Sample records for toxoplasma-infected military drivers

  1. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  2. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  3. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  4. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq


    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.


    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  5. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design (United States)


    DRIVER FIXED HEEL POINT (FHP) CAD ACCOMMODATION MODEL FOR MILITARY GROUND VEHICLE DESIGN Frank J. Huston II Gale L. Zielinski US Army, Tank ...Registration No. -Technical Report- U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center Detroit Arsenal Warren, Michigan 48397...Institute, Ann Arbor, MI UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A Approved for Public Release Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD

  6. Characteristics of Organic Pig Production and risk analysis concerning Toxoplasma infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Meerburg, B.G.


    A short written questionnaire was used to study certain characteristics of the organic pig production chain in The Netherlands and the circumstances on the farm that might play a role in the transmission of Toxoplasma infection to the pigs. Of the 81 certified organic slaughter pig farmers present

  7. Knowledge and Practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemah eAndiappan


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2,598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents’ general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%, completed secondary level of education (51.7%, in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%, non parous (36.6% and had no history of abortion (90.4. Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4% and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%. There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses towards prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P<0.05. Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during

  8. Susceptibility of pregnant women to toxoplasma infection--potential benefits for newborn screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, W


    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.

  9. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković D.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia. Retrospective analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 235 pregnant women from Macedonia, tested for Toxoplasma infection between January 2004 and December 2005, showed an overall prevalence of infection of 20.4 %. Exposure to transmission factors significantly increased the risk of infection (RR = 1.989, 95 % CI = 1.041-3.800, p = 0.037. The single infection transmission factor that was a predictor of infection in the whole series was exposure to soil (RR = 1.946, 95 % CI = 1.026-3.692, p = 0.041. Based on prevalence and the established risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Macedonia, the health education programme as a sustainable measure for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis should focus on educating women of generative age to avoid contact with soil (farming, gardening, and/to adhere to strict hygienic practices afterwards.

  10. The Relation of Toxoplasma Infection and Sexual Attraction to Fear, Danger, Pain, and Submissiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr


    Full Text Available Behavioral patterns, including sexual behavioral patterns, are usually understood as biological adaptations increasing the fitness of their carriers. Many parasites, so-called manipulators, are known to induce changes in the behavior of their hosts to increase their own fitness. Such changes are also induced by a parasite of cats, Toxoplasma gondii. The most remarkable change is the fatal attraction phenomenon, the switch of infected mice’s and rat’s native fear of the smell of cats toward an attraction to this smell. The stimuli that activate fear-related circuits in healthy rodents start to also activate sex-related circuits in the infected animals. An analogy of the fatal attraction phenomenon has also been observed in infected humans. Therefore, we tried to test a hypothesis that sexual arousal by fear-, violence-, and danger-related stimuli occurs more frequently in Toxoplasma-infected subjects. A cross-sectional cohort study performed on 36,564 subjects (5,087 Toxoplasma free and 741 Toxoplasma infected showed that infected and noninfected subjects differ in their sexual behavior, fantasies, and preferences when age, health, and the size of the place where they spent childhood were controlled (F(24, 3719 = 2.800, p < .0001. In agreement with our a priori hypothesis, infected subjects are more often aroused by their own fear, danger, and sexual submission although they practice more conventional sexual activities than Toxoplasma-free subjects. We suggest that the later changes can be related to a decrease in the personality trait of novelty seeking in infected subjects, which is potentially a side effect of increased concentration of dopamine in their brain.

  11. Major Cost Drivers of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Military Personnel and the Influence of the Military Environment (United States)


    programs, out of awareness of the direct emotional and negative consequences on MVC victims, as well as the productivity loss due to workplace ...with stress, boredom, and loneliness as indicated by the previous research. The majority of these studies reveal that youth, male gender and lack...military has a considerable number of young males, alcohol consumption is influenced also by the workplace culture and alcohol availability. People who

  12. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years. (United States)

    Wallon, M; Peyron, F; Cornu, C; Vinault, S; Abrahamowicz, M; Kopp, C Bonithon; Binquet, C


    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy exposes the fetus to risks of congenital infection and sequelae that depend heavily on gestational age (GA) at time of infection. Accurate risk estimates by GA are necessary to counsel parents and improve clinical decisions. We analyzed data from pregnant women diagnosed with acute Toxoplasma infection in Lyon (France) from 1987 to 2008 and assessed how the risks of congenital toxoplasmosis and of clinical signs at age 3 years vary depending on GA at the time of maternal infection. Among 2048 mother-infant pairs, 93.2% of mothers received prenatal treatment and 513 (24.7%) fetuses were infected. Because of a significant reduction in risk since 1992 when monthly screening was introduced (59.4% vs 46.6% at 26 GA weeks; P = .038), probabilities of infection were estimated on the basis of maternal infections diagnosed after mid-1992 (n = 1624). Probabilities of congenital infection were <10% for maternal infections before 12 weeks of gestation, rose to 20.0% at 19 weeks, and then continued increasing to 52.3% and almost 70% at 28 and 39 GA weeks, respectively. Because of a significant reduction in risk of clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis in infected children born from mothers diagnosed after 1995 when polymerase chain reaction testing on amniotic fluid was initiated (87/794 vs 46/1150; P = .012), probabilities of clinical signs at 3 years were estimated based on 1015 maternal infections diagnosed after 1995 including 207 infected children, with symptoms in 46 (22.2%). These analyses demonstrated that introduction of monthly prenatal screening and improvement in antenatal diagnosis were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of congenital infection and a better outcome at 3 years of age in infected children. Our updated estimates will improve individual management and counseling in areas where genotype II Toxoplasma is predominant.

  13. Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr


    Full Text Available Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes in olfactory functions have been searched for in them.Thirty-four Toxoplasma-infected and 134 noninfected students rated the odour of urine samples from cat, horse, tiger, brown hyena and dog for intensity and pleasantness. The raters were blind to their infection status and identity of the samples. No signs of changed sensitivity of olfaction were observed. However, we found a strong, gender dependent effect of toxoplasmosis on the pleasantness attributed to cat urine odour (p = 0.0025. Infected men rated this odour as more pleasant than did the noninfected men, while infected women rated the same odour as less pleasant than did noninfected women. Toxoplasmosis did not affect how subjects rated the pleasantness of any other animal species' urine odour; however, a non-significant trend in the same directions was observed for hyena urine.The absence of the effects of toxoplasmosis on the odour pleasantness score attributed to large cats would suggest that the amino acid felinine could be responsible for the fatal attraction phenomenon. Our results also raise the possibility that the odour-specific threshold deficits observed in schizophrenia patients could be caused by increased prevalence of Toxoplasma-infected subjects in this population rather than by schizophrenia itself. The trend observed with the hyena urine sample suggests that this carnivore, and other representatives of the Feliformia suborder, should be studied for their possible role as definitive hosts in

  14. Latent Toxoplasma Infection and Higher Toxoplasma gondii Immunoglobulin G Levels Are Associated With Worse Neurocognitive Functioning in HIV-Infected Adults. (United States)

    Bharti, Ajay R; McCutchan, Allen; Deutsch, Reena; Smith, Davey M; Ellis, Ronald J; Cherner, Mariana; Woods, Steven P; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L


     Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders persist despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Because latent Toxoplasma infection (LTI) may adversely impact brain function, we investigated its impact on neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people living with HIV disease.  Two hundred sixty-three HIV-infected adults underwent comprehensive neurocognitive assessments and had anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (anti-Toxo IgG) measured by qualitative and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.  Participants were mostly middle-aged white men who were taking ART (70%). LTI was detected in 30 (11.4%) participants and was associated with a significantly greater prevalence of global NCI (LTI positive [LTI + ] = 57% and LTI negative [LTI - ] = 34%) (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.40; P = .017). Deficits were more prevalent in the LTI + vs the LTI - group in 6 of 7 cognitive domains with statistical significance reached for delayed recall (P Toxoplasma therapy should be pursued. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

  15. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob


    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  16. Military Vortices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovell, D


    .... This topic area will not be considered further in this paper, but results from current research indicate that military organizations should derive large potential benefits from this technology when it reaches maturity...

  17. Military Periodicals. (United States)


    Frances Roedy Global Defense Roport (Q) Defense Research International, Inc. 1905 Kalorama Rd., #3 Washington, D.C. 20009 Telephone: (202) 232-8426...Benning, Georgia 31905 Telephone: (404) 544-4951 AUTOVON 784-4951 Editor: CPT Michael D. Bollinger $10.00 -"- r r •~ "• • • • Military Chaplains...Joffre 75700 Paris, France Telephone: 555-92-30 Editor-in-Chief: Contre-Amiral 0. Sevaistre Fr. 75 Europaische Wehrkunde (M) (Formerly

  18. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education (United States)


    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  19. Online driver's license renewal. (United States)


    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  20. Technology and teen drivers. (United States)

    Lee, John D


    The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technology is likely to affect young drivers more than others. The distraction potential of infotainment technology stresses the same vulnerabilities that already lead young drivers to crash more frequently than other drivers. Cell phones, text messaging, MP3 players, and other nomadic devices all present a threat because young drivers may lack the spare attentional capacity for vehicle control and the ability to anticipate and manage hazards. Moreover, young drivers are likely to be the first and most aggressive users of new technology. Fortunately, emerging technology can also support safe driving. Electronic stability control, collision avoidance systems, intelligent speed adaptation, and vehicle tracking systems can all help mitigate the threats to young drivers. However, technology alone is unlikely to make young drivers safer. One promising approach to tailoring technology to teen drivers is to extend proven methods for enhancing young driver safety. The success of graduated drivers license programs (GDL) and the impressive safety benefit of supervised driving suggest ways of tailoring technology to the needs of young drivers. To anticipate the effects of technology on teen driving it may be useful to draw an analogy between the effects of passengers and the effects of technology. Technology can act as a teen passenger and undermine safety or it can act as an adult passenger and enhance safety. Rapidly developing technology may have particularly large effects on teen drivers. To maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects will require a broad range of industries to work together. Ideally, vehicle manufacturers would work with infotainment providers, insurance companies, and policy makers to craft new technologies so that they accommodate the needs of young drivers. Without such collaboration young drivers will face even greater challenges to their safety as new technologies emerge.

  1. National Driver Register (NDR) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  2. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H


    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  3. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry


    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  4. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.


    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  5. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide


    Full Text Available African Military Psychology community. Twenty-two years into democracy, this book Military psychology for Africa brings ‘wholeness’ for African soldiers, their families, psychological scientists, university scholars and practitioners. The scope...

  6. National Military Family Association (United States)

    ... Take Action Volunteer Mark Your Calendar Donate Twitter Facebook Instagram Donate Appreciating Military Families: Meet the Wilsons This ... © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better ...

  7. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham


    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  8. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    , the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  9. Driver behavior in traffic. (United States)


    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  10. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.


    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  11. Drug use among drivers (United States)


    Randomly selected drivers were stopped at times and places of previous fatal crashes in Lincoln, Nebraska, and Dade County (Miami), Florida. Breath, urnine, blood, and lip swab samples were requested, for later analysis for drugs and medications. A c...

  12. Internet driver education study. (United States)


    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  13. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.


    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE


    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  15. Drivers license display system (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.


    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  16. Graduated Driver Licensing (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy


    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  17. Vreme reagovanja vojnika vozača / Reacting time of military solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić


    Full Text Available Bezbednost vojnog saobraćaja i upravljanje kretanjem zavise od vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača. Vojnici vozači su selekcionirana grupa vozača, pa se smatra daje njihovo vreme reagovanja kraće od vremena reagovanja generalne populacije vozača i od normativnog vremena reagovanja, koje se koristi u analizama. Zbog toga je izvršeno merenje vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača kočenjem, s ciljem da se sagleda njegov uticaj na bezbednost saobraćaja i na upravljanje saobraćajnim tokovima, kao i da se stručna javnost upozna sa dobijenim rezultatima. U radu su prikazani rezultati merenja vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača kočenjem, za slučajno odabranu grupu, u realnim uslovima. / Safety in military traffic and its management depends on the reaction time of military drivers. Military drivers are a selected group of soldiers, so it is considered that their reaction time is shorter than the reaction time of general drivers population and it is also shorter than the normative reaction time, which is used in the analyses. Therefore, the stopping time of military drivers was tested, in aider to see the influence on traffic safety and management of traffic courses, and to interest the professionals in the given results. In the essay results of stopping time in the real conditions for a random chosen group of military drivers are shown.

  18. Licensing procedures for older drivers. (United States)


    This study examined the driver licensing procedures in all 50 States as they apply to the older (65+) driver. A literature review examined reports of possible declines in older driver capabilities and the ability of a driver licensing agency to scree...

  19. International Military Education and Multinational Military Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moskos, Charles


    .... This report is based on interviews with international officers (IOs) at American war, command and staff colleges in each of the services who participate in International Military and Education and Training (IMET...

  20. Prescription Stimulant Misuse in a Military Population (United States)


    overdoses (incidence rate ratio of 3.13) but also a significant increase in cost (over $24,000 for the subjects in time period 2 com- pared to $5,600 for...their secondary analysis of the 2008 DoD Health Survey. None of the individuals noted concentration, energy , or other as reasons to take the medication...stateside) or the specific role the individual was filling (i.e., point, driver, and follower). The military has a robust drink - ing and driving mitigation

  1. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

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  2. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert


    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  3. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  4. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global......If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  8. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  9. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin


    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  10. Beginning teenage drivers (United States)


    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  11. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  12. In Your Drivers' Hands. (United States)

    Wright, Jim


    New federal rules mandate drug and alcohol testing for all school district employees who are required to have a commercial driver's license. Describes the major elements of a testing program and the types of testing required. Recommends building support for the testing program by involving employee labor leaders, board members, and a cross-section…

  13. distance bus drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    N Rugbeer, 1 M Sport Science; N Neveling, 1 MSc Med;. T Sandla, 1 BTech Biokinetics. 1 Department of Sport, Rehabilitation and Dental Science, Tshwane. University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa ... excessive stress along the kinetic chain and affect the driver's personal and social life.[2] A study in Ghana revealed ...

  14. Space Age Driver Education (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.


    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  15. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (United States)


    ... drivers. In addition to the requirements in § 634.36 of this subchapter, the standard field sobriety test used by the Military Police may include the following tests: (a) Horizontal gaze nystagmus. (b) Walk and turn. (c) One leg stand. ...

  16. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  17. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu


    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries.

  18. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries. (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I


    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of 2 or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US heavy-ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historial anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. (orig.)

  20. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of two or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US Heavy Ion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historical anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.


    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  2. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro


    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  3. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  4. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers? (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn


    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  5. Understanding and Reducing Off-Duty Vehicle Crashes Among Military Personnel. (United States)

    Ecola, Liisa; Collins, Rebecca L; Eiseman, Elisa


    The authors review traffic safety in the United States, with specific reference to military personnel, focusing on safety interventions and attempts to change driver behavior and decisions. Overall, driving has become safer over the last 20 years: A variety of factors seem to have contributed to this increased safety-better vehicle safety features, better road safety features, decreases in teenage drunk driving, more seat belt use, and at least recently, fewer vehicle miles traveled. In contrast, motorcycle riding, a topic of particular interest to the military, is becoming more dangerous. The main difference between the military and civilian population is the proportion of military crash fatalities on motorcycles-the U.S. rate is currently about 15 percent of fatalities, while in some military branches the rate is on average 35-40 percent. This review shows that the following safety interventions tend to help in the reduction of vehicle crashes and that some in particular may be useful in the military setting: (1) better enforcement of underage drinking laws and continuation of alcohol deglamorization campaigns (Department of Defense regulations exist, but underage drinking seems to be relatively common); (2) high-visibility enforcement techniques for sobriety checkpoints; (3) high-visibility enforcement techniques for seat belt use; (4) adoption of a lower blood alcohol concentration level (such as 0.05) for motorcyclists, since the evidence shows that motorcyclists' ability to drive safely begins declining at lower levels than those for car drivers; (5) screening-perhaps as part of military medical assessment-and brief intervention with a trained counselor for at-risk drinkers, since they are at higher risk for drinking and driving; (6) media campaigns that are paired with community activities that also emphasize driver safety, such as workshops or fairs and with enforcement of driving regulations, and targeted at the drivers at highest risk (men in their teens

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  8. About Military Sexual Trauma (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  9. The Military Cooperation Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renzi, Jr, Alfred E


    .... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...

  10. Transforming Military Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Bartholomew W


    ... a catastrophic event in another part. Consequentially, the United States must transform its military instrument of power to defeat its enemies and show its alliance with friends to defeat this adverse aspect of globalization...

