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Sample records for toxocara canis infection

  1. "Toxocara canis" Infection of Children: Epidemiology and Neurospychologic Findings.

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    Marmor, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)

  2. Fading Puppy Syndrome Associated with Toxocara canis Infection

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    Fayez Salib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was studying the role of Toxocara canis infection in fading puppy syndrome and evaluating its treatment. Twelve German shepherd puppies suffered from fading puppy syndrome and their dam were presented. The dead puppies (N.=8 were necropsied. On the other hand, living puppies (N.=4 and their dam were examined both clinically and parasitologically. The collected worms from necropsied puppies were parasitologically identified as Toxocara canis and their counts ranged from 48 to 75 per puppy. The live cases were treated by Flubendazole. The parasitological examinations of stool of live puppies and dam revealed eggs identified as Toxocara canis eggs and their counts ranged from 50 to 350 eggs per gram stool. Post-treatment counts of Toxocara canis worms in stool of live puppies and their dam were ranged from 13 to 79 worms per animal. The results of treatment proved the efficacy of Flubendazole for eradication of Toxocara canis. Toxocara canis considers one of the causes of fading puppy syndrome and could be cured by Flubendazole .

  3. Robust Phenotypic Activation of Eosinophils during Experimental Toxocara canis Infection.

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    Rodolpho, Joice Margareth de Almeida; Camillo, Luciana; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Speziali, Elaine; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Correia, Ricardo de Oliveira; Neris, Débora Meira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells that have cytotoxic proinflammatory activities and stimulate CD4 + T-cells in experimental models of allergy and parasitic infections. Eosinophils, when exposed to antigens, are activated, expressing the CD38/CD69 molecules and exhibited increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), CD80 and CD86, suggesting they play a role upon Toxocara canis antigen stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated the profile of eosinophils using conventional and image flow cytometry upon experimental T. canis infection. T. canis antigens induced a robust activation on this subset, contributing to the immune responses elicited in the experimental model for T. canis- associated visceral larva migrans syndrome. Data analysis demonstrated that, during murine T. canis infection, eosinophils from peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow presented upregulated expression of CD69/MHC-II/CD80/CD86. As opposed to splenic and bone marrow eosinophils, circulating eosinophils had increased expression of activation markers upon T. canis infection. The enhanced connectivity between eosinophils and T-cells in T. canis -infected mice in all three compartments (peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow) also supports the hypothesis that eosinophils may adopt a role during T. canis infection. Moreover, in vitro T. canis antigen stimulation resulted in activation and upregulation of co-stimulatory-related molecules by bone marrow-derived eosinophils. Our findings are evidence of activation and upregulation of important activation and co-stimulatory-related molecules in eosinophils and suggest a reshape of activation hierarchy toward eosinophils during experimental T. canis infection.

  4. Toxocara canis infection: Unusual trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Levy, Michaël; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Véronique; Guillem, Colette; Peuchmaur, Michel; Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Infection by Toxocara canis can cause systemic vasculitis. We report here a unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) triggered by T. canis infection. An 8-year-old girl was treated with albendazole therapy for common toxocariasis, but she developed two weeks later, asthenia, fever, infiltrated maculopapular eruption of the face, peripheral vascular disease with necrosis of the fingers and inflammatory anemia with proteinuria. Anti-nuclear, anti-DNA and anti-Sm antibodies positivity, together with minimal change nephritis with mesangial exclusive IgM deposit on renal biopsy and clinical relapse after initially successful steroid therapy, led to the diagnosis of SLE. T. canis infection can trigger systemic lupus but must also be ruled out of the differential diagnosis given its association with autoimmunity. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Studies of toxocariasis in tissues of rats infected with irradiated toxocara canis eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Maguid, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the level of the resistance of rats when infected with two doses of irradiated infective eggs of Toxocara canis and challenged with normal non-irradiated Toxocara canis eggs. The level of resistance was assessed in comparison with control group by the histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and spleen of these rats. Thirty rats were divided into three groups, the first and the second groups were infected with the infective stage of Toxocara canis irradiated at 40 and 80 Gy respectively. The third group was infected with non irradiated eggs of Toxocara canis representing the control group. The histopathological changes in the tissues of the infected liver, kidney, lung and spleen were examined. The histopathological changes caused by infection with Toxocara canis decreased by increasing the dose of irradiation of the infected stage. Radiation exposure attenuated the larval migration from the gastrointestinal tract to liver and from liver to other organs.

  6. The Migratory Behaviour of Toxocara Canis and Toxocara Vitulorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The migratory behaviours of Toxocara canis and Toxocara vitulorum were studied in six weeks old BALB\\c mice during early phase of infection. Mice were orally infected with 500 embryonated eggs of either T. canis or T. vitulorum. The larvae of T. canis and T. vitulorum were recovered in the liver on day one post infection ...

  7. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

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    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  8. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

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    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis.

  9. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis larvae Alterações de comportamento em Rattus norvegicus experimentalmente infectados por larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro P. Chieffi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is a common canine nematode parasite and one of its possible transmission mechanisms is the predation of infected rodents by canids. Fifty Rattus norvegicus were used to study behavioral alterations in rodents infected by T. canis larvae. The rats were divided into three groups: G1, 20 rats infected with 300 T. canis eggs; G2, 20 rats infected with 2,000 T. canis eggs; and G3, 10 non-infected rats. Thirty and 60 days post-infection, rats from all the groups were submitted to an open-field apparatus for five min and subsequently, to an elevated plus-maze apparatus, again for five min. The data obtained indicated improvement in mobility (total locomotion time and rearing frequency and exploratory behavior in infected rats, principally in G2, which provides some support for the hypothesis that behavioral alterations in rodents infected by Toxocara canis larvae enhance the transmission rate of this ascarid to dogs.Toxocara canis é um nematódeo parasita habitual do intestino delgado de cães. Um dos mecanismos conhecidos de transmissão para cães é representado pela predação de pequenos roedores que, como hospedeiros paratênicos albergam larvas de Toxocara canis em seus tecidos. Para avaliar a ocorrência de alterações de comportamento em roedores infectados por Toxocara canis 50 exemplares de Rattus norvegicus foram utilizados no experimento. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - 20 ratos infectados com 300 ovos de Toxocara canis; G2 - 20 ratos infectados com 2.000 ovos de Toxocara canis e G3 - 10 ratos sem infecção. Trinta e 60 dias após a infecção avaliou-se a ocorrência de alterações comportamentais nos três grupos submetendo os animais, primeiramente, a uma arena de campo aberto durante cinco minutos e, a seguir, a labirinto em cruz elevado por mais cinco minutos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram aumento significativo da mobilidade (tempo total de movimentação e número de vezes em que os animais se

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

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    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and Toxocara canis (17.59%) than the >2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  11. Kinetics of Foxp3-expressing regulatory cells in experimental Toxocara canis infection.

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    Othman, Ahmad A; El-Shourbagy, Safinaz H; Soliman, Rasha H

    2011-02-01

    Foxp3-expressing cells have recently been recognized as a cornerstone for the homeostasis of the immune system, and as key cells in many infectious diseases. Moreover, they have been found to contribute to the regulation of parasite-induced immunopathology in many parasitic infections. However, their role in Toxocara-induced immunopathology has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study is to assess the kinetics of Foxp3-expressing regulatory cells during the course of experimental infection by Toxocara canis (T. canis). Foxp3+ cells were identified in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and splenic Foxp3 gene expression was evaluated. We found significantly progressive increase in Foxp3-expressing cell counts in the liver starting from 5 weeks p.i. These cells were detected within and around Toxocara-induced granulomas as well as in isolated inflammatory foci in the portal tracts or within the hepatic parenchyma. Likewise, expression of Foxp3 mRNA in the spleen significantly increased at 5 and 16 weeks p.i. Furthermore, immunization of mice with Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen prior to experimental infection caused earlier mobilization and recruitment of Foxp3+ cells to the liver and enhanced splenic expression of Foxp3 transcripts. These results suggest a potential role of Foxp3-expressing regulatory cells in the evolution of the immunopathological events during infection by T. canis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

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    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  13. Humoral response of mice infected with Toxocara canis following different infection schemes.

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    Novák, Jan; Panská, Lucie; Macháček, Tomáš; Kolářová, Libuše; Horák, Petr

    2017-12-20

    The study was focused on the dynamics of humoral response to Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens (TES antigens) in mice experimentally infected by T. canis L3 larvae in different ways. In particular, we compared the effect of infection with two doses of 1000 larvae vs. repeated infections with a low number of larvae (daily infection with 10 larvae and weekly infection with 100 larvae in the course of 22 weeks). In ELISA, all infections, including both schemes with lower larval doses, elicited significant antibody response. Elevated levels of total IgE and TES-antigen-specific IgM were detected on day 12 after the first infection, followed by IgG and IgG1, and later by IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b; specific IgE response was not detected. It seems that the high levels of IgM and IgG1 represent the best markers of infection. In addition, gradual increase of IgG2a and IgG2b could help in determination of the infection course. As a byproduct of our work, a new method of infection by repeated drinking of larvae was introduced; it minimizes the pain and discomfort for the experimental mice.

  14. Studies of ocular toxocariasis in rats infected with irradiated TOXOCARA canis eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiub, N.I.; Amin, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a disease caused by a worm called Toxocara canis. Ocular toxocariasis occurs when larvae of T.canis enter the eyes of animals via the blood stream. Once the eye is invaded, characteristic changes are produced with comparative sparing of the anterior segment. In the present study, thirty rats were divided into three groups, the first and the second groups were infected with the infective stage of T.canis irradiated at 40 and 80 Gy, respectively, then infected with non-irradiated eggs after 6 weeks. The third group was infected with non-irradiated eggs representing the control group. The signs of ocular toxocariasis were noticed from the day of infection till 9 weeks being more obvious in the first than in the second group and were increased by the time. The histopathological changes in the tissues of the infected eyes were examined. The damage caused by infection with T.canis decreased by increasing the dose of irradiation of the infected stage. Radiation exposure attenuated the larval migration from the gastrointestinal tract to liver and from liver to other organs like eyes

  15. Joint manifestations in children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis – single centre experience

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    Marta Janicka-Szczepaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint disorders in children are a frequent cause of parents’ concern and a reason of visiting family doctors and rheumatologists. In search for the correct diagnosis, a wide differential diagnosis should be conducted, including bacterial, parasitic, but also rheumatoid or proliferative process. However, the majority of complaints reported by children are reactive in nature. Diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and serology tests results. Ascaris lumbricoides or Toxocara canis infection may manifest itself not only with gastrointestinal, but also musculoskeletal symptoms, depending on the period of the disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the frequency of complaints associated with the locomotor system in children with the presence of serum antibodies against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis and to analyse their relationship with selected laboratory tests (eosinophilia and the final diagnosis. Material and methods: Medical records of 86 children hospitalised in 2013–2015 at the Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Rheumatology, Medical University of Łódź, were analysed. Children with musculoskeletal symptoms and positive serum antibody titres against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis were included in the study. Results: Among the infected patients, the most frequently reported complaint from the locomotor system was knee (51% and wrist (19% pain. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was the dominant human parasitosis (66%, while in 15 patients (17% Toxocara canis co-infestation was detected. Rheumatoid process was the most common suspicion (36%, but the final diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was determined in only 12 patients (14%. Conclusions: Parasitic infections often coexist with articular symptoms reported by children and should always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In some cases, a parasitic infection may be one of the factors that initiate the rheumatoid

  16. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

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    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinal e ( Z. officinal e) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis ( T. canis ) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinal e extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinal e showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinal e on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice

  17. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection.

