading and academic success. It is unknown which types of everyday activities promote the best language environment for children. To investigate whether the type of toy used during play is associated with the parent-infant communicative interaction. Controlled experiment in a natural environment of parent-infant communication during play with 3 different toy sets. Participant recruitment and data collection were conducted between February 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. The volunteer sample included 26 parent-infant (aged 10-16 months) dyads. Fifteen-minute in-home parent-infant play sessions with electronic toys, traditional toys, and books. Numbers of adult words, child vocalizations, conversational turns, parent verbal responses to child utterances, and words produced by parents in 3 different semantic categories (content-specific words) per minute during play sessions. Among the 26 parent-infant dyads, toy type was associated with all outcome measures. During play with electronic toys, there were fewer adult words (mean, 39.62; 95% CI, 33.36-45.65), fewer conversational turns (mean, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.12-2.19), fewer parental responses (mean, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.87-1.77), and fewer productions of content-specific words (mean, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.49-2.35) than during play with traditional toys or books. Children vocalized less during play with electronic toys (mean per minute, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.16-3.69) than during play with books (mean per minute, 3.91; 95% CI, 3.09-4.68). Parents produced fewer words during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 55.56; 95% CI, 46.49-64.17) than during play with books (mean per minute, 66.89; 95% CI, 59.93-74.19) and use of content-specific words was lower during play with traditional toys (mean per minute, 4.09; 95% CI, 3.26-4.99) than during play with books (mean per minute, 6.96; 95% CI, 6.07-7.97). Play with electronic toys is associated with

  13. Linux toys II 9 Cool New Projects for Home, Office, and Entertainment

    CERN Document Server

    Negus, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Builds on the success of the original Linux Toys (0-7645-2508-5) and adds projects using different Linux distributionsAll-new toys in this edition include a car computer system with built-in entertainment and navigation features, bootable movies, a home surveillance monitor, a LEGO Mindstorms robot, and a weather mapping stationIntroduces small business opportunities with an Internet radio station and Internet caf ̌projectsCompanion Web site features specialized hardware drivers, software interfaces, music and game software, project descriptions, and discussion forumsIncludes a CD-ROM with scr

  14. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales...... using early order commitment has decreased the Bullwhip effect for all supply chain members even if it is applied locally.......) and retailers who did not share. Bullwhip effect is reduced when the shared volume of retailers who shared downstream demand information increased; however, fill rate performance is not improved. Key causes of Bullwhip effect are identified - forecast updating, timeliness of demand signal, limited use of shared...

  15. Playing with Daddy: Social Toy Play, Early Head Start, and Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Roggman, Lori A.; Boyce, Lisa; Cook, G. A.; Christiansen, K.; Jones, D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on fathers in Early Head Start (EHS) has provided an opportunity to study fathers from low-income families. We examined father-toddler social toy play in relation to EHS enrollment, fathers' psychosocial well-being, and children's developmental outcomes in a sample of 74 father-toddler dyads. Overall, our results show that father-toddler social toy play was more complex among fathers in an EHS program than among those in a comparison group. Greater complexity in father-toddler social...

  16. Noise levels from toys and recreational articles for children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, P A; Dengerink, H A; Axelsson, A

    1992-10-01

    This study examined the noise level emitted by toys and recreational articles used by children and teenagers. The results indicate that many of the items tested emit sufficiently intense noise to be a source of noise induced hearing loss in school-age children. While the baby toys provided noise exposure within the limits of national regulations, they are most intense in a frequency range that corresponds to the resonance frequency of the external auditory canal of very young children. Hobby motors emit noise that may require protection depending upon the length of use. Fire-crackers and cap guns emit impulse noises that exceed even conservative standards for noise exposure.

  17. 16 CFR 1500.53 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but not over 96 months of age. 1500.53... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.52 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but not over 36 months of age. 1500.52... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  19. Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and…

  20. St. John's Wort (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or ...

  1. Block Building for Children: Making Buildings of the World with the Ultimate Construction Toy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lester

    This book presents a series of projects for children of all levels of expertise, beginning with abstract patterns, rows, and towers and progressing to step-by-step instructions for 18 projects, including a bridge, boat dock, airport, shopping mall, skyscraper, castle, Greek temple, Toy Store City, City of the Future, and The Emerald City of Oz.…

  2. Nonlinear dynamics and modelling of various wooden toys with impact and friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leine, R.I.; Campen, van D.H.; Glocker, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study bifurcations in systems with impact and friction, modeled with a rigid multibody approach. Knowledge from the field of nonlinear dynamics is therefore combined with theory from the field of non-smooth mechanics. We study the nonlinear dynamics of three commercial wooden toys.

  3. Diversity in Cyborg Images: A Case Study of Barry Levinson's "Toys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucek, Linda E.

    Associated with the cultural paradigm of postmodernism, the cyborg, in its numerous aspects, has become a predominant metaphor used to describe the relationship between humanity and technology in post-industrial information societies. This case study of Barry Levinson's 1992 comedy film, "Toys," demonstrates some of the many facets of…

  4. Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet ... The outermost layer of jet is driven by the frame-dragging effect in the Kerr ... All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility ...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... level produced by toy caps. 1500.47 Section 1500.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... horizontal plane with a distance of 25 centimeters between the diaphragm of the microphone and the position... the trigger are each respectively closest to and in the same horizontal plane with the microphone. (3...

  6. Children's and Adults' Recall of Sex-Stereotyped Toy Pictures: Effects of Presentation and Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.

    2005-01-01

    Gender schema theories predict a memory bias toward sex-congruent information. The present study examined how presentation of stimuli and encoding conditions influence gender schematic processing in children and adults. One hundred and sixty 5- to 13-year olds and adult males and females viewed 36 sex-stereotyped toy pictures that were presented…

  7. The Advertising of Toys. Considerations on the lack of values and contribution to gender inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Domínguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The toy has always existed. To state that it is ageless presupposes a sentimental regret typical of the adult who denies the inevitable gradual disappearance of the child within us. However it is expedient to take note of how, year after year, our society is losing the fundamental essence of what an object gives us. The essence which we refer to is imagination. It is through imagination that fantasy, enjoyment and perhaps ephemeral happiness are born. The toy has undergone a long journey on its way to the present: from stone figures, rough homemade wooden forms, scraps or lines traced on a surface which have become the attractive and simple pastime that we nowadays call board games. In this document we set out to analyse the major advertising catalogues from 2006 and 2007 paying particular attention to those pertaining to Christmas advertising campaigns. We consider the different types of toys and their potential market, along with the images, messages, slogans, colours and prices. The paper concludes by identifying stereotypes, roles and division of household tasks, drawing out the clearly consumer driven intentions of companies operating in the toy sector.

  8. Finding the Average Speed of a Light-Emitting Toy Car with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate how the average speed of a light-emitting toy car may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. The freely available Android smartphone application, "AndroSensor," was used for the experiment. The classroom experiment combines complementary physics knowledge of optics and kinematics to find the…

  9. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys.Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling.Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys.These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  10. 2 + 1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3 + 1 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, A.; Husain, V.; Smolin, L.; Samuel, J.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT

    1989-01-01

    2 + 1 Einstein gravity is used as a toy model for testing a program for non-perturbative canonical quantisation of the 3 + 1 theory. The program can be successfully implemented in the model and leads to a surprisingly rich quantum theory. (author)

  11. Playfulness, Imagination, and Creativity in Play with Toys: A Cultural-Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Signe Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a wholeness perspective on the relation between creative imagination and children's activity when playing with toys. This is explored through a case retrieved from a 4-month experimental research project, specifically from a social fantasy play session. In order to analyse and examine children's play, the…

  12. UNDERSTANDING HOW PLANETS BECOME MASSIVE. I. DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION OF A NEW TOY MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormel, C. W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of giant planets requires the accumulation of ∼10 Earth masses in solids; but how do protoplanets acquire their mass? There are many, often competing, processes that regulate the accretion rate of protoplanets. To assess their effects we present a new, publicly available toy model. The rationale behind the toy model is that it encompasses as many physically relevant processes as possible, but at the same time does not compromise its simplicity, speed, and physical insight. The toy model follows a modular structure, where key features—e.g., planetesimal fragmentation, radial orbital decay, nebula turbulence—can be switched on or off. Our model assumes three discrete components (fragments, planetesimals, and embryos) and is zero dimensional in space. We have tested the outcomes of the toy model against literature results and generally find satisfactory agreement. We include, for the first time, model features that capture the three-way interactions among small particles, gas, and protoplanets. Collisions among planetesimals will result in fragmentation, transferring a substantial amount of the solid mass to small particles, which couple strongly to the gas. Our results indicate that the efficiency of the accretion process then becomes very sensitive to the gas properties—especially to the turbulent state and the magnitude of the disk headwind (the decrease of the orbital velocity of the gas with respect to Keplerian)—as well as to the characteristic fragment size.

  13. Phthalates and alternative plasticizers and potential for contact exposure from children's backpacks and toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Wu, Yaoxing; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the mass content of plasticizers in children's backpacks and toys, and their mass transfer from product surfaces to cotton wipes. The mass content of plasticizers in six backpacks and seven toys was measured by extracting them in tetrahydrofuran. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was the most common plasticizer, dominating the composition of plasticizers in four backpacks (average mass content in product polyvinyl chloride, 5.38 ± 1.98%-25.5 ± 3.54%) and six plastic toys (8.17 ± 1.85%-21.2 ± 1.11%). The surface of each product was wiped with three dry and three wet (by isopropanol) cotton wipes, so as to evaluate the mass transfer of plasticizers to clothing and human skin, respectively. DEHT was the most common plasticizer detected on wipe samples. There were strong correlations (backpacks r=0.90; plastic toys r=0.96) between average mass transfer of DEHT to wet wipes and its average mass content in the product. The mass transfers of the five dominant plasticizers in one backpack to both dry and wet wipes were also correlated (both r=1.00) with their mass contents. These results suggest that the mass transfer of plasticizers from products to clothing or human skin is strongly associated with their mass content.

  14. A toy model for gauge-mediation in intersecting brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jason

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of a toy intersecting brane model where supersymmetry is dynamically broken in an open-string hidden sector and gauge-mediated to the visible sector. Scalar masses ∼TeV are easily realizable, and R-symmetry is broken. These ideas are easily generalizable to other intersecting brane models.

  15. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; McKenzie, Samantha J; Beck, Alan M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  16. Is AIBO Real? Understanding Children's Beliefs about and Behavioral Interactions with Anthropomorphic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrea; Mishra, Punya

    2009-01-01

    Interactive toys for children are becoming more popular for both play and educational purposes, yet an understanding of the dependent measures used to study such interactions has not yet been explored. This study takes advantage of the idea that robotic animals exhibit both living and pretend qualities, and are therefore ideal for studying…

  17. The one loop calculation of the strong coupling β function in the Toy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhiming; Jiang Yuanfang

    1991-01-01

    The background field quantization is used to calculate the one-loop β function in the Toy Model which has the strong coupling and the SU(3) symmetry. The function obtained is consistent with the Appalquist-Carrazone theorem in the low energy condition

  18. Measuring a Pig's Preference for Suspended Toys by Using an Automated Recording Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Vermeer, H.M.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Not all suspended materials for finishing pigs are equally suited to meet the natural behavior of the animal, but the required physical properties of the toys have yet to be identified. The present study aimed to develop a labor saving electronic recording device for animal-material interactions.

  19. User Study of a New Smart Toy for Children's Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that offers children a mixed reality environment in which to tell imaginative stories. During usability testing, an empirical study was carried out with 90 child participants. The findings indicated that StoryTech creates a rich storytelling experience, especially for ages five and six.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of toys relying on toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Pereira Filho, Edenir R.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of toys for avoiding children exposure to potentially toxic elements is of utmost relevance and it is a common requirement in national and/or international norms for health and safety reasons. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently evaluated at authors' laboratory for direct analysis of plastic toys and one of the main difficulties for the determination of Cd, Cr and Pb was the variety of mixtures and types of polymers. As most norms rely on migration (lixiviation) protocols, chemometric classification models from LIBS spectra were tested for sampling toys that present potential risk of Cd, Cr and Pb contamination. The classification models were generated from the emission spectra of 51 polymeric toys and by using Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The classification models and validations were carried out with 40 and 11 test samples, respectively. Best results were obtained when KNN was used, with corrected predictions varying from 95% for Cd to 100% for Cr and Pb.

  1. 16 CFR 1500.18 - Banned toys and other banned articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... For purposes of this regulation, introduction into interstate commerce is defined as follows: A toy or... chapter. For purposes of the regulation, introduction into interstate commerce is defined as follows: A... dimension constructed of aluminized polyester film or any kite having a tail or other component consisting...

  2. Social Behaviors Increase in Children with Autism in the Presence of Animals Compared to Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; McKenzie, Samantha J.; Beck, Alan M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Methods Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD. PMID:23468902

  3. Comparing Fathers' Physical and Toy Play and Links to Child Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Palazzi, Kerrin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing amounts of research show that fathers' involvement in children's lives contributes to the child's social, emotional and cognitive development; however, much of the evidence comes from fathers' caregiving and object play. This exploratory study compared the characteristics of 24 Australian fathers' play in two contexts--toy play and…

  4. Books, toys, parent-child interaction, and development in young Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Flynn, Virginia; Rovira, Irene; Tineo, Wendy; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2006-01-01

    To describe the interrelationships between books and toys in the home, parent-child interaction, and child development at 21 months among low-income Latino children. Latino mother-infant dyads enrolled in a level 1 nursery and infants were followed to 21 months. The subjects consisted of the control group of a larger intervention study. At 6 and 18 months, the number of books and toys in the home and the frequency of reading aloud were measured by the StimQ. At 21 months, child cognitive and language development and parent-child interaction were assessed by the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI), the Preschool Language Scale-3 (PLS-3), and the Caregiver-Child Interaction Rating Scale, respectively. Eligibility for early intervention (EI) services was determined on the basis of the MDI and PLS-3. Data were obtained for 46 (63.0%) of 73 at 21 months. In multiple regression analysis, books provided at 18 months predicted both cognition (semipartial correlation [sr] = .49, P= .001) and receptive language (sr = .37, P= .02), whereas toys provided at both 6 and 18 months predicted 21-month receptive language (sr = .40, P= .01; sr = .32, P= .047, respectively). Reading aloud by parents > or =4 days a week was associated with decreased EI eligibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.99). Reading aloud and provision of toys are associated with better child cognitive and language development as well as with decreased likelihood of EI eligibility.

  5. Gender Constancy and the Effects of Sex-typed Televised Toy Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Diane N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a cognitive-developmental analysis of the effects of televised, sex-stereotypic information on children's behavior and attitudes towards toy play. Subjects were 100 children, ages four to six divided into groups exhibiting high and low gender-constancy. (Author/CM)

  6. Antecedents of Toddler Gender Segregation: Cognitive Consonance, Gender-Typed Toy Preferences and Behavioral Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Lora C.; Serbin, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    Possible antecedents of toddler gender separation were studied with 57 toddlers with a mean age of 35 months. There were no differences between gender-segregating and nonsegregating children regarding gender toy preferences or gender awareness, but teachers saw gender-segregating girls as more socially sensitive. (SLD)

  7. Effects of Neutral Toys on Sex-Typed Play in Children with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Robert W.; And Others

    The study of typical gender development suggests that both approach and avoidance mechanisms are involved in the eventual display of sex-typed behavior. Some experiments have attempted to demonstrate the independent contribution of these two parameters. Studies suggest that avoidance behavior for cross-sex toys is a useful index of sex-role…

  8. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975),…

  9. Anime's media mix: Franchising toys and characters in Japan, by Marc Steinberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandeise Monk-Payton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marc Steinberg. Anime's Media Mix: Franchising Toys and Characters in Japan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012, $25.00 paper (304p ISBN 978-0-8166-7550-0, $75.00 cloth (304p ISBN 978-0-8166-7549-4.

  10. Get up and move : An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.A.; Stappers, P.J.; Jongert, T.

    2009-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  11. Get up and move: An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.; Stappers, P.-J.; Jongert, T.

    2010-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  12. 16 CFR 1500.19 - Misbranded toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... games, generally as a playing piece or marker. The term “marble” does not include a marble permanently... any discrete piece of written material separate from the label of the package that contains an... but less than six years of age shall bear or contain the following cautionary statement if the toy or...

  13. Play Complexity and Toy Engagement in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Do Girls and Boys Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle

    2017-01-01

    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5…

  14. THE UTILIZATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC TOY IN THE NURSING OPERA TORY VISIT TO THE INFANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of the peroperative nursing occurs in the moments pre, trans and postoperativeand also they happen in children, adolescents, adults and elders. Being like this, ours objective went verify thebenefits of the utilization of the therapeutic toy in the visit preoperative by the nurse of surgical center.

  15. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  16. Infants' Use of Force to Defend Toys: The Origins of Instrumental Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Hurst, Sarah-Louise; Waters, Cerith S.; Chadwick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The two aims of the study were (a) to determine when infants begin to use force intentionally to defend objects to which they might have a claim and (b) to examine the relationship between toddlers' instrumental use of force and their tendencies to make possession claims. Infants' and toddlers' reactions to peers' attempts to take their toys were…

  17. An evaluation of lead contamination in plastic toys collected from day care centers in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Joseph A; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2010-10-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental lead continues to be a major health concern. This study examined lead content within the plastic of children's toys collected from licensed day care centers in the Las Vegas valley, Nevada. It was hypothesized that the use of lead as a plastics stabilizer would result in elevated lead (≥600 ppm) in polyvinyl chloride plastics (PVC) compared to non-PVC plastics. It was also hypothesized that, due to the use of lead chromate as a coloring agent, yellow toys would contain higher concentrations of lead (≥600 ppm) than toys of other colors. Toy samples were limited to those found in day care centers in Las Vegas, Nevada. 10 day care centers were visited and approximately 50 toy samples were taken from each center. Of the 535 toys tested, 29 contained lead in excess of 600 parts per million (ppm). Of those 29 toys, 20 were PVC and 17 were yellow. Both of the two hypotheses were strongly supported by the data.

  18. The effect of the integration of talking toys on preschoolers’ vocabulary learning in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Güngör

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate conditions and suitable materials can inspire young children to learn a new language effortlessly. The present study attempted to investigate the effects of English talking toys as teaching materials on vocabulary learning of very young learners (VYL based on their gender. The study was conducted at one of the public preschools in Yenimahalle/Ankara with 48 five-year old children from two classes. The first group of students was the experimental group and they were instructed using English talking toys as a teaching material. On the other hand, the other class was the control group and was instructed using flashcards. The target vocabulary for this study, which was incorporated into a Vocabulary Checklist Test, was developed after a close scrutiny of the relevant literature (i.e. vocabulary learning in young learners and examination of the theme-related curriculum employed in the chosen preschool. To assess preschoolers' learning of target words in English, a new Vocabulary Checklist Test was developed by the researcher. The results of a series of t-tests showed that the class instructed with English talking toys performed better on both receptive and expressive/productive vocabulary. The results also indicated that there was not any significant difference between males and females in terms of the effect of English talking toys on preschool children's vocabulary learning. The findings suggest that English talking toys are not only used for entertainment and recreational purposes, they can also be used as teaching material particularly when it comes to teaching basic English vocabulary. The current study contributed to areas such as early childhood education, foreign/second language learning, foreign language testing and evaluation.