  11. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... MST. Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  12. Managing Military Readiness (United States)


    Managing Military Readiness by Laura J. Junor STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 23 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National Strategic Studies...Marine Corps) Managing Military Readiness Institute for National Strategic Studies Strategic Perspectives, No. 23 Series Editor: Laura J. Junor National...discussion is a basic tenet of production theory , it had not been commonly applied to readiness management until recently. The important point here is that

  13. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    officers in the field of military art but also to contribute to the mastery of effective forms and methods of training and educating personnel of units...into account the latest achievements of military thought, and high competence in questions of tactics and operational art are the foremost qualities...first time, and the new embroidery had to be interspersed with the old canvas. In spite of everything they decided to continue the experiment. 84

  14. Military Working Dog Procurements (United States)


    1998 and 1999 showed that the Europeans did not have an advantage in the selection of their dogs . Officials of the 341st TRS offered two possible...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited MILITARY WORKING DOG PROCUREMENTS Report No. D-2000-102 March 14...A . Report Title: Military Working Dog Procurements B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/28/99 C. Report’s Point of Contact: (Name

  15. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte


    on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...

  17. Driver Distraction in Public Transport




    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  18. Random drivers for all sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.N.; Untermyer, S. II; Miller, H.; Lung, J.


    This paper discusses two new Random Drivers built by NNC. The smaller machine, Mini Random Driver, is designed to give high sensitivity for small samples (10 mg Pu). The larger machine, Jumbo Random Driver, is designed to assay material in large containers including 200 1 (55 gal) waste barrels and large filters. These systems can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes. A description of each instrument with calibration results is presented

  19. Feasibility of Nuclear Power on U.S. Military Installations. 2nd Revision (United States)


    Feasibility of Nuclear Power on U.S. Military Installations Marcus King • LaVar Huntzinger • Thoi Nguyen CRM D0023932.A5/2REV March 2011 2o\\[o...fuels were cheap , plentiful, and simple to use. Oilier drivers for abandoning nuclear projects included an accident at Three Mile Island nuclear power

  20. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.


    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  1. Enlisting in the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver


    Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.

  2. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  3. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  4. Current military laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinchbaugh, D.E.


    Several important military applications with the predominant laser type used are reviewed. Most of these lasers are infrared lasers of one sort or another. Airborne tactical programs utilizing laser designator/illuminators are pictorially summarized, including range finding, target seeking, designation, tracking, reconnaissance, and surveillance. A typical designator optical system configuration is presented and discussed. Examples of operational laser systems are given. It is seen that many of the laser applications in the civilian community have either direct or indirect analogs in the military field. A self-contained HF/DF chemical laser weapon that recirculates its by-products is examined.

  5. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu


    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  6. Military wheeled vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace


    Wheeled vehicles are used in militaries around the world every single day. Readers will learn that wheeled vehicles in the military are not just for getting from place-to-place, but can also act as necessary protection for soldiers travelling through dangerous areas. Big full-bleed photographs, new glossary terms, and a close up look at a vehicle will keep readers wanting more! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  7. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X


    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  8. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.


    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  9. Military Intervention in South America, (United States)


    size and com- position of the armed forces, and the traditional role of the 3 military in the political system. A third approach to military intervention...Structure and Military Intervention in Latin America," Archives Europeenes de Sociologie , 1I (Spring, 1961), 62-81; Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant

  10. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming


    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...

  11. Russia’s Military Economy and Military Security in 2007


    Vasily Zatsepin; Vitaly Tsymbal


    The development of the RF military economy in 2007 was mainly determined by the economic and political factors typical of the Russian economy as a whole and also by the necessity to carry on a struggle against terrorist bands. At the same time, the military economy was to a certain extent influenced (at least conceptually) by the military-political declarations and unfriendly intentions on the part of NATO and the USA, as well as by the requirements of military and military-technological coop...

  12. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.


    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary in 1954, the product of the Military. Language Board (Krygstaalraad). During World War II the men in the forces con- tinued the development of the two official lan- ... words and terms reflecting typical South African conditions: Sonfontein (solar still), pantserbreek- granate (armour-piercing squash head shells),.

  14. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    South' or utilising new technologies to overcome the prohibitive costs of current systems. Analysing the philosophical, strategic and budgetary underpinnings of these alternatives, he concludes that a more radical break from current military organisational practices is needed which would allow them...

  15. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  16. Selected WDM Military Interests (United States)


    Photonic Networks BACKGROUND IP ATM (QOS) SONET SONET WDM 200420011998 WDM IP w/ MPLS 10Gb Ethernet WDM LAN / MAN IP Along with Ethernet technology, will become prominent in Metro Area Networking (MAN) and Local Area Networking (LAN) topologies. ---------------------------- Military...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED Research and Development – Components – Applications, e.g., CWDM Ethernet ; optical packet

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  18. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert


    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  19. USSR Report, Military Affairs (United States)


    Democratic Revolution in Ethiopia"] [Excerpts] On 12 September 1974, a Volkswagen escorted by military vehicles left the gates of the Imperial...time. ,. The question that comes up is how long will the KRASNAYA ZVEZDA delivery to Kamchatka be treated so scandalously ? 12511 CSO:1801/14 48

  20. Resilience among Military Youth (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.


    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  1. The Military Instructor's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Peter; Grønlund, Thomas

    The Military Instructor's handbook was written for the basic professional training of instructors in the danish defence. The book describes the work of instructors and their areas of responsibility, and it offers guidance and direction on how to plan, conduct and evaluate learning activities...

  2. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?


    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn


    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method Th...

  3. Innovation Driver Nanoelectronics (United States)

    Lakner, Hubert


    When addressing the global societal challenges most solutions will require Nano electronics and Smart Systems - therefore innovation today is mainly based on nanoelectronics which has become one of the most important key enabling technologies and innovation drivers. Nanoelectronics has been extended by other microtechnologies. This results in additional functionalities. The combination of analog and digital electronics, the integration of sensors and actuators, of power devices and rf components on wafer level makes it possible to shrink shoebox sized systems to the size of a matchbox. But there is no innovation without research. Europe (Germany) is top in invention but poor in commercialization - many good ideas fail when going from research to production within the so-called Valley of Death. To overcome this, a clear strategy is necessary. Silicon Saxony, the big Saxonian cluster on micro- and nanoelectronics is presented as a best practice example: clear focus, addressing whole value chains and establishing joint technology platforms has led to a remarkable commercial success in the Dresden area.

  4. Older-driver foot movements. (United States)


    This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking. It built upon : the findings of a study documenting the prevalence and characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes : (Lococo, S...

  5. Roundabout design and elderly drivers. (United States)


    Many drivers are apprehensive to accept a roundabout as a viable form of intersection, but their : safety and mobility benefits are increasing their popularity among designers. This thesis is an indepth study of a specific approach at a roundabout in...

  6. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes. (United States)


    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  7. Teen driver cell phone blocker. (United States)


    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  8. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers. (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie


    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109....109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests in... LCV driver-instructor. (d) Guidance for testing methods and proficiency determinations. Motor carriers...

  10. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić


    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  11. Psychostimulants and military operations. (United States)

    Eliyahu, Uri; Berlin, Shai; Hadad, Eran; Heled, Yuval; Moran, Daniel S


    Sleep-deprived individuals appear to have decreased psychological and physical capabilities. Studies have shown how major psychological aspects, such as alertness, complex mental performance, and memory, are strongly affected by sleep deprivation. Military use of psychostimulants dates back many years, especially in units that operate over long hours and deprive soldiers of sleep. During prolonged military operations, pilots are regularly kept awake for hours and days without fulfilling their biological sleep requirements. This consequently affects their natural circadian rhythm. This article deals with both the benefits and the side effects of two kinds of psychostimulants, namely, dextroamphetamine, which is more popular and is most widely used, and modafinil, which is a relatively newer type. There is growing evidence that modafinil has fewer side effects, in comparison with its predecessor dextroamphetamine, while still maintaining all of the latter's beneficial characteristics.

  12. Military amphibious vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace


    Amphibious vehicles are necessary for militaries that need to get men and supplies from sea to shoreline. Readers will learn about the different kinds of amphibious vehicles and how they move over water and land! Big full-bleed photographs, new glossary terms, and a close up look at a vehicle will keep readers wanting more! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  13. Slowing Military Change (United States)


    subjective. More objective measurements, such as statistics on youth crime, teenage pregnancy , drug use, literacy, and educational achievement...SLOWING MILITARY CHANGE Zhivan J. Alach October 2008 This publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code...those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the New Zealand Defence Force, the New Zealand Government , the

  14. Acupuncture in Military Medicine (United States)


    Soldiers and family members, and to reduce excessive use, or supplement judicious use of pain medications. The Acupuncture in Modern Medicine336 Army ... acupuncture . Acupuncture in Military Medicine 331 3. A Holistic approach to pain Complementary and integrative (CI...medical care. More than other CI therapies, acupuncture has undergone a significant integration particularly as a complement to traditional pain manage

  15. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey (United States)


    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...batteries or delivering power back into an electrical grid . Additionally, new military vehicles are demanding an excess of 100kW, which can only be

  16. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal (United States)


    policy of recruiting units on a national basis, with the old Germanic nations of Württemberg, Bavaria, Saxony , and especially Prussia all sending their...the landed nobility or the recent relevant tactical experience of the combat officer. From a synthesis of the two approaches emerges a picture of...complete picture of overall military effectiveness. One must address the interrelationship between the four levels of war. Without this aspect, one can

  17. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn


    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  18. Military radiobiology: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Conklin, J.J.


    Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy

  19. [Civilian-military coordination]. (United States)

    de Montravel, G


    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  20. Triage in military settings. (United States)

    Falzone, E; Pasquier, P; Hoffmann, C; Barbier, O; Boutonnet, M; Salvadori, A; Jarrassier, A; Renner, J; Malgras, B; Mérat, S


    Triage, a medical term derived from the French word "trier", is the practical process of sorting casualties to rationally allocate limited resources. In combat settings with limited medical resources and long transportation times, triage is challenging since the objectives are to avoid overcrowding medical treatment facilities while saving a maximum of soldiers and to get as many of them back into action as possible. The new face of modern warfare, asymmetric and non-conventional, has led to the integrative evolution of triage into the theatre of operations. This article defines different triage scores and algorithms currently implemented in military settings. The discrepancies associated with these military triage systems are highlighted. The assessment of combat casualty severity requires several scores and each nation adopts different systems for triage on the battlefield with the same aim of quickly identifying those combat casualties requiring lifesaving and damage control resuscitation procedures. Other areas of interest for triage in military settings are discussed, including predicting the need for massive transfusion, haemodynamic parameters and ultrasound exploration. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Civil military operations in Ecuador


    Camacho, Carlos Eduardo Paladines.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Civil Military Operations (CMO) has often been blamed for the politicization of the armed forces and a loss of civilian control. This thesis confronts this traditional approach and argues that CMO need not lead to these outcomes. It introduces democratic civilian control of the armed forces, a well-established military mission, and civilian and military expertise as the basic requirements for the application of CMO. If the requirement...

  2. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė


    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela


    Full Text Available The evolution of military warfare and its increasing complexity has made planning for future military deployments more difficult. The need to plan for more uncertain military operating environments makes it more complex. There exists a significant...

  4. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech. (United States)


    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  5. Key drivers of airline loyalty (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna


    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  6. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.


    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  7. UWB dual burst transmit driver (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA


    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  8. Principles for developing animal models of military PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P. Daskalakis


    Full Text Available The extent to which animal studies can be relevant to military posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD continues to be a matter of discussion. Some features of the clinical syndrome are more easily modeled than others. In the animal literature, a great deal of attention is focused on modeling the characteristics of military exposures and their impact on measurable behaviors and biological parameters. There are many issues to consider regarding the ecological validity of predator, social defeat or immobilization stress to combat-related experience. In contrast, less attention has been paid to individual variation following these exposures. Such variation is critical to understand how individual differences in the response to military trauma exposure may result to PTSD or resilience. It is important to consider potential differences in biological findings when comparing extremely exposed to non-exposed animals, versus those that result from examining individual differences. Animal models of military PTSD are also critical in advancing efforts in clinical treatment. In an ideal translational approach to study deployment related outcomes, information from humans and animals, blood and brain, should be carefully considered in tandem, possibly even computed simultaneously, to identify molecules, pathways and networks that are likely to be the key drivers of military PTSD symptoms. With the use novel biological methodologies (e.g., optogenetics in the animal models, critical genes and pathways can be tuned up or down (rather than over-expressed or ablated completely in discrete brain regions. Such techniques together with pre-and post-deployment human imaging will accelerate the identification of novel pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention strategies.

  9. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  10. Military Mail Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bîlbîie Răduţ


    Full Text Available Cultural and scientific personalities from the army, military experts and creators of the doctrine have collaborated with the radio from the beginnings of radiophony, the educational role of this new, persuasive communication channel being evident not only for Romania or the Romanian army but also for all the countries that had radiophony services. This happens in the context of the end of the crisis and the start of economic and social development, promoting culture, creating a solid class of peasants with a certain social status, in villages, together with the priest, teacher and gendarme, increasing of the number of subscriptions and development of the Romanian radiophony.

  11. Military tracked vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace


    Tracked vehicles are important to militaries around the world, since they're usually supporting and carrying ground troops. Readers will learn what tracks are and why they're necessary for large, frontline battle tanks like the Bradley M2 Abrams. Big full-bleed photographs, new glossary terms, and a close up look at a vehicle will keep readers wanting more! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  12. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of ...

  13. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  14. The Death of Military Justice (United States)


    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  15. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence. (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William


    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  16. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    , annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  17. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  18. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, D.D.


    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  19. Older drivers' foot movements : traffic tech. (United States)


    This study explored how older drivers use their accelerator and : brake pedals, to identify characteristics that could pose an increased : risk of a pedal application error. The study also explored whether : driver-vehicle fit was related to these ch...

  20. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.


    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  1. Feasibility study on evaluating driver education curriculum. (United States)


    One way to attempt to reduce the problem of teen driving crashes is professional driver education. However, despite the : seemingly universal appeal of driver education, scientific evaluations have indicated that such programs generally do not : prod...

  2. Improving driver safety with behavioral countermeasures. (United States)


    "The purpose of this project was to provide MDOT with insight regarding the effectiveness of potential implementations of behavioral countermeasures for increasing driver safety in Michigan. The Center for Driver Evaluation, Education, and Research a...

  3. Managing drivers of innovation in construction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.


    Various drivers of construction innovation are distinguished and classified in four distinctive categories: environmental pressure, technological capability, knowledge exchange, and boundary spanning. Innovation drivers in these categories are active at the transfirm, intrafirm, and interfirm level

  4. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  5. The Ambiguity of Foreign Military Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya.......This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya....

  6. Gender Dysphoria in the Military. (United States)

    Ford, Shannon; Schnitzlein, Carla


    With the announcement that members of the military who identify as transgender are allowed to serve openly, the need for Department of Defense behavioral health providers to be comfortable in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of this population becomes quickly evident. This population has been seeking care in the community and standards have been developed to help guide decision-making, but a comparable document does not exist for the military population. Previously published papers were written in anticipation of the policy allowing for open service. The civilian sector has treatment guidelines and evidence supporting the same for reference. There is no similar document for the military population, likely due to the recent change and ongoing development. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent Department of Defense policy and walks the reader through key considerations when providing care to a transgender member of the military as it relates to those who are currently serving in the military through the use of a case example. The military transgender population faces some unique challenges due to the need to balance readiness and deployability with medically necessary health care. Also complicating patient care is that policy development is ongoing-as of this publication, the decision has not yet been made regarding how people who identify as transgender will access into the military nor is there final approval regarding coverage for surgical procedures. Unique circumstances of this population are brought up to generate more discussion and encourage further evaluation and refinement of the process.

  7. Military laser weapons: current controversies. (United States)

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y


    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  8. A Study of Military Technopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    , governments and military services hope to introduce game-changing military technologies that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’, investing heavily in research and development of AWS. In this paper, I wish to map the different and competing practices of critique and justification that shape the technopolitical...... controversy of AWS, showing its complexity and internal contradictions. In addition to identifying the dominant regimes of justification, that organize the discourse of AWS, I argue that the military bureau and its officeholders become technopolitical mediators and translators of risk in an emergent practice...

  9. Military Economy and the Military Reform in Russia in 2011


    Vasily Zatsepin; Elena Trofimova; Vitaly Tsymbal


    The transition to “a new image” of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation that started back in 2008 and continued through 2011 was clearly planned, as the Russian top military leaders affirmed. In practice, however, these plans proved to be “unbaked” and required online corrections and removal of deficiencies. This paper deals with the acute issues of the Russian Military Reform throughout 2011.

  10. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates


    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  11. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, Andy


    This document is on Geant 4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They re OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output with out an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple

  12. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab


    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  13. Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Brent M


    "Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations" argues that, under current domestic and international laws, and current military regulations and doctrine...