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    Awadallah, Maysa A I; Salem, Lobna M A

    2015-08-01

    This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pcanis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum

  18. Immunopathological changes in the brain of immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

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    Eid, Mohamed M; El-Kowrany, Samy I; Othman, Ahmad A; El Gendy, Dina I; Saied, Eman M

    2015-02-01

    Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted helminthozoonosis due to infection of humans by larvae of Toxocara canis. The disease could produce cognitive and behavioral disturbances especially in children. Meanwhile, in our modern era, the incidence of immunosuppression has been progressively increasing due to increased incidence of malignancy as well as increased use of immunosuppressive agents. The present study aimed at comparing some of the pathological and immunological alterations in the brain of normal and immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with T. canis. Therefore, 180 Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups including normal (control) group, immunocompetent T. canis-infected group, immunosuppressed group (control), and immunosuppressed infected group. Infected mice were subjected to larval counts in the brain, and the brains from all mice were assessed for histopathological changes, astrogliosis, and IL-5 mRNA expression levels in brain tissues. The results showed that under immunosuppression, there were significant increase in brain larval counts, significant enhancement of reactive gliosis, and significant reduction in IL-5 mRNA expression. All these changes were maximal in the chronic stage of infection. In conclusion, the immunopathological alterations in the brains of infected animals were progressive over time, and were exaggerated under the effect of immunosuppression as did the intensity of cerebral infection.

  19. Toxocara canis y asma bronquial Toxocara canis and bronchial asthma

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    María de los Ángeles López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar la relación entre la infección por Toxocara canis y los síntomas del asma bronquial en niños de una región subtropical con alta prevalencia de toxocariosis, se estudiaron 47 niños con asma y 53 sin asma como grupo control. Se efectuó el examen físico completo, registrándose datos clínicos y epidemiológicos. En los niños con asma se categorizó el patrón de presentación, frecuencia y gravedad de los síntomas con una escala de I a IV. Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxocara canis en ambos grupos mediante el método de ELISA en fase sólida, empleando antígeno de excreción/secreción y se efectuó dosaje de Ig E total. Los resultados muestran una seropositividad del 55% en el total de los niños, del 57.4% en los niños con asma y del 52.8% en los controles. En los niños con sintomatología más grave (grado II, III y IV hubo un 67.7% de seropositivos, mientras que en los niños con síntomas de grado I la seropositividad fue de 37.5% (p = 0.0470. La infección por T. canis actuaría como un co-factor agravante de los síntomas del asma bronquial.In order to evaluate the association between the infection by Toxocara canis and the symptoms of asthma in children from a subtropical region with high prevalence of toxocariasis, 47 asthmatic children and 53 non-asthmatics as a control group were studied. A complete physical examination was performed and clinical and epidemiological data were registered. In asthmatic children the frequency and severity of symptoms were classified in grades I to IV. The presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in both groups was evaluated employing a solid phase ELISA method with excretion/secretion antigens, and total Ig E was also measured. Results showed a total seropositivity of 55%, 57.4% in children with asthma and 52.8% in the control group. Among asthmatics with severe symptoms (grade II, III and IV, there was a 67.7% of seropositivity while in children with

  20. Cardiac markers: profile in rats experimentally infected with Toxocara canis Marcadores cardíacos: perfil em ratos infectados experimentalmente com Toxocara canis

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    Cecília Braga Laposy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in Wistar rats infected with 250 (GI, n = 24 or 1000 (GII, n = 24 Toxocara canis eggs. Animals were evaluated on days 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 post-infection (DPI. Only the GI rats showed an increase in CK and CK-MB, at 15 and 30 DPI, respectively. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in infected animals. Despite of the presence of eosinophilic infiltrate in the heart of three infected animals, none larva was recovered from the organ neither by acid digestion nor by Baermann procedure. Eosinophilia was observed in both groups but there was no significant difference in the eosinophil counts between GI and GII (p = 0.2239. It is possible to consider that cardiac lesion is an eventual finding in murine model for toxocariasis.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o perfil das enzimas creatinoquinase (CK, creatinoquinase-MB (CK-MB e lactato desidrogenase (LDH em ratos Wistar infectados com 250 (GI, n = 24 ou 1000 (GII, n = 24 ovos de Toxocara canis. Os animais foram avaliados nos dias 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 e 180 pós-infecção (DPI. Observou-se que apenas os animais do GI apresentaram aumento da atividade de CK e CK-MB aos 15 e 30 DPI, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-T. canis foram detectados por ELISA nos animais infectados. Apesar da presença de infiltrado eosinofílico em três animais infectados, nenhuma larva foi recuperada do coração pela digestão ácida ou pela técnica de Baermann. Eosinofilia foi observada em todos os momentos em GI e GII, sem diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,2239. Pode-se considerar que as lesões cardíacas foram um achado eventual no modelo murino para toxocaríase.

  1. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs

  2. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Ploeger, Harm W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more

  3. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

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    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos; Assis, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canis and grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- Toxocara IgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ.

  4. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months: a prospective study.

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    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Ploeger, Harm W

    2016-10-04

    To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months. We performed a prospective study (July 2011 to October 2014) on shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of 938 household dogs older than six months from all over the Netherlands. The median follow-up time was 14 months. Monthly, owners sent faecal samples of their dogs for Toxocara testing and completed a questionnaire. Dogs were dewormed only after diagnosis of a patent infection (PI). Survival analysis was used to assess factors influencing the time to first diagnosed PIs (FPI) and the time to recurrent PIs (RPI). The overall prevalence of PIs was 4.5 %, resulting in an estimated average incidence of 0.54 PIs/dog/year. No PI was diagnosed in 67.9 % of the dogs, 17.5 % of the dogs went through only one PI and 14.6 % had > 1 PI. Prevalence of PIs always peaked during wintertime. Increased hazards for first diagnosed PIs were associated with coprophagy, geophagy, walking off-leash for ≥ 80 % of walking time, reported worms in the faeces, feeding a commercial diet and suffering from urologic or respiratory conditions. Median time to reinfection was nine months. Factors associated with increased hazards for recurrent PIs were taking corticosteroids, changing dog's main purpose, and proxies for veterinary care-seeking behaviours. We concluded that targeted anthelmintic treatments in household dogs may be feasible as PIs tend to

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a reliable assay for Toxocara canis infection in pet dogs.

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    Khoshakhlagh, Paria; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Abbas; Ozlati, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The DNA of the recovered T. canis eggs was then extracted and amplified by LAMP and PCR. Furthermore, ITS2 amplicons were sequenced for appraisal of the phylogenetic analysis. Nine, 5 and 11% of T. canis infections were identified by microscopy, PCR and LAMP, respectively. It was detected that LAMP was 10 times (10 -10 to 10 -13  g/μl) more sensitive than PCR (10 -10 to 10 -12  g/μl). The kappa value between LAMP and PCR indicated a faint concurrence (0.463). The kappa coefficient between LAMP and flotation technique indicated a strong agreement (0.667). The highest infection rate (n = 11) was detected in non-dewormed pet dogs, particularly those less than 3 months old (P canis eggs in infected pet dogs. It was proposed that the dog holder's awareness is insufficient to implement regular deworming schedules. Additionally, regional policymakers should broadly revise anthelmintic treatment guidelines.

  6. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

  7. New insights into the immunopathology of early Toxocara canis infection in mice.

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    Resende, Nathália M; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando S; Oliveira, Luciana M; Nogueira, Denise S; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Gonçalves, Marco Túlio P; Amorim, Chiara C O; Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Caliari, Marcelo V; Rachid, Milene A; Volpato, Gustavo T; Bueno, Lilian L; Geiger, Stefan M; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2015-07-02

    Nematodes of the genus Toxocara are cosmopolitan roundworms frequently found in dogs and cats. Toxocara spp. can accidentally infect humans and cause a zoonosis called human toxocariasis, which is characterized by visceral, ocular or cerebral migration of larval stages of the parasite, without completing its life cycle. In general, chronic nematode infections induce a polarized TH2 immune response. However, during the initial phase of infection, a strong pro-inflammatory response is part of the immunological profile and might determine the outcome and/or pathology of the infection. Parasitological aspects and histopathology during larval migration were evaluated after early T. canis experimental infection of BALB/c mice, which were inoculated via the intra-gastric route with a single dose of 1000 fully embryonated eggs. Innate immune responses and systemic cytokine patterns (TH1, TH2, TH17 and regulatory cytokines) were determined at different times after experimental challenge by sandwich ELISA. We found that experimental infection with T. canis induced a mix of innate inflammatory/TH17/TH2 responses during early infection, with a predominance of the latter. The TH2 response was evidenced by significant increases in cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-33, in addition to increasing levels of IL-6 and IL-17. No significant increases were observed for IL-10, TNF-α or IFN-γ levels. In parallel, parasitological analysis clearly revealed the pattern of larval migration through the mouse organs, starting from the liver in the first 24 h of infection, reaching the peak in the lungs on the 3rd day of infection and finally being found numerously in the brain after 5 days of infection. Peripheral leukocytosis, characterized by early neutrophilia and subsequent eosinophilia, was remarkable during early infection. The tissue damage induced by larvae was evidenced by histopathological analysis of the organs at different time points of infection. In all of the

  8. [Prevalence of ocular lesions in children seropositive to Toxocara canis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez T, Juan E; López G, Juan P; González N, Militza; Villaseca D, Eduardo; Manieu M, Denise; Roizen B, Alejandra; Noemí H, Isabel; Viovy A, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Intraocular invasion by Toxocara canis is one of the most commonly recognized etiologies of uveitis and blindness in children. In order to estimate the prevalence of ocular lesions caused by toxocariasis in a pediatric referral hospital, we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical charts of all children seropositive to Toxocara canis, who also had an eye exam between the years 2005 and 2009 at the Calvo Mackenna Children's Hospital in Santiago, Chile. We identified 175 children [mean age 6 years (range 0.66-15)] seropositive to Toxocara canis, who had dilated eye exam. Only one child [(0.57%); 95% CI, -0.55 - 1.69] had ophthalmoscopic findings compatible with Toxocara canis infection. The patient also suffered from decreased vision of the affected eye. The information gained from this study may be of useful for the implementation of algorithms for the ophthalmological examination of children seropositive to Toxocara canis in public hospitals in Chile.

  9. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

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    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to

  10. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, pdogs from rural areas (40%) (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003), domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33%) (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025) and military dogs (2.5%). Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%), T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each), Heterophyes spp. (3.85%), Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%), Taenidae eggs (2.31%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54%) and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each). Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, pdogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067) and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to 7.62, p>0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the

  11. Larval migration of the ascarid nematode Toxocara canis following infection and re-infection in the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecher, M C; Musso, C; Martins, I V F; Pereira, F E L

    2016-09-01

    A morphological and immunohistochemical study of larval migration patterns was performed in gerbils that were infected once (primary infected group) or twice (secondary infected group) with 1500 eggs of Toxocara canis. Animals from the primary infected and the re-infected group were killed at different times after infection, and larvae were counted in the intestines, liver, lungs and brain. Fragments of all organs were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry analyses (using polyclonal anti-Toxocara serum raised in rabbits infected with T. canis). In the primary infected group, larvae were more abundant in the intestine at 24 h, in the liver and lungs between 24 and 72 h and in the brain after 96 h; larvae predominated in the brain for up to 60 days after infection. In the re-infected group, an increase in the number of larvae in the liver and a reduction in the number of larvae in the brain was observed up to 60 days after re-infection. Inflammatory reactions were absent or limited. Eosinophils and loose granulomata were observed around the larvae and their antigens in the primary infected group and were more severe. Many eosinophils and typical epithelioid granulomata were observed around larvae in the re-infected group. These results demonstrate that the migration pattern of T. canis larvae in gerbils is similar to that in mice and rats, exhibiting a late neurotropic stage. In the re-infected group, there was histological evidence of an adaptive T-helper 2 (Th-2) response, and larvae were apparently retained within granulomata in the liver, without obvious signs of destruction.