  19. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: a Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Simó, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Happy Meal® Effect: the impact of toy premiums on healthy eating among children in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David G; Daniel, Samantha; Hanning, Rhona M; Manske, Steve

    2012-05-24

    "Toy premiums", offered with McDonald's Happy Meals®, are a prominent form of food marketing directed at children. Two California jurisdictions recently implemented policies that only permit offering fast-food toy premiums with meals that meet certain nutritional criteria. The primary objective of the current study was to examine elements of this policy in a Canadian context and determine if children select healthier food products if toy premiums are only offered with healthier food options. The study also examined if the impact of restricting toy premiums to healthier foods varied by gender and age. A between-groups experimental study was conducted with 337 children aged 6-12 years attending day camps in Ontario, Canada. Children were offered one of four McDonald's Happy Meals® as part of the camp lunch program: two "healthier" meals that met the nutritional criteria and two meals that did not. In the control condition, all four meals were offered with a toy premium. In the intervention condition, the toy was only offered with the two "healthier" meals. Children were significantly more likely to select the healthier meals when toys were only offered with meals that met nutritional criteria (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.89-5.40). The effect of pairing toys with healthier meals had a stronger effect on boys than girls (OR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.14-3.17). Policies that restrict toy premiums to food that meet nutritional criteria may promote healthier eating at fast-food restaurants.

  1. “Mood-modules”: Interconnected Wireless Toy Units for Studies of Social Play through Musical and Sonic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    This paper outlines the research background, focus and methods that will be used in the study of musical and sonic games that are embedded in interconnected wireless toy modules. Seen in the light of the idea: “The ensemble as a musical and social experience”, an approach for designing electronic...... toys for children will be discussed. Five electronic toy units function as test objects. These sensor devices will contain musical and sonic games. Children manipulate sound parameters, when they interact with each sensor, or rather, combinations of sensors. When two or more children interact...

  2. Estudo de metais e de substâncias tóxicas em brinquedos Toys contamined by toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Zini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study is the analysis of toxic elements in plastic toys commercialized in Brazil. Metals like cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, and aluminum, along with organic substances, such as phthalates, were identified in different toys by quantitative analytical techniques. Traces of thorium were detected in one of the studied samples. Although the measured radioactive dose was rather low, the presence of such a radioactive contaminant is against to the International Agency of Atomic Energy regulations. Similar toys manufactured in Brazil were analyzed and found to observe the standards defined by the National Institute of Metrology (Inmetro.

  3. [Eyeball perforation of a 7-year-old girl caused by the "Must-Have Office Toy 2017" : The potential risk of injury by a spinning toy (fidget spinner)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessmann, A; Chaloupka, K; Böni, C

    2018-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented to the emergency department of the eye clinic with an eyeball perforation with iris prolapse and corneal as well as scleral wounds of the left eye caused by a spinning toy (fidget spinner). A surgical wound inspection with iris reposition and corneal and scleral suture were performed without delay. This case report demonstrates the potential risk of this popular toy.

  4. A toy MCT model for multiple glass transitions: Double swallow tail singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, V.N. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk 142190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tareyeva, E.E. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk 142190, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-07

    We propose a toy model to describe in the frame of Mode Coupling Theory multiple glass transitions. The model is based on the postulated simple form for static structure factor as a sum of two delta-functions. This form makes it possible to solve the MCT equations in almost analytical way. The phase diagram is governed by two swallow tails resulting from two A{sub 4} singularities and includes liquid–glass transition and multiple glasses. The diagram has much in common with those of binary and quasibinary systems. - Highlights: • A simple toy model is proposed for description of glass–glass transitions. • The static structure factor of the model has the form of a sum of delta-functions. • The phase diagram contains A{sub 4} bifurcation singularities and A{sub 3} end points. • The results can be applied for the qualitative description of quasibinary systems.

  5. Toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry: coupling bioaccessibility with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-05-01

    A total of 45 children's toys and jewelry were tested for total and bioaccessible metal concentrations. Total As, Cd, Sb, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations were 0.22-19, 0.01-139, 0.1-189, 0.06-846, 0.14-2894 and 0.08-860,000 mg kg(-1). Metallic products had the highest concentrations, with 3-7 out of 13 samples exceeding the European Union safety limit for Cd, Pb, Cr, or Ni. However, assessment based on hazard index >1 and bioaccessible metal showed different trends. Under saliva mobilization or gastric ingestion, 11 out of 45 samples showed HI >1 for As, Cd, Sb, Cr, or Ni. Pb with the highest total concentration showed HI toys and jewelry, and besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products also deserve attention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. CHILDREN IN MUSIC EDUCATION: CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOYS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Zenker Leme Joly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a survey completed which identified as the toy is presented in the teaching and learning in children's music education practices. Participant observation was carried out in two groups of music education with children aged 2 and 3 years, with the use of field diary. The results showed that the process was enriched significantly through the use the toys. Rattles, scarves, wooden horses, stuffed animals, puppets, rag dolls, children's story books were objects that contributed to increasing the participation of children in songs and dances, expand relations between children and adults. They served to play at the reception of the children, living together and musical practices, the expansion of interactions and emotional ties, especially in promoting more pleasant moments in music education practices with children.

  7. Gribov horizon and i-particles: About a toy model and the construction of physical operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, L.; Dudal, D.; Vandersickel, N.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.; Huber, M. Q.; Zwanziger, D.

    2010-01-01

    Restricting the functional integral to the Gribov region Ω leads to a deep modification of the behavior of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the infrared region. For example, a gluon propagator of the Gribov type, (k 2 /k 4 +γ 4 ), can be viewed as a propagating pair of unphysical modes, called here i-particles, with complex masses ±iγ 2 . From this viewpoint, gluons are unphysical and one can see them as being confined. We introduce a simple toy model describing how a suitable set of composite operators can be constructed out of i-particles whose correlation functions exhibit only real branch cuts, with associated positive spectral density. These composite operators can thus be called physical and are the toy analogy of glueballs in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory.

  8. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  9. Childhood cancer: feelings expressed by children in chemotherapy during therapeutic toy sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Paulo Souza e Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the feelings experienced by the child with cancer manifested during Therapeutic Toy sessions. This qualitative research was performed with five children aged between three and twelve years, of both sexes. Data collection was carried out through a participatory and systematic observation, coupled with interviews intermediated by Therapeutic Toy Sessions. The data was worked using discourse analysis. The child with cancer was shown as a being full of feelings. The fear of death, pain, sadness on the limitations imposed by the disease, the withdrawal and rebellion with the procedures, the anguish in the face of uncertainties were negative feelings expressed by the children in the dramatizations. However, the development of treatment, the manifestation of a good prognosis and outcome of cure were emerging feelings of hope and happiness before the treatment, optimism in return to usual activities and overcoming amidst the difficulties experienced.

  10. Low-income fathers’ speech to toddlers during book reading versus toy play*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Virginia C.; Rowe, Meredith L.; Leech, Kathryn A.; Cabrera, Natasha J.

    2016-01-01

    Fathers’ child-directed speech across two contexts was examined. Father–child dyads from sixty-nine low-income families were videotaped interacting during book reading and toy play when children were 2;0. Fathers used more diverse vocabulary and asked more questions during book reading while their mean length of utterance was longer during toy play. Variation in these specific characteristics of fathers’ speech that differed across contexts was also positively associated with child vocabulary skill measured on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. Results are discussed in terms of how different contexts elicit specific qualities of child-directed speech that may promote language use and development. PMID:26541647

  11. Role of toys in the development and rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-04-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu   Keywords: rehabilitation; physiotherapy; developmental disorders; toy use; parent–child interaction; patient-therapist relationship.   Abstract   Developmental disorders (called also developmental disabilities are disorders beginning before age 18 and characterized by delay of developmental skills expected to achieve in particular age or developmental stage. Every effort toward new ways of intervention is precious, and achievement of the therapeutical success still constitutes tru challenge. This study aims at assessment how toys can be incorporated into principles of the eclectic approach toward therapy of children with developmental disabilities.

  12. Low-income fathers' speech to toddlers during book reading versus toy play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Virginia C; Rowe, Meredith L; Leech, Kathryn A; Cabrera, Natasha J

    2016-11-01

    Fathers' child-directed speech across two contexts was examined. Father-child dyads from sixty-nine low-income families were videotaped interacting during book reading and toy play when children were 2;0. Fathers used more diverse vocabulary and asked more questions during book reading while their mean length of utterance was longer during toy play. Variation in these specific characteristics of fathers' speech that differed across contexts was also positively associated with child vocabulary skill measured on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. Results are discussed in terms of how different contexts elicit specific qualities of child-directed speech that may promote language use and development.

  13. Reaction-diffusion processes in zero transverse dimensions as toy models for high-energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Bondarenko, Sergey; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Milhano, Jose Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    We examine numerically different zero-dimensional reaction-diffusion processes as candidate toy models for high-energy QCD evolution. Of the models examined-Reggeon Field Theory, Directed Percolation and Reversible Processes-only the latter shows the behaviour commonly expected, namely an increase of the scattering amplitude with increasing rapidity. Further, we find that increasing recombination terms, quantum loops and the heuristic inclusion of a running of the couplings, generically slow down the evolution.

  14. Usefulness of Tinker Toy Test for Schizophrenic Patients: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 泰久; 穴水, 幸子; 山中, 武彦; 石井, 文康; 三村, 將

    2017-01-01

     This is the pilot study in order to verify the usability of Tinker Toy Test (TTT). Participants were assigned to schizophrenia and control groups based on propensity scores which was computed using confounding factors. Neuropsychological testing for basic information, TTT, and others was performed in order to compare between two groups, and logistic regression analysis was used to assess the difference between them according to the items which showed significant differences in the neuropsych...

  15. Downsides of the recycling process: harmful organic chemicals in children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionas, Alin C; Dirtu, Alin C; Anthonissen, Tim; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Most of the materials used in consumer goods contain a number of additives which are meant to improve key properties like plasticity or flame resistance. At the end-of-life of the product, many polymeric materials are recycled and the additives they contain, such as flame retardants (FRs) and plasticizers, are transferred to the newly manufactured goods. We have investigated the occurrence and profiles of FRs, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phosphate FR (PFRs) and of plasticisers, such as phthalate esters, in 106 toys samples. Low levels and detection frequencies of components of the technical Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE mixtures were found, with BDE 209 being the dominant PBDE in all samples (maximum value was 0.14mg/g or 0.014%). The levels of PFRs and phthalates were up to 10,000 times higher than those of the PBDEs, with triphenyl phosphate and diethylhexyl phthalate being the major representatives of these classes. Maximum values were 1.3 and 6.9%, respectively. The detection frequencies were up to 50% for PFRs and 98% for phthalates. All but one of the toys produced after the REACH regulation went into force complied with its provisions. The samples were grouped according to relevant selection criteria to assess the risk for children of different age groups. Using models in the literature, exposure to these chemicals was tentatively assessed. It is clear that at the levels found in the investigated toys, these additives do not contribute to the intended characteristics of the materials, but in some cases may pose a health hazard to the children. Most likely, recycled materials are an important source of these additives in toys and therefore, their (re)use in products for children should be subject to stricter restrictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry: Coupling bioaccessibility with risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 45 children's toys and jewelry were tested for total and bioaccessible metal concentrations. Total As, Cd, Sb, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations were 0.22–19, 0.01–139, 0.1–189, 0.06–846, 0.14–2894 and 0.08–860,000 mg kg −1 . Metallic products had the highest concentrations, with 3–7 out of 13 samples exceeding the European Union safety limit for Cd, Pb, Cr, or Ni. However, assessment based on hazard index >1 and bioaccessible metal showed different trends. Under saliva mobilization or gastric ingestion, 11 out of 45 samples showed HI >1 for As, Cd, Sb, Cr, or Ni. Pb with the highest total concentration showed HI <1 for all samples while Ni showed the most hazard with HI up to 113. Our data suggest the importance of using bioaccessibility to evaluate health hazard of metals in children's toys and jewelry, and besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products also deserve attention. - Highlights: • Contamination of toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry (TJ) were studied. • Metals including Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in some TJ exceeded the EU safety limits. • Hazard index of TJ was assessed based on bioaccessible metals via saliva mobilization and oral ingestion. • Hazard index was >> 1 for Ni, and unacceptable for As, Cd, Cr, and Sb in some TJ. - Assessment of health hazard of children's toys and jewelry based on bioaccessible metals suggested that besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products deserve attention

  17. Splish-splash: Center of mass, stability, and a fun pool toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Seth

    2018-03-01

    Center of mass is a common topic in physics courses. It appears in relation to studies of stable and unstable equilibrium, momentum, and rotation. Science products suppliers frequently include gadgets that demonstrate the concepts of center of mass and stability, such as the classic balancing bird. Additionally, The Physics Teacher has featured articles studying the center of mass of a rotating baton, locating the center of mass of a hanging Slinky toy, and describing a wide range of interesting systems.

  18. Virtual and physical toys: open-ended features for non-formal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the integrated toy--both physical and virtual--as an essential resource for collaborative learning. This learning incorporates rehabilitation, training, and education. The data derived from two different cases. Pedagogical issues related to non-formal learning and open-ended features of design are discussed. Findings suggest that social, material, and expressive affordances constitute a base for an alterative interface to encourage children's play and learning.

  19. From the Theory of Play into the Practice in Kindergarten: Verification of the Original Didactic Toys for Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Hana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with the phenomenon of play in the preschool environment. Based on establishing the links between theories and practice applicable in preschool conditions, the students from study programme of Preschool Teacher Training at Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlín created a set of original didactic toys for preschool children. The main objective of the study was to verify this set in kindergartens and to find out how teachers perceive play and how they work with toys in preschools. The study also focused on preschool children´s view of play and toys. Methods: We have chosen a qualitative research design to explore the research problem and to answer the research questions. The data collection in this research was based on participant observation and interviews with the participants who were preschool children and their teachers from four selected kindergartens in Zlín Region in the Czech Republic. These were 12 teachers with secondary or university education (Bc. degree, aged 23 to 48, with a length of practice from 1 year to 25 years at the position of kindergarten teacher. The research study then included interviews and video recordings of 77 preschool children (age 2 to 6 years. Results: Data gathered by a qualitative research with preschool children in the kindergarten environment represent a partial picture on the importance of toys and playing with them. The results emerging from the observation and interviewing the preschool children and their teachers shows the way of toy selection with the importance of variability of possible modifications of the toys offered to children in the preschool environment. The progress of play with the verified didactic toys was influenced by the need for a partner in the play, the role of the teacher, the chances to freely discover the elements of toys. We found a restrictive perspective expressed by the participating preschool teachers about the dominant

  20. Toys, sociocognitive traits, and occupations: Italian children's endorsement of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2007-06-01

    In a sample of 136 Italian children ages 8 to 12 years (M = 9.6, SD = 1.2; 68 boys, 68 girls), gender stereotypes related to gender-typed toys, traits, and occupational choices were examined, using the forced-choice technique between a male and a female silhouette. Stereotypy was established considering boys' and girls' choices for the 70%-100% range. Differences in gender stereotyping for age and sex of participants were verified. Analysis indicated children attributed toys prevalently connected with aesthetic aspect and domestic activities to the female silhouette, while technology, warfare, locomotion, and construction toys were attributed to the male. Children attributed physical and verbal aggressiveness and dominance to the male silhouette; the female profile was exclusively characterized by sweetness. The occupational stereotypical male model was structured in both practical-manual activities and of highly cultural and specialist relevance, while for the female model the number of activities, mainly of a domestic type, were reduced. Significant main effect of sex of children was found, but no significant age-related differences in the three domains. Results were discussed within the framework of gender-stereotype theories.

  1. Microscopic and probabilistic approach to thermal steady state based on a dice and coin toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Moggio, Lorenzo; Oss, Stefano; Malgieri, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present an educational approach to thermal equilibrium which was tested on a group of 13 undergraduate students at the University of Trento. The approach is based on a stochastic toy model, in which bodies in thermal contact are represented by rows of squares on a cardboard table, which exchange coins placed on the squares based on the roll of two dice. The discussion of several physical principles, such as the exponential approach to equilibrium, the determination of the equilibrium temperature, and the interpretation of the equilibrium state as the most probable macrostate, proceeds through a continual comparison between the outcomes obtained with the toy model and the results of a real experiment on the thermal contact of two masses of water at different temperatures. At the end of the sequence, a re-analysis of the experimental results in view of both the Boltzmann and Clausius definitions of entropy reveals some limits of the toy model, but also allows for a critical discussion of the concepts of temperature and entropy. In order to provide the reader with a feeling of how the sequence was received by students, and how it helped them understand the topics introduced, we discuss some excerpts from their answers to a conceptual item given at the end of the sequence. (paper)

  2. Evidence for the epistemic view of quantum states: A toy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a toy theory that is based on a simple principle: the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a state of maximal knowledge. Many quantum phenomena are found to have analogues within this toy theory. These include the noncommutativity of measurements, interference, the multiplicity of convex decompositions of a mixed state, the impossibility of discriminating nonorthogonal states, the impossibility of a universal state inverter, the distinction between bipartite and tripartite entanglement, the monogamy of pure entanglement, no cloning, no broadcasting, remote steering, teleportation, entanglement swapping, dense coding, mutually unbiased bases, and many others. The diversity and quality of these analogies is taken as evidence for the view that quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge rather than states of reality. A consideration of the phenomena that the toy theory fails to reproduce, notably, violations of Bell inequalities and the existence of a Kochen-Specker theorem, provides clues for how to proceed with this research program

  3. Ingestion of magnetic toys: report of serious complications requiring surgical intervention and a proposed management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.

  4. Effect of several variables in the polymer toys additive migration to saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Cal, R; López-Vilariño, J M; González-Rodríguez, M V; Barral-Losada, L

    2011-09-30

    Capacity to migrate of a representative group of polymeric additives, dyes, antioxidants, hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) or antistatics, from plastic toys to saliva was analyzed to protect children in their habits of sucking and biting. Most of target additives appear no-regulated in toys normative but adverse effects on human health of some of them have been demonstrated and their presence in others commercial articles normative has been included. In order to offer an effective and easy tool to perform these controls, migration tests by dynamic and static contact, followed by a preconcentration step by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and ultra performance liquid chromatographic analysis with ultraviolet-visible and evaporative light scattering detections (UPLC-UV/Vis-ELSD) have been optimized to evaluate the migrated amounts of the additives in saliva simulant. The detection limits of the migration methodologies were ranged from 8.68 × 10(-2) to 1.30 × 10(-3)mg migrated (L simulant)(-1). Influence of several variables on this mass transport, as time, temperature and friction, was also analyzed to achieve the most aggressive methodology to protect consumers. Migration of several studied additives, whose presence has been demonstrated in several purchased commercial toys, has been observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Collectible toys and decisions to share: I will gift you one to expand my set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R; Cornwell, T Bettina; Cornain, Emilita Krisanti

    2011-03-01

    Two studies were used to examine the collecting behaviour of preschool children. Prior studies of collecting have defined the behaviour as exhibited by older children and adults. To understand childhood collecting, existing theoretical perspectives were discussed in terms of how they might apply to children's behaviour as collectors. Results showed that some preschool children are motivated to engage in collecting and possess the developmental capacities required for successful collecting. Individual differences in executive functioning (Study 1, N= 57) and theory of mind (Study 2, N= 46) explained why some preschoolers were more oriented towards collecting than others. Study 2 showed that the motivational pull of collectible toys can be very strong, with some children agreeing to pay the 'cost' of sharing with a confederate child in order to obtain a collectible toy. This research highlights similarities and differences between adult and child collecting. Suggestions are provided for parents and for policy considerations regarding the appropriateness of marketing collectible toys to preschoolers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Toy Library: space research on the play of children in school of infantile education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sommerhalder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the toy library as an area of research on child's play and on the child. In dialogue with psychoanalysis, the article aims to address aspects that characterize the children play in an environment of toy library. The study presents a reflection from the results of six sessions of observation of the ‘house play’ among children of the school of infantile education. The observation of the play activity was accompanied by the daily record in the field of actions and words of the thirteen children participating in the study. The study shows that the child is playing in a subjective space and is a preferred vehicle for achieving symbolic of desires and fantasies, the reality of transformation and creation of new knowledge. Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of valuing the toy library at school as a way of redemption and make of play in school of infantile education and highlights the value of play for learning and development of children in school of infantile education.