  14. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia


    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  15. Obesity Prevention in the Military. (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia


    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  16. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units (United States)


    might be focused on these dimensions. Is cohesion more difficult to build in multinational units comprised of contingents that come from individualistic ...societies or collectivistic societies? How the PD, uncertainty avoidance, and other dimensions affect multinational unit cohesion? Are military

  17. French military plans for Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.


    France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references

  18. Military Officer Appraisal, An Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Jay


    .... One unfailing theme is that each service s goal is to document an individuals military career and provide a consistent stream of reliable information to promotion, administrative, and command selection boards...

  19. Army Military Land Tracts (AMLT) (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — This data set is part of a collection of real estate data concerning current and historic military installations whose real property interests are managed by the...

  20. Homosexuality, Morality, and Military Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Michael


    .... The objective of this thesis is to determine if personal religious beliefs of military members influence their responses to policies that they perceive to involve morality, specifically with regard...

  1. Military fathers' perspectives on involvement. (United States)

    Willerton, Elaine; Schwarz, Rona L; Wadsworth, Shelley M Macdermid; Oglesby, Mary Schultheis


    Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age. Data were gathered via focus groups conducted with 71 fathers at 14 U.S. military installations. Descriptions of involvement were rich and varied. Involvement with children was a major concern for fathers, despite or perhaps because of the challenges of military careers. We discuss factors that help explain variations in involvement and offer insights about the conceptualization of father involvement for occupations requiring prolonged absences from home.

  2. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J


    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  3. Comparative International Military Personnel Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harries-Jenkins, Gwyn


    .... It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals, that is, those individuals who have a sexual propensity for persons of their own gender...

  4. Genetic Counseling in Military Hospitals (United States)


    mother allegedly mistreated for preeclampsia at Tripler Army Medical Center could maintain an action for medical malpractice nothwithstanding Feres.1 2...perinatologists at most military hospitals perform genetic counseling. Due to their primary responsibilities fo management of high risk pregnancies

  5. MilitaryPayDecnService (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Supports operations to access/update data related to (Compensation and Pension) Awards. This service will also support business processes such as reading military...

  6. Mass Driver Two - Cryogenic module (United States)

    Fine, K.; Williams, F.; Mongeau, P.; Kolm, H.


    The cryogenic module of Mass Driver Two comprises a 3.25 inch (82.55 mm) OD bucket with two 44 kilo-ampere-turn coils made with .028 inch (.71 mm) diam niobium-titanium multi-filamentary cable in a copper matrix, impregnated with lead alloy for thermal inertia, as well as the service station to refrigerate, energize and eject the bucket. The station is housed in a six inch flanged pyrex cross which connects to the four inch pyrex tube of the mass driver itself. The bucket is refrigerated by being forced against a copper braid cradle attached to the bottom of a liquid helium reservoir which protrudes into the cross from above. The bucket is energized inductively by turning off two superconducting coils which are also attached to the helium reservoir, and which have maintained the correct flux linkage through the bucket coils during their cool-down through the critical temperature. Once charging is completed, the clamping pressure is released and the bucket is injected into the mass driver by means of two normal-conductor pulse coils surrounding the horizontal branches of the cross.

  7. Military Adaptation to Climate Change (United States)


    of Defense United States of America Environment, Energy Security and Sustainability Symposium (May 9-12, 2011) Military Adaptation to Climate Change ...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Adaptation to Climate Change 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... climate change . …” Remarks at the Halifax International Security Forum, Halifax, Nova Scotia Nov 2009 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review For the first

  8. Military Influence in Russian Politics (United States)


    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse...for the military was 35 per of servicemen had such "backward" cent ( down from 44 per cent in political view•.iii One tends to agree December, 1989

  9. ?-Alanine supplementation and military performance


    Hoffman, Jay R.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Harris, Roger C.; Moran, Daniel S.


    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. ?-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle grow...

  10. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers. (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei


    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković


    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  12. Dominant drivers of business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Cătălina


    Full Text Available Taibi Kahler wrote in 1974 a theory about five main drivers that could explain people’s motivation and a series of positive and negative behavior patterns: Be Strong, Be Perfect, Hurry Up, Try Hard and Please People. Of course, we consider there is no absolute positive or negative behavior, since (1 everything needs to be analyzed by taking into account the context and (2 any behavior pattern can mean a series of advantages as long as people understand their own values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. It would be interesting to link Kahler’s drivers to the educational process, in order to be able to adapt our courses and our teaching styles to students’ requirements and also to the requirements in the labor market. Our paper is built on literature review and a questionnaire applied to a sample of 607 students in Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Information was processed with Microsoft Excel 2013, in order to look at the main working styles our students have, at the main explanations for the differences between them and in order to test a series of hypotheses. We were interested to look at the main traits of the current generation of students in our university: dominant drivers, roles of managers and specialists, the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial career path, etc. and at a series of patterns (i.e. gender-related differences. We consider results of this study are useful both for teaching and research purposes. In terms of teaching, we plan to adapt our educational methods in order to improve the educational process.

  13. Mass drivers. 1: Electrical design (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.


    A mass driver is an electrical device used to accelerate payloads of any material to a high velocity. Small vehicles (called buckets) containing superconducting coils carry the payloads. These buckets are accelerated by pulsed magnetic fields, timed by information on their position, and are guided by induced magnetic fields set up in a surrounding guideway. Upon reaching the correct velocity, the buckets release their payloads, then they are slowed for recirculation to be reused. A rationale is presented that leads to a relatively simple and near-optimum design, as well as basic programs for calculating acceleration. The transverse oscillation frequencies are found to be invariant to guideway transverse dimensions.

  14. Recent developments in mass drivers (United States)

    Oneill, G. K.


    In the past eight months a new mass driver concept has been explored through calculation and inductance model verification. It retains the linear synchronous principle and freedom from arcs, plasmas or physical contact between the accelerated bucket and accelerator. However, it discards passive magnetic flight and obtains transverse focussing from strong off-axis restoring forces produced by drive coils operating in a pull-only mode. This paper gives the reasoning on which the new concept is based, and applies the concept to a lunar catapult design.

  15. Drivers of sustainable future mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna

    by bicycle were related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, but are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender, residential...... the semantic content of the data, to create a data driven conceptual model. Three segments of pre-drivers were identified: car enthusiasts, who would like to be early car users, car pragmatists, who would like to have the license at an early stage and a car at a later stage, and car sceptics, who are late...

  16. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh


    Piezoelectric actuator drive aims to enable reliable motor performance in strong magnetic fields for magnetic res- onance imaging and computed tomography treatment tables. There are technical limitations in operation of these motors and drive systems related to magnetic interference. Piezoelectric...... actuators. Therefore, piezoelectric transformer-based power converters are used for driving piezoelectric actuator drive motor in the presence of high electromagnetic field....... actuator drive is the only form-fit continuous drive solution currently available for the development of high performance nonmagnetic motors. In this research focus will be on the non magnetic compact high efficiency driver for the piezo actuators and on employing energy recovery from the capacitive...

  17. Monitoring Car Drivers' Condition Using Image Processing (United States)

    Adachi, Kazumasa; Yamamto, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Osami; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    We have developed a car driver monitoring system for measuring drivers' consciousness, with which we aim to reduce car accidents caused by drowsiness of drivers. The system consists of the following three subsystems: an image capturing system with a pulsed infrared CCD camera, a system for detecting blinking waveform by the images using a neural network with which we can extract images of face and eye areas, and a system for measuring drivers' consciousness analyzing the waveform with a fuzzy inference technique and others. The third subsystem extracts three factors from the waveform first, and analyzed them with a statistical method, while our previous system used only one factor. Our experiments showed that the three-factor method we used this time was more effective to measure drivers' consciousness than the one-factor method we described in the previous paper. Moreover, the method is more suitable for fitting parameters of the system to each individual driver.

  18. Ethics and the Military Profession. Sports and the Military (United States)


    s/V iJ SThe similarities-betWeen athletic competition and comibat have been frequently cited by both military and sports figures. The labels used in...oi’ punishing, is not -war; -and War, obviously,,, i’s never sImply a game . The feature rticle addresses the connection between sports and war Sand... competition and combat have been frequently cited by ,both military and sports figures. The labels used in -ne activity have bee6me metaphor s in the

  19. "Polite People" and Military Meekness: the Attributes of Military Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Didov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of "polite people" from the point of view of the history and theory of ethical thought. Identify and specify ethical principles that form the basis of military courtesy. On the basis of the revealed regularities, the study proves that ethics is impossible without a certain power attributes, which constitute its core. In relation to the traditions of Russian warriors revealed the key role to their formation of the Orthodox ethics and the military of meekness. The obtained results can serve as material for educational activities for the formation of fighting spirit.

  20. Mass Driver Two - A status report (United States)

    Snow, W. R.; Dunbar, R. S.; Kubby, J. A.; Oneill, G. K.


    The current status of Mass Driver Two, a linear synchronous motor for accelerating payloads or reaction mass, is discussed. Mass Driver Two combines all the essential elements of an operational mass driver with the exception of bucket recirculation and payload handling. These essential elements include: magnetic flight, vacuum environment, superconducting bucket coils, high acceleration (nominally 500 g's), optical position sensing and electronic triggering, power circuitry similar to that of a flight article, and regenerative braking. Mass Driver Two is operated on a single shot basis.

  1. Effect of freeway level of service and driver education on truck driver stress : phase 1. (United States)


    This research primarily deals with truck driver stress and its nature, stressors, and their mutual relationship. During the : study, the different demands of driving that are related to roads, vehicle, traffic conditions, driver predisposition to : s...

  2. Driving experiences of disabled drivers. (United States)

    Prasad, R S; Hunter, J; Hanley, J


    To study the influence of non-standard controls on return to driving after disability, including prevalence of accidents/retraining difficulties. Postal questionnaires sent within two years of assessment to 972 disabled drivers seen over a three-year period. Scottish Driving Assessment Service. All patients considered capable of driving after assessment during the study period. Five hundred and eighty-nine people (61 %) replied who were representative of the total population (mean age 55 years, range 19-87); 73% were male and 70% were disabled for up to two years. Overall 79% respondents had returned to driving (highest reported success with standard manual car (86%) and lowest using left foot to accelerate and brake (66%) (chi2 = 16.6, P = 0.005)). A significantly higher proportion of the 30 patients (6.5%) admitting to accidents and 25 (5.4%) to problems with retraining were using non-standard driving techniques, especially the use of hand controls. Disabled drivers returning to drive using non-familiar controls had lower success and a higher proportion of accidents and/or problems with retraining than people using conventional controls. If confirmed in larger studies this may have implications for policy-makers as well as specialist practitioners.

  3. Information Management: Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... It describes a program sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Department of the Army in which military installations, military units, clubs, and volunteer licensed amateur radio...

  4. Committee on Military Nutrition Research Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poos, Mary


    This publication, Military Sfrategies for Sustainment of Nufrition and Immune Function in the Field, is the latest in a series of reports based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR...

  5. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda


    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  6. Military Courts-Martial: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velez Pollack, Estela I


    The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by the military in Iraq have raised questions about how the Armed Forces discipline and punish those who commit crimes or violate the rules and regulations of the military...

  7. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Amie


    The Department of Defense s (DoD) is conducting a series of adult polls focused on attitudes of those who influence youth about the military and their likelihood to recommend military service to youth...

  8. Jewish Culture and the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Adam M


    This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...

  9. A Framework for NGO-Military Collaboration (United States)


    NGO-military collaboration during operations. Rietjens, Van Fenema , and Essens write about the incorporation of military, NGOs, and others HADR, conflict, and post-conflict operations. Rietjens, Van Fenema , and Essens point out that for NGOs collaboration with the military can be...Rietjens, Van Fenema , and Essens 2013, 20). Common Effort was an attempt to familiarize NGOs, IGOs, and militaries with each other’s practices and

  10. Children of Military Service Members Resource Guide (United States)

    2012-01-01 developed by military pediatricians and adolescent-medicine specialists, this animated film, hosted by mr. poe, is designed to provide...military Communities youth ministries url: url: time: 92 minutes developed by military pediatricians developed by military pediatricians and adolescent-medicine specialists, this film is designed for older children and adolescents to help

  11. The Role of Communication in Military Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lewińska


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of communication in military leadership. First of all, basic terms related to communication, command and military leadership are explained. In the following parts of the paper it is intended to answer the question contained in the title: what is the role of communication in the military leadership? To precise the issue: is the role of communication in military organisations similar to civilian leadership and management or does it significantly differ?

  12. A Descriptive Study on the Military Leadership


    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen; Anes Zukic


    This study provides more complete deliberation of the current practices of leadership in the surveyed Armed Forces. This study aims to descriptively identify the degree of motivating military leadership, military environment, characteristics of military leaders and military leadership benefits in the selected army. The research method conducted was based on survey of 200 respondents in Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and descriptive analyses of the survey data. According to the results...

  13. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anund, A.; Ihlström, J.; Fors, C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Filtness, A.J.


    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a

  14. Driver Anger Scale (DAS Among Car Drivers: How Serious Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, anger while driving on the road is a crucial issue in Malaysia. The anger of driver may lead to traffic crashes. Road accident issue is an important agenda in every country. Driver behaviour and attitude such as impatience, hasty and hot-tempered on the road has become one of the causes in road accidents. Uncontrolled anger will affect the behavior of oneself during driving and could cause an individual to display aggressive attitude. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify contributing factor in anger of drivers and evaluate the Driver Anger Scale (DAS in Batu Pahat, Johor. In addition, this study also analyzes the relationship between driver anger and the factor of DAS. Cross sectional study method was conducted in this study by distributing 250 questionnaires to car drivers. The data collectied was analyzed by descriptive, chi-square test, correlation and regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. The findings show that the discourtesy was reported as the most dominant factor contributing to driver anger. As a recommendation, to overcome driver anger issue, the authorities should prepare an action plan, promote and nurture public to practice good driving behaviour. Moreover, curriculum and driver training lesson should be improved to create better attitude among drivers. Drivers also should change their driving attitude by becoming safe drivers and exhibiting defensive driving skills on the road.

  15. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...... analyses of the evolving, multi-layered tapestry of formal and informal mechanisms of control include addressing the microfoundations of the market: the social and role identities of contract employees, their acceptance by military personnel, and potential tensions between them. The extent and willingness...

  16. 78 FR 43796 - Indebtedness of Military Personnel (United States)


    ... Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 513 Indebtedness of Military Personnel AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Final rule; removal. SUMMARY: This action removes regulations concerning indebtedness of military... CFR Part 112, ``Indebtedness of Military Personnel,'' and DoD Financial Management Review (FMR...

  17. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.


    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  18. 5 CFR 831.301 - Military service. (United States)


    ... disability retirement, who is receiving a Veterans Administration pension or compensation in lieu of military... Administration pension or compensation and have the military service added to civilian service for annuity... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831.301...

  19. The Barracks Subculture of Military School Students (United States)

    Poliakov, R. Iu.


    The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  20. Limits of Military Power for National Security. (United States)

    Melman, Seymour


    Reviews the post World War II nuclear-military arms race and claims that it is possible to define significant limits of military power for national security. Topics discussed include public opinion regarding the arms race, constraints on military power, conventional forces, checkmating conventional strategy, and the seriousness of nuclear false…

  1. National Leadership Summit on Military Families (United States)


    now offering a full range of services for military families, including nutrition programs, financial planning services, and other support. The...has a huge breadth of capacities to support military families, including nutrition programs, financial literacy report, community health and well...would develop policies, programs, and services for children with special needs, including those with autism (the autism rate among military children is

  2. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215... BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation. Military... consult legal counsel before undertaking such representation. Such representation may be prohibited by 18...

  3. Mental Reservation and Military Testimony before Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Gordon R


    .... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.

  4. Military coups and military regimes in Africa | Japhet | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit. (United States)


    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  6. Cedar Avenue driver assist system evaluation report. (United States)


    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the Driver Assist System (DAS) used by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority (MTVA) for bus shoulder operations. The DAS is a GPS-based technology suite that provides lane-position feedback to the driver via a ...

  7. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  8. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb


    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  9. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer (United States)

    Wallace, Bilby J.


    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  10. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab


    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  11. 49 CFR 177.816 - Driver training. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver training. 177.816 Section 177.816... Information and Regulations § 177.816 Driver training. (a) In addition to the training requirements of § 177... employee who will operate a motor vehicle has been trained in the applicable requirements of 49 CFR parts...

  12. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project (United States)


    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  13. Driver electronic device use in 2013. (United States)


    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  14. Frictional Dermatosis in a Courier Driver


    Wollina, Uwe; Tchernev, Georgi; Lotti, Torello


    Frictional hypermelanosis is an uncommon finding in Caucasians. We report the unusual case of 56-year-old male courier driver who developed linear and patchy hypermelanosis of the back caused by the driver's seat. Histology has included other pathologies. Treatment of the asymptomatic hyper pigmentation was not warranted.

  15. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.