  12. Modulation of IL-12 and IFNγ by probiotic supplementation promotes protection against Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, L F D C; de Leon, P M M; de Moura, M Q; Berne, M E A; Scaini, C J; Leivas Leite, F P

    2016-05-01

    In this study, supplementation with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii promoted a reduction in intensity of infection by Toxocara canis and modulates cytokines mRNA expression in experimentally infected mice. IL-12 gene transcription had 40-fold increase in S. boulardii supplemented uninfected mice and sevenfold increase in supplemented infected mice comparing with not supplemented group. Regarding IFNγ, similar results were observed, since probiotic supplementation induced approximately 43-fold increase, but only in uninfected mice (P canis infection upregulated IL-10 expression while S. boulardii downregulated it and no change was observed for IL-4. Thus, based in these findings; we suggest that one possible mechanism responsible for S. boulardii protection effect against T. canis infection is by the modulation of cytokines expression, especially IL-12. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Asaolu, Samuel O; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Badejoko, Bolaji O; Gyang, Vincent P; Nwafor, Timothy; Henry, Emmanuel; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-09-01

    Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 - 35kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-29.90, p=0.02), contact with dogs (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.40-7.20, p=0.01) and parent's religion (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.32-0.91, p=0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p=0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission

  14. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

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    Susana A. Zevallos LESCANO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canisand grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day 10 days postinfection (dpi; G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocaraantibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- ToxocaraIgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ.

  15. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  16. Sero-detection of Toxocara canis infection in human with T.canis recombinant arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anju; Raina, Opinder K; Chandra, Dinesh; Mirdha, Bijay R; Kelawala, Naresh H; Solanki, Jayesh B; Kumar, Niranjan; Ravindran, Reghu; Arun, Anandanarayanan; Rialch, Ajayta; Lalrinkima, Hniang; Kelawala, Rohan N; Samanta, Subhamoy

    2017-12-20

    Three recombinant antigens viz. arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 of Toxocara canis were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their potential in the detection of T. canis larval infection in human in immunoglobulin G-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA). Results of the IgG-ELISA with the above recombinant antigens were confirmed with commercially available IgG detection kit for T. canis infection used as a standard test. All three recombinant antigens were 100% sensitive in the detection of positive cases (n = 6) of T. canis infection in human and were screened for their cross-reactivity in human patients with history of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium vivax, Entamoeba histolytica, hydatid and hookworm infections. The recombinant TES-26 antigen showed higher specificity and cross-reacted with T. gondii infection sera only. However, arginine kinase and cathepsin L-1 recombinant antigens showed cross-reactions with sera of patients infected with T. gondii, P. vivax and E. histolytica but not with the patient sera infected with hydatid and hookworm. These results show that recombinant TES-26 is a potential diagnostic candidate antigen for human toxocarosis caused by migrating T. canis larvae.

  17. Risk of infection by the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with low doses of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Gisele Ferreira; Pinto, Nitza Souto França; de Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa; Dutra, Paula Cardoso; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Rodrigues, Lourdes Helena; Silva, Ana Maria Wolkmer Azambuja; Scaini, Carlos James

    2014-06-16

    Experimental studies and registries of cases of human toxocariasis have shown that the consumption of raw or undercooked offal of the paratenic host of Toxocara canis may pose a risk of infection. Thus, we evaluated the risk of infection due to the consumption of liver of chickens inoculated with different doses of embryonated T. canis eggs. Doses were 5-100 times smaller than the ones previously employed in this type of study. Groups of five chickens were inoculated with 5000 (control), 1000, 500, 300 or 50 eggs of T. canis, and at 72 h post-inoculation, the liver of each bird was consumed by a BALB/c receptor mouse. Forty-eight hours after consumption, we examined the organs and carcasses of the mice for larvae of T. canis. All mice were positive for larvae, except the group that consumed the chicken liver inoculated with 50 eggs. This group contained only one positive mouse, in which the larva was lodged in the brain. In mice that consumed livers of chickens inoculated with ≥300 eggs, larvae concentration was primarily in the liver and lungs, characterizing the initial phase of infection. We conclude that the consumption of raw poultry liver, under the studied conditions, poses a risk of infection even with a low number of infected T. canis eggs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

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    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  19. Detection and identification of Toxocara canis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage of infected mice using a novel real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, E; Roelfsema, J H; Brandes, S; Kortbeek, T

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by Toxocara spp. of dogs and cats. In humans, diagnosis relies mainly on detection of parasite-specific antibodies. Although serological assays in current use have defined sensitivity and specificity, the problem of cross-reactivity still remains, particularly in areas of endemic polyparasitism. Microscopic detection of the parasite in tissue biopsies is not recommended for diagnosis because larvae can be difficult to locate, and finding the parasite eggs in faeces is not applicable since the larvae do not develop to the adult stage in the human host. In this study we describe a novel real-time PCR ('Nemo-PCR') that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of Toxocara canis and other nematodes in the Superfamily Ascaridoidea. Results indicate that this approach can detect Toxocara spp. DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of experimentally-infected mice. For diagnostic purposes further studies are necessary to evaluate this assay including testing human BAL fluid. The availability of such a direct assay would improve diagnosis of toxocarosis particularly for patients with pulmonary signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

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    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-05-15

    Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7-12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15-26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08-7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides

  1. CAP protein superfamily members in Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Korhonen, Pasi K; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-06-24

    Proteins of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are recognized or proposed to play roles in parasite development and reproduction, and in modulating host immune attack and infection processes. However, little is known about these proteins for most parasites. In the present study, we explored CAP proteins of Toxocara canis, a socioeconomically important zoonotic roundworm. To do this, we mined and curated transcriptomic and genomic data, predicted and curated full-length protein sequences (n = 28), conducted analyses of these data and studied the transcription of respective genes in different developmental stages of T. canis. In addition, based on information available for Caenorhabditis elegans, we inferred that selected genes (including lon-1, vap-1, vap-2, scl-1, scl-8 and scl-11 orthologs) of T. canis and their interaction partners likely play central roles in this parasite's development and/or reproduction via TGF-beta and/or insulin-like signaling pathways, or via host interactions. In conclusion, this study could provide a foundation to guide future studies of CAP proteins of T. canis and related parasites, and might assist in finding new interventions against diseases caused by these parasites.

  2. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The migratory pattern of Toxocara canis was investigated following infection of pigs with 60 000 infective eggs. Groups of six pigs were slaughtered at 7, 14 and 28 days after infection (p.i.), and the number of larvae in selected organs and muscles was determined by digestion. A group...... of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...... towards T. canis L2/L3 ES products was observed from day 14 p.i. until termination of the experiment, and the maximum eosinophil response was observed 14 days p.i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response...

  3. IDENTIFIKASI Toxocara canis PADA ANAK ANJING DI MAKASSAR PET CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    FATMAWATI, DIAN

    2014-01-01

    2014 DIAN FATMAWATI. O11110111. Identifikasi Toxocara Canis pada Anak Anjing di Makassar Pet Clinic. Dibimbing oleh DWI KESUMA SARI dan MERIAM SIRUPANG. Toxocariasis pada anjing disebabkan oleh infeksi cacing Toxocara canis. Kejadian penyakit ini kurang dikenali dan diperhitungkan oleh pemilik. Cacing Toxocara canis merupakan cacing gastrointestinal yang patogen karena larva cacingnya bisa menyerang organ dalam dan b...

  4. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati - is it possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, C. S.; Skov, Søren; Yoshida, A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common zoonotic helminth infections is caused by species in the genus Toxocara, particularly Toxocara canis and T. cati (Syn. T. mystax). However, their relative contribution to toxocarosis in humans remains largely unknown because causative larvae are seldom recovered...... and uncertainties regarding the validity of existing serological assays. In this study, we used sera from a pig model experimentally infected with T. canis and T. cati to evaluate whether a Western blot could discriminate between the two species. No proteins were observed that could be used as a diagnostic tool...

  5. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  6. Sero-Epidemiology of Toxocara Canis Infection in Children Attending Four Selected Health Facilities in the Central Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, G; Ayi, I; Boampong, J N; Turkson, P K

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection among children attending four selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana. Cross-sectional study. Sera from 566 children aged 1-15 years attending four selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana between July and September 2012 was used in a Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen-based ELISA to detect serum IgG. A short questionnaire was designed to obtain data on respondents as to age, gender, educational level, locality of residence, habits of washing of fruits, vegetable and hands before eating, keeping of pet (dogs or cats), and history of playing with soil and pets. Clinical information was also collected. Associations between sero-positivity and age group, gender, risk factors, educational level and other variables were determined by Chi square test. The overall sero-prevalence was 53.5% (n=566). Age, educational level and hospital visited were significantly associated with sero-positivity (pcanis infection in children in the study was high. The children should be educated to desist from risk factors such as playing with soil and pets and be encouraged to ensure proper personal hygiene.

  7. Assessment of Radiation-Attenuated Vaccine or Thyme Oil Treatment on Controlling DNA Damage and Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Brain of Rat Infected with Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; Hafez, E.N.; Abd Raboo, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a worldwide zoonotic roundworm that infects a number of hosts including humans. It exhibits marked affinity to the nervous tissues. This study deals with the changes in the brain of Toxocara canis infected rats regarding parasitological, nitric oxide (NO) level and DNA damage compared to the effect of vaccination with gamma radiation-attenuated embryonated egg or thyme oil treatment. Eighty rats were classified into four groups (twenty each): GI (normal control); GII infected with 2500 T. canis infective eggs/ml/rat (infected control); GIII vaccinated with 800 Gy gamma-attenuated embryonated eggs (vaccinated group) and GIV infected with 2500 T. canis eggs and treated with thyme oil (thyme treated group). At the 14th day post-infection, ten rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining were re-infected (challenged) with the same number of eggs. At the 14th days post challenge, brain tissues were taken for larval recovery, nitric oxide level evaluation and DNA damage using fragmentation and comet assay. The results exhibited a significant decrease in larval count and nitric oxide level with less damage in brain cells in thyme treated and gamma radiation-attenuated vaccinated groups compared to control infected group. It is also, concluded that vaccination using γ- rays is more effective in protection compared to using thyme oil.

  8. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature.

  9. Influencing of invasion of Toxocara canis on genome of dogs

    OpenAIRE

    PRYIMA O.B.

    2012-01-01

    Researches are conducted by us rotined that the metabolites eelworms of Toxocara canis resulted in the increase of level of chromosomal abberation in the cages of lymphocytes of blood in experimental infested of toxocara dogs.