  7. Characters of Modern Animated Series in Games and Toys of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova M.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative research on how preschool children play with various modern cartoon character toys. Three popular animated series were used in the research: "Winx", "SpiderMan" and "Pettson and Findus". One series of each was previously analysed in terms of microplots, descriptions of the main characters and their actions etc. The children watched the series, one at a time, and were then invited to play with its character toys. The outcomes of the research indicate that the series with plots and characters appropriate for preschool age (such as "Pettson and Findus" promote longer and richer periods of play activity as compared to the series addressed to children of older age. Children tend to take the role of the main character more frequently if s/he is of about the same age (irrespective of sex; they reproduce familiar and clear plots and engage themselves in longer periods of meaningful play. The outcomes also show that the effect of the animated series on the children's play depends on the quality and content of the animations, on their correspondence with the specifics of preschool age as well as on the quality of the character toys

  8. Surveys in 1961 on St. Thomas & St. Croix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Thorkel; Licht, Kjeld de Fine

    Registration of towns and buildings erected during the Danish reign of the Caribbean Isles of St. Thomas, St. Jan and St. Croix 1671-1917 (now belonging to the USA under the name of Virgin Islands)....

  9. A randomized clinical trial in preterm infants on the effects of a home-based early intervention with the 'CareToy System'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Lorentzen, Jakob; Inguaggiato, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    and visual development in preterm infants. 41 preterm infants (range age: 3.0-5.9 months of corrected age) were enrolled and randomized into two groups, CareToy and Standard Care. 19 infants randomized in CareToy group performed a 4-week CareToy program, while 22 allocated to control group completed 4 weeks......CareToy system is an innovative tele-rehabilitative tool, useful in providing intensive, individualized, home-based, family-centred Early Intervention (EI) in infants. Our aim was to evaluate, through a Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) study, the effects of CareToy intervention on early motor...... of Standard Care. Infant Motor Profile (IMP) was primary outcome measure, Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and Teller Acuity Cards were secondary ones. Assessments were carried out at baseline (T0) and at the end of CareToy training or Standard Care period (T1). T1 was the primary endpoint. After RCT phase...

  10. Presence of lead in paint of toys sold in stores of the formal market of Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-García, A; Ramos-Bonilla, J P

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-essential metal. Exposure to lead has been associated with adverse health effects in both children and adults. Lead content in paint used in toys or children's products has been identified as both a potential and preventable source of childhood lead exposure. Twenty-four stores located in Bogotá (Colombia) were selected by cluster sampling to participate in the study. A random sample of 96 toys was purchased at these stores. Since one toy can have different paint colors, a total of 116 paint samples from 96 toys were analyzed for lead content. Paint samples were prepared by microwave digestion and lead was quantified using ICP-OES. For quality control purposes of the analytical method, spike samples and a certified reference material (NIST SRM 2582) were used. The lead content in paint ranged from below the method detection limit (5ppm) to 47,600ppm, with an average Pb concentration of 1024ppm and a median concentration of 5ppm. Eight (8) paint samples removed from five toys had lead concentrations exceeding the US regulatory limit for total lead content (90ppm). Brown paint and toys manufactured in Colombia were significantly associated with high concentrations of lead in paint. Furthermore, a statistically significant interaction between these two variables was also found. The results suggest that there is a potential risk of lead exposure from paint of toys sold in the formal market of Bogotá. Therefore, the implementation of a national surveillance program of lead content in children products is urgently needed. The risk of children's lead exposure identified in this study, which is completely preventable, could be present also in other developing countries. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  12. Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  14. [Sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. isolated from toys used in a teaching hospital playroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Gonçalves e Silva, Célia Regina

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial from the isolated strains. Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventythree strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulase-negative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. isolated from toys used in a teaching hospital playroom☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Vanessa Stolf; Corrêa, Renata Nunes; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Silva, Célia Regina Gonçalves e

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus on toys in the playroom of a teaching hospital, as well to as analyze the antimicrobial resistance from isolated strains. Methods: Samples were collected from 60 toys, using wet swabs, soon after being used by the children. The samples were inoculated in enriched and selective agar for isolation and later identification of the microorganisms. Antibiogram testing was performed by agar diffusion technique. Results: The genus Staphylococcus was present in 87.0% (52/60) of the toys. Seventy-three strains were isolated, with 29.0% (21/73) coagulase-positive and 71.0% (52/73) coagulasenegative. Among the coagulase-negative strains, 90.4% were resistant to penicillin, 65.4% to oxacillin, 28.8% to clarithromycin, 61.5% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. Among the coagulase-positive strains, 76.2% were resistant to penicillin, 23.8% to oxacillin, 23.8% to clarithromycin, 47.6% to clindamycin, and none to vancomycin. The genus Streptococcus was not detected in any of the evaluated toys. Conclusions: Toys can be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance, representing a possible source of nosocomial infection for patients who are already debilitated. PMID:25479842

  16. The Sony PlayStation II EyeToy: low-cost virtual reality for use in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Debbie; Kizony, Rachel; Weiss, Patrice Tamar L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost video-capture virtual reality (VR) platform, the Sony PlayStation II EyeToy, for the rehabilitation of older adults with disabilities. This article presents three studies that were carried out to provide information about the EyeToy's potential for use in rehabilitation. The first study included the testing of healthy young adults (N = 34) and compared their experiences using the EyeToy with those using GestureTek's IREX VR system in terms of a sense of presence, level of enjoyment, control, success, and perceived exertion. The second study aimed to characterize the VR experience of healthy older adults (N = 10) and to determine the suitability and usability of the EyeToy for this population and the third study aimed to determine the feasibility of the EyeToy for use by individuals (N = 12) with stroke at different stages. The implications of these three studies for applying the system to rehabilitation are discussed.

  17. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  18. TESTOSTERONIC GADGETS: THE 'NEW' TECHNOLOGY OF ORGASM APPLIED TO SEX TOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pérez Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex toys, and the vibrator as its greatest exponent in the passion party world, have become a totemic sex trend in Western sexual culture, going beyond their functional role for both men and women. In the neoliberal postcapitalist societies – based on compulsive, virtual and hedonist consumption – erotophilia is developed and expanded according to the existing sexual imaginary. An overview of the erotic gadgets and their heterosexual practice provide an interesting element to be analyzed to establish the validity of the sex androcentric model, which has been found poor in terms of female sexual satisfaction.

  19. TESTOSTERONIC GADGETS:THE 'NEW'TECHNOLOGY OF ORGASM APPLIED TO SEX TOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PÉREZ FREIRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex toys, and the vibrator as its greatest exponent in the passion party world, have become a totemic sex trend in Western sexual culture, going beyond their functional role for both men and women. In the neoliberal postcapitalist societies – based on compulsive, virtual and hedonist consumption – erotophilia is developed and expanded according to the existing sexual imaginary. An overview of the erotic gadgets and their heterosexual practice provide an interesting element to be analyzed to establish the validity of the sex androcentric model, which has been found poor in terms of female sexual satisfaction.

  20. Air rifles are more than toys: BB gun-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Blaine; Weibley, Richard; Chapados, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wounds are traumatic events that emergency departments around the country treat on a daily basis. An increasing number of these wounds are being caused by air rifles that shoot ball bearings (ie, BB guns) and, although uncommon, the results can be fatal. The general public and most practitioners may not realize the damage these "toys" can inflict. This article highlights an unfortunate event involving a BB gun accidentally discharged at close range and the consequences. Data from recent and older studies are discussed regarding the firepower of these guns and their potential for injury. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Chiral dynamics and heavy quark symmetry in a solvable toy field-theoretic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Hill, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We study a solvable QCD-like toy theory, a generalization of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, which implements chiral symmetries of light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. The chiral symmetric and chiral broken phases can be dynamically tuned. This implies a parity-doubled heavy-light meson system, corresponding to a (0 - ,1 - ) multiplet and a (0 + ,1 + ) heavy spin multiplet. Consequently the mass difference of the two multiplets is given by a Goldberger-Treiman relation and g A is found to be small. The Isgur-Wise function ξ(w), the decay constant f B , and other observables are studied

  2. Mathematical toy model inspired by the problem of the adaptive origins of the sexual orientation continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, but its adaptive origins remain a prominent puzzle. Here, I suggest the possibility that same-sex sexual behaviour arises as a consequence of the competition between an evolutionary drive for a wide diversity in traits, which improves the adaptability of a population, and a drive for sexual dichotomization of traits, which promotes opposite-sex attraction and increases the rate of reproduction. This trade-off is explored via a simple mathematical `toy model'. The model exhibits a number of interesting features and suggests a simple mathematical form for describing the sexual orientation continuum.

  3. Names of Toys in the Early Vocabulary of Mongolian Children and their Relation to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankhbayar Batsuuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a very up-to-date area of linguistic research–linguistic gender. More specifically, it pays special attention to how gender linked language effects are revealed in the names of toys in the overall production of Mongolian child language by distinguishing the main stages of children’s linguistic development as well as gender acquisition. In a broader sense, this aspect of child development is supposed to bring us one step closer to better understand the interaction between biology and environment.

  4. Names of Toys in the Early Vocabulary of Mongolian Children and their Relation to Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ankhbayar Batsuuri; Nansalmaa Nyamjav

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to a very up-to-date area of linguistic research–linguistic gender. More specifically, it pays special attention to how gender linked language effects are revealed in the names of toys in the overall production of Mongolian child language by distinguishing the main stages of children’s linguistic development as well as gender acquisition. In a broader sense, this aspect of child development is supposed to bring us one step closer to better understand the interaction be...

  5. A beginner's guide to 3D printing 14 simple toy designs to get you started

    CERN Document Server

    Rigsby, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A Beginner''s Guide to 3D Printing is the perfect resource for those who would like to experiment with 3D design and manufacturing, but have little or no technical experience with the standard software. Author Mike Rigsby leads readers step-by-step through 15 simple toy projects, each illustrated with screen caps of Autodesk 123D Design, the most common free 3D software available. The projects are later described using Sketchup, another free popular software package. Beginning with basics projects that will take longer to print than design, readers are then given instruction on more advanced t

  6. Quantum Big Bang without fine-tuning in a toy-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The question of possible physics before Big Bang (or after Big Crunch) is addressed via a schematic non-covariant simulation of the loss of observability of the Universe. Our model is drastically simplified by the reduction of its degrees of freedom to the mere finite number. The Hilbert space of states is then allowed time-dependent and singular at the critical time t = t c . This option circumvents several traditional theoretical difficulties in a way illustrated via solvable examples. In particular, the unitary evolution of our toy-model quantum Universe is shown interruptible, without any fine-tuning, at the instant of its bang or collapse t = t c .

  7. Assessment of ecotoxicity and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from food and children's toy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Natalia; Marć, Mariusz; Kudłak, Błażej; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-09-30

    The development of new methods for identifying a broad spectrum of analytes, as well as highly selective tools to provide the most accurate information regarding the processes and relationships in the world, has been an area of interest for researchers for many years. The information obtained with these tools provides valuable data to complement existing knowledge but, above all, to identify and determine previously unknown hazards. Recently, attention has been paid to the migration of xenobiotics from the surfaces of various everyday objects and the resulting impacts on human health. Since children are among those most vulnerable to health consequences, one of the main subjects of interest is the migration of low-molecular-weight compounds from toys and products intended for children. This migration has become a stimulus for research aimed at determining the degree of release of compounds from popular commercially available chocolate/toy sets. One of main objectives of this research was to determine the impact of time on the ecotoxicity (with Vibrio fischeri bioluminescent bacteria) of extracts of products intended for children and to assess the correlation with total volatile organic compound emissions using basic chemometric methods. The studies on endocrine potential (with XenoScreen YES/YAS) of the extracts and showed that compounds released from the studied objects (including packaging foils, plastic capsules storing toys, most of toys studied and all chocolate samples) exhibit mostly androgenic antagonistic behavior while using artificial saliva as extraction medium increased the impact observed. The impact of time in most cases was positive one and increased with prolonging extraction time. The small-scale stationary environmental test chambers - μ-CTE™ 250 system was employed to perform the studies aimed at determining the profile of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) emissions. Due to this it was possible to state that objects from which the

  8. A Possible Minimum Toy Model with Negative Differential Capacitance for Self-sustained Current Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Gang; Sun Zhouzhou; Wang Xiangrong

    2007-01-01

    We generalize a simple model for superlattices to include the effect of differential capacitance. It is shown that the model always has a stable steady-state solution (SSS) if all differential capacitances are positive. On the other hand, when negative differential capacitance is included, the model can have no stable SSS and be in a self-sustained current oscillation behavior. Therefore, we find a possible minimum toy model with both negative differential resistance and negative differential capacitance which can include the phenomena of both self-sustained current oscillation and I-V oscillation of stable SSSs.

  9. Beauty for pedestrians toy models for CP violation and baryon asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    Why are particles different from antiparticles? C and P Violation - 1956; CP Violation - 1964. Why so little new experimental information in thirty years? Where has all the antimatter gone? Toy models are presented showing: (1) How CPT and ΔI = 1/2 make life difficult in kaon physics by requiring equal K ± total widths and also equal partial widths to many exclusive channels. (2) How to understand and get around CPT restrictions. (3) How CP asymmetries can occur in exclusive partial widths and still add up to equal total widths. (4) Sakharov's 1966 scenario for how CP Violation + proton decay can explain baryon asymmetry (5) How B physics can help

  10. Quantum Big Bang without fine-tuning in a toy-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-02-01

    The question of possible physics before Big Bang (or after Big Crunch) is addressed via a schematic non-covariant simulation of the loss of observability of the Universe. Our model is drastically simplified by the reduction of its degrees of freedom to the mere finite number. The Hilbert space of states is then allowed time-dependent and singular at the critical time t = tc. This option circumvents several traditional theoretical difficulties in a way illustrated via solvable examples. In particular, the unitary evolution of our toy-model quantum Universe is shown interruptible, without any fine-tuning, at the instant of its bang or collapse t = tc.

  11. 75 FR 9455 - U.S. Biomedical Corp., (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys, Inc.), U.S. Environmental Solutions, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] U.S. Biomedical Corp., (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys, Inc.), U.S. Environmental Solutions, Inc. (n/k/a EnviroResolutions, Inc.), USA Bridge....S. Biomedical Corp. (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys, Inc.) because it has not filed any periodic...

  12. Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry: critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2012-04-17

    High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.

  13. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  14. Resolving the chemical structures of off-odorants and potentially harmful substances in toys-example of children's swords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Philipp; Velasco-Schön, Cristina; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Most children's toys on the market are primarily made out of plastic and other complex composite materials. Consumer complaints about offensive odors or irritating effects associated with toy products have increased in recent years. One example is the strongly perceivable negative odor reported for a particular series of toy swords. Characterizing the presence of contaminants, including those that have the potential to be deleterious to health, in such products is a significant analytical challenge due to the high baseline abundance of chemical constituents of the materials used in the products. In the present study, the nature of offensive odorants associated with toy sword products was examined by gas chromatography (GC). After initial sensory evaluations, the volatile compounds from the toy products were recovered using solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. The extracts were analyzed using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional GC-O coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-GC-MS/O). A total of 26 odor-active compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, were identified among numerous non-odorous volatile by-products. These substances also included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were analyzed by GC-MS. Representative substances were naphthalene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene that exhibited moldy, mothball-like odor impressions, and phenol derivatives with leather-like, phenolic, horse-stable-like smells. The odorants detected correlated with the assigned attributes from the sensory analyses. This study clearly shows that the detection and identification of such odorous contaminants can provide key indications of potentially harmful yet unknown substances in everyday products such as toys. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Relationship between a Child’s Cognitive Skills Andthe Inclusion of Age Appropriate Toys in the Home Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kavousipor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With respect to the significance of toys, playing, and the home environment on children’s development, the present study investigates the relationship between gross motor and fine motor toys existing athome and in the home environment, withchild cognitive skills such as problem-solving, communication, and personal–social skills. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 140 mother–child couples (children between the ages of 18 and42 months of age randomly selected from the healthcare centers of the city of Shiraz. Employing the questionnaire of the Affordance in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Self Report (AHEMD-SR and the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®, Third Edition (ASQ-3™, both of which have validity and reliability in Iran, the required data were collected,the relationship between children’s cognitive development was evaluated by ASQ, and the toys and the home environment evaluated by AHEMD-SR was calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Studying the relationships revealed that playing with toys related to gross movement stimulation have weak correlations with all three skills of theASQ considered in the present study, i.e.,communication(r=0.218, P=0.001, problem solving(r=0.168, P=0.02, andpersonal–social skills(r=0.187, P=0.04. Nevertheless, toys related to fine movement stimulation had very low correlations.In addition, the final score of the AHEMD-SR, including toys and other aspects of the home environment, indicate an important relationship with the personal–social skill item of the ASQ (r=0.367, P=0.02. Conclusion: With regard to the findings of the present study, theinside-home space characteristic and playing with appropriate toys maymotivate the child’s cognitive development. Making parents and healthcare officials aware ofthe appropriate toys and the home environment, therefore, seems to be necessary.

  16. Is zero-point energy physical? A toy model for Casimir-like effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Zero-point energy is generally known to be unphysical. Casimir effect, however, is often presented as a counterexample, giving rise to a conceptual confusion. To resolve the confusion we study foundational aspects of Casimir effect at a qualitative level, but also at a quantitative level within a simple toy model with only 3 degrees of freedom. In particular, we point out that Casimir vacuum is not a state without photons, and not a ground state for a Hamiltonian that can describe Casimir force. Instead, Casimir vacuum can be related to the photon vacuum by a non-trivial Bogoliubov transformation, and it is a ground state only for an effective Hamiltonian describing Casimir plates at a fixed distance. At the fundamental microscopic level, Casimir force is best viewed as a manifestation of van der Waals forces. - Highlights: • A toy model for Casimir-like effect with only 3 degrees of freedom is constructed. • Casimir vacuum can be related to the photon vacuum by a non-trivial Bogoliubov transformation. • Casimir vacuum is a ground state only for an effective Hamiltonian describing Casimir plates at a fixed distance. • At the fundamental microscopic level, Casimir force is best viewed as a manifestation of van der Waals forces.

  17. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  18. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  19. Equine behavioral enrichment toys as tools for non-invasive recovery of viral and host DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Peter A; Soilemetzidou, Sanatana E; East, Marion L; Walzer, Chris; Greenwood, Alex D

    2017-09-01

    Direct collection of samples from wildlife can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Non-invasive remote sampling for the purpose of DNA extraction is a potential tool for monitoring the presence of wildlife at the individual level, and for identifying the pathogens shed by wildlife. Equine herpesviruses (EHV) are common pathogens of equids that can be fatal if transmitted to other mammals. Transmission usually occurs by nasal aerosol discharge from virus-shedding individuals. The aim of this study was to validate a simple, non-invasive method to track EHV shedding in zebras and to establish an efficient protocol for genotyping individual zebras from environmental DNA (eDNA). A commercially available horse enrichment toy was deployed in captive Grévy's, mountain, and plains zebra enclosures and swabbed after 4-24 hr. Using eDNA extracted from these swabs four EHV strains (EHV-1, EHV-7, wild ass herpesvirus and zebra herpesvirus) were detected by PCR and confirmed by sequencing, and 12 of 16 zebras present in the enclosures were identified as having interacted with the enrichment toy by mitochondrial DNA amplification and sequencing. We conclude that, when direct sampling is difficult or prohibited, non-invasive sampling of eDNA can be a useful tool to determine the genetics of individuals or populations and for detecting pathogen shedding in captive wildlife. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A SIMPLE TOY MODEL OF THE ADVECTIVE-ACOUSTIC INSTABILITY. I. PERTURBATIVE APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foglizzo, T.