    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  16. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A


    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  17. The drivers of plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann

    , and these results highlight that even large-scale vegetation patterns can be influenced by climate change and anthropogenic pressures. In Paper III we investigate how sampling bias in botanical dataset can influence patterns of species richness and parameter estimation from statistical analyses. We test...... moredistinct. Climate change, forest fires, and forest loss were identified as the most important drivers of forest alpha and beta diversity change over time. In Paper VI we utilize a new concept in community ecology, dark diversity, to quantify the effect of present and historical environmental factors...... on species diversity in the European Alps using monitoring data from the Alps Vegetation Database. We identified grassland and rocky habitats to have the highest dark diversity intensified by high human influence. We conclude that dark diversity is a valuable conservation tool that can guide conservation...

  18. High-acceleration mass drivers (United States)

    Oneill, G. K.; Kolm, H. H.


    High-acceleration mass drivers are discussed including the MD2 model of axial geometry, with individually powered drive coils of 13.1 cm diameter. Timing is derived through the interruption of light beams by the moving armature (bucket). Electric power is provided by the resonant discharge of sector capacitor banks through silicon-controlled rectifiers in a two-phase, quadrature circuit. The bucket flies in vacuum, guided by passive dynamic eddy-current magnetic forces, those currents flowing in strip conductors lining the inside of a nonconducting vacuum pipe. Quantitative measurements are obtained with a solid bucket carrying two superconducting coils with a current density of 25 kA/sq cm. A cryogenic station for cooling the bucket to liquid helium temperature is connected to the vacuum pipe.

  19. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits. (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira


    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Square pulse linear transformer driver (United States)

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Alexeenko, V. M.; Bayol, F.; Demol, G.; Stygar, W. A.


    The linear transformer driver (LTD) technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling) top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  1. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control (United States)

    Allen, R. W.


    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  2. Pushing the Limits of Military Coercion Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo


    The centrality of military coercion in contemporary Western crisis and conflict management constitutes a major policy problem because the United States and its allies are poor at translating their overwhelming military superiority into adversary compliance. The standard explanation provided...... military coercion works and how the practical problems involved could be addressed. Our understanding of military coercion would be increased markedly if only coercion theorists would make a greater efforts to do three things, namely (1) provide clear operational definitions of key concepts and variables...... the principal theoretical propositions with a firmer empirical foundation and make military coercion theory more useful for policy makers....

  3. Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations (United States)


    were codified by the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011(P.L. 112-25). 1 The effect on appropriations in general, with specific emphasis on defense, has...FY2015 Appropriations, by Sidath Viranga Panangala. CRS Report RL34024, Veterans and Homelessness , by Libby Perl. Military Construction: FY2017

  4. 'Military Thinkers and Academic Thinkers'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Culture analysis seems to create friction when we try to introduce academic concepts relating to culture to military planners. This friction might be related to the fact that officers and academics do their thinking in different 'spaces'. This paper argues the interface or overlapping space between...

  5. Stress fractures in military training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.


    During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population

  6. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training (United States)


    cross-cultural awareness training in various commercial sectors, the field of cross-cultural communication (also known as intercultural communication...advanced language skills, and culture and regional expertise with the goals to promote a rethinking of culture and intercultural competence, and how... Intercultural Competence” (Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY), 4. 34Headquarters

  7. Military Review: Airland Battle Future (United States)


    of inc to the exclusion of other factors may be ideal for enemy forces). Since Anglo-American military a bar room brawl, but should it be the pnme...our periods of war, featuring such stars as Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Martha Raye , Marilyn Monroe, and more recently,Lee Greenwood, Steve Martin and Jay

  8. Hypersonic Technology for Military Application (United States)


    TechnologyL . for Military Application Air Force Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council .iA -iorn For NTIS CNA...because coinp:’ters can simulate fraction of the vehicle, simultaneously twe hypQ rsonic flighi parameters of velccit;, free stream 7) The laige fuel

  9. Father Absence in Military Families (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Elizabeth D.


    A sample of 73 boys and 53 girls in the sixth grade of a school for military dependents were assessed on intelligence, classroom behavior, parental dominance, parental identification and family constellation. Differences in how children cope with stress are discussed. (Author)

  10. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke


    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  11. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid


    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  12. Parent-taught driver education in Texas : a comparative evaluation (United States)


    An evaluation of the Parent-Taught Driver Education (PTDE) program in Texas was conducted using three different research techniques: (1) focus groups with driver education instructors, teen drivers, and their parents; (2) statewide mail survey of you...

  13. National Museum of Military History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides


    Full Text Available Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of interest. This article focuses predominantly on international tourists visiting the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In addition to the interest that such museums generate, they play a key role as the organizational foundation stones of modernity. It is via their many interesting exhibits that museums enlighten us about the past that intrinsically highlights its distance from the present era. Museums also selectively reconstitute aspects of history and in so doing alienate many artefacts from their original context and yet manage to impart deep understanding of events that shaped the modern world. Museums of all types thus impart knowledge and have a wide range of tales to tell concerning the many and diverse assortments of objects they hold. National pride is an obvious reason for having a military museum where the comprehensive display of military equipment is exceptionally unique while exhibition halls also offer an educational narrative of a nation’s history. What is also of interest to many visitors is the type of research that is carried out in a multiplicity of ways. The huge global growth in tourism in recent years has contributed to many museums radically altering their exhibits in both content and manner of exhibition. This is significant given the reciprocal impact that museums and tourism have on one another. The attractions in museums are regarded by many to be central to the tourism process and these are very often the main reason for many tourists visiting

  14. The potential of military training areas for bird conservation in a central European landscape (United States)

    Bušek, Ondřej; Reif, Jiří


    European biodiversity has suffered from serious declines during the past few decades, with alterations of land use practices resulting in a loss of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity being a dominant driver. This heterogeneity was maintained by extensive landscape management, which has gradually been replaced by either intensive exploitation or land abandonment. It has been suggested that military training can generate habitat heterogeneity that may support the existence of species of conservation concern, but studies rigorously testing the real importance of military training areas for biodiversity are lacking. Here we address this issue by analyses of two datasets. First, we compared land cover classes between all large military training areas (MTAs) and surrounding control areas (CAs) of the same size in the Czech Republic using multivariate redundancy analysis. We found that the difference in land cover between MTAs and CAs was significant and represented the strongest gradient in land cover classes: from various farmland and artificial habitats typical for CAs to forest and scrubland-grassland mosaic typical for MTAs. Second, we selected one of these areas and compared bird species richness between the MTA and the nearby CA using generalized linear mixed effects models. We found that the number of species of conservation concern was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA. With respect to habitats, bird species richness was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA for open habitats, but not for forest habitats. Our results are thus consistent with the view that military training creates areas that are different from the surrounding landscape in terms of land cover, and that this difference translates to a suitability for species of conservation concern. It is remarkable that the positive influence of military training is confined to open habitats, which are subject to the most intensive military activities and also suffer the highest degree of

  15. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim


    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  16. Canadian Model of Military Leadership as a Successful Mixture of Civilian and Military Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Malinowski


    Full Text Available The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil theories with experience and needs of the military environment. This solution may be a perfect example of effective application of leadership theory to modify the existing national model of military leadership and construct a more efficient one.

  17. Military Gay Ban Revisited: Is our Military Ready for Change? (United States)


    Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank

  18. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective (United States)


    steps can military members take to ensure their actions contribute to a strong relationship with their civilian leaders? Is it incumbent on...was Africa-American. Campbell Gibson and Kay Jung . Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin...such as the MV-22 Osprey, the perceived obtuseness to the problem of sexual assault, and the leaking of sensitive information to media outlets by

  19. U.S. - Mexico Military to Military Cooperation Revisited (United States)


    level – as well as between officeholders to one another on a “horizontal” basis. Accountability measures in the US/ Mexico Bi- National Performance ...Code, Title 32, Chapter 1, Section 112 64 U.S.- Mexico Bi-National Cooperation Against Illicit Drugs, Main Results and Performance Measures of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. - MEXICO MILITARY TO

  20. Health, stabilization and securitization: towards understanding the drivers of the military role in health interventions. (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart


    In the post-Cold War world, health issues have become firmly rooted in state foreign policies through initiatives such as the UK's 'Health is Global' strategy. However, since 9/11, there has also been growing interest in the interactions between health sector interventions and state fragility. Whilst fragility clearly has a negative impact upon both health outcomes and the capacity of the state to respond to health issues generally, there has been a growing assumption amongst policy makers and practitioners alike that carefully formulated health programmes contribute both to social stability and more widely to a state- and peace-building agenda. This process risks being co-opted by the debates on 'stabilization'--a discourse configured around addressing state fragility and often associated with the interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan. Consequently, this article explores the emergence of health interventions as 'strategic tools' linked to the stabilization debate, explores the emergence of the 'health as a bridge for peace' (HBP) debate, assesses some of the evidence available for HBP and finally focuses on the issues arising from the use of militarized health interventions, particularly in Helmand.

  1. Chinese Military Reform in the Age of Xi Jinping: Drivers, Challenges, and Implications (United States)


    directed the evacuation of sick Chinese workers from Fiery Cross Reef in the South China Sea, suggesting that the navy headquarters retained at least a...structure; placing a ground force officer in the chain of command of maritime operations in the South China Sea may not have been the most effective...Commander Space, cyber issues Commander, U.S. Strategic Command SSF Commander North Korea Commander, U.S. Forces Korea Northern TC Commander East China


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  3. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens


    and warning, the ISA had an incentive in the form of rewards for speeding avoidance and social control - the latter, however, did not work sufficiently. When a key ID was used, the proportion of speeding was low while driving with ISA. Without key ID there was virtually no change in driving behaviour...... regardless of ISA. Also, a statistical model showed that drivers sensitive to ISA sped significantly less in baseline than insensitive dri- vers. Moreover, on the basis of questionnaires it was found that drivers could be categorised as either green drivers (not positive to speeding) or red (more positive...

  4. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance...... improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  5. Camera-based driver assistance systems (United States)

    Grimm, Michael


    In recent years, camera-based driver assistance systems have taken an important step: from laboratory setup to series production. This tutorial gives a brief overview on the technology behind driver assistance systems, presents the most significant functionalities and focuses on the processes of developing camera-based systems for series production. We highlight the critical points which need to be addressed when camera-based driver assistance systems are sold in their thousands, worldwide - and the benefit in terms of safety which results from it.

  6. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard


    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  7. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving......The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...

  8. [Psychopathological and psychosocial aspects of military crimes]. (United States)

    Woś, Jarosław; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof


    Crimes in the military, as well as criminal behaviors in the civilian community are determined by multiple factors. However, in case of military crimes committed by soldiers on active duty, an important part of forensic psychiatric opinion, is to assess whether occurring mental disorder resulted in inability to perform military duties. was to investigate the psychopathological and psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior in soldiers who committed military crime. The study included 122 soldiers who committed military crime. Material for this study consisted of forensic psychiatric opinions formed on the order of military prosecutor and the military judicial authorities. The results indicate that military crimes are determined by multiple factors. In most cases, the criminal behavior was associated with personality disorder (70%), alcohol problems (43%) and psychoactive substance use (30%). Psychosocial factors analysis revealed more frequent behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence (51%), history of parental alcohol problem (31%) and previous criminal record (29%). Forensic psychiatric examinations revealed that military crimes are more frequent in soldiers on compulsory military service, and in those with personality disorder or/and alcohol problems.

  9. Child passengers and driver culpability in fatal crashes by driver gender. (United States)

    Maasalo, Ida; Lehtonen, Esko; Pekkanen, Jami; Summala, Heikki


    Studies based on accident statistics generally suggest that the presence of a passenger reduces adult drivers' accident risk. However, passengers have been reported to be a source of distraction in a remarkable portion of distraction-related crashes. Although the effect of passengers on driving performance has been studied extensively, few studies have focused on how a child passenger affects the driver.  A child in a car is a potential distractor for parents, especially for mothers of small children, who often suffer from sleep deficit. The aim of this study was to examine how the presence of child passengers of different ages is associated with a higher driver culpability, which was expected due to child-related distraction and fatigue. The analysis was based on the comprehensive data of fatal crashes studied in-depth by multidisciplinary road accident investigation teams in Finland during 1988-2012. Teams determine the primary party who had the most crucial effect on the origin of the event. We define the primary party as culpable and the others involved as nonculpable drivers. The culpability rate was defined as the percentage of culpable drivers and rates were compared for drivers with a child/teen passenger aged 0-17 years (N = 348), with an adult passenger without children (N = 324), and when driving alone (N = 579), grouped by child age and driver gender.  Drivers with specific risk-related behavior (substantial speeding, driving when intoxicated, unbelted, or without a license) were excluded from the analyses, in order to make the drivers with and without children comparable. Only drivers 26-47 years old were included, representing parents with children 0-9 years of age. Male drivers were less often culpable with 0- to 17-year-old passengers in the car than alone or with adults. This was not the case with female drivers. The gender difference in culpability was most marked with small children age 0-4 years. Female drivers' culpability rate with a 0

  10. Family Resilience in the Military (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan


    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  11. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise


    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  12. Organizational commitment of military physicians. (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay


    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  13. 32 CFR 635.17 - Military Police Report. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...

  14. Military Engagement with Social Media (United States)


    take advantages of the many languages supported by these social media tools to communicate with brothers in different regions of the continent. On...needs to properly engage and develop a comprehensive social media strategy to utilize the available social networks and stay current with the ever...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. MILITARY ENGAGEMENT WITH SOCIAL MEDIA BY

  15. Afghanistan: Military Occupation and Ethnocracy


    Goodman, James; Razi, Wahid


    Afghanistan has been a key site of state-building, founded on pragmatic ethno-military consociationalism. The 2001 invasion and subsequent occupation consolidated ethnicity as a political force in Afghanistan. Inter-ethnic elite bargaining instituted an ethnocratic oligarchy, grounded in militarism. Against this, everyday politics in Afghanistan has centred on social clientelism, founded on kinship networks rather than ethnicity. At the same time, formal political structures, expressed in the...

  16. Military Suicide Research Consortium (MSRC) (United States)


    Osman, A., Gilpin , A. R., Panak, W. F., Kopper, B. A., Barrios, F. X., Gutierrez, P. M., & Chiros, C. E. (2000). The Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency...Psychological Association Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, May 4, 2000. Kopper, B. A., Osman, A., Gilpin , A. R., Panak, W. F., Barrios, F. X., Gutierrez...investigator (PIs Robert Bossarte, Ph.D. & Ira Katz, MD); $569,222 for Patient Safety Center of Inquiry. 3/11-2/13 Department of Defense, Military



    limits to one’s loyalty. An understanding of the conflicting and competing values service members may possess because of religion , family, friends... School . He then continued his military education at the Army’s Command and Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, KS. From 2009-2011, LTC Gipson It necessarily traverses the boundaries of family, friendship, country, and religion by requiring the service members to subordinate

  18. Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa (United States)


    A modern example of a military that became more inclusive is the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). A concerted post- apartheid effort...its commandos in the post- apartheid transition. Upon creating the newly integrated SANDF, South Africa disbanded the country’s commando system...because of their apartheid origination. Unfortunately, however, the vacuum left by their departure has contributed to the skyrocketing criminality.71

  19. Civil Military Operations In Ecuador (United States)


    103 "Alarma por avance de la delincuencia", El Comercio, 28 of January of 2003 104 "Vaca: "Existen indicios de actividades terroristas...nation support (FNS). FNS refers to identifying, coordinating, and acquiring foreign nation (FN) resources such as supplies, materiel, and labor to...indigenous military forces as labor and is planned as short-term projects... The Projects should be useful to the local populace at all levels in

  20. Heavy-ion driver parametric studies and choice of a base 5 mega-joule driver design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Meier, W.


    Parametric studies to optimize heavy-ion driver designs are described and an optimized 5 MJ driver design is described. Parametric studies are done on driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, axial quadrupole field packing fraction, ion mass, and ion charge state. All modeled drivers use the maximum beam currents allowed by the Maschke limits; driver scaling is described in a companion paper. The optimized driver described is conservative and cost effective. The base driver direct costs are only $120/Joule, and the base driver uses no recirculation, beam combination, or beam separation. The low driver cost achieved is due, in part, to the use of compact Nb 3 Sn quadrupole arrays, but results primarily from optimization over the large, multi-dimensional, parameter space available for heavy-ion drivers

  1. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the...

  2. Linear Transformer Drivers for Propulsion and Power (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Explore a variant of the linear transformer driver (LTD) concept being developed by Sandia Laboratories and University of Michigan, with the following differences:...

  3. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers (United States)


    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  4. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak


    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  5. Administration of Driver and Traffic Safety Education. (United States)

    Huffman, Warren J.; Thompson, Adelbert F.


    Several arguments for and against driver education and safety programs in the schools are summarized. The validity of the statistics used by opponents is questioned and evidence in support of such programs are outlined. (JMF)

  6. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability. (United States)


    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  7. Symbol signing design for older drivers (United States)


    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  8. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles


    , as any changes in the interfaces exported by the kernel and driver support libraries can trigger a large number of adjustments in dependent drivers. These adjustments, which we refer to as collateral evolutions, may be complex, entailing substantial code reorganizations. As to our knowledge there exist...... no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  9. Driver education program status report : software system. (United States)


    In April of 1980, a joint decision between Research Council personnel and representatives of the Department of Education was reached, and a project was undertaken by the Research Council to provide a software system to process the annual Driver Educa...