  10. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  11. Investigations into the prevention of prenatal and lactogenic Toxocara canis infections in puppies by application of moxidectin to the pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, F; Hammerstein, R; Stoye, M; Epe, C

    2006-06-01

    Aim of the investigation was to examine whether two administrations of moxidectin to pregnant dogs could prevent pre-natal and lactogenic infections of puppies with reactivated Toxocara canis larvae. Four pregnant beagles, infected experimentally with 20 000 embryonated eggs of T. canis, were treated subcutaneously with 1 mg moxidectin per kg body weight on days 40 and 55 of pregnancy (5-13 days before parturition). One further dam and its puppies served as untreated control. Two applications of moxidectin completely prevented pre-natal and lactogenic infections in the puppies. Neither intestinal stages nor somatic larvae were found in the dams or their corresponding puppies. All puppies and dams of the treatment group remained coproscopically negative until 42 days after parturition. The administration of moxidectin did not show any side effects in the dams. None of the puppies of the treated dams showed any pathological abnormalities. In the untreated dam one adult and 26 somatic larvae of T. canis were detected at necropsy. All puppies of the untreated dam showed a patent T. canis infection from day 28 post-natum (p.n.); 296 pre-adult and adult stages of T. canis were spontaneously eliminated and 51 intestinal stages and five somatic larvae of T. canis were recovered at necropsy. In contrast to the puppies of the treated dams all negative control puppies showed blood eosinophilia after parturition and elevated liver enzyme levels.

  12. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati--is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, C S; Skov, S; Yoshida, A; Skallerup, P; Maruyama, H; Thamsborg, S M; Nejsum, P

    2015-04-01

    One of the most common zoonotic helminth infections is caused by species in the genus Toxocara, particularly Toxocara canis and T. cati (Syn. T. mystax). However, their relative contribution to toxocarosis in humans remains largely unknown because causative larvae are seldom recovered and uncertainties regarding the validity of existing serological assays. In this study, we used sera from a pig model experimentally infected with T. canis and T. cati to evaluate whether a Western blot could discriminate between the two species. No proteins were observed that could be used as a diagnostic tool. In addition, a heterogenic protein pattern between individual hosts was found, which was most pronounced in the T. cati-infected pigs. There is therefore an urgent need to optimize and validate current methods or develop new species-specific serological methods in order to implement appropriate control measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Seroprevalence, disease awareness, and risk factors for Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in Makoko, an urban slum community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyang, Pam V; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Orok, Akwaowo B; Ajibaye, Olusola; Liao, Chien-Wei; Chen, Po-Ching; Chou, Chia-Mei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Barghouth, Ursula; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in southern Nigeria, which previously was unknown, in addition to evaluating disease awareness and potential risk factors for schoolchildren in an urban slum community. In total, 366 primary schoolchildren were investigated for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Blood was collected and screened by a Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24-35kDa specific for T. canis. Children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted to a titer of 1:32. Questionnaires concerning possible risk factors were given to the schoolchildren to acquire data on this infection. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 86.1% (315/366). The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-7.66, p=0.03), contact with dogs (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.28-0.94, p=0.03), the age of the dog (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.18-0.68, p=0.002), the feeding location of the dog (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.12-0.79, p=0.01), the consumption of raw vegetables (OR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48, p=0.004), and the drinking of unboiled water (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.26-0.90, p=0.02) were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. Although there was a high awareness of dogs being hosts of some parasites in this study, not much was known about T. canis. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among primary schoolchildren in southern Nigeria. The high seroprevalence recorded is an indication of high transmission with the consequent risk of visceral or ocular larval migrans and neurologic toxocariasis in these children. Our findings suggest the need for prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Factor 6 Signaling Contributes to Control Host Lung Pathology but Favors Susceptibility against Toxocara canis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz-López, Berenice; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Romero-Sánchez, Yolanda; Calleja, Elsa; Martínez-Labat, Pablo; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Using STAT6−/− BALB/c mice, we have analyzed the role of STAT6-induced Th2 response in determining the outcome of experimental toxocariasis caused by embryonated eggs of the helminth parasite Toxocara canis. Following T. canis infection wild-type BALB/c mice developed a strong Th2-like response, produced high levels of IgG1, IgE, and IL-4, recruited alternatively activated macrophages, and displayed a moderate pathology in the lungs; however, they harbored heavy parasite loads in different tissues. In contrast, similarly infected STAT6−/− BALB/c mice mounted a weak Th2-like response, did not recruit alternatively activated macrophages, displayed a severe pathology in the lungs, but efficiently controlled T. canis infection. These findings demonstrate that Th2-like response induced via STAT6-mediated signaling pathway mediates susceptibility to larval stage of T. canis. Furthermore, they also indicate that unlike most gastrointestinal helminths, immunity against larvae of T. canis is not mediated by a Th2-dominant response. PMID:23509764

  15. Fungal ovicidal activity on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. sero-epidemiology of toxocara canis infection in chil- dren attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... dogs.2. The prevalence of toxocariasis is generally higher in tropical and developing countries than in developed countries and has been associated with .... canis sero-positivity and characteris- tics of children attending four selected hospitals in the. Central Region, Ghana. Variable Group. (Characteristic).

  17. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can

  18. Toxocara canis myelitis involving the lumbosacral region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yu; Yoshimura, Michiyoshi; Saigo, Ryuji; Arata, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Eiji; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Toxocara canis is a parasite known to cause visceral larva migrans. The infection rarely affects the central nervous system but there have been several reports of myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis. In previous reported cases, the lesions were located in the thoracic or cervical spinal cord. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a lesion involving the lumbosacral region. A 60-year-old man developed weakness and dysesthesia in the lower limbs. The symptoms resolved spontaneously, but recurred after five months. One month later, the patient developed pollakiuria and constipation. He was a dog owner and frequently ate raw chicken meat and beef liver. Sagittal T2-weighted image (T2WI) showed swelling and hyperintensity in the spinal cord from T10 to the lumbosacral region and focal nodular enhancement on the posterior segment of the lumbar spinal cord. Blood cell counts showed slight eosinophilia and elevated serum immunoglobulin E level. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed slight pleocytosis with eosinophilia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high levels of anti-Toxocara antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In addition, confirmatory test by Western blot was positive. The patient was initially treated with intravenous methylprednisolone with slight improvement in muscle weakness. Albendazole was added with a second course of intravenous methylprednisolone. The muscle weakness in the lower limbs improved considerably, and swelling and hyperintensity on T2WI almost disappeared. Our results suggest that Toxocara canis myelitis cannot be discounted even if the myelitis involves the lumbosacral region.

  19. Endocrine immune interactions during chronic Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis in a murine model: New insights into the pathophysiology of an old infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Araiza, Víctor Hugo; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; CUenca-Micò, Olga; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2018-03-15

    Toxocara canis is the helminth causing Toxocariasis, a parasitic disease with medical and veterinary implications. Their final host are members of the family Canidae and as paratenic hosts, most of the mammals are sensitive (man, rat, mouse, among others). It has been reported that a pituitary hormone, prolactin, it is responsible for reactivation and migration of larvae to the uterus and mammary gland during the last third of gestation in bitches. In addition, this hormone has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. Thus, the aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of hypophysectomy in the rat model of Toxocariasis, on the immune response against this parasite during a chronic infection, for which parasite loads were analyzed in different organs (lung and brain). Furthermore, serum specific antibody titers, and percentages of different cells of the immune system were also determined. The results showed a decrease in the number of larvae recovered from lung and brain in the hypophysectomized animals. In this same group of animals, there was no production of specific antibodies against the parasite. As for the percentages of the cells of the immune system, there are differences in some subpopulations due to surgery and others due to infection. Our results demonstrated that the lack of pituitary hormones alters parasite loads and the immune response to the helminth parasite Toxocara canis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia.

  1. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    both a primary and a challenge infection (group B), 15 pigs received the challenge infection only (group C), and 5 pigs served as helminth-free controls (group NC). A dose of 50000 eggs was administered for the primary infection (day 0) and a dose of 10000 eggs was given for the challenge infection...... of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  2. An evaluation of the dot-ELISA procedure as a diagnostic test in an area with a high prevalence of human Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Bojanich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens from the larval stages of Toxocara canis for the diagnosis of toxocariasis. A secondary aim was to establish the optimal conditions for its use in an area with a high prevalence of human T. canis infection. The dot-ELISA test was standardised using different concentrations of the antigen fixed on nitrocellulose paper strips and increasing dilutions of the serum and conjugate. Both the dot-ELISA and standard ELISA methods were tested in parallel with the same batch of sera from controls and from individuals living in the problem area. The best results were obtained with 1.33 µg/mL of antigen, dilutions of 1/80 for the samples and controls and a dilution of 1/5,000 for the anti-human IgG-peroxidase conjugate. All steps of the procedure were performed at room temperature. The coincidence between ELISA and dot-ELISA was 85% and the kappa index was 0.72. The dot-ELISA test described here is rapid, easy to perform and does not require expensive equipment. Thus, this test is suitable for the serological diagnosis of human T. canis infection in field surveys and in the primary health care centres of endemic regions.

  3. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Motta Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  4. Behavioral and memory changes in Mus musculus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Flávia Motta; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos

    2014-01-01

    Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c) eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  5. Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are intestinal helminths of, respectively, dogs and cats. Both Toxocara species have, because of their zoonotic significance, important public health consequences. Prevention of infection with Toxocara eggs is based on education (general public, veterinary

  6. Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Waindok, Patrick; Bankstahl, Marion; Strube, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Neuroinvasive larvae of the worldwide occurring zoonotic roundworms Toxocara canis and T. cati may induce neurotoxocarosis (NT) in humans, provoking a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits as well as neurological dysfunctions. An association with neuropsychological disorders has been discussed. Similar symptoms have been described in T. canis-infected mice, whereas data on T. cati-induced NT are rare. Therefore, it was aimed to obtain insights into the impact on neurobehaviour as well as progression of neurological symptoms and behavioural alterations during the course of NT directly comparing T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice as models for human NT. C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with 2000 embryonated T. canis or T. cati eggs, respectively, the control group received tap water. Mice were screened weekly for neurobehavioural alterations and memory function starting one day prior infection until 97 days post infection (pi; T. canis-infection) and day 118 pi (T. cati-infection, uninfected control). Mostly motoric and neurological parameters were affected in T. canis-infected mice starting day 20 pi with severe progression accompanied by stereotypical circling. In contrast, T. cati-infected mice mostly showed reduced response to sudden sound stimulus (indicator for excitability) and flight behaviour starting day 6 pi. Interestingly, enhanced grooming behaviour was observed exclusively in T. cati-infected mice, indicating a possible role of neurotransmitter dysregulation. Reduced exploratory behaviour and memory impairment was observed in both infection groups with delayed onset and less severe progression in T. cati- compared to T. canis-infected mice. Results highlight the need to consider T. cati beside T. canis as causative agent of human NT. Findings provide valuable hints towards differences in key regulatory mechanisms during T. canis- and T. cati-induced NT, contributing to a comprehensive picture and consequently a broader understanding of NT

  7. Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Janecek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinvasive larvae of the worldwide occurring zoonotic roundworms Toxocara canis and T. cati may induce neurotoxocarosis (NT in humans, provoking a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits as well as neurological dysfunctions. An association with neuropsychological disorders has been discussed. Similar symptoms have been described in T. canis-infected mice, whereas data on T. cati-induced NT are rare. Therefore, it was aimed to obtain insights into the impact on neurobehaviour as well as progression of neurological symptoms and behavioural alterations during the course of NT directly comparing T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice as models for human NT.C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with 2000 embryonated T. canis or T. cati eggs, respectively, the control group received tap water. Mice were screened weekly for neurobehavioural alterations and memory function starting one day prior infection until 97 days post infection (pi; T. canis-infection and day 118 pi (T. cati-infection, uninfected control. Mostly motoric and neurological parameters were affected in T. canis-infected mice starting day 20 pi with severe progression accompanied by stereotypical circling. In contrast, T. cati-infected mice mostly showed reduced response to sudden sound stimulus (indicator for excitability and flight behaviour starting day 6 pi. Interestingly, enhanced grooming behaviour was observed exclusively in T. cati-infected mice, indicating a possible role of neurotransmitter dysregulation. Reduced exploratory behaviour and memory impairment was observed in both infection groups with delayed onset and less severe progression in T. cati- compared to T. canis-infected mice.Results highlight the need to consider T. cati beside T. canis as causative agent of human NT. Findings provide valuable hints towards differences in key regulatory mechanisms during T. canis- and T. cati-induced NT, contributing to a comprehensive picture and consequently a broader