    2009-01-01

    Some general properties of the advective-acoustic instability are described and understood using a toy model, which is simple enough to allow for analytical estimates of the eigenfrequencies. The essential ingredients of this model, in the unperturbed regime, are a stationary shock and a subsonic region of deceleration. For the sake of analytical simplicity, the two-dimensional unperturbed flow is parallel and the deceleration is produced adiabatically by an external potential. The instability mechanism is determined unambiguously as the consequence of a cycle between advected and acoustic perturbations. The purely acoustic cycle, considered alone, is proven to be stable in this flow. Its contribution to the instability can be either constructive or destructive. A frequency cutoff is associated with the advection time through the region of deceleration. This cutoff frequency explains why the instability favors eigenmodes with a low frequency and a large horizontal wavelength. The relation between the instability occurring in this highly simplified toy model and the properties of standing accretion shock instability observed in the numerical simulations of stellar core collapse is discussed. This simple setup is proposed as a benchmark test to evaluate the accuracy, in the linear regime, of numerical simulations involving this instability. We illustrate such benchmark simulations in a companion paper.

  1. A study of the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies in the context of a stochastic toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2018-05-01

    In this article we reconsider a stochastic toy model of thermal contact, first introduced in Onorato et al (2017 Eur. J. Phys. 38 045102), showing its educational potential for clarifying some current issues in the foundations of thermodynamics. The toy model can be realized in practice using dice and coins, and can be seen as representing thermal coupling of two subsystems with energy bounded from above. The system is used as a playground for studying the different behaviours of the Boltzmann and Gibbs temperatures and entropies in the approach to steady state. The process that models thermal contact between the two subsystems can be proved to be an ergodic, reversible Markov chain; thus the dynamics produces an equilibrium distribution in which the weight of each state is proportional to its multiplicity in terms of microstates. Each one of the two subsystems, taken separately, is formally equivalent to an Ising spin system in the non-interacting limit. The model is intended for educational purposes, and the level of readership of the article is aimed at advanced undergraduates.

  2. Coupled intertwiner dynamics: A toy model for coupling matter to spin foam models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The universal coupling of matter and gravity is one of the most important features of general relativity. In quantum gravity, in particular spin foams, matter couplings have been defined in the past, yet the mutual dynamics, in particular if matter and gravity are strongly coupled, are hardly explored, which is related to the definition of both matter and gravitational degrees of freedom on the discretization. However, extracting these mutual dynamics is crucial in testing the viability of the spin foam approach and also establishing connections to other discrete approaches such as lattice gauge theories. Therefore, we introduce a simple two-dimensional toy model for Yang-Mills coupled to spin foams, namely an Ising model coupled to so-called intertwiner models defined for SU (2 )k. The two systems are coupled by choosing the Ising coupling constant to depend on spin labels of the background, as these are interpreted as the edge lengths of the discretization. We coarse grain this toy model via tensor network renormalization and uncover an interesting dynamics: the Ising phase transition temperature turns out to be sensitive to the background configurations and conversely, the Ising model can induce phase transitions in the background. Moreover, we observe a strong coupling of both systems if close to both phase transitions.

  3. Análise acústica em brinquedos ruidosos Acoustics analysis of the noisy toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Linhares Taxini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os níveis de ruídos emitidos por brinquedos nacionalmente comercializados, utilizados por crianças de 1 a 5 anos; comparar os valores entre os brinquedos com e sem selo do Inmetro (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial e analisar o espectro acústico dos brinquedos, com o intuito de identificar a área da cóclea que pode ser mais afetada por esses ruídos. MÉTODO: as medições foram realizadas em 20 brinquedos sonoros (10 com o selo do Inmetro e 10 sem o selo com o uso do decibelímetro digital em sala acusticamente tratada, e a análise dos sons emitidos pelos brinquedos foi realizada por meio do programa Praat. RESULTADOS: a intensidade do ruído dos brinquedos com o selo do Inmetro posicionados a 2,5 cm do equipamento variou de 61,50 a 91,55 dB(A e 69,75 a 95,05 dB(C e a referente à distância de 25 cm variou entre 58,30 a 79,85 dB(A e 62,50 a 83,65 dB(C. A intensidade do ruído dos brinquedos sem o selo do Inmetro a 2,5 cm variou entre 67,45 a 94,30 dB(A e 65,4 a 99,50 dB(C e na distância de 25 cm registrou desde 61,30 a 87,45 dB(A e 63,75 a 97,60 dB(C, portanto os achados demonstraram que existem brinquedos ruidosos que ultrapassam os valores recomendados pela legislação vigente em ambos os grupos, com e sem selo do Inmetro. CONCLUSÃO: os brinquedos sem o selo do Inmetro apresentaram valores de intensidade significantemente maior em relação ao outro grupo, oferecendo maior risco à saúde auditiva das crianças.PURPOSE: to analyze the levels of noise emitted by nationally-sold toys for use by children from 1 to 5 year old; to compare the values among the toys with and without the seal of Inmetro (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality and to analyze the sound spectrum of toys, in order to identify the area of the cochlea that may be more affected by these noises. METHOD: measurements were performed on 20 sound toys (10 with the seal of the

  4. Play complexity and toy engagement in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder: Do girls and boys differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle

    2017-01-01

    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5 years 11 months) with an autism spectrum disorder who were matched to typically developing children on sex and non-verbal development. Overall we found that girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder were largely equivalent in their play complexity. Despite similar play, girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder differed in a number of ways in their toy engagement, replicating traditional gender differences-girls played more with dolls and domestic items (though at lower rates than typically developing girls) and boys played more with the garage and cars (though at lower rates than typically developing boys). Our findings support the importance and utility of examining sex differences in autism spectrum disorder in light of those observed within typical development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. St. Anselm and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gillian R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the educational principles and methods of the medieval philosopher and theologian, St. Anselm. Educational practices of medieval monastic schools, town schools, private tutors, and pastoral teaching are discussed. Available from: Taylor & Francis Ltd., P.O. Box 9137, Church Street Station, New York, N.Y. 10049. (Author/DB)

  6. TV Viewing Compared to Book Reading and Toy Playing Reduces Responsive Maternal Communication with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Rasmussen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the amount and style of maternal communication with toddlers and preschoolers while mother-child pairs watched TV, read books, and played with toys. We found that mother-child communication was less frequent and less verbally responsive when dyads viewed TV compared with when they read books, and in many cases, when they played…

  7. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1092] Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  8. "This Is Spiderman's Mask." "No, It's Green Goblin's": Shared Meanings during Boys' Pretend Play with Superhero and Generic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Preschool boys' pretense and coconstruction of shared meanings during two play sessions (superhero and generic toys) were investigated with 58 middle-class boys ("M" age = 54.95 mos.). The frequency of dyadic pretense and the coconstruction of shared meanings in the play were coded. The frequency of pretense did not vary across the two…

  9. Narratives and emotions in seniors affected by dementia: a comparative study using a robot and a toy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, P.; Iacono, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in a Care Home with six women affected by dementia. The study focused on storytelling and compared the effect of the seal robot PARO with Sugar, a toy looking like a baby seal, in stimulating the creation of stories either based on personal memories or invented

  10. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toy or other banned article for use by children. 1500.86 Section 1500.86 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and... horizontal plane of the ball when it is suspended by the cord. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is...

  11. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-04-30

    Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n=16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI)>1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory development and field testing of sentinel toys to assess environmental faecal exposure of young children in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torondel, Belen; Gyekye-Aboagye, Yaw; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Schimdt, Wolf; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel toys are increasingly used as a method of assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens in households in low-income settings. However, there is no consensus on the suitability of different approaches. We evaluated three types of toy balls with different surfaces (plastic, rubber, urethane) in the laboratory to compare the uptake of faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) on their surface. We performed bacteria survival analysis under different environmental conditions and tested laboratory methods for bacteria removal and recovery. In a field study we distributed sterile urethane balls to children toys in sterile water, assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and explored associations between the level of contamination and household characteristics. In the laboratory, urethane foam balls took up more indicator bacteria than the other balls. Bacteria recovery did not differ based on mechanic vs no agitation. Higher temperatures and moisture levels increased bacterial yield. In the field, the only factor associated with a decreased recovery of TTC from the balls was having a soil (unpaved) floor. Sentinel toys may be an effective tool for assessing young children's exposure to faecal pathogens. However, even using methods designed to increase bacterial recovery, limited sensitivity may require larger sample sizes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Do you do as I do? Young toddlers prefer and copy toy choices of similarly acting others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing similarity between one's own and others' actions is important for identifying others with whom to affiliate and from whom to learn. In this study, 40 19-month-old toddlers recognized when a puppet chose the same toys as them. Toddlers preferred to affiliate with a puppet who chose the

  15. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  16. Production Of Hollow Toy Product From Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) By Using Casting And Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2013-01-01

    Hollow toy products are very synonym to the child from the age of months since it able to stimulating each of their sense such as sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Most of hollow toy products are made from natural rubber latex by using moulding and casting technique. The moulding and casting technique is a manufacturing process by pored liquid latex into a mould, which contain cavity of the desired shape. The mould made from plaster of Paris able to absorbs water from latex meanwhile the presence of calcium ions from plaster of Paris will tend to diffuse into latex thus promote formation of deposit on surface of cavity mould. To improve the quality and safety of hollow toy product made from latex, Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) has been identified to be used because it can fulfill the standard requirement for latex and also due to its special abilities such as lower modulus (soft latex products), nitrosamines free, low in nitrosatables, free from chemical accelerators induced allergies and better biodegradability. This paper identify the problem appears from the process of making hollow toy products from RVNRL by using moulding and casting technique. (author)

  17. Home-based, early intervention with mechatronic toys for preterm infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (CARETOY): a RCT protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni; Greisen, Gorm; Herskind, Anna; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Sicola, Elisa

    2014-10-15

    Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including motor, cognitive or behavioural problems, which may potentially be modified by early intervention. The EU CareToy Project Consortium (http://www.caretoy.eu) has developed a new modular system for intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention, managed remotely by rehabilitation staff. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of CareToy training in a first sample of low-risk preterm infants. The trial, randomised, multi-center, evaluator-blinded, parallel group controlled, is designed according to CONSORT Statement. Eligible subjects are infants born preterm without major complications, aged 3-9 months of corrected age with specific gross-motor abilities defined by Ages & Stages Questionnaire scores. Recruited infants, whose parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue standard care. Infant Motor Profile Scale is the primary outcome measure and a total sample size of 40 infants has been established. Bayley-Cognitive subscale, Alberta Infants Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards are secondary outcome measures. All measurements will be performed at T0 and at the end of training/control period (T1). For ethical reasons, after this first phase infants enrolled in the control group will perform the CareToy training, while the training group will continue standard care. At the end of open phase (T2) all infants will be assessed as at T1. Further assessment will be performed at 18 months corrected age (T3) to evaluate the long-term effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. Caregivers and rehabilitation staff will not be blinded whereas all the clinical assessments will be performed

  18. Evidence of bad recycling practices: BFRs in children's toys and food-contact articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2017-07-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content. We report semi-quantitative compound specific BFR concentrations to give an overview of the distribution of individual BFRs in the analyzed samples. Finally, we evaluated the correlations between waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) related substances (Ca, Sb and rare earth elements (REEs)) and Br as a proxy for identifying poor sorting practices in different waste streams. 26 samples of toys, food-contact articles and WEEE were analyzed with a suite of different techniques in order to obtain comprehensive information about their elemental and molecular composition. The information obtained from principal component analysis about WEEE-related compounds provides new insights into the influence of sorting practices on the extent of products' contamination and bringing out polymer-related trends in the pollutants' signature. 61% of all samples were Br positive: of these samples, 45% had decaBDE concentrations exceeding the concentration limits for PBDEs and their main constituent polymer was - according to the REE signature of such samples - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), uses of which include copying equipment, laptops and computers. The ability to better track chemicals of concern

  19. Measuring the impact of invasive species on popular culture: a case study based on toy turtles from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) is native to portions of the United States of America (USA) and adjacent northeastern Mexico. The bright and colorful hatchlings have long been popular as pets globally but numerous individuals have been released into the wild establishing populations in areas well outside their native range. As a result, slider turtles are now introduced worldwide on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, and many temperate and tropical islands, including Japan. They are very successful at establishing breeding populations in a variety of habitats, even those in proximity to human development. Once established in large populations, they compete with native turtle species sometimes to the detriment of the latter. Tin toy turtles were popular in Japan for decades, and they were an important export item after World War II. From the 1920s to the 1950s, prior to the widespread establishment of slider populations in Japan, the toys were characterized by muted earth-tone colors representative of native species of Japanese turtles. After the 1950s, toy turtles exhibited brighter combinations of yellow, red and green more typical of slider turtles. This transition may reflect demand for more colorful toys by importing countries like the USA. Alternatively, the change was coincident with the importation of large numbers of colorful slider turtles to Japan via the pet trade and their subsequent establishment and numerical dominance in Japanese wetlands. This switch in toy turtle colors may reflect a cultural transition in awareness of what constitutes the appearance of a typical turtle in Japan. Sliders appear to have been accepted by Japanese consumers as a new cultural norm in the appearance of turtles, a case of art imitating life.

  20. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  1. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental concerns all meet at designer’s desk. Idealistic eco-oriented frameworks such as cradle-to-cradle (C2C) and design-for-disassembly (D4D) suggest inspiration for technical developers and material specialists. This study employs a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to analyze the adequacy...... to potential shortcomings in reverse logistics, a tendency to down-cycle valuable products more than necessary, and a risk of loss of control of reclaimed products in the downstream supply chain. The study suggests an eco-design-inspired framework for improving the marketers understanding and planning...... of greening of the product portfolio based on management of the individual technologies of creative design, mold design, polymers, and supply chain. The study is conducted within plastic toys, but results are applicable to a wide range of durable consumer products....

  2. Introduction to statistical field theory: from a toy model to a one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frydel, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Working with a toy model whose partition function consists of a discrete summation, we introduce the statistical field theory methodology by transforming a partition function via a formal Gaussian integral relation (the Hubbard–Stratonovich transformation). We then consider Gaussian-type approximations, wherein correlational contributions enter as harmonic fluctuations around the saddle-point solution. This work focuses on how to arrive at a self-consistent, non-perturbative approximation without recourse to a standard variational construction based on the Gibbs–Bogolyubov–Feynman inequality that is inapplicable to a complex action. To address this problem, we propose a construction based on selective satisfaction of a set of exact relations generated by considering a dual representation of a partition function, in its original and transformed form. (paper)

  3. Surface state decoherence in loop quantum gravity, a first toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R

    2017-01-01

    The quantum-to-classical transition through decoherence is a major facet of the semi-classical analysis of quantum models that are supposed to admit a classical regime, as quantum gravity should be. A particular problem of interest is the decoherence of black hole horizons and holographic screens induced by the bulk-boundary coupling with interior degrees of freedom. Here in this paper we present a first toy-model, in the context of loop quantum gravity, for the dynamics of a surface geometry as an open quantum system. We discuss the resulting decoherence and recoherence and compare the exact density matrix evolution to the commonly used master equation approximation à la Lindblad underlining its merits and limitations. The prospect of this study is to have a clearer understanding of the boundary decoherence of black hole horizons seen by outside observers. (paper)

  4. Salty popcorn in a homogeneous low-dimensional toy model of holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a homogeneous ansatz has been used to study cold dense nuclear matter in the Sakai–Sugimoto model of holographic QCD. To justify this homogeneous approximation we here investigate a homogeneous ansatz within a low-dimensional toy version of Sakai–Sugimoto to study finite baryon density configurations and compare it to full numerical solutions. We find the ansatz corresponds to enforcing a dyon salt arrangement in which the soliton solutions are split into half-soliton layers. Within this ansatz we find analogues of the proposed baryonic popcorn transitions, in which solutions split into multiple layers in the holographic direction. The homogeneous results are found to qualitatively match the full numerical solutions, lending confidence to the homogeneous approximations of the full Sakai–Sugimoto model. In addition, we find exact compact solutions in the high density, flat space limit which demonstrate the existence of further popcorn transitions to three layers and beyond. (paper)

  5. Propagator with positive cosmological constant in the 3D Euclidean quantum gravity toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, William E; Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We study the propagator on a single tetrahedron in a three-dimensional toy model of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is included in the model via q-deformation of the spatial symmetry algebra, that is, we use the Turaev–Viro amplitude. The expected repulsive effect of dark energy is recovered in numerical and analytic calculations of the propagator at large scales comparable to the infrared cutoff. However, due to the simplicity of the model, we do not obtain the exact Newton limit of the propagator. This is a first step toward the similar calculation in the full 3+1 dimensional theory with larger numbers of simplicies. (paper)

  6. One-neutron transfer reaction: a toy model in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Galilei, Padova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Padova, Italy INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy))" >Moschini, L

    2014-01-01

    A simple 1D toy model to study one-neutron transfer reactions is developed. It is based on the solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation for a particle initially bound by a fixed potential well, perturbed by a second moving potential, which accounts for the second partner of the reaction. At the end of the time evolution it is possible to evaluate the probability of the transfer of the particle from a potential to the other, as well as the transfer to continuum states in the case of weakly-bound systems. Although rather simple, the model accounts for most of the physical characteristics of these kind of reactions: such as the existence of an optimum Q-value and the dependence on the parameters defining the relative motion of the two potentials

  7. No toy for you! The healthy food incentives ordinance: paternalism or consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etow, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    The newest approach to discouraging children's unhealthy eating habits, amidst increasing rates of childhood obesity and other diet-related diseases, seeks to ban something that is not even edible. In 2010, San Francisco enacted the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance, which prohibits toys in kids' meals if the meals do not meet certain nutritional requirements. Notwithstanding the Ordinance's impact on interstate commerce or potential infringement on companies' commercial speech rights and on parents' rights to determine what their children eat, this Comment argues that the Ordinance does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause, the First Amendment, or substantive due process. The irony is that although the Ordinance likely avoids the constitutional hurdles that hindered earlier measures aimed at childhood obesity, it intrudes on civil liberties more than its predecessors. This Comment analyzes the legality of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance to understand its implications on subsequent legislation aimed at combating childhood obesity and on the progression of public health law.

  8. The Einstein action for algebras of matrix valued functions - Toy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajac, P.M.

    1995-10-01

    Two toy models are considered within the framework of noncommutative differential geometry. In the first one, the Einstein action of the Levi-Civita connection is computed for the algebra of matrix valued functions on a torus. It is shown that, assuming some constraints on the metric, this action splits into a classical-like, a quantum-like and a mixed term. In the second model, an analogue of the Palatini method of variation is applied to obtain critical points of the Einstein action functional for M 4 (R). It is pointed out that a solution to the Palatini variational problem is not necessarily a Levi-Civita connection. In this model, no additional assumptions regarding metrics are made. (author). 14 refs

  9. The Einstein action for algebras of matrix valued functions - Toy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajac, P M

    1995-10-01

    Two toy models are considered within the framework of noncommutative differential geometry. In the first one, the Einstein action of the Levi-Civita connection is computed for the algebra of matrix valued functions on a torus. It is shown that, assuming some constraints on the metric, this action splits into a classical-like, a quantum-like and a mixed term. In the second model, an analogue of the Palatini method of variation is applied to obtain critical points of the Einstein action functional for M{sub 4}(R). It is pointed out that a solution to the Palatini variational problem is not necessarily a Levi-Civita connection. In this model, no additional assumptions regarding metrics are made. (author). 14 refs.