  10. Assessing the needs of Delaware's older drivers. (United States)


    In light of Delawares growing population age 60 and older (60+), it is important to plan for the : states projected increase in older drivers. Information from the United States Census Bureau : (2005) indicates that Delaware is projected to hav...

  11. Experimental testing of designated driver cues (United States)


    In theory, the designated-driver concept holds great promise for reducing the incidences of drunk driving. It is simple, inexpensive, almost universally recognized, and generally positively regarded by the U.S. population as a means for avoiding drun...

  12. Driver circuit for solid state light sources (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven


    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  13. Availability, Strengths and Limitations of US State Driver?s License Data for Obesity Research


    Littenberg, Benjamin; Lubetkin, Derek


    Objectives:?Driver?s license records in the United States typically contain age, sex, height, weight, and home address. By combining the body mass index (calculated from the reported height and weight) and address information, researchers can explore and quantify the relationships between obesity and specific environmental features surrounding the place of residence. We report here our experience obtaining those data and the current state of driver?s license data as an epidemiological resourc...

  14. A Military and Industry Partnership Program: The Transfer of Military Simulation Technology Into Commercial Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, William


    This research thesis is a study through a military commercial industry partnership to seek whether investments in military modeling and simulation can be easily transferred to benefit commercial industry...

  15. Global account management strategies: Drivers and outcomes


    Linda Hui Shi; J Chris White; Shaoming Zou; S Tamer Cavusgil


    Global account management (GAM) has become a vital part of many multinational enterprises’ global marketing. Yet little is known about successful GAM strategies. In this study, we conceptualize GAM strategies, and develop and empirically test an integrated theoretical model that links GAM strategies to their drivers and outcomes. We find that: (1) global strategic priority and globalization are significant drivers of four GAM strategies – inter-country coordination, inter-organizational coord...

  16. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning


    Ghoneim, Youssef A.


    This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC). The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates b...

  17. Electron cloud considerations for HIF drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H., E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (United States)


    We review some previous results on electron-cloud dynamics and accumulation and the impact of electron clouds on ion beam dynamics, and assess these in the context of a magnetic-quadrupole-based heavy-ion fusion driver. We present a new analysis which exploits analytic solution of linearized envelope equations between accelerating gaps to derive a set of mapping equations which we use to extrapolate from previously obtained particle-simulation results for a beam transport system to an HIF driver.

  18. Drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detections. (United States)

    Skurtveit, Svetlana; Abotnes, Bjørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg S


    Norwegian drugged drivers with benzodiazepine (BZD) detections have been studied with regard to drug use pattern and rearrest rate. During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Blood samples from all drivers were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT). The samples were analysed using a standard program covering the most commonly abused drugs on the marked in Norway. BZDs, representing some of the most frequently detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% (n = 1051) of the cases, represented by 14% (n = 150) female and 86% (n = 901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases, one BZD only was detected, half of these cases with one BZD could reflect therapeutic use. One or more BZDs were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), and/or alcohol (24%). 62% of the drivers with BZD detections, had earlier been arrested for the same offence, or six cases per rearrested driver. The frequency of earlier arrests were lower for female (34%) than for male (67%) drivers. Alcohol was most frequently found for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with their first arrest during 1992-1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZD are mainly represented by drug abusers due to frequent multi-drug use, blood concentrations representing doses above therapeutic levels and high rearrest rate for the same offence. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence.

  19. Physics at a New Fermilab Proton Driver


    Geer, S.


    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ``Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future U.S. neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ``A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing CP viol...

  20. Online Reporting of Military Sexual Trauma. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Lee, Wendy J; Carretta, Carrie M


    Case finding and treatment of military sexual trauma (MST) remains a serious problem in military and veteran populations as well as in the civilian population. This report provides descriptive examples, with statistics, of persons serving in the military or while living/working on a military base when they experienced unwanted sex. Males, more than females, never disclosed MST before online survey, had more physical injuries as a result and reported chronic disturbing thoughts of the experience. Undisclosed and unreported intrafamilial childhood sexual experiences were cited before an MST by some respondents. Interprofessional collaboration is recommended between military nurse practitioners and behavioral health clinicians as well as innovative strategies using telecommunication and online counseling. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev


    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  2. Effects of Defensive Vehicle Handling on Novice Driver Safety : Phase 3. Data Analysis and Results (United States)


    This project evaluates the effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for Montanas young : drivers. A total of 347 teenaged drivers who had completed high school driver education agreed to participate. : These drivers were randomly spl...

  3. Important information for drivers in France

    CERN Multimedia


    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  4. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings


    Bolin, Phil Warren


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  5. Knowledge of Tyre Pressures and Tyre Care among Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of normal tyre pressures and tyre care among motor vehicle drivers in Benin City. Three hundred and one drivers were interviewed consisting of 273 males and 28 females. There were 100 private and 201 commercial drivers. Of the 100 private drivers 67 use brand ...

  6. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  7. Estimating total manoeuvring time of drivers using Gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ages of drivers, service period of vehicles, and pavement conditions were also obtained by interviewing the drivers. A model of cumul-ative response times of driver-vehicle-road interaction developed indicated that TMT was contributed by the interactions of driver perception-reaction time, steering time and vehicle ...

  8. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network (United States)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  9. A Review of Military Recruiting Research. (United States)


    military, primarily youth unemployment rates and military/civilian pay ratios. Youth awareness of the military and the propensity of the youth cohort to...youth, Youth unemployment rate, and Federal spending for youth training programs by the Employment and Training Administration (ZTA). -.- Summary: - Study...Another factor that has a sizable effect is unemployment. A one point increase in the youth unemployment rate generates about 1700 high school graduate

  10. Democratic civilian control of the military


    Petri, Jack


    The paper discusses civilian control of the military. The aims of such control include disabling competition between armed forces and democratically elected government. Civilian control of the military is characterised by a degree of disharmony and tension, in even the best of circumstances, in democratic nations. Democratic control of the armed forces provides legitimacy to the military, and when it works well, credibility. At the highest level of the democratic control of the armed forces s...

  11. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris


    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M.; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan


    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 dos...

  12. The importance of understanding military culture. (United States)

    Hall, Lynn K


    Social workers can make a significant contribution to military service members and their families, but first it is essential that the worldview, the mindset, and the historical perspective of life in the military are understood. Unless we understand how the unique characteristics of the military impact the service members and their families, we cannot work effectively with them. In addition, unless we understand their language, their structure, why they join, their commitment to the mission, and the role of honor and sacrifice in military service, we will not be able to adequately intervene and offer care to these families.

  13. Pastoral Care and Counseling with Military Families. (United States)

    Moon, Zachary


    The complex human experience of military service and the stress suffered by millions of military families each time a loved one deploys present unique challenges and opportunities in providing pastoral care and counseling. War and military service impact many facets of our society, as well as generational and interpersonal relationships. This article speaks to both academic and practitioner communities, and provides a vision for effective pastoral care and counseling with military families drawing on resources from family systems theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. China's Military Modernization Effects on Operational Art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abitante, George


    China is developing capabilities with its ongoing military modernization that, when combined with regional diplomatic and economic initiatives, will affect the Operational Art of the Geographic Commander (CINC...

  15. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  16. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz


    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  17. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (United States)


    ... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot... U.S. Armed Forces undergraduate pilot training school and received a rating qualification as a... person graduated from a military undergraduate pilot training school from the Armed Forces from a foreign...

  18. Serologic evidence that Ascaris and Toxoplasma infections impact inflammatory responses to Helicobacter pylori in Colombians (United States)

    Ek, Courtney; Whary, Mark T.; Ihrig, Melanie; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Fox, James G.


    Background Helicobacter pylori infected children from coastal Tumaco, Colombia have more parasitism, and adults have lower gastric cancer risk compared to high altitude Pasto/Tuquerres residents. Because helminth and Toxoplasma gondii infections alter helicobacter gastritis in rodent models, we determined if seropositivity to Ascaris lumbricoides or T. gondii was associated with Th2-IgG1 or Th1-IgG2 responses to H. pylori. Methods Sera (240) from the two populations were evaluated for A. lumbricoides and T. gondii seropositivity and results correlated with IgE and IgG isotype responses to H. pylori. Results Most Tumaco children and adults were seropositive for A. lumbricoides (89%, 66%), T. gondii (59%, 98%) or both (45%, 66%). In contrast, seropositivity among Pasto/Tuquerres children was much lower (9% A. lumbricoides, 11% T. gondii and 2% dual positive) but increased in adults (58% A. lumbricoides, 82% T. gondii and 41% dual positive). A. lumbricoides seropositivity correlated with elevated IgE and anti-inflammatory Th2-IgG1 responses to H. pylori, while Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity was linked to elevated IgE, pro-inflammatory Th1-IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to H. pylori. Individuals with high T. gondii titers had reduced Th1-IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 responses to Helicobacter pylori. Conclusions Results support regional differences for childhood parasitism and indicate A. lumbricoides and T. gondii infections may impact inflammatory responses to H. pylori and partially explain differences in gastric cancer risk in Colombia. PMID:22404440

  19. Toxoplasma infection and milk consumption: Meta-analysis of assumptions and evidences. (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia


    Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread infection worldwide. It occurs within congenital contamination, organ transplant or immune system depression. Primary infection is mainly foodborne with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat, unwashed fruit-vegetables, unhygienic water or contaminated milk. Gaps in current knowledge about the risk assessment of Toxoplasma gondii by milk consumption are noted. Contradictory data are observed within risk assessment of milk consumption and toxoplasmosis occurrence. While some papers reported positive correlations between drinking milk and infection transmission to human, other studies stated nonsignificant influence of milk or milk products consumption. New debate about the detection of the parasite in the milk matrix from different hosts raised interrogations. To figure out the real contribution and the potential correlations of milkborne way in toxoplasmic infection, meta-analysis approach was investigated. Overall analysis showed heterogeneous responses and led to state that statistically dairy matrix (other than milk), Bovidae products, agricultural population and countries in Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia are not linked to milkborne toxoplasmosis. The most involved factors are Capridae products, immune-depressed population and North America, Middle East, and Latin territories. The current work advanced those parameters that could affect the public health and should be envisioned in further epidemiological analysis.

  20. Low incidence of toxoplasma infection during pregnancy and in newborns in Sweden


    Evengard, B.; Petersson, K.; Engman, M. L.; Wiklund, S.; Ivarsson, S. A.; Tear-Fahnehjelm, K.; Forsgren, M.; Gilbert, R.; Malm, G.


    To estimate the burden of disease due to congenital toxoplasmosis in Sweden the incidence of primary infections during pregnancy and birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in 40978 children born in two regions in Sweden was determined. Women possibly infected during pregnancy were identified based on: 1, detection of specific IgG based on neonatal screening of the phenylketonuria (PKU) card blood spot followed by retrospective testing of stored prenatal samples to detect women who acqui...

  1. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Davami


    Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fathollahzadeh


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in humans and other animals and birds throughout the world. Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic infection in the world and in immune-deficient patients, it may cause acute and lethal infection. The aim of current study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii IgG by ELISA and indirect immune fluorescence in backyard fowls in Tabriz city. Blood samples were evaluated to detect anti - Toxoplasma gondii IgG in backyard fowls. The prevalence of Antibody against Toxoplasma IgG in native poultry of Tabriz was detected 18%in ELISA and 30% in indirect immune-fluorescence (IFA method. Results of indirect IFA method indicated, 14% of roosters and 16% of hens were infected. Because of high rate of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rural poultry, monitoring program along with anti-parasite treatment should be implemented.

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in Yazd in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH AnvariTafti


    Conclusion:Most pregnant women do not have immunity against Toxoplasmosis in Yazd. These women are at the risk of acquired toxoplasmosis in their pregnancy period. Therefore Toxoplasma serological surveillance during pregnancy as well as provision of the necessary training to enhance prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis seems to be urgent.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkmen Munevver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. Method The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. Results The mean age of 389 (92.9% of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001 and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042. No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. Conclusion One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  5. Toxoplasma Infection in Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study with Control Group


    Alipour, A; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Tehranidoost, M; Abdi Masoleh, F; Keshavarz, H


    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disor­der. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) fac­tors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that character­ize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection between schizo­phrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals as control group.Methods: A case-control study was designed i...

  6. 75 FR 81244 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting... will take place: 1. Name of Committee: Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC). 2. Date... Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional concerns as...

  7. 75 FR 2114 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC); Meeting (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC....150, the Department of Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will... commissioners of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional...

  8. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks. (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M


    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev


    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  10. To Tell the Truth: The Challenge of Military Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jr, Ronald H


    The story of Regulus, while certainly apocryphal, nevertheless illustrates a fundamental tension of military leadership -- the moral imperative for military leaders to tell the truth, even when that...

  11. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji


    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  12. Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszkiewicz Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.

  13. Military Observers 1815-1975 (United States)


    where he made reconnaissance of the Amazonas and upper Madeira River Regions; As a Colonel, in Venezuela as military attache from 1942 to 1943; At...absence in Europe I examining means for protecting Delta Rivers from inundation in I 1853-54. Brigadier General and Chief Engineer of the U.S. Army...of Delta Rivers from Jul, : to November .9, D7: n Isave of absencm in Europe from June 17. 1S77 to jL’n5Z 1--33 -olanei on April 7, 19E8. 1704 William

  14. Spain: Democracy and the Military. (United States)


    1980, p.54. 68. Los Angeles Times, June 10, 1981, p.2 . 69. Ibid. 70. Christian Science Monitor, December 11, 1981, p.3 . 71. Lt. Col. J. Sanchez Mendez ...Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), The Military Balance, 1980-1981, IISS, 1980, p.36 . 75. Sanchez Mendez , p.1490-1491. 76. Ibid, p.1491-1493. 77. Ibid...transformation in which King Juan Carlos I, Franco’s handpicked successor, inherited the authoritarian powers of a dictator and promptly used them to turn

  15. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers]. (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa


    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P train drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 4.33 and 5.50 respectively, P train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train

  16. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers. (United States)

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J


    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  17. Visual problems of new malaysian drivers. (United States)

    Haliza, Am; Md Muziman Syah, Mms; Norliza, Mf


    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor visual acuity, colour blindness and visual field defect of new Malaysian drivers. A total of 3717 new drivers (50.2% males and 49.8% females) age 19±6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Standard optometric apparatus such as LogMAR Charts, Ishihara plates and HandHeld Bernell Perimeter were used and standard procedures were applied. The visual examination showed 6.7% (n=250) of subjects achieved less than 0.3 LogMAR with better eye whilst 2.2% (n=83) had failed the Ishihara Test (2.1% males and 0.1% females). Most of the affected drivers were deutranopia. Only 2094 subjects had their visual field using a mobile Handheld Bernell Perimeter. 1.72% (n=36) subjects have less than 120 degrees of peripheral field of vision. The visual status among new Malaysian drivers needs to be taken seriously to ensure safe driving. Other factors such as colour vision and visual field screening have to be considered seriously when evaluating the visual performance of a driver. Good visual performance is indispensible for safe driving.

  18. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehraneh Ghaemi


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are used to model the driver's behavior. Three different positions are considered for driving and decision making. A fuzzy model called Model I is presented for modeling the change of steering angle and speed control by considering time distances with existing cars in these three positions, the information about the speed and direction of car, and the steering angle of car. Also we obtained two other models based on fuzzy rules called Model II and Model III by using Sugeno fuzzy inference. Model II and Model III have less linguistic terms than Model I for the steering angle and direction of car. The results of three models are compared for a driver who drives based on driving laws.

  19. [The military-medical commission FSI "1586th Military Hospital", Russian Ministry of Defence--90 years]. (United States)

    Andronenkov, I A; Rybakov, O A; Makhson, I P


    The military-medical commission FSI "1586th Military Hospital" of the Ministry of Defense undertakes a significant part of the activities of the entire military medical expertise in the Armed Forces. The commission covers the territory of the Central and Volga Federal Districs (19 subordinate entities of the Russian Federation). Currently, the committee consists of three functional departments: recruitment examination and acquisition of military schools, separation of military and military service examination, and examination of the medical department, flight and selection of specialists. A significant component in the military-medical commission is inspection of flight and flight-lift Air Force, for which the commission has a staff department of medical-flight examination, in which medical examination of pilots is carried out (annually--about 500 people).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    military law is understood as the criminal law of the soldier, limiting it to the realm of military justice. Considering the expanding role of armed forces internationally, and the secondary roles of their employment, there is a clear need for a ..... operations, whether in international waters or on the borders of the Republic, is.