  8. Efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with spinosad in the treatment of larval and immature adult stages of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2014-09-15

    Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis are two important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The primary objective of these studies were to confirm the oral effectiveness of milbemycin oxime (MO) and spinosad in dogs experimentally infected with immature (L4 and immature adult) stages of T. canis or A. caninum. Both trials were conducted as randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies. Treatments using the intended European commercial tablet formulation of Trifexis were administered in a timeframe relative to inoculation so that effectiveness could be assessed against specific immature stages of A. caninum or T. canis. In each study on Day 0, each of 32, 3-4 month old dogs were inoculated with 250 infective eggs of T. canis or 300 infective L3 of the hookworm, A. caninum. All dogs were weighed before their scheduled treatment, randomized to 1 of the 4 treatment groups in each study (8 dogs/group). All dogs were fed just prior to dosing. For T. canis, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 or Day 24. For A. caninum, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 7 or Day 11. Corresponding control groups in each study received a placebo tablet. Dogs were necropsied 5 or 6 days after their respective treatments. The digestive tract was removed and processed to recover, count, and identify all stages. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 (L4 T. canis) was 0.0, with efficacy calculated as 100%; however, only 3 of 8 control dogs had adequate infections. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 24 (immature adult stage) was 0.30; efficacy calculated at 96.15%. This is based on 5 of the 8 control dogs with adequate infections. In the two A. caninum studies, GM worm counts for the MO/spinosad tablets on Day 7 (L4 efficacy) was 2.37 and 0.8 with efficacy calculated as 98.92% and 99.25%, respectively. The GM count for the group treated with the MO/spinosad combination on Day 11 (immature adult) was 6

  9. Toxocara canis: molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Rick M

    2013-04-15

    Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of 'excretory-secretory' products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured

  10. Toxocara canis: Analysis of the kinetics of antigen release and antibody production in an in vivo model for the detection of past or present infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Aarón; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; Caballero-Salazar, Silvia; Rufino-González, Yadira; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2017-08-30

    Worldwide, Toxocara canis is an important zoonotic nematode of public health concern. This soil-transmitted helminth causes visceral larva and ocular larva migrans in paratenic hosts. The detection of T. canis larva migrans is complicated because current immunological tests detect only IgG antibodies, which can cross-react with antigens from other parasites and cannot distinguish between the past and present infection. Analysis of antigen release and antibody production could help improve the detection of larva migrans. Here, we report the kinetics of antigen release, IgM and IgG production in an in vivo model for the detection of past or present infection. We used four groups of seven mice: two groups infected orally with 50 or 100 embryonated eggs, and the other two infected intraperitoneally with 50 or 100 live larvae. We obtained blood samples at 0, 3, 7, and 14days and, then, every two weeks until day 140. Sandwich ELISA and indirect ELISA were performed for antigen capture and the detection of immunoglobulins, respectively. Mice inoculated with larvae developed an immune response faster than those inoculated with eggs. In all groups, antigen capture was positive starting at 3days until 140days post-inoculation (dpi). Detection of immunoglobulins was at 14 or 28dpi in mice inoculated with larvae or eggs, respectively. Negative IgM values were detected at days 98 and 112. The samples remained positive for IgG until the last day of the experiment. Data suggest that in mice inoculated with T canis eggs, some larvae did not hatch, others died or never reached the bloodstream. Based on our model, we propose that there is early infection when only antigens are present, and active larva migrans when antigen and immunoglobulins are detected, implying an immune response of the host against the antigen. Our study offers a view into the parasite-host relationship and enables us to infer if there are live larvae. Additionally, these findings provide a foundation for the

  11. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Dae Kun; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  12. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  13. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Lind, Peter; Nansen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    of uninfected pigs was used as negative controls for blood parameters and weight gain. Toxocara canis migrated well in the pig, although the relative numbers of larvae recovered decreased significantly during the experiment. On day 7 p.i., high numbers of larvae were recovered from the lymph nodes around...

  14. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  15. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  16. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hun

    2005-01-01

    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T. canis (0.9%), 86 with T. leonina (13.0%). Fifty dogs were infected with D. immitis among 500 dogs examined (10.0%). Five were co-infected with T. canis and T. leonina, and three were co-infected with T. leonina and D. immitis. The cumulative positive infection rate for three species was 134/662(20.2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated. PMID:15951642

  17. Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Geffers, Robert; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats with a high zoonotic potential. Migrating larvae in the CNS of paratenic hosts, including humans, may cause neurotoxocarosis resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms. Toxocara canis exhibits a stronger affinity to the CNS than T. cati, causing more severe neurological symptoms in the mouse model. Pathomechanisms of neurotoxocarosis as well as host responses towards the respective parasite are mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the pathogenesis at a transcriptional level using whole genome microarray expression analysis and identify differences and similarities between T. canis- and T. cati-infected brains. Microarray analysis was conducted in cerebra and cerebella of infected C57Bl/6J mice 42daysp.i. revealing more differentially transcribed genes for T. canis- than T. cati-infected brains. In cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice, a total of 2304 and 1954 differentially transcribed genes, respectively, were identified whereas 113 and 760 differentially transcribed genes were determined in cerebra and cerebella of T. cati-infected mice. Functional annotation analysis revealed major differences in host responses in terms of significantly enriched biological modules. Up-regulated genes were mainly associated with the terms "immune and defence response", "sensory perception" as well as "behaviour/taxis" retrieved from the Gene Ontology database. These observations indicate a strong immune response in both infection groups with T. cati-infected brains revealing less severe reactions. Down-regulated genes in T. canis-infected cerebra and cerebella revealed a significant enrichment for the Gene Ontology term "lipid/cholesterol biosynthetic process". Cholesterol is a highly abundant and important component in the brain, representing several functions. Disturbances of synthesis as well as concentration changes may lead to

  18. Influence of land use and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in soil in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Jianxin; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Soil which has been contaminated by Toxocara spp. eggs is considered as one of the main infection sources of Toxocariasis in animals and humans. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and Toxocara cati (T. cati) eggs in soil in urban area of northeastern Mainland China, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land use and the distribution of the Toxocara spp. eggs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the determination of T. canis and T. cati eggs contamination in soil samples. Between April 2014 and May 2015, 9420 soil samples were subjected to PCR examination and 7027 sheep (74.6%) were determined to be positive for T. canis and T. cati eggs. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of land use, and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of T. canis and T. cati eggs based on a maximum entropy model. Jackknife analysis revealed that the area of residential land, wood and grass land and precipitation may influence the occurrence of T. canis and T. cati eggs in soil. Our findings indicate that land use and meteorological factors may be important variables affecting transmission of Toxocariasis and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance programmes for Toxocariasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nematophagous fungi of Toxocara canis eggs in a public park of La Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortari, Cecilia; Cazau, Cecilia; Hours, Roque

    2007-03-01

    Fungi have showed a great potential for the biological control of nematodes. However, they have not been evaluated for the control of animal and/or human parasites transmitted by egg contaminated soils. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is a public health problem. Accidental swallowing of Toxocara canis eggs (a nematode of dogs) usually results on a zoonotic infection (toxocarosis). The objectives of this research were: 1) To test the presence of antagonistic fungi against T. canis in the soil in public places of La Plata city, Argentina, infected with eggs of this parasite, 2) To determine the possible association between biotic and abiotic factors of the soil with the presence of fungal parasites of egg nematodes. Soil samples were tested for: textural type, organic matter (%), pH, presence of egg-parasite fungi, of larvae and of nematode eggs, in particular of Toxocara spp. The studied area showed the following characteristics: pH: 6.6-8.0, organic matter: 1.2-70%, with a predominantly loam texture. The following antagonistic fungal genera were identified: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Humicola, Mortierella, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. A prevalence of 70% was detected for nematode eggs, of 33% for Toxocara spp. eggs and of 90% for larvae. No association between the presence of egg-parasite fungi and the considered factors was found. More studies are necessary to know the natural antagonism factors to T. canis eggs for its in situ biological control.

  20. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of male and female adult Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong-Qiong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Korhonen, Pasi K; Luo, Yong-Li; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Luo, Yong-Fang; Gasser, Robin B; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-02-05

    Toxocariasis is an important, neglected zoonosis caused mainly by Toxocara canis. Although our knowledge of helminth molecular biology is improving through completed draft genome projects, there is limited detailed information on the molecular biology of Toxocara species. Here, transcriptomic sequencing of male and female adult T. canis and comparative analyses were conducted. For each sex, two-thirds (66-67%) of quality-filtered reads mapped to the gene set of T. canis, and at least five reads mapped to each of 16,196 (87.1%) of all 18,596 genes, and 321 genes were specifically transcribed in female and 1467 in male T. canis. Genes differentially transcribed between the two sexes were identified, enriched biological processes and pathways linked to these genes established, and molecules associated with reproduction and development predicted. In addition, small RNA pathways involved in reproduction were characterized, but there was no evidence for piwi RNA pathways in adult T. canis. The results of this transcriptomic study should provide a useful basis to support investigations of the reproductive biology of T. canis and related nematodes. 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Ji Young; Park, Hong-Kyun; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S

    2012-09-01

    Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia. He showed symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis with involvement of the lungs and liver. Specific IgG antibody to Toxocara canis larval antigen was positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by ELISA. He took raw ostrich liver with his parents 4 weeks before the symptom onset. His parents were seropositive for T. canis antigen but had no symptoms or signs suggesting toxocariasis. This is the first report of toxocariasis in a family due to ingestion of raw ostrich liver in Korea.

  2. Toxocara canis: Larvicidal activity of fatty acid amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; D'Oca, Caroline da Ros Montes; Mata-Santos, Hílton Antônio; Fenalti, Juliana; Pinto, Nitza; Coelho, Tatiane; Berne, Maria Elisabeth; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-02-01

    Considering the therapeutic potential of fatty acid amides, the present study aimed to evaluate their in vitro activity against Toxocara canis larvae and their cytotoxicity for the first time. Linoleylpyrrolidilamide was the most potent, with a minimal larvicidal concentration (MLC) of 0.05 mg/mL and 27% cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages C57BL/6 mice, as assessed by the MTT assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seroprevalence of IgG anti-Toxocara canis antibodies and anti-Fasciola sp. antibodies in patients with urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, T; Ciçek, M; Uçmak, D; Akkurt, M; Tekin, A; Dal, M S; Tekin, R; Kalkanl, S T

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined by recurrent episodes occurring at least twice a week for 6 weeks and generally characterized by the rapid appearance of wheals and/or angioedema and may be associated with parasitic infections. We aimed to investigate the seroprevalance of Toxocara canis and Fasciola species in patients with CU. We included 55 patients (in age 16-55) with urticaria admitted in study. As a control group we recruited 30 healthy volunteers they had no history of urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS), or other relevant diseases. IgG antibodies to Toxocara canis and Fasciola species were investigated by ELISA method. In a total of 55 patients (mean age: 31.85 ± 8.92), 8 patients (14.5%) were positive for IgG antibodies to Toxocara canis. Among seropositive patients (mean age: 38.62 ± 12.46) 6 patients were female. No patient was positive for Fasciola by ELISA. Six of Toxocara canis seropositive cases were frequently visited or lived in rural areas and had contact with pets. Patients with urticaria, should be tested for Toxocara canis and treated with anthelminthic drugs in endemics areas for toxocariasis.