  10. Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  11. Effectiveness of a vegetable dental chew on periodontal disease parameters in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Kelman, M; Perkins, N

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen toy breed dogs completed a parallel, 70-day two-period, cross-over design clinical study to determine the effect of a vegetable dental chew on gingivitis, halitosis, plaque, and calculus accumulations. The dogs were randomly assigned into two groups. During one study period the dogs were fed a non-dental dry diet only and during the second study period were fed the same dry diet supplemented by the daily addition of a vegetable dental chew. Daily administration of the dental chew was shown to reduce halitosis, as well as, significantly reduce gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation and therefore may play a significant role in the improvement of canine oral health over the long-term.

  12. A case of child death caused by intestinal volvulus following magnetic toy ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Mieszko; Skrzypek, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    An 8-year boy was admitted to the ER of one of Warsaw's pediatric hospitals with a history of having bloody vomiting the day before. During admission the boy collapsed and lost consciousness. CPR was unsuccessful. On medico-legal autopsy, two foreign objects (small magnetic spheres--0.5 cm in diameter) were found in two different places in the small and large intestines and were notably attracted magnetically one to another. A loop of approximately 1-m length with features of small intestinal hemorrhagic necrosis and small intestinal mechanical obstruction was found. The cause of death was intestinal volvulus and small intestinal mechanical obstruction caused by ingestion of foreign objects (two neodymium magnets). Most likely these small magnetic spheres were part of a popular toy, the safety of which, lately, has been widely discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  14. ST Safety What's on?

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    2001-01-01

    Du premier coup de pioche jusqu'à la mise en place de la tente abritant le buffet offert lors de la cérémonie d'achèvement d'un projet, la division ST est sur les rangs et apporte son savoir faire. Ces projets nombreux et pluridisciplinaires sont étudiés, se réalisent, s'exploitent et font l'objet de maintenance jusqu'à leur démantèlement. Durant leurs cycles de vie, la division ST avance les compétences professionnelles spécifiques à chaque corps de métiers incluant le recours à de nombreux contrats avec des entreprises extérieures pour réaliser les travaux sur les sites du CERN. Pour en conserver la maîtrise, la division ST applique une gestion de projet, une assurance de la qualité et s'attache tout particulièrement à la sécurité, à la réglementation, à la prévention des risques et la gestion de ceux-ci. Sous la supervision du DSO, un ensemble de procédures et de démarches a été développé afin de faciliter les tâches du maître d'ouvrage et des entreprises contractantes, c...

  15. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStStYStY genome constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St 1 St 2 , similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R) 269 . All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St Y . Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St Y . According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  16. ``Models'' CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Statistics, Polls, Politics, Economics, Elections!!!: GRAPH/Network-Physics: ``Equal-Distribution for All'' TRUMP-ED BEC ``Winner-Take-All'' ``Doctor Livingston I Presume?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibus-Norquist, R. N. C.-Grover; Bush-Romney, G. W.-Willard-Mitt; Dimon, J. P.; Adelson-Koch, Sheldon-Charles-David-Sheldon; Krugman-Axelrod, Paul-David; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; D. N. C./O. F. P./''47''%/50% Collaboration; R. N. C./G. O. P./''53''%/49% Collaboration; Nyt/Wp/Cnn/Msnbc/Pbs/Npr/Ft Collaboration; Ftn/Fnc/Fox/Wsj/Fbn Collaboration; Lb/Jpmc/Bs/Boa/Ml/Wamu/S&P/Fitch/Moodys/Nmis Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    ``Models''? CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Goldenfeld[``The Role of Models in Physics'', in Lects.on Phase-Transitions & R.-G.(92)-p.32-33!!!]: statistics(Silver{[NYTimes; Bensinger, ``Math-Geerks Clearly-Defeated Pundits'', LATimes, (11/9/12)])}, polls, politics, economics, elections!!!: GRAPH/network/net/...-PHYSICS Barabasi-Albert[RMP (02)] (r,t)-space VERSUS(???) [Where's the Inverse/ Dual/Integral-Transform???] (Benjamin)Franklin(1795)-Fourier(1795; 1897;1822)-Laplace(1850)-Mellin (1902) Brillouin(1922)-...(k,)-space, {Hubbard [The World According to Wavelets,Peters (96)-p.14!!!/p.246: refs.-F2!!!]},and then (2) Albert-Barabasi[]Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) versus Bianconi[pvt.-comm.; arXiv:cond-mat/0204506; ...] -Barabasi [???] Fermi-Dirac

  17. Investigations on the emission of fragrance allergens from scented toys by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas

    2010-04-30

    In the revised European toy safety directive 2009/48/EC the application of fragrance allergens in children's toys is restricted. The focus of the present work lies on the instrumental analytics of 13 banned fragrance allergens, as well as on 11 fragrance allergens that require declaration when concentrations surpass 100 microg per gram material. Applying a mixture of ethyl acetate and toluene solid/liquid extraction was performed prior to quantitative analysis of mass contents of fragrances in scented toys. In addition, an easy-to-perform method for the determination of emitted fragrances at 23 degrees C (handling conditions) or at 40 degrees C (worst case scenario) has been worked out to allow for the evaluation of potential risks originating from inhalation of these compounds during handling of or playing with toys. For this purpose a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Fragrance allergens were adsorbed (extracted) from the gas phase onto an 85 microm polyacrylate fiber while incubating pieces of the scented toys in sealed headspace vials at 23 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Quantification of compounds was performed via external calibration. The newly developed headspace method was subsequently applied to five perfumed toys. As expected, the emission of fragrance allergens from scented toys depends on the temperature and on the content of fragrance allergens present in those samples. In particular at conditions mimicking worst case (40 degrees C), fragrance allergens in toys may pose a risk to children since considerable amounts of compound might be absorbed by lung tissue via breathing of contaminated air. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Canine toys and training devices as sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A: quantitation of chemicals in leachate and in vitro screening for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2013-11-01

    Chewing and mouthing behaviors exhibited by pet dogs are likely to lead to oral exposures to a variety of environmental chemicals. Products intended for chewing and mouthing uses include toys and training devices that are often made of plastics. The goal of the current study was to determine if a subset of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics, leach out of dog toys and training devices (bumpers) into synthetic canine saliva. In vitro assays were used to screen leachates for endocrine activity. Bumper leachates were dominated by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and BPA, with concentrations reaching low μg mL(-1) following short immersions in synthetic saliva. Simulated chewing of bumpers during immersion in synthetic saliva increased concentrations of phthalates and BPA as compared to new bumpers, while outdoor storage had variable effects on concentrations (increased DEHP; decreased BPA). Toys leached substantially lower concentrations of phthalates and BPA, with the exception of one toy which leached considerable amounts of diethyl phthalate. In vitro assays indicated anti-androgenic activity of bumper leachates, and estrogenic activity of both bumper and toy leachates. These results confirm that toys and training devices are potential sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in pet dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of the effects of brief rules, a timer, and preferred toys on self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control.

  20. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF BRIEF RULES, A TIMER, AND PREFERRED TOYS ON SELF-CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Matthew H; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    Some children make impulsive choices (i.e., choose a small but immediate reinforcer over a large but delayed reinforcer). Previous research has shown that delay fading, providing an alternative activity during the delay, teaching participants to repeat a rule during the delay, combining delay fading with an alternative activity, and combining delay fading with a countdown timer are effective for increasing self-control (i.e., choosing the large but delayed reinforcer over the small but immediate reinforcer). The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of various interventions in the absence of delay fading (i.e., providing brief rules, providing a countdown timer during the delay, or providing preferred toys during the delay) on self-control. Results suggested that providing brief rules or a countdown timer during the delay was ineffective for enhancing self-control. However, providing preferred toys during the delay effectively enhanced self-control. PMID:23060664

  1. From donation to self-reflection: living of volunteers of a toy library for children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Pugliero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand what it means to be a volunteer in a cancer-affected children care unit´s toy library, located within the state of São Paulo. Method: Phenomenological study based on the assumptions related to the analysis of the stated phenomenon's structure, with eleven volunteers to be interviewed upon a guiding question: "What does it feel like to be a volunteer in a toy library used by children with cancer?". Results: From the volunteer's answers, three theme categories arose: self-oriented relations, group-oriented relations and world-oriented relations. Conclusion and implications for practice: Being a volunteer embraces diverse relationships that contribute to the self-knowledge of the individual, making it possible to review concepts, beliefs, values, according to the new times in which we live There is a need for volunteer empowerment for work as well as mental health care. Nurses play a fundamental role in this context.

  2. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children’s Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background EDUCERE (“Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders”) is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. Objective This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). Methods The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Results Judges were highly reliable in an interrater

  3. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children's Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez García, María Angeles; Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Rivera, Diego; Vadillo, Laura; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-19

    EDUCERE ("Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders") is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. Thirty multidisciplinary professionals and three nursery schools worked in the EDUCERE project between 2014 and 2017 and they obtained satisfactory results. Related to EDUCERE, we found studies based on providing networks of connected smart objects and the interaction between toys and social networks. This research includes the design, implementation, and validation of an EDUCERE smart toy aimed to automatically detect delays in psychomotor development. The results from initial tests led to enhancing the effectiveness of the original design and deployment. The smart toy, based on stackable cubes, has a data collector module and a smart system for detection of developmental delays, called the EDUCERE developmental delay screening system (DDSS). The pilot study involved 65 toddlers aged between 23 and 37 months (mean=29.02, SD 3.81) who built a tower with five stackable cubes, designed by following the EDUCERE smart toy model. As toddlers made the tower, sensors in the cubes sent data to a collector module through a wireless connection. All trials were video-recorded for further analysis by child development experts. After watching the videos, experts scored the performance of the trials to compare and fine-tune the interpretation of the data automatically gathered by the toy-embedded sensors. Judges were highly reliable in an interrater agreement analysis (intraclass correlation 0

  4. Communication from ST Group

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In order to prepare the organization of the Open Days, please note that FM Group will not able to take into account either specific requests for waste collection from 2nd to 6th of April, either removal or PC transport requests between the 31st and the 11th of March. We kindly ask you to plan the collection of any type of waste and the urgent transport of office furniture or PC before the 31st of March. Waste collection requests shall be formulated contacting FM Support at 77777 or at the email address mailto:Fm.Support@cern.ch; removal of office furniture or PC transport requests must be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form selecting the "Removals" or the "PC transport" category from the drop-down menu. For any question concerning the waste sorting, please consult the following web address: http://dechets-waste.web.cern.ch/dechets-waste/. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. TS/FM Group

  5. The role of spatial topology in a toy model of classical electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the role of spatial topology in a toy model of classical electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions. The model describes a collection of Newtonian point particles coupled to a pair of scalar fields E(t,x) and B(t,x), which mediate forces between the particles and support freely propagating radiation. We formulate the model on both a line and a circle, and show that the behavior of the model strongly depends on the choice of spatial topology.

  6. Threads: theory of Vygotsky to learning processes and child development in early childhood education mediated by toy construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Reina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objectivity to point out some of the threads of the cultural historical theory of Vygotsky partner to the process of learning and development of children in early childhood education mediated by the construction of toys and games. In this direction, looking to approach the foundations of this theory in order to internalize the reader in his work in search of reflections and readings on the theme proposed here.

  7. Sony PlayStation EyeToy elicits higher levels of movement than the Nintendo Wii: implications for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, A; Ens, S; Pelletier, R; Jarus, T; Rand, D

    2013-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging trend in stroke rehabilitation. VR gaming consoles in stroke intervention have been shown to increase motivation and enjoyment during exercise. The amount and intensity of movements elicited using these consoles are unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the amount and intensity of movement elicited from both hands of two groups of individuals ([chronic stroke and without a disability [healthy]); (2) to determine the effect of console (Wii/EyeToy) and group (stroke/healthy) on the amount and intensity of upper extremity movement; (3) to determine the effect of console (Wii/EyeToy) and group (stroke/healthy) on the usability and VR experience. A cross-sectional design was taken. Outpatient rehabilitation setting and healthy participant's homes. Participants included ten adults with stroke and ten adults without a disability. Participants experienced two games from each console. Amount and intensity of movement was measured using accelerometers on both wrists, while the virtual experience and usability was determined with questionnaires. No significant differences were found between the consoles usability and experience. EyeToy elicited significantly greater activity count than Wii among the healthy participants (P=0.028) and significantly greater movement intensity in both the stroke (P=0.005) and healthy (P=0.005) groups. Both consoles rated high for usability, enjoyment and satisfaction highlighting their suitability for a range of individuals in stroke rehabilitation. EyeToy provides increased movement and movement intensity. Both consoles are suitable for use in stroke rehabilitation however this information can be helpful to clinicians while selecting a gaming console according to the type and intensity of movements that he/she aims to encourage during therapy.

  8. Effect of cleaning and disinfection of toys on infectious diseases and micro-organisms in daycare nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibfelt, T; Engelund, E H; Schultz, A C; Andersen, L P

    2015-02-01

    The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites with the highest pathogen load, but their role in disease transmission is unknown. To determine if washing and disinfection of toys can reduce sickness absence and microbial pathogen load in the nursery environment. Twelve nurseries (caring for 587 children) were randomized to intervention and control groups. The intervention consisted of washing and disinfection of toys and linen every two weeks for three months by a commercial cleaning company. The extent and causes of sickness absence among the children were recorded in both groups before and after introduction of the intervention. Ten sampling points in each nursery were examined for bacteria and respiratory viruses. The presence of respiratory virus DNA/RNA was widespread, but very few pathogenic bacteria were found in the environment. The intervention reduced the presence of adenovirus [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.0], rhinovirus (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.3-12.4) and respiratory syncytial virus (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.5-11.2) compared with the control group, but the intervention had no effect on sickness absence or disease patterns in the nurseries. Although cleaning and disinfection of toys every two weeks can decrease the microbial load in nurseries, it does not appear to reduce sickness absence among nursery children. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parametric decadal climate forecast recalibration (DeFoReSt 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasternack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-term climate predictions such as decadal climate forecasts are increasingly being used to guide adaptation measures. For near-term probabilistic predictions to be useful, systematic errors of the forecasting systems have to be corrected. While methods for the calibration of probabilistic forecasts are readily available, these have to be adapted to the specifics of decadal climate forecasts including the long time horizon of decadal climate forecasts, lead-time-dependent systematic errors (drift and the errors in the representation of long-term changes and variability. These features are compounded by small ensemble sizes to describe forecast uncertainty and a relatively short period for which typically pairs of reforecasts and observations are available to estimate calibration parameters. We introduce the Decadal Climate Forecast Recalibration Strategy (DeFoReSt, a parametric approach to recalibrate decadal ensemble forecasts that takes the above specifics into account. DeFoReSt optimizes forecast quality as measured by the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS. Using a toy model to generate synthetic forecast observation pairs, we demonstrate the positive effect on forecast quality in situations with pronounced and limited predictability. Finally, we apply DeFoReSt to decadal surface temperature forecasts from the MiKlip prototype system and find consistent, and sometimes considerable, improvements in forecast quality compared with a simple calibration of the lead-time-dependent systematic errors.

  10. Parametric decadal climate forecast recalibration (DeFoReSt 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Alexander; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark A.; Rust, Henning W.; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Near-term climate predictions such as decadal climate forecasts are increasingly being used to guide adaptation measures. For near-term probabilistic predictions to be useful, systematic errors of the forecasting systems have to be corrected. While methods for the calibration of probabilistic forecasts are readily available, these have to be adapted to the specifics of decadal climate forecasts including the long time horizon of decadal climate forecasts, lead-time-dependent systematic errors (drift) and the errors in the representation of long-term changes and variability. These features are compounded by small ensemble sizes to describe forecast uncertainty and a relatively short period for which typically pairs of reforecasts and observations are available to estimate calibration parameters. We introduce the Decadal Climate Forecast Recalibration Strategy (DeFoReSt), a parametric approach to recalibrate decadal ensemble forecasts that takes the above specifics into account. DeFoReSt optimizes forecast quality as measured by the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS). Using a toy model to generate synthetic forecast observation pairs, we demonstrate the positive effect on forecast quality in situations with pronounced and limited predictability. Finally, we apply DeFoReSt to decadal surface temperature forecasts from the MiKlip prototype system and find consistent, and sometimes considerable, improvements in forecast quality compared with a simple calibration of the lead-time-dependent systematic errors.

  11. Analysis and Assessment of Exposure to Selected Phthalates Found in Children’s Toys in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew James Ashworth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally several phthalates are subject to regulatory control regarding maximum allowable concentrations in children’s toys. Such regulation is not in place in New Zealand. Phthalates have been associated with developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption. We determined the concentration of seven phthalates in children’s toys purchased in Christchurch, New Zealand. These results provided data for an exposure assessment deriving Hazard Indices (HI for oral and dermal exposure routes in children, based on the concentration of mixtures of phthalates shown by the EU to produce either reproductive/developmental or hepatotoxic effects. Of the 49 toys analyzed, 65% contained at least one phthalate at a concentration of >0.1% by mass; and 35% contained multiple-phthalates at individual concentrations of >0.1%. A HI of 3.4 was derived for the combined exposures to the four phthalates associated with reproductive and developmental effects. A HI of 0.3 was derived for the group of phthalates associated with hepatotoxic effects. Five phthalates were detected at levels exceeding the EU regulatory limit of 0.1% by mass. Risk assessment calculations indicate that, using realistic exposure scenarios, the worst-case combined exposure to phthalates associated with developmental toxicity exceeded a HI of 1 so may cause adverse developmental effects.

  12. Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  13. Preliminary studies of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Santos, Dario; Nunes, Lidiane C.; Leme, Flavio O.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Agnelli, Jose A.M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Krug, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) for the determination of Ba, Cd, Cr and Pb in toys has been evaluated by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with intensified charge-coupled device detector. Samples were purchased in different cities of Sao Paulo State market and analyzed directly without sample preparation. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry experimental conditions (number of pulses, delay time, integration time gate and pulse energy) were optimized by using a Doehlert design. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry signals correlated reasonably well with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) concentrations after microwave-assisted acid digestion of selected samples. Thermal analysis was used for polymer identification and scanning electron microscopy to visualize differences in crater geometry of different polymers employed for toy fabrication. Results indicate that laser-induced breakdown spectrometry can be proposed as a rapid screening method for investigation of potentially toxic elements in toys. The unique application of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for identification of contaminants in successive layers of ink and polymer is also demonstrated.

  14. Care staff perceptions of a social robot called Paro and a look-alike Plush Toy: a descriptive qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Bramble, Marguerite; Jones, Cindy; Murfield, Jenny

    2018-03-01

    Social robots such as Paro, a therapeutic companion robot, have recently been introduced into dementia care as a means to reduce behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. The purpose of this study was to explore care staff perceptions of Paro and a look-alike non-robotic animal, including benefits and limitations in dementia care. The study assumed a descriptive qualitative approach, nested within a large cluster-randomised controlled trial. We interviewed a subsample of 20 facility care staff, from nine long-term care facilities in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data, which was inductive and data-driven, was undertaken with the assistance of the qualitative software, ATLAS.ti®. The findings refer to four categories: increasing excitement for Paro and decreasing enthusiasm for Plush Toy; value and function of Paro; opportunities for engagement; and alternatives vs. robustness. Staff caring for people with dementia preferred Paro compared to a look-alike Plush Toy. Staff identified that Paro had the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia, whereas the Plush Toy had limitations when compared to Paro. However, participants expressed concern that the cost of Paro could reduce opportunities for use within aged care.