  1. Resuscitation Training at Rwanda Military Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning the C-A-Bs: Resuscitation Training at Rwanda Military Hospital. Kathryn Norgang1, Auni Idi Muhire1, Sarah Howrath1. 1Rwanda Military Hospital, Rwanda. Background. There is a lack of trained staff to respond to critically ill patients and cardiac and respiratory arrests in a health facility in Rwanda. This lack of ...

  2. Military Versus Civilian Murder-Suicide. (United States)

    Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J


    Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military...of an emergency situation from its origins to the end result, hone the personnel’s interaction in the course of a specific modeled emergency, and

  4. Civil-Military Relations: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    2009) Brooks, Risa . Political-Military Relations and the Stability of Arab Regimes. New York: Oxford University Press for the International...Press, 2005. 270pp. (UA23 .B333 2005) Brooks, Risa A. Shaping Strategy: The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment. Princeton: Princeton

  5. On the Military Significance of Language Competence. (United States)

    Muller, Kurt E.


    Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)

  6. Sociological Research in a Military School (United States)

    Ignat'ev, V. V.


    What is the content of a system of sociological support for the administration of a higher military educational institution, and what problems are involved? From October 2006 to February 2007, instructors in the department of the humanities and the social-economic disciplines at Eisk F. M. Komarov Higher Military Aviation School (EVVAU) carried…

  7. Optimization-Based Military Capital Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald


    ..., and the sheer scale of the endeavor. Mathematical optimization models have long played a key role in unraveling the complexities of capital planning, and the military has lead the development and use of such models. We survey the history of optimizing civilian and military capital plans and then present prototypic models exhibiting features that render these models useful for real-world decision support.

  8. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  9. International Military Practice Amidst Ethical Heterogeneity (United States)


    essays prescribing ideal military structures, sociological and social- psychological inquiries focused on professionalism, and personal...essential to have the trust of the participants, to ensure humanistic and scientific ethical obligations, and to protect and treat people with dignity...within military academies delivering PMEE. How can Christians, Jews, humanists , Muslims, Hindus, and nontheists represented in these institutions

  10. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.


    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  11. Construction contracting and civil-military interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Jasper; Rietjens, S.J.H.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; de Boer, S.J.


    There is a need for improved insights into the contracting process for construction projects that the military contract out to civil contractors in the specific setting of civil–military interaction (CMI) in regions that are suffering from instability and armed conflict. The core questions are: what

  12. Stress Training and the New Military Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.K. Gaillard; prof. dr. J.M.L.M. Soeters; R. Delahaij


    The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which

  13. Stress training and the new military environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.M.L.M.


    The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which can

  14. National Military Diplomacy and its Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grina Gediminas


    Full Text Available This article presents the development of modern Lithuanian military diplomacy, the future priority trends, and examines the features of service organizations. It is demonstrated that organizing military diplomacy is a totality of political provisions, encompassing the preparedness of the Lithuanian officer corps, activity support and supply chain, and the position of a military diplomacy organization in a system of national diplomacy. According to the author, the scope of military diplomacy is determined by the provisions of political leadership of the national defence system on the implementation of Lithuania’s foreign policy in the defence sphere, as well as by the extent of representing departmental interests in similar systems in foreign countries. The article presents the specifics of military diplomacy and that of officers’ service within allied (NATO or EU countries and the peculiarities of service in other states often displaying pugnacious interests to Lithuania. The author sets forth arguments concerning the priorities of military diplomatic representation in the mid-term, and concludes that the significance of military diplomacy, in light of recently developing trends of an international framework, will further expand whereas fully-fledged diplomacy will be incapacitated to function without qualified military advice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  16. 78 FR 66607 - Military Family Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... times of war. Yet the courageous men and women of the United States military do not serve alone..., and expands access to wellness and education programs for military families. Since the initiative... Administration is also taking action to improve mental health care and education for veterans, service members...

  17. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context (United States)

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip


    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  18. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two (United States)


    the youth population, unemployment rates, world events and attitudes on continuing education. Like the recruitment environment, advertising approaches... Youth Attitudes Toward the Military Poll Two DMDC Report No. 2002-028 April 2002 For additional copies of this report, contact: Defense Technical...for Report by ADA- DMDC Report No. 2002-028 April 2002 YOUTH ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MILITARY: POLL TWO

  19. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development. (United States)

    Ball, Nicole


    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  20. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe. (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim


    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  1. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide. (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R


    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.

  2. Roman Military Medicine and Croatian Archaeological Perspectives. (United States)

    Cesarik, Marijan; Cesarik, Nikola; Duplančić, Darko; Štrmelj, David


    This article offers a general examination of the sources responsible for understanding Roman military medicine, starting with literal and epigraphical sources all the way to archaeological remains consisting of hospitals, the infrastructure of military garrisons and small medical tools. Given that not one of the literary sources does not directly mention the medical personnel within the various military units, epigraphical discoveries widely represent the main source of our knowledge on the subject. On the other hand, the archaeological exploration of military garrisons offers proof of the medical care of Roman soldiers. If at first it appears that Roman military medicine is perfectly obvious and clear, actually this is not the case as many questions remain to be answered and debated. In all this, Croatia has its own archaeological perspective, where notably, one site stands out, which could hold a key role according to the layout of buildings within the garrison including its hospital.

  3. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A


    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  4. Analysis of driver performance under reduced visibility (United States)

    Kaeppler, W. D.


    Mathematical models describing vehicle dynamics as well as human behavior may be useful in evaluating driver performance and in establishing design criteria for vehicles more compatible with man. In 1977, a two level model of driver steering behavior was developed, but its parameters were identified for clear visibility conditions only. Since driver performance degrades under conditions of reduced visibility, e.g., fog, the two level model should be investigated to determine its applicability to such conditions. The data analysis of a recently performed driving simulation experiment showed that the model still performed reasonably well under fog conditions, although there was a degradation in its predictive capacity during fog. Some additional parameters affecting anticipation and lag time may improve the model's performance for reduced visibility conditions.

  5. Military service and crime: new evidence. (United States)

    Snowden, David L; Oh, Sehun; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; King, Erika


    Evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of military personnel are involved in high-risk and antisocial behaviors that place them at jeopardy for criminal justice system involvement. However, prior research on military service and crime has disproportionately focused on veterans from the Vietnam War era (1955-1975), and has tended to focus on either current or former military members. This study employed data from a population-based study (i.e., National Study on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH] between 2002 and 2014). It systematically examines the prevalence of self-reported antisocial behaviors, criminal justice system involvement, and substance abuse among the US civilian population and military service members, including reservists (n = 2206) and those who reported having been separated or retired from military service (n = 20,551). These factors are further examined across the developmental spectrum of adulthood (ages 18-34, 35-49, and 50-64). Results showed that military members were more prone to lifetime arrests and overall substance misuse. However, additional findings emerged suggesting that, while the military population overall seems to be positively associated with higher criminal activity than that found in the civilian population, these findings were based on a specific subgroup of the veteran population. This subgroup is comprised of individuals who likely did not fit in with the military culture and were discharged from the military early in their careers. Additional research on identifying this subgroup of military members is encouraged to better concentrate on prevention and treatment measures.

  6. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius


    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  7. 'The best drivers in the world'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars; Järvinen, Margaretha Maria


    The paper analyses risk behaviour as described by a group of convicted drink-drivers. Risk assessment is seen as a part of a complicated process reflecting moral values in specific socio-cultural settings and within a specific framework of time. The respondents’ retrospective accounts of their dr......The paper analyses risk behaviour as described by a group of convicted drink-drivers. Risk assessment is seen as a part of a complicated process reflecting moral values in specific socio-cultural settings and within a specific framework of time. The respondents’ retrospective accounts...

  8. Visual Problems of New Malaysian Drivers


    Haliza, AM; Md Muziman Syah, MMS; Norliza, MF


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor visual acuity, colour blindness and visual field defect of new Malaysian drivers. Methods: A total of 3717 new drivers (50.2% males and 49.8% females) age 19±6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Standard optometric apparatus such as LogMAR Charts, Ishihara plates and HandHeld Bernell Perimeter were used and standard procedures were applied. Results: The visual examination showed 6.7% (n=250) of subjects a...

  9. Enhancing digital driver models: identification of distinct postural strategies used by drivers. (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A; Babski-Reeves, Kari L


    Driver workspace design and evaluation is, in part, based on assumed driving postures of users and determines several ergonomic aspects of a vehicle, such as reach, visibility and postural comfort. Accurately predicting and specifying standard driving postures, hence, are necessary to improve the ergonomic quality of the driver workspace. In this study, a statistical clustering approach was employed to reduce driving posture simulation/prediction errors, assuming that drivers use several distinct postural strategies when interacting with automobiles. 2-D driving postures, described by 16 joint angles, were obtained from 38 participants with diverse demographics (age, gender) and anthropometrics (stature, body mass) and in two vehicle classes (sedans and SUVs). Based on the proximity of joint angle sets, cluster analysis yielded three predominant postural strategies in each vehicle class (i.e. 'lower limb flexed', 'upper limb flexed' and 'extended'). Mean angular differences between clusters ranged from 3.8 to 52.4 degrees for the majority of joints, supporting the practical relevance of the distinct clusters. The existence of such postural strategies should be considered when utilising digital human models (DHMs) to enhance and evaluate driver workspace design ergonomically and proactively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study identified drivers' distinct postural strategies, based on actual drivers' behaviours. Such strategies can facilitate accurate positioning of DHMs and hence help design ergonomic driver workspaces.

  10. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong


    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  11. Principles of Mission Command Applied to Civil Military Relationships (United States)


    ability to see things from another’s perspective with an open mind . Herspring applied his theory to case studies using two questions, does the...military, in turn, needs to reciprocate this effort to create cohesion which builds effective civil-military teams. Civil-military relations theory ...Civil-Military Theory Literature Review ......................................................................................... 2 Dominant Views and

  12. an overview of military social work: the case of zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Military social work is a branch of the social work profession which provides services to soldiers and their spouses and dependents ... and functions of military social workers so as to advance our thinking about military social work practice. MILITARY ..... with social problems is comparable to squeezing water out of a stone.

  13. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...

  14. 75 FR 50773 - Invocation of Sunken Military Craft Act (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Invocation of Sunken Military Craft Act AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... a sunken military craft. It is therefore prohibited for any person to engage or attempt to engage... military craft, and is therefore protected under the Sunken Military Craft Act (10 U.S.C. 113 note; Pub. L...

  15. Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers - Executive Summary. (United States)

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Tanielian, Terri; Fisher, Michael P; Vaughan, Christine Anne; Trail, Thomas E; Epley, Caroline; Voorhies, Phoenix; Robbins, Michael; Robinson, Eric; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie


    While much has been written about the role of caregiving for the elderly and chronically ill and for children with special needs, little is known about "military caregivers"-the population of those who care for wounded, ill, and injured military personnel and veterans. These caregivers play an essential role in caring for injured or wounded service members and veterans. This enables those for whom they are caring to live better quality lives, and can result in faster and improved rehabilitation and recovery. Yet playing this role can impose a substantial physical, emotional, and financial toll on caregivers. This article distills a longer report, Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers , which describes the results of a study designed to describe the magnitude of military caregiving in the United States today, as well as to identify gaps in the array of programs, policies, and initiatives designed to support military caregivers. Improving military caregivers' well-being and ensuring their continued ability to provide care will require multifaceted approaches to reducing the current burdens caregiving may impose, and bolstering their ability to serve as caregivers more effectively. Given the systematic differences among military caregiver groups, it is also important that tailored approaches meet the unique needs and characteristics of post-9/11 caregivers.

  16. TMACS Test Procedure TP009: Acromag Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, S.J.


    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Acromag Software Driver (Bridge Code)

  17. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph


    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  18. Clear roads' safety effect on elderly drivers. (United States)


    Driving on roads that are covered with ice or snow is hazardous for all drivers, but there may be : disproportionally high risks for certain age groups on certain road types and different winter : maintenance practices may also have a greater influen...

  19. Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Ulrich K


    Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages durin...

  20. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.


    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  1. CARess, a gentle touch informs the driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania


    A prototype of Human Machine Interface (HMI) used to de- liver information to the driver in cars is described in this paper. The de- livery of information is based on the Informative Interruptive Cue (IIC) approach. The interface is a matrix of 4 x 3 vibrating motors, controlled through a real-ti...

  2. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.


    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  3. Driver behavior at urban roads in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; van Zuylen, H.J.; van der Horst, E.


    Driver behavior in China shows remarkable differences from that in western countries. In this study, six focus groups were organized to investigate Chinese drivers’ attitudes, expectations, intended actions, their preferences, and habits in different situations in urban areas. The outcomes show that

  4. Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractSeveral drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations and entrepreneurial motivations are investigated using country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the years 2005 and 2006. We estimate a two-equation model explaining aspirations using motivations and socioeconomic

  5. Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, J.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Thurik, A.R.


    Several drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations and entrepreneurial motivations are investigated using country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the years 2005 and 2006. We estimate a two-equation model explaining aspirations using motivations and socioeconomic variables,

  6. Federally Mandated Testing of Bus Drivers. (United States)

    Wright, Jim


    Proposed rules by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) for drug and alcohol testing of school bus drivers are expected to be implemented by early 1994. DOT regulations are very specific. School districts need to decide whether to establish their own program or contract with a full-service drug-testing firm. Explains the seven major elements…

  7. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  8. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers. (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  9. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report. (United States)

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  10. 29 CFR 782.4 - Drivers' helpers. (United States)


    ... interstate or foreign commerce, because, in the case of an accident or other emergency and in other respects... accidents occur, they help the driver in obtaining aid and protect the vehicle from oncoming traffic. (c) In... commerce within the meaning of the Motor Carrier Act. (Ispass v. Pyramid Motor Freight Corp., 152 F. (2d...

  11. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.


    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  12. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  13. Invoking Device Driver from .NET Managed Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Peng


    Full Text Available It’s a real problem to visit a low-level device driver from a high-level application based on the .NET platform managed code in software developing practice .This paper concerns how to solve it by a runtime interoperation services provided by Microsoft .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR .A real world example is given in the end.

  14. Licensing procedures and older drivers : traffic tech. (United States)


    People 65 and older are the fastest growing demographic : group in the United States. This is cause for concern given : that the youngest and oldest drivers have the highest crash : rates per unit of distance traveled, with rates increasing for : old...

  15. Driver electronic device use in 2008 (United States)


    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  16. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Tertrais, Bruno; Rouillard, Gwendal; Widemann, Thierry; Guillaume, Louis-Michel; Steininger, Philippe; Guillemette, Alain; Amabile, Jean-Christophe; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Carbonnieres, Hubert de; Roche, Nicolas; Guillou, Herve; Bouvier, Antoine; Pastre, Bertrand; Baconnet, Alexis; Monsonis, Guillem; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Hemez, Remy; Tchernega, Vladimir; Wedin, Lars; Dumoulin, Andre; Razoux, Pierre; Migault, Philippe; Wilson, Ward; Maillard, Benjamin de; Aichi, Leila; Charvoz, Ivan; Rousset, Valery; Lespinois, Jerome de; Kempf, Olivier; Dufourcq, Jean; Gere, Francois; Mauro, Frederic; Delort Laval, Gabriel; Charaix, Patrick; Norlain, Bernard; Collin, Jean-Marie; Jourdier, Francois


    This special dossier aims at providing some key articles about France's deterrence doctrine. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges and questions about military nuclear activities and opens up some future prospects about this question. The dossier comprises 37 papers dealing with: 1 - Military nuclear activities: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Deterrence according to French President Francois Hollande: continuation, precision and inflexions (Tertrais, B.); 3 - French deterrence warrantor of our independence in the 21. century (Rouillard, G.); 4 - The deterrence concept prior to the nuclear weapon era (Widemann, T.); 5 - France: the strategic marine force in operation (Guillaume, L.M.); 6 - Relevance of the airborne component in the nuclear deterrence strategy (Steininger, P.); 7 - Deterrence stakes for the Directorate General of Armaments (Guillemette, A.); 8 - The Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier: the deterrence voice from the sea (Wodka-Gallien, P.); 9 - Deterrence: missions of the army's radiation protection department (Amabile, J.C.; Granger-Veyron, N.; Carbonnieres, H. de); 10 - The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French defense strategy (Roche, N.); 11 - DCNS, general contractor in the service of deterrence (Guillou, H.); 12 - The airborne nuclear component for MBDA (Bouvier, A.); 13 - Ballistic missile of the marine nuclear component: industrial stakes (Pastre, B.); 14 - Beyond defense against missiles: a US anti-deterrence strategy (Baconnet, A.); 15 - Deterrence dynamics in South Asia (Monsonis, G.); 16 - Military nuclear activities in East Asia (Brisset, J.V.); 17 - North Korea would own nuclear weapons, so what? (Hemez, R.); 18 - About the risk of nuclear warfare in Europe (Tchernega, V.); 19 - Present day nuclear activities: deterrence and gesticulation (Wedin, L.); 20 - Belgian F-16 replacement: nuclear dimension (Dumoulin, A.); 21 - Israel and nuclear deterrence (Razoux, P.); 22 - Nuclear

  17. Clinical toxicology and military application. (United States)

    Bland, S A


    The changing operational tempo and types of deployment have, since the end of the Cold War, required a change in CBRN training. The threat from weapons of mass destruction has been replaced with the threat from improvised explosive devices and insurgent attempts to develop asymmetric weapons to target military and civilian populations. In addition exposure to hazardous materials as well as environmental hazards and natural toxins requires a greater awareness of the necessary supportive and definitive management. Developing a cadre of specialists with an interest in toxicology and environmental medicine, within either emergency or acute medicine, would be advantageous to deployed units as well as specialised units, including those tasked in support of UK homeland security. An established pathway for sub-specialisation in clinical toxicology does not yet exist. With the establishment of the College of Emergency Medicine, as well as the Acute Medicine Society and Intensive Care Society further development of clinical toxicology is likely.