  4. Seroepidemiological investigation of Toxocara canis in a female Greek pregnant population in the area of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasilopoulos, V; Bonatsos, G; Elefsiniotis, I; Birbas, C; Panagopoulos, P; Trakakis, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the of areas where the soil is contaminated by Toxocara ova and also to assess seroepidemiological positivity in a Greek pregnant women population (ELISA IgG test). The authors carried out an examination of soil samples collected from different areas of Athens and Piraeus (Kazakos method). Blood serum was only collected from pregnant women living and conducting activities in places close to the places where the soil sample's were collected for at least a decade (ELISA IgG assay). The authors suggest a correlation between the positive response in the ELISA assay IgG antibodies and the activities of people where soil was contaminated by Toxocara eggs. In conclusion, the prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in a population of Greek pregnant women was found to be a rate of 17.16% and the soil contamination rate of 17.08%.

  5. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K; Cai, Huimin; Young, Neil D; Nejsum, Peter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Boag, Peter R; Tan, Patrick; Li, Qiye; Min, Jiumeng; Yang, Yulan; Wang, Xiuhua; Fang, Xiaodong; Hall, Ross S; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-02-04

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, to date, there has been no global investigation of the molecular biology of this parasite. Here we use next-generation sequencing to produce a draft genome and transcriptome of T. canis to support future biological and biotechnological investigations. This genome is 317 Mb in size, has a repeat content of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite's gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host-parasite interactions and predict intervention targets. The draft genome of T. canis should provide a useful resource for future molecular studies of this and other, related parasites.

  6. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing on embryonation of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Houk, Alice E; Flick, George J; Lindsay, David S

    2014-07-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic nematode parasite that can be transmitted to humans by food or water contaminated with T. canis eggs from infected dog feces. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a useful alternative to thermal treatments to eliminate pathogens from foods. Most of the research on HPP has focused on prokaryotes, but little is known about its effects on eukaryotic organisms. We evaluated the ability of HPP to affect embryonation of T. canis eggs to test the hypothesis that HPP treatment can delay development of T. canis eggs. Efficacy of HPP was determined by using an embryonation assay on T. canis eggs from naturally infected puppies. For each treatment, 2500 T. canis eggs in tap water were placed in sealable plastic bags and subjected to 138-400 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60 s in a commercial HPP unit. We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively. Results from this study suggest that HPP may be a useful treatment to protect foods from T. canis contamination.

  7. Flotation of Toxocara canis Eggs in Commercial Bleach and Effects of Bleach Treatment Times on Larval Development in These Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dohlen, Alexa Rosypal; Houk-Miles, Alice E; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2017-04-01

    Toxocara canis is a common intestinal nematode of young dogs. Puppies contaminate the environment with large numbers of eggs that can embryonate and become infective in less than a month. Embryonated eggs are infectious for humans and other paratenic hosts. Most T. canis infections in humans are asymptomatic; however, migration of T. canis larvae in the eye and in the central nervous system can result in vision loss, blindness, and even death. The eggs of T. canis are highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions and routinely used chemical disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of full-strength commercial bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution) treatment on development of T. canis eggs and to report our serendipitous finding that T. canis eggs in dog feces can float in passive fecal flotation tests using bleach. We also demonstrated that T. canis eggs could be identified using the McMaster's fecal eggs counting test using 100% bleach. Toxocara canis eggs collected from the feces of naturally infected 4-8 wk old puppies were treated with full-strength bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution) for 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min; washed free of bleach smell by centrifugation; and resuspended in 0.1 N sulfuric acid solution to undergo larval development at room temperature for 18 days after exposure to bleach. Motile larvae were observed in T. canis eggs in all groups treated for 15-120 min and eggs continuously exposed to bleach for 18 days. Our results indicate that bleach may not be an appropriate disinfectant for dog kennels, cages, or laboratory utensils and work surfaces. Toxocara canis eggs are resistant to bleach treatment and continue to pose a risk for canine and human infections. Further study is needed to find the most appropriate methods for disinfection and removal of eggs to reduce the risk of transmission of this parasite.

  8. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

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    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  9. Research on Toxocara canis antibodies obtained from patients with eosinophilia.

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    Artinyan, E; Uysal, H Kirkoyun; Akgul, O; Altiparmak, S; Oner, Y A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils may suggest the presence of a great variety of anomalies whereupon allergies, malignancies, certain tissue disorders, idiopathic hypereosynophilic syndrome and parasitic infections (with the exception of protozoons) can be cited as a few. Although the clinical manifestations may differ, the eosinophils level is quite an important data in cases related to the helminth infections. Similarly, in parasitic infections related to larva migrans (visceral, cutaneous, ocular), the eosinophils level is again a primary indicator and its evident cause is the roundworm Toxocara spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance characteristics of Toxocara spp. in patients with eosonophilia. In our study, serums were collected from 93 patients of various age groups with eosonophilia (10% and above) while visiting Istanbul University Medical Faculty due to various complaints. Serum samples were treated with Toxocara IgG ready ELISA kit and Toxocara western blot IgG ready kit. Based on the ELISA method; out of 93 patients, 30 patients (32.3%) were positive. Western blot technique; 45 (48.4%) were positive with anti-toxocara IgG antibodies. Results point out to western blot technique being more sensitive and superior on a scale of (P < 0.0001) when compared with the ELISA method.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of C Type Lectin from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae and Comparison with the C Type Lectin Fam-ily in the Immune System of Mouse and Human

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    Fazeleh ETEBAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C type lectin (CTL family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host.Methods: The female T. canis was retrieved from the 2-6 months puppies (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 2015. To collect T. canis eggs, the worms were cultured for 5 d until they were embryonated. The hatching process was accelerated for collecting the stage 2 larvae, and the larvae were cultured for a week. A cDNA library was made from the total mRNA of T. canis infective larvae. The PCR amplification for C type lectin gene was performed and the amino acids were analyzed using the alignment method and the construction of phylogenetic tree.Results: The suspension sample maintained at 30 ºC for four weeks could embryonate 90%-100% of eggs. T. canis CTL gene was 657 bp in length and encoded a protein with 219 amino acids. The CTL of species of Strongylida order were closely placed in the tree, whereas the members of Ascaridida orders were located in a separate branch. High levels of similarity (36%-44% and conservation of C type lectin from T. canis with mouse and human C type lectins. Its C type lectin showed a higher similarity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, macrophage lectin, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, MINCLE receptor of mouse and human.Conclusion: Analysis of CRD domain of C type lectin protein could make a better understanding of their role in the interaction of nematode parasite with their hosts.

  11. Toxocara canis: una zoonosis frecuente a nivel mundial

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    Ana Carolina Rojas-Salamanca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariasis, causada principalmente por Toxocara canis, es una de las zoonosis más comunes a nivel mundial; se presenta con mayor frecuencia en niños, asociada a condiciones desfavorables de higiene, hacinamiento, convivencia con perros parasitados, el nivel socioeconómico, la ubicación geográfica y los entornos en los cuales los animales depositan sus heces, lo que se convierte en un gran foco de contaminación para los humanos. El Toxocara canis ingresa al ser humano por contacto directo con heces de perro o por contaminación de alimentos. La carga parasitaria es de vital importancia, ya que está relacionada directamente con la gravedad de la enfermedad, con los diferentes síndromes que se producen y con la respuesta inmune desencadenada por el organismo, teniendo en cuenta el ciclo de vida que se lleva a cabo en el organismo humano. Para esta enfermedad no se puede realizar un diagnóstico por técnicas coproparasitológicas, por lo cual es necesario utilizar otros métodos, como el aumento de leucocitos con presencia de eosinofilia, la prueba de ELISA y, en algunos casos, por medio de biopsias.

  12. Flotation and adherence characteristics of Toxocara canis and T. cati and a reliable method for recovering Toxocara eggs from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Annika; Janecek, Elisabeth; Waindok, Patrick; Strube, Christina

    2016-08-30

    Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T. canis and T. cati eggs. No significant difference was observed in flotation characteristics, but comparison of adherence properties revealed significantly less adherence of T. cati eggs on almost all evaluated substrates ("sand", side sealed bags, glass beaker, centrifuge tube) and different washing solutions (tap water, Tween(®) 80, Triton™ X-100). Mean adhesion rates of T. cati eggs ranged from 15.9% to 68.9%, those of T. canis eggs from 28.3% to 83.9%. While adherence of T. cati eggs on any substrate was significantly reduced when rinsing with Tween(®) 80 solution, no effect on T. canis eggs could be observed. Generally, Toxocara eggs adhere better on plastic than on glass. Evaluation of a method including only non-hazardous substances for purification of Toxocara eggs from soil resulted in a statistically significant higher recovery rate of T. canis (42.6% recovered eggs) compared to T. cati eggs (30.9% recovered eggs). As these percentages are above average for described methods to recover Toxocara eggs from soil, the presented method is considered reliable for prevalence studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Toxocara canis: frequency of detection and extent of infection in bitches of various breeds and husbandry and their litters in South Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, R; Reichler, I

    1990-06-01

    Epidemiological investigations of 100 randomly selected dog families in Southern Germany revealed eggs of Toxocara canis in 67% of the litters and in 45% of the bitches. Eggs were isolated from litters at the earliest on the 16th day and at the latest on the 55th day post partum, in bitches on the 19th and 60th day respectively after giving birth. With regard to the coproscopically detected frequency of T. canis eggs in separate analyses of the dog breeds, only slight differences were found; very large breeds, however, revealed substantially a greater excretion extent. An evaluation exclusively concerned with the way the dog families were kept showed a higher percentage of 76.2% for litters from kennels than among those kept indoors, which amounted only to 51.4%. Relating the excretion extent to the number of additionally kept fully grown dogs/breeder, evident correlations were found, as the number of positive litters increased together with the number of additionally kept adult dogs/dog family. In comparison with dog families exclusively kept indoors, kennel dogs had a higher extent of excretion. Regarding the number of litters born per year/stock compared with excretion extent a positive correlation could be drawn for dog families up to 5 litters/year only. The number of litters born per bitch had no influence on the excretion extent of the litters. Correlations between the number of anthelminthic treatments of litters or bitches during and following pregnancy and the excretion extent of T. canis could not be deduced. The litters remained positive even after 5-8 treatments during the investigation period of 9 weeks and positive results continued after the puppies had been sold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Toxocara canis glycans influence antigen recognition by mouse IgG1 and IgM antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Ewa; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar moieties of Toxocara canis glycoprotein antigens on their recognition by infected mouse antibodies was investigated in this study. Native TES and recombinant Toxocara mucins generated in Pichia pastoris yeast as well as their deglycosylated forms were used in ELISA. TES and recombinant mucins were equally recognized by T. canis infected mouse IgG1 antibodies. IgM immunoglobulins predominantly recognized TES antigens. Among mucins recognition of Tc-MUC-4 was the most significant. Deglycosylation of antigens resulted in significant loss of IgM and IgG1 reactivity to TES, mucins, Tc-MUC-3 and Tc-MUC-4. The presence of sugar moieties had no influence on IgE binding to native or recombinant T. canis antigens. Our results suggest that glycans are involved in epitope formation what should be taken into consideration in production of recombinant helminth antigens for diagnostic purposes.