  15. Game Analysis, Validation, and Potential Application of EyeToy Play and Play 2 to Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and analyze the potential use of games in the commercially available EyeToy Play and EyeToy Play 2 on required/targeted training skills and feedback provided for clinical application. Methods. A summary table including all games was created. Two movement experts naïve to the software validated required/targeted training skills and feedback for 10 randomly selected games. Ten healthy school-aged children played to further validate the required/targeted training skills. Results. All but two (muscular and cardiovascular endurance had excellent agreement in required/targeted training skills, and there was 100% agreement on feedback. Children’s performance in required/targeted training skills (number of unilateral reaches and bilateral reaches, speed, muscular endurance, and cardiovascular endurance significantly differed between games (P<.05. Conclusion. EyeToy Play games could be used to train children’s arm function. However, a careful evaluation of the games is needed since performance might not be consistent between players and therapists’ interpretation.

  16. Effect of cleaning and disinfection of toys on infectious diseases and micro-organisms in daycare nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Engelund, E. H.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites with the......Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites...... with the highest pathogen load, but their role in disease transmission is unknown. Aim: To determine if washing and disinfection of toys can reduce sickness absence and microbial pathogen load in the nursery environment. Methods: Twelve nurseries (caring for 587 children) were randomized to intervention...... sampling points in each nursery were examined for bacteria and respiratory viruses. Results: The presence of respiratory virus DNA/RNA was widespread, but very few pathogenic bacteria were found in the environment. The intervention reduced the presence of adenovirus [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence...

  17. Spekkens’ toy model in all dimensions and its relationship with stabiliser quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Lorenzo; E Browne, Dan

    2017-07-01

    Spekkens’ toy model is a non-contextual hidden variable model with an epistemic restriction, a constraint on what an observer can know about reality. The aim of the model, developed for continuous and discrete prime degrees of freedom, is to advocate the epistemic view of quantum theory, where quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge about a deeper underlying reality. Many aspects of quantum mechanics and protocols from quantum information can be reproduced in the model. In spite of its significance, a number of aspects of Spekkens’ model remained incomplete. Formal rules for the update of states after measurement had not been written down, and the theory had only been constructed for prime-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. In this work, we remedy this, by deriving measurement update rules and extending the framework to derive models in all dimensions, both prime and non-prime. Stabiliser quantum mechanics (SQM) is a sub-theory of quantum mechanics with restricted states, transformations and measurements. First derived for the purpose of constructing error correcting codes, it now plays a role in many areas of quantum information theory. Previously, it had been shown that Spekkens’ model was operationally equivalent to SQM in the case of odd prime dimensions. Here, exploiting known results on Wigner functions, we extend this to show that Spekkens’ model is equivalent to SQM in all odd dimensions, prime and non-prime. This equivalence provides new technical tools for the study of technically difficult compound-dimensional SQM.

  18. Holographic quantum error-correcting codes: toy models for the bulk/boundary correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni [Institute for Quantum Information & Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Harlow, Daniel [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University,400 Jadwin Hall, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States); Preskill, John [Institute for Quantum Information & Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-23

    We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an isometry from the bulk Hilbert space to the boundary Hilbert space. The entire tensor network is an encoder for a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindler-wedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2015)163.

  19. One of several 'toys' for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-11-01

    This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar 'vapor' delivery devices among young adults in New York City. We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more 'toy' among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Living on the edge: a toy model for holographic reconstruction of algebras with centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, William; Marolf, Donald; Michel, Ben; Wien, Jason [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2017-04-18

    We generalize the Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) holographic quantum error-correcting code to provide a toy model for bulk gauge fields or linearized gravitons. The key new elements are the introduction of degrees of freedom on the links (edges) of the associated tensor network and their connection to further copies of the HaPPY code by an appropriate isometry. The result is a model in which boundary regions allow the reconstruction of bulk algebras with central elements living on the interior edges of the (greedy) entanglement wedge, and where these central elements can also be reconstructed from complementary boundary regions. In addition, the entropy of boundary regions receives both Ryu-Takayanagi-like contributions and further corrections that model the ((δArea)/(4G{sub N})) term of Faulkner, Lewkowycz, and Maldacena. Comparison with Yang-Mills theory then suggests that this ((δArea)/(4G{sub N})) term can be reinterpreted as a part of the bulk entropy of gravitons under an appropriate extension of the physical bulk Hilbert space.

  1. Supervariable Approach to the Nilpotent Symmetries for a Toy Model of the Hodge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Bhanja, T.; Shukla, D.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the standard techniques of the supervariable approach to derive the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for a toy model of the Hodge theory (i.e., a rigid rotor) and provide the geometrical meaning and interpretation to them. Furthermore, we also derive the nilpotent (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for this theory within the framework of the above supervariable approach. We capture the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST invariance of the Lagrangian of our present theory within the framework of augmented supervariable formalism. We also express the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges in terms of the supervariables (obtained after the application of the (dual-)horizontality conditions and (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST invariant restrictions) to provide the geometrical interpretations for their nilpotency and anticommutativity properties. The application of the dual-horizontality condition and ensuing proper (i.e., nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting) fermionic (anti-)co-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  2. Inducing self-organized criticality in a network toy model by neighborhood assortativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Perkins, Alfonso; Galeano, Javier; Pastor, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Complex networks are a recent type of framework used to study complex systems with many interacting elements, such as self-organized criticality (SOC). The network nodes' tendency to link to other nodes of similar type is characterized by assortative mixing. Real networks exhibit assortative mixing by vertex degree, however, typical random network models, such as the Erdős-Rényi or the Barabási-Albert model, show no assortative arrangements. In this paper we introduce the notion of neighborhood assortativity as the tendency of a node to belong to a community (its neighborhood) showing an average property similar to its own. Imposing neighborhood assortative mixing by degree in a network toy model, SOC dynamics can be found. These dynamics are driven only by the network topology. The long-range correlations resulting from criticality have been characterized by means of fluctuation analysis and show an anticorrelation in the node's activity. The model contains only one parameter and its statistics plots for different values of the parameter can be collapsed into a single curve. The simplicity of the model allows us to perform numerical simulations and also to study analytically the statistics for a specific value of the parameter, making use of the Markov chains.

  3. Analysis of Underactuated Dynamic Locomotion Systems Using Perturbation Expansion: The Twistcar Toy Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakon, Ofir; Or, Yizhar

    2017-08-01

    Underactuated robotic locomotion systems are commonly represented by nonholonomic constraints where in mixed systems, these constraints are also combined with momentum evolution equations. Such systems have been analyzed in the literature by exploiting symmetries and utilizing advanced geometric methods. These works typically assume that the shape variables are directly controlled, and obtain the system's solutions only via numerical integration. In this work, we demonstrate utilization of the perturbation expansion method for analyzing a model example of mixed locomotion system—the twistcar toy vehicle, which is a variant of the well-studied roller-racer model. The system is investigated by assuming small-amplitude oscillatory inputs of either steering angle (kinematic) or steering torque (mechanical), and explicit expansions for the system's solutions under both types of actuation are obtained. These expressions enable analyzing the dependence of the system's dynamic behavior on the vehicle's structural parameters and actuation type. In particular, we study the reversal in direction of motion under steering angle oscillations about the unfolded configuration, as well as influence of the choice of actuation type on convergence properties of the motion. Some of the findings are demonstrated qualitatively by reporting preliminary motion experiments with a modular robotic prototype of the vehicle.

  4. Living on the edge: a toy model for holographic reconstruction of algebras with centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, William; Marolf, Donald; Michel, Ben; Wien, Jason

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the Pastawski-Yoshida-Harlow-Preskill (HaPPY) holographic quantum error-correcting code to provide a toy model for bulk gauge fields or linearized gravitons. The key new elements are the introduction of degrees of freedom on the links (edges) of the associated tensor network and their connection to further copies of the HaPPY code by an appropriate isometry. The result is a model in which boundary regions allow the reconstruction of bulk algebras with central elements living on the interior edges of the (greedy) entanglement wedge, and where these central elements can also be reconstructed from complementary boundary regions. In addition, the entropy of boundary regions receives both Ryu-Takayanagi-like contributions and further corrections that model the ((δArea)/(4G N )) term of Faulkner, Lewkowycz, and Maldacena. Comparison with Yang-Mills theory then suggests that this ((δArea)/(4G N )) term can be reinterpreted as a part of the bulk entropy of gravitons under an appropriate extension of the physical bulk Hilbert space.

  5. Tyng Toy, 1949. Resonancias desde los inicios de una pionera desconocida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juárez Chicote

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anne Griswold Tyng (1920-2011, una de las primeras mujeres que estudia en la GSD de Harvard y coautora con Louis I. Kahn del proyecto de la City Tower –entre otras obras–, desarrolla —y patenta en 1949— el proyecto de un pequeño juguete de madera contrachapada cuyas piezas, organizadas en combinaciones diferentes, pueden ensamblarse formando objetos muy diversos. El proyecto, conocido como Tyng Toy, anticipa el pensamiento investigador de su autora sobre la geometría como “principio de la forma” y condensa las inquietudes de la época y el nuevo sueño de la arquitectura americana tras la segunda guerra mundial. El juguete manifiesta una particular visión del papel del arquitecto como educador social y transformador del medio que le rodea y más allá de la necesidad de reconstrucción que reinaba en los años de posguerra, trasciende los imperativos del momento para hablarnos de otra necesidad paralela y universal: la de reconstruir el universo lúdico, imaginario, educativo y proyectual del ser humano. El pequeño conjunto de cinco piezas de madera, como metáfora simbólica, nos habla de un mundo que es también el nuestro: complejo y ramificado, pedagógico y abierto, y en su planteamiento —sintético e intenso— abarca resonancias universales y profundas.

  6. Histological characterization of dilated cardiomyopathy in the juvenile toy Manchester terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, C H; López, A; Hanna, P; Côté, E; Hare, E; Martinson, S A

    2013-11-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the dog, most often occurs in certain breeds. The objective of this study was to describe a rapidly progressive form of DCM that has been recently recognized in juvenile Toy Manchester Terrier dogs (TMTs). The clinical history and gross findings were reviewed in a group of 14 TMTs, and histologic sections of heart were examined in 12 of those 14 TMTs with DCM. Histochemical and histomorphometric analyses were employed to compare the heart in TMTs affected by DCM with that of control dogs. TMTs ranged in age from 10 to 58.3 weeks, with males and females being equally affected. Affected TMT hearts contained foci of degeneration and loss of myofibers with fibrosis and mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Less prominent features included foci of acute myofiber degeneration and necrosis with or without intralesional mineralization and mild to moderate suppurative and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Morphometric quantification demonstrated that the right ventricle was more severely affected (P ≤ .05) than the left ventricle with variable involvement of the interventricular septum. Immunohistochemistry for canine parvovirus was negative in all heart samples. However, the absence of parvoviral antigen does not rule out a possible viral or autoimmune cause. The presence of these myocardial lesions among closely related dogs suggests a genetic contribution to this disease process in the TMT.

  7. From 'Hard' Neuro-Tools to 'Soft' Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage. This new stage concerns those technologies that enter the market as ostensibly harmless contrivances that consumers may use for self-care or entertainment. We use the examples and arguments of participants in NERRI debates to describe three case studies of such purportedly innocent 'toys'. Based upon this empirical material, we argue that these 'soft' enhancement gadgets are situated somewhere in the boundary zone between the internal and the external, between the intimate and the intrusive, between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the friendly and the scary and, in Foucauldian terms, between technologies of the self and technologies of control. Therefore, we describe their physiognomy with the help of a term borrowed from Jacques Lacan, namely as "extimate" technologies.

  8. The terminator "toy" chemistry test: a simple tool to assess errors in transport schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Lauritzen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This test extends the evaluation of transport schemes from prescribed advection of inert scalars to reactive species. The test consists of transporting two interacting chemical species in the Nair and Lauritzen 2-D idealized flow field. The sources and sinks for these two species are given by a simple, but non-linear, "toy" chemistry that represents combination (X + X → X2 and dissociation (X2 → X + X. This chemistry mimics photolysis-driven conditions near the solar terminator, where strong gradients in the spatial distribution of the species develop near its edge. Despite the large spatial variations in each species, the weighted sum XT = X + 2X2 should always be preserved at spatial scales at which molecular diffusion is excluded. The terminator test demonstrates how well the advection–transport scheme preserves linear correlations. Chemistry–transport (physics–dynamics coupling can also be studied with this test. Examples of the consequences of this test are shown for illustration.

  9. Metastable vacuum decay and θ dependence in gauge theory. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoonah, Amit; Thomas, Evan, E-mail: zucchini@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2015-01-15

    We study a number of different ingredients related to the θ dependence, metastable excited vacuum states and other related subjects using a simplified version of QCD, the so-called “deformed QCD”. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which, however, preserves all the relevant essential elements allowing us to study hard and nontrivial features which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Our main focus in this work is to test the ideas related to the metastable vacuum states (which are known to be present in strongly coupled QCD in large N limit) in a theoretically controllable manner using the “deformed QCD” as a toy model. We explicitly show how the metastable states emerge in the system, why their lifetime is large, and why these metastable states must be present in the system for the self-consistency of the entire picture of the QCD vacuum. We also speculate on possible relevance of the metastable vacuum states in explanation of the violation of local P and CP symmetries in heavy ion collisions.

  10. Metastable vacuum decay and θ dependence in gauge theory. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoonah, Amit; Thomas, Evan; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2015-01-01

    We study a number of different ingredients related to the θ dependence, metastable excited vacuum states and other related subjects using a simplified version of QCD, the so-called “deformed QCD”. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which, however, preserves all the relevant essential elements allowing us to study hard and nontrivial features which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Our main focus in this work is to test the ideas related to the metastable vacuum states (which are known to be present in strongly coupled QCD in large N limit) in a theoretically controllable manner using the “deformed QCD” as a toy model. We explicitly show how the metastable states emerge in the system, why their lifetime is large, and why these metastable states must be present in the system for the self-consistency of the entire picture of the QCD vacuum. We also speculate on possible relevance of the metastable vacuum states in explanation of the violation of local P and CP symmetries in heavy ion collisions

  11. Spekkens’ toy model in all dimensions and its relationship with stabiliser quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, Lorenzo; Browne, Dan E

    2017-01-01

    Spekkens’ toy model is a non-contextual hidden variable model with an epistemic restriction, a constraint on what an observer can know about reality. The aim of the model, developed for continuous and discrete prime degrees of freedom, is to advocate the epistemic view of quantum theory, where quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge about a deeper underlying reality. Many aspects of quantum mechanics and protocols from quantum information can be reproduced in the model. In spite of its significance, a number of aspects of Spekkens’ model remained incomplete. Formal rules for the update of states after measurement had not been written down, and the theory had only been constructed for prime-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. In this work, we remedy this, by deriving measurement update rules and extending the framework to derive models in all dimensions, both prime and non-prime. Stabiliser quantum mechanics (SQM) is a sub-theory of quantum mechanics with restricted states, transformations and measurements. First derived for the purpose of constructing error correcting codes, it now plays a role in many areas of quantum information theory. Previously, it had been shown that Spekkens’ model was operationally equivalent to SQM in the case of odd prime dimensions. Here, exploiting known results on Wigner functions, we extend this to show that Spekkens’ model is equivalent to SQM in all odd dimensions, prime and non-prime. This equivalence provides new technical tools for the study of technically difficult compound-dimensional SQM. (paper)

  12. ACHP | News | St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed St redevelopment of the St. Elizabeths West Campus, which is part of the St. Elizabeths National Historic Landmark this project, due to the historic significance of the NHL. GSA's client for the St. Elizabeths

  13. DETERMINATION OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP, BENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE (BBP AND BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP IN SOFT PLASTIC TOYS AND THE FIRST SURVEY OF THE BULGARIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina CHRISTOVA-BAGDASSARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a large group of compounds with similar chemical structure widely used as plasticizers for plastics. They can easily be released from the polymer during usage and in this way enter the human body. Their adverse effect on health is known as "phthalate syndrome" and can impact children and adults alike. For children in particular, there is an additional potential risk of exposure to phthalates via toys intended for oral use. The Regulation (EC No 1907/2006 (REACH prohibits the use of bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, di butyl phthalate (DBP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP as a substance or constituent of preparations at concentrations higher than 0.1 % in the plasticized material meant to toys and childcare items. The aim of this article is to quantify the content of DEHP, DBP and BBP in soft toys intended for children up to 3 years of age, including toys designed to be placed in the mouth. A method consisting of an extraction procedure of phthalates from polymers, purification of the extract, followed by GC/MS identification and quantification was validated. Three different techniques for phthalates’ extraction (Soxhlet, ultrasonic and vibrator were compared and the most effective one was chosen.This method was applied to the analysis of DEHP, DBP and BBP in soft toys from the Bulgarian market to establish their compliance with REACH requirements. All the tested toys contained at least one phthalate. Exceedence of the permitted content for DEHP, DBP and BBP (as sume, mainly due to the high levels of DEHP, was observed in several toys from retail.

  14. Assessment of toxic and endocrine potential of substances migrating from selected toys and baby products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Natalia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Kudłak, Błażej

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of literature data shows that there is limited information about the harmful biological effects of mixture of compounds from the EDC group that are released from the surface of toys and objects intended for children and infants. One of the tools that can be used to obtain such information is appropriate bioanalytical tests. The aim of this research involved determining whether tests that use living organisms as an active element (Vibrio fischeri-Microtox®, Heterocypris incongruens-Ostrocodtoxkit F™ and the XenoScreen YES/YAS™ test of oestrogenic/androgenic activity) can be a tool for estimating the combined toxic effects induced by xenobiotics released from objects intended for children. To reproduce the conditions to which objects are exposed during their use, liquids with a composition corresponding to that of human bodily fluids (artificial sweat and saliva) were used. This research focused on the main parameters influencing the intensification of the migration process (temperature, contact time and composition of the extraction mixture). The studies aimed to estimate the endocrine potential of the extracts showed that compounds released from the surface of studied objects exhibit antagonistic androgenic activity. While on the basis of the results of Microtox® test, one can state that the largest quantity of toxic compounds are released in the first 2 h of using the object. The FTIR spectra analyses confirmed that no degradation of polymeric material took place. On the basis of the results obtained, it was unanimously concluded that contact of the object with bodily fluids may result in the release of a large number of xenobiotics, which has disadvantageous effects on the metabolic processes of the indicator organisms.