  18. Environmental information for military planning. (United States)

    Doherty, Victoria; Croft, Darryl; Knight, Ashley


    A study was conducted to consider the implications of presenting Environmental Information (EI; information on current environmental features including weather, topography and visibility maps) for military planning to the growing audience of non-technical users; to provide guidance for ensuring usability and for development of a suitable EI interface, and to produce an EI concept interface mock-up to demonstrate initial design ideas. Knowledge was elicited from current EI users and providers regarding anticipated use of EI by non-specialists. This was combined with human factors and cognition expertise to produce guidance for data usability and development of an EI interface. A simple mock-up of an EI concept interface was developed. Recommendations for further development were made including application of the guidance derived, identification of a user test-bed and development of business processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  20. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders who enter service at ages 19-22. For this group property crime is reduced for up to five years from the beginning of service, and the effect...... is therefore not only a result of incapacitation while enrolled. We find no effect of service on violent crimes. We also find no effect of military service on educational attainment and unemployment, but we find negative effects of service on earnings. These results suggest that military service does...

  1. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel


    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  2. Kimon's military campaign in Caria and Lycia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov D.A.


    Full Text Available the article analyzes the reasons, course and results of the military campaign of the Athenian military commander Kimon in the southwest of Asia Minor. The author provides a brief comparative-historical and textual analysis of written sources and archaeological materials testifying the military-political activity of Athens in Caria and Lycia. An attempt is made to analyze the evolution of views on the problem within the framework of classical and modern historiography. Based on the involvement of a wide range of data, an attempt is made to analyze the evolution of the political influence of Athens in southwestern Anatolia.

  3. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas. (United States)


    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  4. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.


    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system

  5. Development of a statistical method for predicting human driver decisions. (United States)


    As autonomous vehicles enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with : human drivers. One of the challenges for autonomous vehicles is that human drivers do not communicate their : decisions well. However...

  6. 77 FR 76167 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... applications. The notices of applications stated in detail the qualifications, experience, and medical... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... annual medical certification to the employer for retention in the driver's qualification file and retains...

  7. 77 FR 56262 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... of applications stated in detail the qualifications, experience, and medical condition of each... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... the employer for retention in the driver's qualification file and retains a copy of the certification...

  8. 76 FR 9861 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... applications. The notices of applications stated in detail the qualifications, experience, and medical...; FMCSA- 25246] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... annual medical certification to the employer for retention in the driver's qualification file and retains...

  9. 77 FR 74734 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    .... The notices of applications stated in detail the qualifications, experience, and medical condition of... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... annual medical certification to the employer for retention in the driver's qualification file and retains...

  10. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  11. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech. (United States)


    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  12. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior (United States)


    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  13. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief]. (United States)


    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  14. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus (United States)


    ...-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in...

  15. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus (United States)


    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  16. 78 FR 12809 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing (United States)


    ... interstate commerce, if he is granted an exemption. Zachary Rietz Mr. Reitz holds a driver's license from the... commerce, if granted an exemption. Bryon Smith Mr. Smith holds a driver's license from the state of...

  17. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech. (United States)


    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  18. Issuance of driver licenses and identification cards to prisoners. (United States)


    In 2009, the Oregon Legislature passed House Bill 2489, requiring the Oregon Driver and Motor Vehicle (DMV) Services Division and the Department of Corrections (DOC) to enter into agreements and adopt rules to assist offenders in obtaining a driver l...

  19. 2007 motor vehicle occupant safety survey : driver education and graduated driver licensing (United States)


    This Research Note summarizes selected results from the 2007 MVOSS. It focuses primarily on information collected regarding driver education and GDL. This was a new module introduced in 2007. The data are weighted to yield national estimates.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers. (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J


    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  1. An evidence-based review: distracted driver. (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex


    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  2. Cooperative Extension Training Impact on Military Youth and 4-H Youth: The Case of Speak Out for Military Kids (United States)

    Edwin, James; McKinley, Steve; Talbert, B. Allen


    Extension needs new venues to promote their programming skills to unfamiliar audiences. One new audience Extension is currently reaching is military children. By partnering with Operation: Military Kids to offer a Speak Out for Military Kids training, Extension supports military children and document changes in the behavior of this audience.…

  3. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences. (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas


    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  4. Matching military skills to civilian jobs: does military training enhance veteran's civilian wage rates?


    Olsen, Karl R.


    This thesis statistically analyzes the transferability of military skills to civilian job markets and the relationship between acquired military training and civilian wages. It also assesses the extent to which military training is utilized by veterans currently employed in the civilian labor force and analyzes the process by which veterans assimilate into the civilian work force, including the role geographic migration plays in this process. The relationship between veteran status and post-s...

  5. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.


    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  6. Child passengers and driver culpability in fatal crashes by driver gender


    Maasalo, Ida; Lehtonen, Esko; Pekkanen, Jami; Summala, Heikki


    AbstractObjective: Studies based on accident statistics generally suggest that the presence of a passenger reduces adult drivers' accident risk. However, passengers have been reported to be a source of distraction in a remarkable portion of distraction related crashes. Although the effect of passengers on driving performance has been studied extensively, few studies have focused on how a child passenger affects the driver. A child in a car is a potential distractor for parents, especially for...

  7. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality


    Padmanaban, Jeya


    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle ...

  8. Monitoring the driver's activity using 3D information


    Peláez Coronado, Gustavo Adolfo


    Driver supervision is crucial in safety systems for the driver. It is important to monitor the driver to understand his necessities, patterns of movements and behaviour under determined circumstances. The availability of an accurate tool to supervise the driver’s behaviour allows multiple objectives to be achieved such as the detection of drowsiness (analysing the head movements and blinking pattern) and distraction (estimating where the driver is looking by studying the head and eyes positio...

  9. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour


    Zhang, Wei; He, Ruichun; Ma, Changxi; Gao, Mingxia


    For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpoolin...

  10. DriverFinder: A Gene Length-Based Network Method to Identify Cancer Driver Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Jing Wei


    Full Text Available Integration of multi-omics data of cancer can help people to explore cancers comprehensively. However, with a large volume of different omics and functional data being generated, there is a major challenge to distinguish functional driver genes from a sea of inconsequential passenger genes that accrue stochastically but do not contribute to cancer development. In this paper, we present a gene length-based network method, named DriverFinder, to identify driver genes by integrating somatic mutations, copy number variations, gene-gene interaction network, tumor expression, and normal expression data. To illustrate the performance of DriverFinder, it is applied to four cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas including breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma. Compared with some conventional methods, the results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective. Moreover, it can decrease the influence of gene length in identifying driver genes and identify some rare mutated driver genes.

  11. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk


    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  12. Blending the Battlefield: An Analysis of Using Private Military Companies To Support Military Operations In Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallup, Heather L


    .... Key factors contributing to the growth include declines in military budgets, reductions in active duty end-strength, increases in operational deployments, advancements in weapon system technology...

  13. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption (United States)


    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  14. Non-planar driver's side rearview mirrors: A survey of mirror types and european driver experience and a driver behavior study on the influence of experience and driver age on gap acceptance and vehicle detection (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de


    Some European drivers have been using different types of convex, driver-side rear-view mirrors which provide a wider field-of-view than flat mirrors, but produce a minified image. With a minified image, some drivers may have difficulty judging distances and approach speeds. To assess the potential

  15. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L


    Full Text Available and the age and experience of the drivers considered before a Professional Drivers Permit (PrDP) license issued to the driver. Formal institutions such as Further Education and Training (FET) colleges needs to, in future play a bigger role in the issuing...

  16. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  17. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  18. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience. (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others


    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  19. Driver's anger state identification by using facial expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...

  20. Driver medical review practices across the United States : traffic tech. (United States)


    There were 38.4 million licensed older drivers in 2014a 31% : increase from 10 years earlier (2005). Furthermore, older drivers as : a percentage of all licensed drivers increased from 15% in 2005 to : 18% in 2014 (National Center for Statistics a...

  1. Different drivers create spatial vegetation cover and vertical structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important drivers of woody cover in African savannas are rainfall, soil and nutrients, and disturbance factors, such as fire and herbivory. However, very little is known about how these drivers influence woody cover at specific height classes. The main aim of this study was to identify which of these drivers are the best ...

  2. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  3. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang


    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  4. Licensing and Other Controls of the Drinking Driver. (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Driver licensing, the only state program with the opportunity for routine personal contact with every driver, has unmatched potential for both general and specific countermeasures to the problem of drunk driving. General countermeasures apply to large groups of drivers prior to the occurrence of any infraction. They may be considered basically…

  5. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers (United States)


    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  6. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  7. Bridging Boundaries in Networked Military Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Broek, J. van den; Cornelissen, M.; Essens, P.J.D.M.


    One of the challenges facing networked military organizations is to coordinate and integrate activities of organization components. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of boundary spanning as integrative mechanism, and, more specifically, individual communication holes within

  8. Smooth School Transitions: Tips for Military Families (United States)

    ... Life Listen Text Size Email Print Share Smooth School Transitions: Tips for Military Families Page Content Article ... Internet is a great resource for this. District & School Web sites Parents and children can visit the ...

  9. Military-Specific Exposure Factors Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lurker, Peter


    ...) provides many factors needed in the assessment of human health risk that were derived from general population studies or studies involving relatively small groups that may not be representative of military populations...

  10. Civil-Military Relations in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Timothy


    ... instrument of Japanese foreign and domestic policy My purpose in this thesis is to examine Japanese civil-military relations by tracing why and how Japan has successfully subordinated its armed forces...

  11. Chaos Theory for the Practical Military Mind

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durham, Susan


    The military professional is a practically-minded individual. This is not, stereotypes aside, the result of an inflexible, unimaginative nature, but comes from pursuing a profession that emphasizes mission accomplishment above all else...

  12. Field Demonstration for Biodegradable Military Multipurpose Grease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, In-Sik


    Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based products, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often...

  13. Hispanic Youth and Military Enlistment Propensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    The purpose of this report is to explore the issue of Hispanic propensity in more depth than has previously been available, and to identify possible causes of Hispanic youths' declining interest in military service...

  14. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Robert


    This report presents the results of the first youth poll in a series that looked at propensity, employment status, education status, impressions of the military, attitudes toward teams, influencers...

  15. Protecting Crew Members Against Military Vehicle Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Wijngaarden, Sander J; James, Soo


    Military vehicles can be extremely noisy working environments. Noise impairs vehicle crews in various ways, for instance through its effect on speech intelligibility and the audibility of other useful sounds...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Military Biomechanics Research is a 7,500 ft2 dedicated laboratory outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment for 3-D analysis of movement, measurement...

  17. Military Tribunals: Historical Patterns and Lessons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Louis


    After the terrorist operations of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush authorized the creation of military tribunals to try individuals who offered assistance to the attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C...

  18. 75 FR 67897 - Military Family Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... together to support these patriots. By offering job opportunities and workplace flexibility, businesses and companies can benefit from the unparalleled dedication and skills of a service member or military spouse...

  19. Communication in Civil-Military Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aniola, Jaroslaw


    ..., and other individuals, has proved to be very challenging. Moreover, considering the nature of contemporary international interventions, any CIMIC staff is required to adapt to a wide range of new, non-military skills that would constitute a necessary "toolbox...

  20. Agile Control of Military Operations (JFACC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, David


    ... readily adapted in the presence of contingencies. The primary benefit of this technology is agile and stable control of distributed and dynamic military operations conducted in inherently uncertain, hostile, and rapidly changing environments...

  1. Military Leadership Preparedness to Meet Counterinsurgency Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svystak, Oleh


    .... Today we are so far removed from the classical form of warfare, such as World War II, that we cannot compare the role of the military leader in those conflicts with the situation leaders face in Iraq...

  2. Modernizing China's Military: Opportunities and Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Keith; Cliff, Roger; Medeiros, Evan; Mulvenon, James; Overholt, William


    The purpose of this study is to assess future resource constraints on, and potential domestic economic and industrial contributions to, the ability of the Chinese military to become a significant threat to U.S. forces by 2025...

  3. Land rover military one-tonne

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, James


    A fully illustrated history of the Land Rover 101 One-Tonne - the forward-control military vehicle developed as a gun tractor for the British Army, in production from 1975-1978. This essential guide to these small yet powerful 4 x 4 vehicles covers: production histories; design and prototypes; specification guides; the 101 in British military service between 1975 and 1998; the 101 variants - ambulances, Rapier tractors, hard-bodied versions for electronic warfare and special field conversions; sales to overseas military authorities and, finally, advice on buying and owning a 101 today. Of great interest to Land Rover and military vehicle enthusiasts, historians and owners' clubs and illustrated with 207 original colour photographs.

  4. Military Intervention in Identity Group Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyons, Todd


    .... I argue that the local military commander is relatively autonomous and therefore can and should aid the community in rebuilding durable, longterm institutions such as police, judiciary and local...

  5. Intercultural Interactions in a Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Valentina


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of various factors on the process of communication between military specialists and with the local civilians during peace support operations. The importance of religion, national and ethnic identities, military subculture, social status, and personal characteristics for achieving success or failure in interactions is underlined. Some differences between civil culture and military culture are disclosed and the need for cultural knowledge of the military members is stressed. The study is based on presenting and analysing situations of current intercultural interactions in Afghanistan, which deal with various problems that could be encountered by servicemen on a daily basis, i.e. body language differences, expression of friendly, unfriendly or indifferent attitude, typical reactions to gestures, common everyday topics for informal chats. Although the cultural interactions take place in present-day Afghanistan, the conclusions and suggestions are applicable to a much wider context of interacting between people with different cultural background.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirezhev C.A.


    Full Text Available Integration of the Russian Federation in the international community, to find the most effective ways to implement the military and land reforms require a comprehensive study. The paper identifies the main problems that hinder the effective implementation of the reform of the conversion, the ways of their solutions, including use of the experience of the advanced countries of the European Union. Identified military objects to be conversion, shown combining them into groups according to various criteria. Proposed a typology of ex-military territories. Notes the role of the organization of effective land use conversion in the areas of land use planning, identifies the main documents required for the implementation of planned activities. The problems of land use planning conversion ex-military territories.

  7. [The military odyssey of Norman Bethune]. (United States)

    Alexander, C A


    While visiting the People's Republic of China in 1982, I became aware of the work of the Canadian, Norman Bethune, as a military surgeon. Bethune first served as a stretcher - bearer in an ambulance unit and later as a medical officer with the Allies during the First World War. He also participated in the Spanish Civil War as a military physician. He died in China while serving with Mao Tsetung's Eighth Route Army, fighting the Japanese invaders in Yen'an. Bethune pioneered the use of whole blood transfusions in combat areas, first in Spain and then in China. In the annals of Chinese military history, he has been given an honored place as a military surgeon and a martyr. He is also credited in China, with improving the practice of battlefield medicine, as an organizer, teacher and innovator. Bethune's fame in China is now spreading to Canada.

  8. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian


    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  9. Financial Administration: Accounting and Reporting - Military Activities (United States)

    Districts, Waterways Experiment Station and Sallistic Missile Construction Office. The military accounting and reporting procedures were heretofore included in ER 35-345-10. The change in ER number is required by AK 310-1.

  10. Enhancing Mental Readiness in Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Megan M; McCreary, Donald R


    In this paper we explore how the psychological literature on stress and coping might inform military training programs to enhance "mental readiness" as a method to develop the baseline psychological...

  11. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas


    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  12. Exclusion and Inclusion in the Danish Military

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sløk-Andersen, Beate


    a historically produced gender narrative – based on (fictional) stories on what women can and cannot do – is perceived as true and thereby casts women as less suitable for a military career. Thus, despite the current equal legal rights of men and women in the military, the power of the narrative limits female......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine why and how past stories of women’s insufficiency for military work survive and how they come to form a gendered organizational narrative dominant in constructing current opinions on women in the military. Design/methodology/approach The analysis...... soldiers’ career possibilities. Originality/value The paper is unique as it, in drawing on archival data, is able to trace how an organizational narrative comes to be and due to its ethnographic data how this creates limitations for women’s careers. This narrative is stronger and much more powerful than...