  15. Immunolocalization of arginine kinase (AK) in Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Rajapakse, R P V J; Yatawara, Lalani; Jayaweera, W R; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2012-08-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of the phosphagen kinase family. AK plays a major role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrates including nematodes. In the present study, we performed the direct immunofluorescence test to determine the immunolocalization of AK in different stages of the life cycle (eggs, larvae, and adult worms) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara vitulorum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. Our results indicated variable levels of expression of AK in different stages. Moreover, strong fluorescence was observed in cleaving eggs than in dormant eggs. The highest activity of the enzyme was observed in the fully developed eggs. This may be due to high expression of AK in embryonic development, which is associated with increased energy demand due to cleavage and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, expression of AK is significantly higher in the middle part and posterior end compared to anterior end of the larvae. In addition, AK is highly concentrated in cellular and metabolically active parts of the body such as hypodermis, muscle, intestine, ovaries, oviducts, and uterus, while it is absent in noncellular areas like cuticle. The present study revealed the presence of AK in T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum and that it plays a major role in energy metabolism of these nematodes. Interestingly, antiserum was prepared against the recombinant T. canis AK and reacts with the native AKs of T. canis, A. lumbricoides, and T. vitulorum. AK levels could vary in relation to maximum potential rates of ATP turnover, oxidative capacity, and energy output. Further studies on subcellular localization of AK in these important helminths provide new information for researchers to develop effective anthelmintics against the parasites of veterinary and of public health importance.

  16. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

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    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  18. Proteomic analysis of Toxocara canis excretory and secretory (TES) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Rita Leal; Kremer, Frederico Schmitt; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Costa de Avila, Luciana F; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Caumo, Karin Silva; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Berne, Natália; Borsuk, Sibele

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a neglected disease, and its main etiological agent is the nematode Toxocara canis. Serological diagnosis is performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. canis excretory and secretory (TES) antigens produced by in vitro cultivation of larvae. Identification of TES proteins can be useful for the development of new diagnostic strategies since few TES components have been described so far. Herein, we report the results obtained by proteomic analysis of TES proteins using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. TES fractions were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS spectra were compared with a database of protein sequences deduced from the genome sequence of T. canis, and a total of 19 proteins were identified. Classification according to the signal peptide prediction using the SignalP server showed that seven of the identified proteins were extracellular, 10 had cytoplasmic or nuclear localization, while the subcellular localization of two proteins was unknown. Analysis of molecular functions by BLAST2GO showed that the majority of the gene ontology (GO) terms associated with the proteins present in the TES sample were associated with binding functions, including but not limited to protein binding (GO:0005515), inorganic ion binding (GO:0043167), and organic cyclic compound binding (GO:0097159). This study provides additional information about the exoproteome of T. canis, which can lead to the development of new strategies for diagnostics or vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficiency immunization peritoneally with different antigens of Toxocara canis، Toxascaris leonina aganist infection with Toxacara cati and Toxascaris leonina larvae

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    A. B. Hosin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2 of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63% by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%.

  20. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.

  1. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-08-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Jean-Francois; Irenge, Leonid M; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Dumont, Catherine; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-07

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  3. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

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    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  5. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

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    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  6. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  7. Transmission of Toxocara canis via ingestion of raw cow liver: a cross-sectional study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongil; Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Dong-Chull; Lee, Kyung Soo; Paik, Seung Woon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Huh, Sun

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the relationship between ingestion of raw cow liver and Toxocara canis infection. A total of 150 apparently healthy adults were divided into 2 groups; 1 group consisted of 86 adults with positive results of Toxocara ELISA, and the other group of 64 adults with negative results. One researcher collected the history of ingestion of raw cow liver within 1 year and recent history of keeping dogs. Among 86 seropositive adults for T. canis, 68 (79.1%) had a recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively). A recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs was significantly associated with toxocariasis.

  8. Toxocara canis, o passageiro clandestino de um voo…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Filipa Mota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxocarose humana é uma helmintozoonose, frequente em idade pediátrica, transmitida por ingestão de ovos presentes no solo. Crianças residentes em zonas com condições de saneamento precárias, que coabitem com animais de estimação não desparasitados e que apresentem geofagia, incorrem em elevado risco de desenvolvimento de toxocarose. Apresenta-se o caso de um rapaz de 5 anos, residente até há um mês em Cabo Verde, que recorreu ao serviço de urgência por febre, tosse e síndrome de dificuldade respiratória. Analiticamente destacava-se leucocitose e eosinofilia. A tomografia computorizada torácica revelava hiperdensidade irregular na base pulmonar direita. Perante serologia do Toxocara canis sugestiva de infeção aguda admitiu-se o diagnóstico de larva migrans visceral, atuando-se em conformidade terapêutica. A síndrome de larva migrans visceral atinge diversos órgãos, sendo o envolvimento pulmonar grave raro. Apesar de maioritariamente assintomática e autolimitada, quando sintomática a apresentação inespecífica e as limitações da interpretação serológica dificultam o diagnóstico e a abordagem terapêutica adequada.

  9. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  10. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  11. Seroepidemiology of human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Harms, Margriet; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Titia

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are worldwide-distributed zoonotic roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively. The epidemiology of these parasites in developed countries is largely unclear. Two countrywide cross-sectional serosurveys were therefore conducted in the Netherlands in 1995/1996 and 2006/2007 to investigate the prevalence, trends and risk factors for human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the general population. The Netherlands is characterized by high pig production, freedom from stray dogs and virtual absence of autochthonous infections with the human-adapted roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Over the 10 years between the two serosurveys, Toxocara seroprevalence decreased significantly from 10.7 % (n = 1159) to 8.0 % (n = 3683), whereas Ascaris seroprevalence increased significantly from 30.4 % (n = 1159) to 41.6 % (n = 3675), possibly reflecting concomitant improvements in pet hygiene management and increased exposure to pig manure-contaminated soil. Increased anti-Toxocara IgGs were associated with increasing age, male gender, contact with soil, ownership of cats, cattle or pigs, hay fever, low education, high income and non-Western ethnic origin. Increased anti-Ascaris IgGs were associated with increasing age, owning pigs, low education, childhood geophagia and non-Dutch ethnic origin. Besides identifying specific groups at highest risk of Toxocara and Ascaris infections, our results suggest that these infections mainly occur through environmental, rather than foodborne, routes, with direct contact with soil or cat and pig ownership being potentially modifiable exposures.

  12. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful capture of Toxocara canis larva antigens from human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Aarón; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario Noé; Medina-Flores, Yolanda; Medina-Escutia, María Edith; Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Correa, Dolores; Caballero-Salazar, Silvia; Ponce-Macotela, Martha

    2015-05-08

    Toxocara canis is a nematode that parasitizes dogs, while humans are paratenic hosts. When humans are infected the migrating larvae damage the liver, lungs and even the nervous system. Larva migrans diagnosis is based on immunological techniques; however, the commercial immunodiagnostic kits detect anti-T. canis antibodies which may cross-react with other parasites, mainly nematodes with extra-intestinal migration. Moreover, antibodies do not necessarily reflect an active infection; so detection and quantification of circulating antigens may provide appropriate and timely information for treatment, which prevents irreversible damage. Here we report the standardization of a monoclonal antibody based antigen capture ELISA to diagnose human toxocariasis without cross-reaction. We developed anti-T. canis polyclonal antibodies in rabbits and a monoclonal antibody in mouse which did not cross-react with 15 antigens from several parasites. The sandwich ELISA standardization was performed using sera from mice experimentally infected. We tested the method using 29 positive and 58 negative human sera previously typified with a commercial kit, which detects antibodies. Only 5.0 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibody, respectively, were needed in the sandwich ELISA standardization, detecting since 440 pg/mL larva antigens. Nine out of 29 antibody-positive sera were also positive for antigens and no false positive were found. Taking the antibody kit as the reference standard, the sensibility and specificity of the antigen test were 31% and 100%, respectively. With these tools we established a detection threshold as low as 440 pg/mL antigen. Monoclonal antibody is specific, and did not cross-react with antigens from other parasites. Detection of circulating antigens helps provide appropriate and timely treatment and prevents irreversible damage.

  14. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for coproantigen detection of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in dogs and Toxocara cati in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsemore, David A; Geng, Jinming; Cote, Jennifer; Hanna, Rita; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Bowman, Dwight D

    2017-09-01

    We report the development and field validation of 2 ELISAs for the detection of Ancylostoma caninum or Toxocara canis coproantigens in the feces of dogs with experimental and natural infections, and evidence of cross-reactivity with respective feline counterparts. A. caninum-specific coproantigens were detected in feces of experimentally infected dogs starting at 9 d post-infection (dpi), whereas eggs were not seen until 23 dpi. T. canis-specific coproantigens were detected in 3 of 5 experimentally infected dogs by 31 dpi, and 4 of the 5 animals by 38 dpi. T. canis eggs were seen in feces of 4 of the 5 animals by 38 dpi. One dog had delayed coproantigen detection and low egg output. Additionally, 817 canine and 183 feline fecal samples from naturally infected animals tested by flotation were subjected to coproantigen ELISA testing. Of these 1,000 canine and feline samples, 13 and 23 samples, respectively, were positive for "hookworm" or "roundworm" eggs; 19 and 26 samples were ELISA positive, respectively. The T. canis ELISA detected T. cati coproantigen in cat fecal samples. Discrepant ELISA and flotation results were obtained for 16 hookworm- and 13 roundworm-positive samples. Re-examination of the egg-positive, ELISA-negative samples indicated several instances of possible misidentification or coprophagy, whereas detection of antigen in samples without egg observations is likely a reflection of true infection status with egg shedding below detection levels. There is good indication, based on accumulated field data, that these antigen tests also detect other hookworm and ascarid species.

  16. MicroRNAs of Toxocara canis and their predicted functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangxu; Luo, Yongfang; Zhu, Honghong; Luo, Yongli; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Zhou, Rongqiong

    2016-04-23

    Toxocara canis is the causative agent of toxocariasis of humans and other animals. This parasitic nematode (roundworm) has a complex life cycle, in which substantial developmental changes and switches occur. As small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in a wide range of organisms, we explored these RNAs in T. canis to provide a basis for future studies of its developmental biology as well as host interactions and disease at the molecular level. We conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses to define sRNAs in individual male and female adults of T. canis. Apart from snRNA and snoRNA, 560 and 619 microRNAs (miRNAs), including 5 and 2 novel miRNAs, were identified in male and female worms, respectively, without piRNAs being detected in either sex. An analysis of transcriptional profiles showed that, of 564 miRNAs predicted as being differentially transcribed between male and female individuals of T. canis, 218 miRNAs were transcribed exclusively in male and 277 in female worms. Functional enrichment analysis predicted that both male and female miRNAs were mainly involved in regulating embryonic morphogenesis, hemidesmosome assembly and genetic information processing. The miRNAs differentially transcribed between the sexes were predicted to be associated with sex determination, embryonic morphogenesis and nematode larval development. The roles of miRNAs were predicted based on gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway annotations. The miRNAs Tc-miR-2305 and Tc-miR-6090 are proposed to have roles in reproduction, embryo development and larval development, and Tc-let-7-5p, Tc-miR-34 and Tc-miR-100 appear to be involved in host-parasite interactions. Together with published information from previous studies, some miRNAs (such as Tc-miR-2861, Tc-miR-2881 and Tc-miR-5126) are predicted to represent drug targets and/or associated with drug resistance. This is the first exploration of miRNAs in T. canis, which could provide a

  17. Toxocara canis mucins among other excretory-secretory antigens induce in vitro secretion of cytokines by mouse splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Ewa; Wasyl, Katarzyna; Klockiewicz, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The effect of Toxocara larval antigens on cytokine secretion by mouse splenocytes was studied in vitro. Recombinant mucins were produced in Pichia pastoris yeast, and Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigens were collected from in vitro culture of L2 larvae. Tc-MUC-2, Tc-MUC-3, Tc-MUC-4, and Tc-MUC-5 were expressed as glycoproteins and were specifically recognized by Toxocara canis-infected dog serum antibodies. Mouse splenocytes stimulated with recombinant mucins produced IL-5, IL-6, and TGF-β. Cell stimulation with whole TES products was more effective and resulted in secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and downregulation of TNF-α production. IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion was noted only after ConA treatment. Cells originating from infected animals produced significantly smaller amounts of these two cytokines compared to control cells, which suggests that Th1 and Th17 response in infected mice is strongly inhibited. However, splenocyte stimulation with both TES and ConA upregulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-17. This shows that TES antigens have strong immunomodulatory properties and are able to induce a broad range of effects on murine immune cells.