  15. Commercial TV exposure, fast-food toy collecting and family visits to fast food restaurants among families living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, prestaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362

  16. Homozygosity of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' region of the canine estrogen receptor 1 gene is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Indunil N; Tanaka, Kakeru; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tsuji, Makoto; Hatoya, Shingo; Inaba, Toshio; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2011-06-01

    Differences in the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) were examined in Miniature Dachshunds (n = 48), Chihuahuas (n = 20) and Toy Poodles (n = 18). Five DNA fragments located in the 40-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were directly sequenced. We compared allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies at each SNP in the 3' end of ESR1 for these three breeds of small dog. The frequency of the major allele and the genotype frequency of the major allele homozygotes, were significantly higher in Toy Poodles for five SNPs (SNP #5, #14-17) than in Miniature Dachshunds, and significantly higher in Toy Poodles than Chihuahuas for three SNPs (SNP #15-17). A common haplotype block was identified in an approximately 20-kb region encompassing four SNPs (SNPs # 14-17). The frequencies of the most abundant estimated haplotype (GTTG) and GTTG homozygotes were significantly higher in Toy Poodles than in the other two breeds. These results imply that homozygosity for the allele, genotype and haplotype distribution within the block at the 3' end of ESR1 is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Proposal of a new model to improve the collection of small WEEE: a pilot project for the recovery and recycling of toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Miquel; Watson, Jenna; Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere

    2012-11-01

    A new collection model was designed and tested in Catalonia (Spain) to foster the separate collection and recycling of electrical and electronic toys, with the participation of selected primary and secondary schools, as well as waste collection points and municipalities. This project approach is very original and important because small household WEEE has low rates of collection (16-21% WEEE within the EU or 5-7% WEEE in Spain) and no research on new approaches to enhance the collection of small WEEE is found in the literature. The project was successful in achieving enhanced toys collection and recycling rates, which went up from the national Spanish average of 0.5% toys before the project to 1.9 and 6% toys during the two project years, respectively. The environmental benefits of the campaign were calculated through a life-cycle approach, accounting for the avoided impact afforded by the reuse of the toys and the recycling of the valuable materials contained therein (such as metals, batteries and circuit boards) and subtracting the additional environmental burdens associated with the establishment of the collection campaign.

  18. Teknisk Ståbi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teknisk Ståbi er de bygningsprojekterendes og entreprenørers håndbog. Den dækker matematik, fysik, statestik, laster og sikkerhed samt beggematerialerne: beton, stål, træ, murværk, letbeton, glas og endelig fundering. Denne udgave er en næsten totalrevision, baseret på de nye Eurocodes, der afløs...

  19. O brincar e os brinquedos nos conflitos entre crianças Play, toys and children's conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sager

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou 77 episódios de conflito, envolvendo 18 crianças de 3 a 4 anos de uma pré-escola pública de Porto Alegre. Considerou-se o gênero das crianças, o contexto onde aconteciam os conflitos (pátio ou sala, os tipos de brinquedos e brincadeiras presentes nos episódios de conflito. Os dados foram registrados com câmeras VHS e notas de campo e tratados através da Análise de Correspondência e de Resíduos. Os resultados indicaram que os conflitos envolvendo brincadeiras simbólicas ocorreram mais na sala de aula e entre meninos, enquanto meninas conflituaram mais quando brincavam com jogos de acoplagem. Grupos formados por meninos e meninas conflitaram mais quando a brincadeira envolvia regras. Brinquedos orientados para adultos relacionaram-se mais com conflitos quando os grupos eram mistos, enquanto brinquedos orientados para crianças, quando os grupos eram formados somente por meninos. No caso das meninas nenhuma associação foi evidenciada ao tipo de brinquedo.This study investigated 77 conflict episodes, involving 3 to 4 year-olds enrolled in a public preschool in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Children's gender, the context in which conflicts occurred (playground or classroom, types of toys and of play activities involved in conflict episodes were considered. Data were registered through video recording and field notes and were analyzed using Analysis of Correspondence and of Residues. Results indicated that while conflicts involving symbolic play occurred more often in the classroom and among boys, girls showed a greater number of conflicts when playing with blocks. Rule-based play showed conflicts more often when groups were mixed. While adult oriented toys related with conflicts in mixed groups, child oriented toys occurred more frequently in groups of boys only. No association was found between girls and type of toys used during conflict episodes.

  20. ACRR fission product release tests: ST-1 and ST-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Stockman, H.W.; Reil, K.O.; Grimley, A.J.; Camp, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments (ST-1 and ST-2) have been performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) to obtain time-resolved data on the release of fission products from irradiated fuels under light water reactor (LWR) severe accident conditions. Both experiments were conducted in a highly reducing environment at maximum fuel temperatures of greater than 2400 K. These experiments were designed specifically to investigate the effect of increased total pressure on fission product release; ST-1 was performed at approximately 0.16 MPa and ST-2 was run at 1.9 MPa, whereas other parameters were matched as closely as possible. Release rate data were measured for Cs, I, Ba, Sr, Eu, Te, and U. The release rates were higher than predicted by existing codes for Ba, Sr, Eu, and U. Te release was very low, but Te did not appear to be sequestered by the zircaloy cladding; it was evenly distributed in the fuel. In addition, in posttest analysis a unique fuel morphology (fuel swelling) was observed which may have enhanced fission product release, especially in the high pressure test (ST-2). These data are compared with analytical results from the CORSOR correlation and the VICTORIA computer model

  1. Differences in energy balance-related behaviours in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke De Craemer

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain within the ToyBox cross-sectional study.A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys had valid physical activity data (steps per day, parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play, and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking.The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays, while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively. German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays, while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays. A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays, and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays. Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day.Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours simultaneously, but should

  2. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ

  3. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection with a single Fabry-Perot cavity: A toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a detuned Fabry-Perot cavity, pumped through both the mirrors, as a toy model of the gravitational-wave (GW) detector partially free from displacement noise of the test masses. It is demonstrated that the noise of cavity mirrors can be eliminated, but the one of lasers and detectors cannot. The isolation of the GW signal from displacement noise of the mirrors is achieved in a proper linear combination of the cavity output signals. The construction of such a linear combination is possible due to the difference between the reflected and transmitted output signals of detuned cavity. We demonstrate that in low-frequency region the obtained displacement-noise-free response signal is much stronger than the f gw 3 -limited sensitivity of displacement-noise-free interferometers recently proposed by S. Kawamura and Y. Chen. However, the loss of the resonant gain in the noise cancelation procedure results is the sensitivity limitation of our toy model by displacement noise of lasers and detectors

  4. [Determination of bisphenol A from toys and food contact materials by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Jianguo; Zhang, Huiling; Zheng, Lisha; Chen, Jing

    2012-10-01

    A method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in toys and food contact materials. The BPA was extracted with Soxhlet extraction method from the sample and reacted with acetic anhydride. The final product was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To achieve the optimum derivatization performance, the derivatization time and dosage of derivatization reagent etc. were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the final product was stable and the peak shape was good. The linearity of the derivative was good in the range of 0.05 to 50 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) above 0.999. The recoveries ranged from 80% to 93% at the spiked levels of 0.05, 1.00, 10.00 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.7%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 10 microg/kg. The method is accurate and has high recovery. The method is suitable for the inspection of bisphenol A in toys and food contact materials.

  5. RESCUING THE TOY IN ITS TRANSFORMATIONS AND INFLUENCES: study with middle aged people and senior people from the rural and urban area of the cities of Venâncio Aires and Mato Leitão – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Beatriz Heisler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional toys and games are part of the recreational culture, handed down from generation to generation. Facing the current transformations, it is possible to realize the necessity to rescue these games. This study aims to describe the toys used by middle aged and the senior citizens from the country and urban areas of the cities of Venâncio Aires e Mato Leitão – RS in their childhood and of those toys, which ones were experienced by their children and, or are experienced by their grandchildren. 70 individuals of both sexes (20 male and 50 female between 50 and 80 years old constitute the subjects of this study. The methodology approach is characterized as an exploratory description study in which structured questionnaires on the topic and objectives of the study were applied, forming direct questions, adapted from Burgos. As a result of this study, it was observed that the toys which were most used by the subjects in their childhood are the rag doll, soapbox car and four wheel cart. The toys were handcrafted, parents taught their children mainly how to build the toys, although the majority of the seniors did not learn to build these toys and do not know the origin of the toys. Most games were played in the fields and in the yard and, mainly on weekends, and the games were play house, ride downhill or down the field on the soapbox car and hide and seek. The four wheel cart and the rag doll were the toys used in their childhood and experienced by the children. The grandchildren use as toys the video game, computers, remote control toy cars, balls and dolls. To the subjects in the study, the toys are modern and technological, and are purchased not handcrafted anymore. Therefore, it is noticed that toys are not handed down to the new generations, and facing the current transformations it is important to rescue the richness of different cultures, establishing social relations and group interaction which is important for the development of the

  6. Herrens röst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2015-01-01

    Om språket är gränsen mellan djur och människor, vad innebär det när hundar talar? I filmen Upp pratar de animerade hundarna, men med sin husses röst. Lilian Munk Rösing ser filmen i sällskap av bland andra Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek och Renata Salecl och finner en röst utan kropp, en kropp besj...

  7. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  8. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Kranen HJ van; Veen MP van; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative assessment was performed to estimate the cancer risk to individuals using tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink which are coloured with azo dyes. In these products benzidine and the benzidine related amines o-anisidine, 2,4-toluenediamine,

  9. Real-time PCR genotyping assay for canine progressive rod-cone degeneration and mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Moeko; Tada, Naomi; Mitsui, Hiroko; Tomioka, Hitomi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Yabuki, Akira; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is a middle- to late-onset, autosomal recessive, inherited retinal disorder caused by a substitution (c.5G>A) in the canine PRCD gene that has been identified in 29 or more purebred dogs. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening of the mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of the three most popular breeds in Japan (Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds) to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay separated all the genotypes of canine PRCD rapidly, indicating its suitability for large-scale surveys. The results of the survey showed that the mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles was high enough (approximately 0.09) to allow the establishment of measures for the prevention and control of this disorder in breeding kennels. The mutant allele was detected in Chihuahuas for the first time, but the frequency was lower (approximately 0.02) than that in Toy Poodles. The mutant allele was not detected in Miniature Dachshunds. This assay will allow the selective breeding of dogs from the two most popular breeds (Toy Poodle and Chihuahua) in Japan and effective prevention or control of the disorder.

  10. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  11. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  12. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  13. Learning to blast a way into crime, or just good clean fun? Examining aggressive play with toy weapons and its relation with crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sven; Ferguson, Christopher J; Beaver, Kevin M

    2018-01-16

    Researchers, such as Bandura, have proposed that children's mere exposure to the use of play weapons encourages deviant displays of aggression, but there is very little research to support this hypothesis of 20 years. To examine the relationship between amount of weapon play and concurrent aggression as well as later violent juvenile crime, while controlling for other variables possibly influencing criminal pathways. Using longitudinal survey data collected from mothers and children (n = 2019) from age 5, with follow-up at age 15, correlations between children's play with toy weapons and juvenile criminality were examined. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to determine to what extent early childhood aggression, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and symptoms of depression were antecedents of juvenile crime. For bivariate analysis between toy weapon play and juvenile criminality, the effect size was small and not significant. The relationship remained not significant once control variables were introduced into the model. The act of pretending to be aggressive in childhood thus plays little role in predicting later criminality after other factors, such as gender, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression, have been taken into account. Involvement in imaginative play with toy gun use in early childhood is unlikely to be useful as a risk marker for later criminal behaviour. Play fighting and war toy games may even be considered necessary components within the frame of normal development. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  15. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  16. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  17. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  18. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  19. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  20. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.; Buhelt, M.

    Ved en simpel stålrammebygning forstås i anvisningen en lukket, fritliggende bygning i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen af de bærende konstruktioner gennemføres ved at benytte publikationens omfattende tabeldata o...

  1. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.

    Anvisningen gennemgår dimensioneringen og bringer detaljerede konstruktionstegninger til simple stålrammebygninger, dvs. lukkede, fritliggende bygninger i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen sker ved at udfylde et di...

  2. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.ca

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and <1 for scraped material ingestion. • Comprehensive approach aims to deal with drawbacks of current toy safety approaches. - Abstract: Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n = 16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI) > 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always <1. Finally, saliva mobilization scenario caused HI > 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ.

  3. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreac, Dan, E-mail: Dan.Goreac@u-pem.fr; Kobylanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Magdalena.Kobylanski@u-pem.fr; Martinez, Miguel, E-mail: Miguel.Martinez@u-pem.fr [Université Paris-Est, LAMA (UMR 8050), UPEMLV, UPEC, CNRS (France)

    2016-10-15

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  4. A Piecewise Deterministic Markov Toy Model for Traffic/Maintenance and Associated Hamilton–Jacobi Integrodifferential Systems on Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goreac, Dan; Kobylanski, Magdalena; Martinez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We study optimal control problems in infinite horizon whxen the dynamics belong to a specific class of piecewise deterministic Markov processes constrained to star-shaped networks (corresponding to a toy traffic model). We adapt the results in Soner (SIAM J Control Optim 24(6):1110–1122, 1986) to prove the regularity of the value function and the dynamic programming principle. Extending the networks and Krylov’s “shaking the coefficients” method, we prove that the value function can be seen as the solution to a linearized optimization problem set on a convenient set of probability measures. The approach relies entirely on viscosity arguments. As a by-product, the dual formulation guarantees that the value function is the pointwise supremum over regular subsolutions of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi integrodifferential system. This ensures that the value function satisfies Perron’s preconization for the (unique) candidate to viscosity solution.

  5. St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Tuesday, 01 May 2018 ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to St. John’s Wort may increase the risk for birth ...

  6. Spot Støjbergs støj

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Inger Støjberg er placeret på en af de mest profilerede poster i Løkkes regering. Spørger du hende om fortiden, taler hun om fremtiden. Spørger du hende om fremtiden, taler hun om fortiden. Ergo: Hun taler udenom, og hun er god til det. Hun er så god, at det skader demokratiet. Lær at spotte hend...

  7. Team Danmarks støttekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Evaluering af Team Danmarks støttekoncept 2005-2008 med omfattende analyser af Team Danmarks virke, dets støttekoncept og de samarbejdsrelationer med specialforbund, udøvere, politisk valgte ledere, trænere mv., som udmøntningen af støttekonceptet forudsætter. Herunder analyse af...

  8. 76 FR 44531 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St... proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display on Saturday, November 19, 2011...

  9. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  10. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  11. 76 FR 68098 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display on Saturday, November 19, 2011...

  12. The Danish St. Croix Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Douma, Michael; Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    H. Seward, commonly viewed as an anti-colonizationist, was at least a mild proponent of colonization in its earliest stages. The paper demonstrates further that in the summer of 1862 the St. Croix colonization project was an important stepping stone in the Lincoln administration’s legal......Working from previously unknown sources in Danish archives, this article establishes for the first time the important role that the island of St. Croix played in the Lincoln Administration’s considerations on colonizing African Americans abroad. The paper argues that U.S. Secretary of State William....... The substantial conclusion of the paper is that, contrary to earlier perceptions in the historiography, African American colonization during the Civil War was not led and directed entirely from Washington. Rather, in this case, the Danish minister proposed a colonization plan and then worked with the United...

  13. St. Lawrence action plan meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this bulletin is to report on the progress achieved under the St. Lawrence Action Plan. Under each of the Action Plan`s five objectives, it outlines environmental management indicators which identify actions taken and shows the results. This report presents the data collected in late August 1992 on the activities carried out by all partners of both governments involved in SLAP. The objectives examined in the bulletin are: to reduce by 90% the liquid toxic waste discharged by the 50 plants targeted for priority action; to prepare remediation plans for contaminated federal sites and restore wetlands; to conserve 5000 additional hectares of habitat and create a marine park; to develop and implement recovery plans for mammals, fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and plants; and to determine the state of the St. Lawrence River.

  14. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  15. Impact of human-associated Escherichia coli clonal groups in Antarctic pinnipeds: presence of ST73, ST95, ST141 and ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Azucena; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Alonso, María Pilar; Pedraza-Diaz, Susana; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Garcia-Parraga, Daniel; López, Cecilia; Viso, Susana; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Sergeant, Martin J; García, Vanesa; Blanco, Jorge

    2018-03-16

    There is growing concern about the spreading of human microorganisms in relatively untouched ecosystems such as the Antarctic region. For this reason, three pinniped species (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina and Arctocephalus gazella) from the west coast of the Antartic Peninsula were analysed for the presence of Escherichia spp. with the recovery of 158 E. coli and three E. albertii isolates. From those, 23 harboured different eae variants (α1, β1, β2, ε1, θ1, κ, ο), including a bfpA-positive isolate (O49:H10-A-ST206, eae-k) classified as typical enteropathogenic E. coli. Noteworthy, 62 of the 158 E. coli isolates (39.2%) exhibited the ExPEC status and 27 (17.1%) belonged to sequence types (ST) frequently occurring among urinary/bacteremia ExPEC clones: ST12, ST73, ST95, ST131 and ST141. We found similarities >85% within the PFGE-macrorrestriction profiles of pinniped and human clinic O2:H6-B2-ST141 and O16:H5/O25b:H4-B2-ST131 isolates. The in silico analysis of ST131 Cplx genomes from the three pinnipeds (five O25:H4-ST131/PST43-fimH22-virotype D; one O16:H5-ST131/PST506-fimH41; one O25:H4-ST6252/PST9-fimH22-virotype D1) identified IncF and IncI1 plasmids and revealed high core-genome similarities between pinniped and human isolates (H22 and H41 subclones). This is the first study to demonstrate the worrisome presence of human-associated E. coli clonal groups, including ST131, in Antarctic pinnipeds.

  16. Sign of the neutron-proton mass difference in an SU(2)xU(1) supersymmetric toy model: A possible scenario for solving the old puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.R.; Xu, G.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the idea that electromagnetism is responsible for mass differences within isotopic multiplets (e.g., pointlike neutron and proton or u and d quarks), we generalize an SU(2)xU(1) model in a toy field theory of vectors to a supersymmetric model and investigate the finite mass difference within the isotopic doublet. It is found that under soft-supersymmetry breaking, a positive n-p mass difference can be obtained under reasonable assumptions for the parameters involved

  17. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  18. Playing with Quantum Toys: Julian Schwinger's Measurement Algebra and the Material Culture of Quantum Mechanics Pedagogy at Harvard in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Jean-François

    2018-03-01

    In the early 1960s, a PhD student in physics, Costas Papaliolios, designed a simple—and playful—system of Polaroid polarizer filters with a specific goal in mind: explaining the core principles behind Julian Schwinger's quantum mechanical measurement algebra, developed at Harvard in the late 1940s and based on the Stern-Gerlach experiment confirming the quantization of electron spin. Papaliolios dubbed his invention "quantum toys." This article looks at the origins and function of this amusing pedagogical device, which landed half a century later in the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University. Rendering the abstract tangible was one of Papaliolios's demonstration tactics in reforming basic teaching of quantum mechanics. This article contends that Papaliolios's motivation in creating the quantum toys came from a renowned endeavor aimed, inter alia, at reforming high-school physics training in the United States: Harvard Project Physics. The pedagogical study of these quantum toys, finally, compels us to revisit the central role playful discovery performs in pedagogy, at all levels of training and in all fields of knowledge.