  13. Military Regulated Airspace: Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Military regulated airspace areas depict the Air Traffic Control Assigned Airspace (ATCAA) and Airspace Corridor areas. The team worked with the...

  14. Brazilian Military Dictatorship: theoretical and historiographical approximations


    Carlos Fico


    As is common in the History of Present, there is a significant interconnection between politics and academic research regarding the history of the Brazilian military dictatorship. Consequently, it is essential that well-established theoretical formulations guide archival research. This article discusses the alleged revisionism of the historiography on the Brazilian military dictatorship, argues that the recruitment of young left-wing students for the armed struggle has generated a traumatic m...

  15. Coding Military Command as a Promiscuous Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashcraft, Karen Lee; Muhr, Sara Louise


    by translating the vague promise of queering leadership into a tangible method distinguished by specific habits. The article formulates this analytical practice out of empirical provocations encountered by the authors: namely, a striking mismatch between their experiences in military fields and the dominant...... metaphor of leading as military command. Ultimately, the article seeks to move scholarly practices of leadership toward queer performativity, in the hopes of loosening other leadership practices from a binary grip and pointing toward new relational possibilities...

  16. Russian Military Space Capabilities, 1992-2001 (United States)

    Harvey, B.

    In the period which followed the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian military space programme contracted sharply. Close analysis of the programme reveals that some sub-programmes were concluded and others replaced. Russia continued to give a priority to photoreconnaissance, electronic surveillance, early warning and some other low-profile programmes. A new photoreconnaissance series was introduced (Orlets-2) and Russia continued to operate a modest military space programme in mid-2001.

  17. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments (United States)


    be made. However, others have argued that past modifications intended to save money have had a deleterious effect on military recruiting and...In addition, some have argued that past modifications to the system intended to save money have had a deleterious effect on military recruiting and...will go into effect . Congress has continued to propose adjustments to the new system prior to the implementation date. Provisions in the House and

  18. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security


    Fekete, Florian


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  19. Parsing Chinese-Russian Military Exercises (United States)


    music festival.154 ASSESSMENT These joint Russian- Chinese military exercises serve several important national security purposes for both governments...APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parsing Chinese -Russian Military Exercises 5a. of Army participation in national security policy formulation. iii Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press PARSING CHINESE

  20. Sleep Disturbance Implications for Modern Military Operations


    Lindsay, Douglas R.; Dyche, Jeff


    As is evident from current military operations that are happening around the globe (e.g., Iraq, Afghanistan, Korea), today’s military is being called on in numerous new and innovative ways (e.g., Foster & Lindsay, 2011). One of the primary forces behind this change is the pervasiveness of enhanced information systems. In fact, the concept of networked warfare is the basis of operations and doctrine for the armed forces (Wesensten, Belenky, & Balkin, 2005). With respect to Admiral Cebrowski’s ...

  1. Trust Restoration in International Military Missions (United States)


    comme étant aux prises avec un conflit dû à la montée en puissance d’une organisation terroriste locale. Une organisation militaire fictive d’un particular since the militaries of many nations have entered complex theatres of operations, such as Kosovo, Bosnia, Africa , Afghanistan, and Iraq...East, and Africa . In such complex missions a variety of setbacks can and have occurred. Local populations receiving support from military

  2. Sleep Disturbance Implications for Modern Military Operations (United States)


    there has been recent research targeted at examining these ‘‘newest’’ military members and their sleep habits in the different services of the armed... sleep habits tend to be remarkably consistent. A recent study examined the sleep habits of military personnel undergoing Navy Basic Training (Miller...current discussion is that there is evidence that this habit of getting less sleep at the Service Academies extends to active duty, and even to those in

  3. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three (United States)


    changes rapidly based on factors such as the race/ethnic mix of the youth population, unemployment rates, world events, and attitudes on continuing... Youth Attitudes Toward the Military Poll Three DMDC Report No. 2002-029 April 2002 For additional copies of this report, contact: Defense Technical...Ask for Report by ADA- DMDC Report No. 2002-029 April 2002 YOUTH ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MILITARY: POLL THREE

  4. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales (United States)


    34 Figure 10. Foreign Military Sales Comparative Case Study Approach ......................38 Figure 11. Sources of Cost ...analyzed 35 weapon systems across the Department of Defense (DOD) and noted that only 50% of FMS resulted in a cost savings to the United States. The sales ...The working paper titled Foreign Military Sales and U.S. Weapons Costs found that, for the most part, FMS did not produce significant cost savings

  5. The Nigerian Military and Democratic Transitions (United States)


    absence of successful coups in a civilian-ruled Kenya? Unlike the post- independence regime of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in Nigeria, Jomo Kenyatta ...paramilitary force as a counterweight to the military. (N’Diaye, 2001, 127) In shaping Kenya’s post-colonial civil-military relations, Jomo Kenyatta ...poverty and decay, but would also put the economy into the hands of the indigenous people. One of the major objectives of Kenyatta government after

  6. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma. (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L


    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.


    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  8. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris. (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan


    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses) on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70), interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun


    Full Text Available Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  11. The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma. (United States)

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Young, Matthew D; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Farndon, Sarah J; Guzzo, Charlotte; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Shlien, Adam; Futreal, P Andrew; Shah, Sohrab; Bashashati, Ali; Jamshidi, Farzad; Nielsen, Torsten O; Huntsman, David; Baumhoer, Daniel; Brandner, Sebastian; Wunder, Jay; Dickson, Brendan; Cogswell, Patricia; Sommer, Josh; Phillips, Joanna J; Amary, M Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Pillay, Nischalan; Yip, Stephen; Stratton, Michael R; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Campbell, Peter J


    Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases. Intriguingly, one of the most frequently altered genes, mutated exclusively by inactivating mutation, was LYST (10%), which may represent a novel cancer gene in chordoma.Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma.

  12. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla


    High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, noise......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high-throughput DNA...... sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on protein...

  13. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis. (United States)

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María


    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  14. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.


    the relationship between the uses of structured rule-based approaches to manage product development, but little is known about what makes these rules change. This is the first study to uncover the multitude of drivers that stimulate change in product development rules and to suggest sets of moderators......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  15. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.


    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  16. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen


    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  17. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako


    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Success drivers of sports crowdfunding campaigns


    Brochado, A.


    Crowdfunding combines social networking with microfinance in a method of financing new ventures that has become increasingly popular. Crowdfunding offers entrepreneurs an opportunity to find a large number of investors for projects, but many campaigns tend to remain unfunded. This study’s main objective was to access the main success drivers of crowdfunded projects, focusing, in particular, on sports projects. The dataset comprised 4,952 donationand rewards-based projects launched in three pl...

  19. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calza, Elisa; Goedhuys, Micheline; Trifkovic, Neda


    innovation (product and process) and other variables related to technological capabilities, international standards are still conducive to higher productivity, through improved management practices associated with their adoption. In line with the requirement of continuous improvement implied by most......Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological...



    Stranden, Ole; Fjeldsgård, Espen


    Master thesis Business Administration - University of Agder 2016 Corruption has existed since the beginning of time, and the first documented case of corruption related to sport took place 388 years BC. Several previous studies and research conclude that corruption appears in sport, and that it is a major problem. However, there are relatively few studies emphasising the main actors, mechanisms and drivers and that seek to find feasible solutions on how to prevent and decrease corruption i...

  1. Review of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) (United States)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Grzechca, Damian; Chruszczyk, Lukas


    New cars can be equipped with many advanced safety solutions. Airbags, seatbelts and all of the essential passive safety parts are standard equipment. Now cars are often equipped with new advanced active safety systems that can prevent accidents. The functions of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are still growing. A review of the most popular available technologies used in ADAS and descriptions of their application areas are discussed in this paper.

  2. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.


    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  3. Laser dazzling impacts on car driver performance (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Sandberg, Stig; Hörberg, Ulf; Persson, Rolf; Berglund, Folke; Karslsson, Kjell; Öhgren, Johan; Yu, Zhaohua; Söderberg, Per


    A growing problem for the Police and Security Forces has been to prevent potentially hostile individuals to pass a checkpoint, without using lethatl violence. Therefore the question has been if there is a laser or any other strong light source that could be used as a warning and dazzling device, without lethal or long term effects. To investigate the possibilities a field trial has been performed at a motor-racing track. A green CW laser with an irradiance on the eye of maximum 0.5 MPE, as defined by ICNIRP [1] and the ANZI standard [2], was used as a dazzle source. Ten drivers have been driving with dipped headlights through a course of three lines with orange cones. In every line there has been only one gate wide enough to pass without hitting the cones. The time through the course, the choice of gates and the number of cones hit have been measured. For every second trial drive through the track, the driver was exposed to the laser dazzler. The background illuminances ranged from a thousand lux in daylight to about ten millilux in darkness. The protective effect of the sun-visor of the car was investigated. The drives visual system was carefully examined before and after experimental driving and a few weeks after the experimental driving to verify that no pathological effects, that could potentially be induced by the laser exposure, pre-existed or occurred after the laser exposure. An analysis of variance for a within subjects design has been used for evaluation. It was found that green laser light can have an obvious warning effect in daylight. Dazzling does reduce the drivers ability to make judgments and manouver the car in twilight and darkness. A sun-visor can reduce the glare and give the driver an improved control, but that perception can be unjustified. No damage to the visual system was observed.

  4. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  5. Advances of energy drivers at Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Sadao; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.


    The energy driver development at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, comprises three fields; glass, laser, carbon dioxide laser, and relativistic electron beam. The development of reliable glass lasers has been the main program at ILE. The GEKKO 12 module program was carried out in the fiscal years from 1977 to 1979 in order to develop various laser components and subsystems which are necessary to construct a 20 kJ GEKKO 12 glass laser. The measured gain coefficient of the 200 mm disk amplifier was 0.10/cm corresponding to the αD product of 4.0. The expected peak output power of the system was 2 TW at 0.1 ns and 0.9 kJ at 1 ns. The recent advances in coating techniques will enable to operate this system over 1.3 kJ per beam at 3 ns. Carbon dioxide lasers have been developed as efficient high energy lasers to study the wave length scaling of implosion process. The design and construction of the 10 kJ LEKKO 8 laser system are in progress. Relativistic electron beam machines, being the most cost-effective driver, have been studied to control pulsed power and to investigate electron beam plasma interaction. As the future plans of ILE, the construction of a 100 kJ energy driver from 1958 to 1987 for scientific break-even experiments is considered. (Kato, T.)

  6. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers. (United States)

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide


    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  7. Sociometric approaches for managing military units and predicting of behavior of military personnel (United States)

    Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.


    In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.

  8. Mandatory Physician Reporting of At-Risk Drivers: The Older Driver Example. (United States)

    Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steven M; Youk, Ada O; Documet, Patricia I; Steiner, Claudia A


    In a number of states, physicians are mandated by state law to report at-risk drivers to licensing authorities. Often these patients are older adult drivers who may exhibit unsafe driving behaviors, have functional/cognitive impairments, or are diagnosed with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and/or seizure disorders. The hypothesis that mandatory physician reporting laws reduce the rate of crash-related hospitalizations among older adult drivers was tested. Using retrospective data (2004-2009), this study identified 176,066 older driver crash-related hospitalizations, from the State Inpatient Databases. Three age-specific negative binomial generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effect of physician reporting laws on state's incidence rate of crash-related hospitalizations among older drivers. No evidence was found for an independent association between mandatory physician reporting laws and a lower crash hospitalization rate among any of the age groups examined. The main predictor of interest, mandatory physician reporting, failed to explain any significant variation in crash hospitalization rates, when adjusting for other state-specific laws and characteristics. Vision testing at in-person license renewal was a significant predictor of lower crash hospitalization rate, ranging from incidence rate ratio of 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.94) among 60- to 64-year olds to 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.97) among 80- to 84-year olds. Physician reporting laws and age-based licensing requirements are often at odds with older driver's need to maintain independence. This study examines this balance and finds no evidence of the benefits of mandatory physician reporting requirements on driver crash hospitalizations, suggesting that physician mandates do not yet yield significant older driver safety benefits, possibly to the detriment of older driver's well-being and independence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  9. Driver sleepiness on YouTube: A content analysis. (United States)

    Hawkins, A N; Filtness, A J


    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to severe crashes and fatalities on our roads. Many people continue to drive despite being aware of feeling tired. Prevention relies heavily on education campaigns as it is difficult to police driver sleepiness. The video sharing social media site YouTube is extremely popular, particularly with at risk driver demographics. Content and popularity of uploaded videos can provide insight into the quality of publicly accessible driver sleepiness information. The purpose of this research was to answer two questions; firstly, how prevalent are driver sleepiness videos on YouTube? And secondly, what are the general characteristics of driver sleepiness videos in terms of (a) outlook on driver sleepiness, (b) tone, (c) countermeasures to driver sleepiness, and, (d) driver demographics. Using a keywords search, 442 relevant videos were found from a five year period (2nd December 2009-2nd December 2014). Tone, outlook, and countermeasure use were thematically coded. Driver demographic and video popularity data also were recorded. The majority of videos portrayed driver sleepiness as dangerous. However, videos that had an outlook towards driver sleepiness being amusing were viewed more often and had more mean per video comments and likes. Humorous videos regardless of outlook, were most popular. Most information regarding countermeasures to deal with driver sleepiness was accurate. Worryingly, 39.8% of videos with countermeasure information contained some kind of ineffective countermeasure. The use of humour to convey messages about the dangers of driver sleepiness may be a useful approach in educational interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection. (United States)

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto


    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  11. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván G. Daza


    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  12. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska


    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  13. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar


    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  14. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.


    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  15. Using shadow page cache to improve isolated drivers performance. (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe


    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much.

  16. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K


    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  17. Static Anthropometric Characteristics of Bangladeshi Vehicle Driver: A Case Study. (United States)

    Halder, P K; Sarker, E


    Background. Inappropriate design of sitting furniture and working equipment causes the serious musculoskeletal injuries and various pains as well as reducing working efficiency. Uncomfortable sitting posture in prolonged driving in Bangladesh is an issue to be solved immediately. Therefore, anthropometric databank of user population is significantly essential for the suitable dimensional design for avoiding these remarkable problems. Methods. This study analyses the anthropometric data of the Bangladeshi male vehicle driver aged between 30 and 60 years. A total of 210 Bangladeshi healthy drivers are considered for 15 anthropometric measurements and compared with the similar anthropometrics of other nationalities. Results. The mean stature and sitting height erect of Bangladeshi driver are 1645 mm and 843 mm, respectively. The mean of body mass index (BMI) of the drivers is 26.09 kg/m(2), which indicates that the drivers are overweight. The mean stature of Bangladeshi driver is 17 mm shorter than the driver of Korea and 115 mm shorter than the driver of Iran. Conclusion. There are substantial differences between the body dimensions of Bangladeshi driver and similar dimensions of other countries. In comparison, Bangladeshi driver is found to be the shortest compared with the sample of other nationalities.

  18. Anterior Shoulder Instability in the Military Athlete (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Owens, Brett D.; Tokish, John M.


    Context: Given its young, predominately male demographics and intense physical demands, the US military remains an ideal cohort for the study of anterior shoulder instability. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed publications from 1950 to 2016 from US military orthopaedic surgeons focusing on the management of anterior shoulder instability. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The incidence of anterior shoulder instability events in the military occurs at an order of magnitude greater than in civilian populations, with rates as high as 3% per year among high-risk groups. With more than 90% risk of a Bankart lesion and high risk for instability recurrence, the military has advocated for early intervention of first-time shoulder instability while documenting up to 76% relative risk reduction versus nonoperative treatment. Preoperative evaluation with advanced radiographic imaging should be used to evaluate for attritional bone loss or “off-track” engaging defects to guide comprehensive surgical management. With complex recurrent shoulder instability and/or cases of clinically significant osseous lesions, potential options such as remplissage, anterior open capsular procedures, or bone augmentation procedures may be preferentially considered. Conclusion: Careful risk stratification, clinical evaluation, and selective surgical management for at-risk military patients with anterior shoulder instability can optimize the recurrence risk and functional outcome in this population. PMID:27694151

  19. Ingredients of military genius. Student essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, J.M.


    This article deals with military genius from an historical and a classical theory perspective. The author modifies an approach developed by Carl von Clausewitz that makes use of theory as a framework for the study of history. Clausewitz used theory to study campaigns of Napoleon. This article uses Clausewitz's theory of military genius to study some of the great captains of the American Civil War and World War II. Using seven qualities of military genius that Clausewitz lists in his ON WAR, a study was made to ascertain commonalities of behavior displayed by great battlefield generals. Historical examples are given which reflect the qualities of military genius. The basic hypothesis of the article is that successful generals command their armies with their total being and not just one predominate aspect of their person. The underlying theme is that body, emotions, mind, and spirit must work in a relatively balanced manner which results in military genius being displayed. Historical example urges each senior officer to continually train and discipline his being in preparation for his possible future destiny.

  20. The application of CRM to military operations (United States)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.


    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.