  19. A systematic approach for the development of a kindergarten-based intervention for the prevention of obesity in preschool age children: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Grammatikaki, E; Androutsos, O; Chinapaw, M J M; Gibson, E L; Buijs, G; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Annemans, L; Wildgruber, A; Mouratidou, T; Yngve, A; Duvinage, K; de Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2012-03-01

    The increasing childhood obesity epidemic calls for appropriate measures and effective policies to be applied early in life. Large-scale socioecological frameworks providing a holistic multifactorial and cost-effective approach necessary to support obesity prevention initiatives in this age are however currently missing. To address this missing link, ToyBox-study aims to build and evaluate a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention scheme to prevent obesity in early childhood, which could potentially be expanded on a pan-European scale. A multidisciplinary team of researchers from 10 countries have joined forces and will work to realize this according to a systematic stepwise approach that combines the use of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and intervention mapping protocol. ToyBox-study will conduct systematic and narrative reviews, secondary data analyses, focus group research and societal assessment to design, implement and evaluate outcome, impact, process and cost effectiveness of the intervention. This is the first time that such a holistic approach has been used on a pan-European scale to promote healthy weight and healthy energy balance-related behaviours for the prevention of early childhood obesity. The results of ToyBox-study will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers, practitioners and the general population. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Developing a System for Processing Health Data of Children Using Digitalized Toys: Ethical and Privacy Concerns for the Internet of Things Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruíz, María Luisa; Fernández-Aller, Celia; Portillo, Eloy; Malagón, Javier; Del Barrio, Cristina

    2017-08-16

    EDUCERE (Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders) is a government funded research and development project. EDUCERE objectives are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions for society to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. In the EDUCERE project, an ethical impact assessment is carried out linked to a minors' data protection rights. Using a specific methodology, the project has achieved some promising results. These include use of a prototype of smart toys to detect development difficulties in children. In addition, privacy protection measures which take into account the security concerns of health data, have been proposed and applied. This latter security framework could be useful in other Internet of Things related projects. It consists of legal and technical measures. Special attention has been placed in the transformation of bulk data such as acceleration and jitter of toys into health data when patterns of atypical development are found. The article describes the different security profiles in which users are classified.

  1. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  2. Analytical solution to DGLAP integro-differential equation in a simple toy-model with a fixed gauge coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Gustavo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Cvetic, Gorazd [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Matematica Aplicada; Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Grupo de Fisica de Altas Energias; Parra-Ferrada, Ivan [Talca Univ. (Chile). Inst. de Matematica y Fisica

    2016-11-15

    We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern-Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found by use of the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as function of transfer momentum and of Bjorken x. Then we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behaviour in the vicinity of the point x=1.

  3. A toy model to investigate the existence of excitons in the ground state of strongly-correlated semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, H. R.; Majidi, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Excitons, quasiparticles associated with bound states between an electron and a hole and are typically created when photons with a suitable energy are absorbed in a solid-state material. We propose to study a possible emergence of excitons, created not by photon absorption but the effect of strong electronic correlations. This study is motivated by a recent experimental study of a substrate material SrTiO3 (STO) that reveals strong exitonic signals in its optical conductivity. Here we conjecture that some excitons may already exist in the ground state as a result of the electronic correlations before the additional excitons being created later by photon absorption. To investigate the existence of excitons in the ground state, we propose to study a simple 4-energy-level model that mimics a situation in strongly-correlated semiconductors. The four levels are divided into two groups, lower and upper groups separated by an energy gap, Eg , mimicking the valence and the conduction bands, respectively. Further, we incorporate repulsive Coulomb interactions between the electrons. The model is then solved by exact diagonalization method. Our result shows that the toy model can demonstrate band gap widening or narrowing and the existence of exciton in the ground state depending on interaction parameter values.

  4. Hacking and securing the AR.Drone 2.0 quadcopter: investigations for improving the security of a toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, Johann-Sebastian; Band, Ricardo; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    In this article we describe the security problems of the Parrot AR.Drone 2.0 quadcopter. Due to the fact that it is promoted as a toy with low acquisition costs, it may end up being used by many individuals which makes it a target for harmful attacks. In addition, the videostream of the drone could be of interest for a potential attacker due to its ability of revealing confidential information. Therefore, we will perform a security threat analysis on this particular drone. We will set the focus mainly on obvious security vulnerabilities like the unencrypted Wi-Fi connection or the user management of the GNU/Linux operating system which runs on the drone. We will show how the drone can be hacked in order to hijack the AR.Drone 2.0. Our aim is to sensitize the end-user of AR.Drones by describing the security vulnerabilities and to show how the AR.Drone 2.0 could be secured from unauthorized access. We will provide instructions to secure the drones Wi-Fi connection and its operation with the official Smartphone App and third party PC software.

  5. Sustaining Competitiveness: Moving Towards Upstream Manufacturing in Specialized-Market-Based Clusters in the Chinese Toy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Western industrial cluster literature pays little attention to specialized markets (SMs and the geographical agglomeration of distributors or sale agencies (SAs. This paper takes Linyin, Shandong, a famous commodity city in Northeastern China, as an example, to discuss the determinants that make SAs in SMs of the toy industry move towards upstream manufacturing. A structured questionnaire survey and subsequent interviews were carried out during 2011 and 2012 to collect data, and a Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to process the data. This paper looks from the perspective of global production networks theory, establishes an analytical framework that combines individual motivations of intra-firm coordination, local inter-firm relationships and dynamic cross-regional level relationships. The findings indicate that the expansion of SAs towards manufacturing allows them to sustain competitiveness under changing circumstances. The local inter-firm relationships within SM-based clusters not only makes it easy to obtain material and human resources with lower manufacturing costs, but also facilitates the access to production knowledge and technologies for an expansion of production scale. Cross-regional relationships with suppliers provide an informal channel for SAs to obtain skills, which is fundamental for an expansion into manufacturing. In addition, it is a preference for strengthening competitiveness rather than the simple pursuit of economic profit that encourages SAs to invest in manufacturing.

  6. Social interaction, food, scent or toys? A formal assessment of domestic pet and shelter cat (Felis silvestris catus) preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Udell, Monique A R

    2017-08-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for. The current study investigated domestic cat preferences at the individual and population level using a free operant preference assessment. Adult cats from two populations (pet and shelter) were presented with three stimuli within each of the following four categories: human social interaction, food, toy, and scent. Proportion of time interacting with each stimulus was recorded. The single most-preferred stimulus from each of the four categories were simultaneously presented in a final session to determine each cat's most-preferred stimulus overall. Although there was clear individual variability in cat preference, social interaction with humans was the most-preferred stimulus category for the majority of cats, followed by food. This was true for cats in both the pet and shelter population. Future research can examine the use of preferred stimuli as enrichment in applied settings and assess individual cats' motivation to work for their most-preferred stimulus as a measure of reinforcer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paperfuge: An ultralow-cost, hand-powered paper-centrifuge inspired by the mechanics of a whirligig toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamla, M. Saad; Benson, Brandon; Chai, Chew; Katsikis, Georgios; Johri, Aanchal; Prakash, Manu

    From a global-health context, commercial centrifuges are expensive, bulky and electricity-powered, and thus constitute a critical bottleneck in the development of decentralized, battery-free-point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Here, we report an ultralow-cost (20 cents), lightweight (2 g), human-powered paper centrifuge (which we name 'paperfuge') designed on the basis of a theoretical model inspired by the fundamental mechanics of an ancient whirligig (or buzzer toy; 3300 B.C.E). The paperfuge achieves speeds of 125,000 rpm (and equivalent centrifugal forces of 30,000 g), with theoretical limits predicting one million rpm. We demonstrate that the paperfuge can separate pure plasma from whole blood in less than 1.5 minutes, and isolate malaria parasites in 15 minutes. We also show that paperfuge-like centrifugal microfluidic devices can be made of polymethylsiloxane, plastic and 3D-printed polymeric materials. Ultracheap, power-free centrifuges should open up opportunities for POC diagnostics in resource-poor settings.

  8. Biomedical instruments versus toys:a preliminary comparison of force platforms and the nintendo wii balance board - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena; Wright, Cameron H G

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical sciences rely heavily on devices to acquire and analyze the physiological data needed to understand and model the biological processes of humans and animals. Therefore, the results of the investigations, clinical or academic, depend heavily on the instrumentation used. Unfortunately, all too often the users do not understand their instruments and end up compromising the results of their investigations by choosing an inadequate instrument or by not using it appropriately. One field where this is particularly apparent is posturography: the misconceptions about instruments are so widespread and deep that just recently there have been articles published in scientific journals suggesting the use of a “toy”, the Nintendo Wii Balance Board, instead of instrument grade force platform to acquire posturographic data. Characterizing the tools used for research becomes the first and probably the most important step in producing sound research and clinical results, and in the case of posturographic force platforms and the Nintendo Wii Balance Board a simple experimental setup can be used to find their characteristics. Furthermore, based on the preliminary results of this investigation, a mathematical formula can be used to predict the behavior of a posturographic tool, once its noise characteristics and “dead weight” response are known.

  9. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair River...

  10. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Weill, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  11. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  12. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  13. Data Abstraction Mechanisms in Sina/st

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyrowitz, N.K.; Aksit, Mehmet; Tripathi, Anand

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new data abstraction mechanism in an object-oriented model of computing. The data abstraction mechanism described here has been devised in the context of the design of Sina/st language. In Sina/st no language constructs have been adopted for specifying inheritance or

  14. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  17. Firmaets Største Bedrift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    fortæller, hvordan de tidligere modstandsfolk Arne Sejr og Niels Frommelt få år efter befrielsen etablerede deres såkaldte Firma for med støtte fra ledende danske politikere, Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste og CIA at organisere en hemmelig krig mod Sovjetunionens danske støtter. Meget tyder på, at både...

  18. 77 FR 59035 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St. George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation... rule and invite public comment on the release of land at St. George Airport under the provisions of..., City of St. George, Utah, at the following address: Mr. Gary Esplin, City Manager, City of St. George...

  19. How Big is Too Big? The Girth of Bestselling Insertive Sex Toys to Guide Maximal Neophallus Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Aghili, Roxana; Wongwittavas, Non; Garcia, Maurice

    2017-11-01

    In our practice we have encountered 4 female-to-male transgender patients seeking neophallus revision surgery for girth precluding penetrative vaginal or anal intercourse. Despite this, there is little evidence available to guide transitioning patients in neophallus sizing. In this work we examined the dimensions of bestselling realistic dildos, presuming that the most popular dimensions would reflect population preferences for penetrative toys and phalluses. To determine a maximal upper limit for girth compatible with penetrative intercourse based on measurements of bestselling realistic dildos and published erect penile dimensions. We collected measurements for "realistic dildos" designated as bestsellers for the top 5 Alexa.com-rated online adult retailers in the United States and for Amazon.com. We compared these with measurements of dildos available at Good Vibrations in San Francisco and with studies of erect natal dimensions. We compared all data with measurements of 4 index patients whose neophallus girth prevented penetrative intercourse. Length and circumference of overall bestselling and largest bestselling realistic dildos as reported on top websites and measured by investigators. The average insertive length of the compiled dildos (16.7 ± 1.6 cm) was 1 SD longer than natal functional erect penile length as reported in the literature (15.7 ± 2.6 cm); however, their average circumference (12.7 ± 0.8 cm) mirrored natal erect penile girth (12.3 ± 1.3). The average girth of vendors' top 3 largest-girth dildos was 15.1 ± 0.9 cm, 2 SD wider than natal erect penile girth. Index patients had an average length of 16.3 ± 3.2 cm and an average girth of 17.6 ± 1.3 cm. Index patient girth was 4 to 5 SD wider than the average natal erect girth. Based on our data, we suggest that a surgically created neophallus should have a girth no wider than 15.1 cm after implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. This corresponds to 2 SD wider than the average natal

  20. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  1. Distributions of extreme bursts above thresholds in a fractional Lévy toy model of natural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Chapman, Sandra; Rosenberg, Sam; Credgington, Dan; Sanchez, Raul

    2010-05-01

    In 2 far-sighted contributions in the 1960s Mandelbrot showed the ubiquity of both non-Gaussian fluctuations and long-ranged temporal memory (the "Noah" and "Joseph" effects, respectively) in the natural and man-made worlds. Much subsequent work in complexity science has contributed to the physical underpinning of these effects, particularly in cases where complex interactions in a system cause a driven or random perturbation to be nonlinearly amplified in amplitude and/or spread out over a wide range of frequencies. In addition the modelling of catastrophes has begun to incorporate the insights which these approaches have offered into the likelihood of extreme and long-lived fluctuations. I will briefly survey how the application of the above ideas in the earth system has been a key focus and motivation of research into natural complexity at BAS [e.g. Watkins & Freeman, Science, 2008; Edwards et al, Nature, 2007]. I will then discuss in detail a standard toy model (linear fractional stable motion, LFSM) which combines the Noah and Joseph effects in a controllable way and explain how it differs from the widely used continuous time random walk. I will describe how LFSM is being used to explore the interplay of the above two effects in the distribution of bursts above thresholds. I will describe ongoing work to improve the accuracy of maximum likelihood-based estimation of burst size and waiting time distributions for LFSM first reported in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009]; and will also touch on similar work for multifractal models [Watkins et al, PRL comment, 2009].

  2. ST peak during percutaneous coronary intervention serves as an early prognostic predictor in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Kelbæk, Henning; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the clinical importance of the ST peak phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Continuous ST monitoring was performed in 942 STEMI patients from arrival until 90...... minutes after revascularisation. ST peak was defined as ≥1 mm increase in the ST-segment during PCI compared with the ST elevation before intervention. ST peak was observed in 26.9% of patients. During median follow-up of 4.1 years, 20.7% of patients experienced a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). ST...... and ST peak including ST resolution and epicardial flow, ST peak remained significantly associated with MACE: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.95) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.02-1.96). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest study hitherto evaluating the ST peak phenomenon during primary...

  3. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: A RELATIVISTIC TOY MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE TORUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Tonita, Aaryn; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The merger of a binary system composed of a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) may leave behind a torus of hot, dense matter orbiting around the BH. While numerical-relativity simulations are necessary to simulate this process accurately, they are also computationally expensive and unable at present to cover the large space of possible parameters, which include the relative mass ratio, the stellar compactness, and the BH spin. To mitigate this and provide a first reasonable coverage of the space of parameters, we have developed a method for estimating the mass of the remnant torus from BH-NS mergers. The toy model makes use of an improved relativistic affine model to describe the tidal deformations of an extended tri-axial ellipsoid orbiting around a Kerr BH and measures the mass of the remnant torus by considering which of the fluid particles composing the star are on bound orbits at the time of the tidal disruption. We tune the toy model by using the results of fully general-relativistic simulations obtaining relative precisions of a few percent and use it to investigate the space of parameters extensively. In this way, we find that the torus mass is largest for systems with highly spinning BHs, small stellar compactnesses, and large mass ratios. As an example, tori as massive as M b,tor ≅ 1.33 M sun can be produced for a very extended star with compactness C ≅ 0.1 inspiralling around a BH with dimensionless spin parameter a = 0.85 and mass ratio q ≅ 0.3. However, for a more astrophysically reasonable mass ratio q ≅ 0.14 and a canonical value of the stellar compactness C ≅ 0.145, the toy model sets a considerably smaller upper limit of M b,tor ∼ sun .

  4. St2-80: a new FISH marker for St genome and genome analysis in Triticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Shi, Qinghua; Su, Handong; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2017-07-01

    The St genome is one of the most fundamental genomes in Triticeae. Repetitive sequences are widely used to distinguish different genomes or species. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) screen a new sequence that could easily distinguish the chromosome of the St genome from those of other genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and (ii) investigate the genome constitution of some species that remain uncertain and controversial. We used degenerated oligonucleotide primer PCR (Dop-PCR), Dot-blot, and FISH to screen for a new marker of the St genome and to test the efficiency of this marker in the detection of the St chromosome at different ploidy levels. Signals produced by a new FISH marker (denoted St 2 -80) were present on the entire arm of chromosomes of the St genome, except in the centromeric region. On the contrary, St 2 -80 signals were present in the terminal region of chromosomes of the E, H, P, and Y genomes. No signal was detected in the A and B genomes, and only weak signals were detected in the terminal region of chromosomes of the D genome. St 2 -80 signals were obvious and stable in chromosomes of different genomes, whether diploid or polyploid. Therefore, St 2 -80 is a potential and useful FISH marker that can be used to distinguish the St genome from those of other genomes in Triticeae.

  5. 21st Century Cell Culture for 21st Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality. The physiological relevance of such models is further enhanced by the measurement of biomarkers (e.g., key events of pathways), organ specific functionality, and more comprehensive assessment cell responses by high-content methods. These approaches are still rarely combined to create microphysiological systems. The complexity of the combination of these technologies can generate results closer to the in vivo situation but increases the number of parameters to control, bringing some new challenges. In fact, we do not argue that all cell culture needs to be that sophisticated. The efforts taken are determined by the purpose of our experiments and tests. If only a very specific molecular target to cell response is of interest, a very simple model, which reflects this, might be much more suited to allow standardization and high-throughput. However, the less defined the end point of interest and cellular response are, the better we should approximate organ- or tissue-like culture conditions to make physiological responses more probable. Besides these technologic advances, important progress in the quality assurance and reporting on cell cultures as well as the validation of cellular test systems brings the utility of cell cultures to a new level. The advancement and broader implementation of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) is key here. In toxicology, this is a major prerequisite for meaningful and reliable results, ultimately

  6. Windmill, sugar works, 'Springhall', St. Lucy, Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    204 x 143 mm. Showing the windmill and other refinery buildings with workers leading bullock teams loaded with cane towards the refinery. The Spring Hall Estate lies in the centre of St. Lucy Parish in northern Barbados.

  7. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  8. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  9. Caribbean ST Thomas trap Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Thomas. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  10. St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. (the Company) is located in Nashua, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire.

  11. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  12. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  13. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  14. St Sava and the cloud-chasers

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    A gloss in the Nomocanon of St Sava condemns folk superstitions related to magically provoking hailstorms and eclipses. St Sava’s miracle with the king of Hungary as described in his Vitae seems to go back to the same complex of popular beliefs. Its acceptance by the hagiography was probably due to the influence of the figure of prince magician as common to the Serbian and the Russian oral epics.

  15. St Sava and the cloud-chasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A gloss in the Nomocanon of St Sava condemns folk superstitions related to magically provoking hailstorms and eclipses. St Sava’s miracle with the king of Hungary as described in his Vitae seems to go back to the same complex of popular beliefs. Its acceptance by the hagiography was probably due to the influence of the figure of prince magician as common to the Serbian and the Russian oral epics.

  16. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  17. Development of HANARO ST3 shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. N.; Lee, J. S.; Shim, H. S.

    2004-12-01

    This report contains the design, fabrication and accurate installation of ST3 shield, which would be installed at ST3 beam port of HANARO. At first, we designed and fabricated ST3 shield casemate composed of 14 blocks. We filled it with heavy concrete, lead ingot and polyethylene that mixed B 4 C powder and epoxy. The average filling density of total shield casemate was 4.7g/cm 3 . The developed ST3 shield was installed at the ST3 beam port and the accuracy of installation for each beam path and channel was evaluated. We found that the extraction of neutron beam to meet the requirement of neutron spectrometer is possible. Also, we developed ancillary equipment such as BGU, quick shutter and exterior shield door for the effective opening and closing of neutron beam. As a result of this study, it was found that neutron spectrometer such as neutron reflectometer and high intensity powder diffractomater can be installed at the ST3 beam port

  18. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato’s Exceptional Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Znojil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a given operator D ( t of an observable in theoretical parity-time symmetric quantum physics (or for its evolution-generator analogues in the experimental gain-loss classical optics, etc. the instant t c r i t i c a l of a spontaneous breakdown of the parity-time alias gain-loss symmetry should be given, in the rigorous language of mathematics, the Kato’s name of an “exceptional point”, t c r i t i c a l = t ( E P . In the majority of conventional applications the exceptional point (EP values are not real. In our paper, we pay attention to several exactly tractable toy-model evolutions for which at least some of the values of t ( E P become real. These values are interpreted as “instants of a catastrophe”, be it classical or quantum. In the classical optical setting the discrete nature of our toy models might make them amenable to simulations. In the latter context the instant of Big Bang is mentioned as an illustrative sample of possible physical meaning of such an EP catastrophe in quantum cosmology.

  19. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  20. 78 FR 16208 - Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY... establish a safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during the V... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366...