  18. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic tracing of Toxocara canis larvae in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, S.E.; Georgi, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Artificially hatched infective larvae of Toxocara canis were labeled with 75 Se in Medium 199 (Gibco) containing 75 Se-methionine. Male CD-1 mice were infected with radiolabeled larvae by intragastric intubation or by intraperitoneal injection. At intervals of 3-56 days mice were killed and the organs prepared for compressed organ autoradiography. Radioactivity of parasitic larvae showed an exponential decrease with time, reflecting catabolism of label with a biological half life of 26 days (effective half life of 21 days) making possible experiments lasting several months. Total body larva counts, estimated by total body autoradiography, displayed an overall downward trend, but the rate of reduction was probably not constant because no significant positive or negative trends were noted from day 14 onward in the numbers of larvae. The carcass accumulated the greatest number of larvae followed by the central nervous system, liver, and lung in that order. When the numbers of larvae were considered in relationship to the mass of tissue, there were 4 groupings: central nervous system, liver, lung, carcass, and kidney, and genito-urinary organ, pelt, and intestine. No significant difference between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration was observed in the larval distribution after the larvae had left the initial site of deposition

  19. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic tracing of Toxocara canis larvae in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, S.E.; Georgi, J.R.

    1987-02-01

    Artificially hatched infective larvae of Toxocara canis were labeled with /sup 75/Se in Medium 199 (Gibco) containing /sup 75/Se-methionine. Male CD-1 mice were infected with radiolabeled larvae by intragastric intubation or by intraperitoneal injection. At intervals of 3-56 days mice were killed and the organs prepared for compressed organ autoradiography. Radioactivity of parasitic larvae showed an exponential decrease with time, reflecting catabolism of label with a biological half life of 26 days (effective half life of 21 days) making possible experiments lasting several months. Total body larva counts, estimated by total body autoradiography, displayed an overall downward trend, but the rate of reduction was probably not constant because no significant positive or negative trends were noted from day 14 onward in the numbers of larvae. The carcass accumulated the greatest number of larvae followed by the central nervous system, liver, and lung in that order. When the numbers of larvae were considered in relationship to the mass of tissue, there were 4 groupings: central nervous system, liver, lung, carcass, and kidney, and genito-urinary organ, pelt, and intestine. No significant difference between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration was observed in the larval distribution after the larvae had left the initial site of deposition.

  20. Biophysical analysis of astrocytes apoptosis triggered by larval E/S antigen from cerebral toxocarosis-causing pathogen Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wesley W; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Lin, Hsing-Hung; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Liao, Chien-Wei; Lin, Po-Yen; Hwu, En-Te; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2013-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonosis caused by the transmission of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) larvae to humans. Its infectious third-stage larvae can invade the brains of paratenic hosts. The resultant brain damage can result in cerebral toxocarosis (CT). Astrocytes have important neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in the brain. Substantial studies have shown that astrocyte apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. We propose an alternation detection method, a combination of the astigmatic detection microscopy (ADM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, to investigate the apoptosis of astrocytes triggered with T. canis larval excretory/secretory (Tc E/S) antigen. The variation in the pathology of a cell's morphological changes was investigated with ADM and AFM analyses and then confirmed by western blotting. The results showed that the round cells increased as the concentration of Tc E/S antigen and incubated time increased. In addition, the mean height of apoptotic cells was approximately twice that of untreated normal cells, which meant there was correlation between the Tc E/S antigen treatment and cell height. For each cleaved caspase-3 in the cells cocultured with Tc E/S antigen and incubated for 9 h, the corresponding intensities increased about 34-fold (34.4 ± 1.8) compared with those of the control cells. This method can provide researchers with a perspective for understanding the limited information on the mechanism of astroglial injury and death during a T. canis larval invasion in a brain infection.

  1. Identification of candidate antigens from adult stages of Toxocara canis for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Longuinhos Peixoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we identified adult Toxocara canis antigens through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for potential use in human toxocariasis immunodiagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of several semi-purified antigens, as well as their cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections, were assessed by IgM and IgG-enzime linked immunosorbent assay. Whilst we found that the crude extract of the parasite presented limited sensitivity, specificity and high cross-reactivity against other parasites, we identified 42, 58, 68 and 97-kDa semi-purified antigens as the most promising candidates for immunodiagnosis. Moreover, the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented the lowest IgM cross-reactivity. When tested as a combination, a mixture of the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented 100% sensitivity and specificity, as well as minor cross-reactivity. Although the combination of the 42, 58, 68 and 97-kDa antigens presented 100% sensitivity at a dilution of 1:40, the low specificity and high cross-reactivity observed suggested a limited use for diagnostic purposes. Our data suggested that the 58 and 68-kDa antigens might be most suitable for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  2. Comparação antigênica entre extratos de Toxocara canis e Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Zyngier

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta a comparação de dois extratos de Toxocara canis e um de Ascaris suum do ponto de vista antigênico. O método usado foi a imunodifusão em gel segundo Ouchtehlöny. O extrato de T. canis obtido pela técnica de Jeska mostrou 7 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo. O extrato de A. suum obtido pela mesma técnica apenas revelou 3 faixas, uma das quais com identidade parcial com o antígeno anterior. O extrato de T. canis segundo Woodruff e Thacker revelou 3 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo, todas elas com identidade total com o outro extrato do mesmo parasita.

  3. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak Selek, Mehmet; Baylan, Orhan; Kutlu, Ali; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis), a parasite which subsists in dog's intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis. In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB) WB test. We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13) of patients (n=73) with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109). Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa) were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity 12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day) increases seropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found 17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals. Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canis seropositivity in patients with CU.

  4. Tissue-specific distribution of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Huang, Han Cheng; Hu, Shi Jun; Lin, Jie

    2014-10-15

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is expressed in developing and reproductively active male Toxocara canis. To investigate the tissue-specific expression of PP1 in T. canis, the PP1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was used to generate a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Indirect fluorescence immunohistochemical analysis of adult male T. canis showed that PP1 was expressed in the germ line tissues, primarily in the testis, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and sperm cells, indicating the potential roles of PP1 in spermatogenesis. What's more, structural predictions of PP1 in T. canis were performed. The predictions of the structure indicated that PP1 may be a potential target for antihelmintic drugs. This is the first report of the tissue distributions and structural prediction of PP1 in T. canis, which might lead to the development of novel, innovative strategies for controlling T. canis infestations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection and discrimination of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs directly from sand samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuhova, K; Kumagai, T; Akao, N; Ohta, N

    2010-12-01

    We developed a novel and simple method, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for the detection and discrimination of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs. The new method employs 4 steps: (1) concentration of Toxocara eggs in a small amount of sand; (2) dissolution of the proteinaceous membrane of eggs and simultaneously separation of them from the sand using NaClO treatment; (3) extraction of DNA using NaOH treatment; and (4) detection of T. canis / T. cati DNA using a LAMP assay. All these steps are fast, easy to perform, and do not require expensive equipment or reagents. The novel method was tested both experimentally and in a field study. In the laboratory, we could reliably detect as few as 3 T. canis eggs in artificially contaminated sand, if the experiment was repeated twice. In the field trial, we were able to detect T. cati DNA from 4 natural sandpits having moderate to heavy contamination, although not in a single lightly contaminated sandpit. All of the examined sandpits were found to be contaminated with eggs of T. cati, but none appeared to contain T. canis. Our new method could extract DNA from T. canis and T. cati eggs directly from sand samples as well as detect and distinguish these 2 species in a few easy steps, with markedly reduced time and expense.

  6. Total and Toxocara canis larval excretory/secretory antigen- and allergen-specific IgE in atopic and non-atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Lena L M N; Joekel, Deborah E; Fischer, Nina M; Rostaher, Ana; Thamsborg, Kristian; Deplazes, Peter; Favrot, Claude

    2018-02-09

    Total IgE concentrations are higher in dogs than in humans. Persistent Toxocara canis larval infection is prevalent in dogs and is associated with substantial specific antibody reactions. A correlation, however, between total IgE and T. canis-specific antibody levels in dogs has not been evaluated. To determine the relationship between total IgE, T. canis-specific IgG and IgE, and allergen-specific IgE levels in atopic and non-atopic dogs, and to evaluate possible confounding factors. Sera of 30 atopic and 30 non-atopic client-owned dogs. Total IgE, T. canis-specific antibody and allergen-specific IgE levels were evaluated by ELISA. Total IgE, T. canis-specific antibody and allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly higher in non-atopic compared to atopic dogs. A positive correlation was demonstrated between T. canis-specific IgG and T. canis-specific IgE; T. canis-specific IgG and total IgE; T. canis-specific IgE and total IgE; and allergen-specific IgE and total IgE. No differences were detected on the basis of age, gender, vaccination status; deworming or season between atopic and non-atopic dogs. Previous immunomodulatory treatment and cause of atopy did not influence antibody levels of atopic dogs. Toxocara canis-specific IgE appears to be a major component of total IgE in dogs. Total and T. canis-specific IgE levels are higher in non-atopic compared to atopic dogs. It is speculated that T. canis infection may have a protective effect against the development of canine atopic dermatitis and/or that elevations in total serum IgE level are often not associated with atopic dermatitis. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

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    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  8. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...... of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite's gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host-parasite interactions and predict intervention targets...

  9. Some Effects of Host Starvation upon the Dog Ascarid, Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, Ryoji; NODA, Syusaku

    1961-01-01

    The immature adults of Toxocara canis, which were acquired prenatally, inhabiting in two litters 10 and 11.5 days old, when starved for 8 and 10 days, respectively, were not eliminated as were those in the starved hosts, but showed the marked inhibited growth as compared with the latters. On the contrary, the mature adults, composed mostly of the prenatally acquired, inhabiting in four litters 34 to 58 days old, were eliminated from both the starved and unstarved hosts, though a little less a...

  10. Exposición al parásito Toxocara canis en una población escolar de la comuna 7 del distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia.

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    Dary Luz Mendoza Meza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa toxocariosis es una zoonosis producida por ingesta de huevos infectantes de parásitos del género Toxocara, presentes en el suelo contaminado. La infección humana por Toxocara canis es una de las causas principales del síndrome de migración visceral larvaria. La principal fuente de la enfermedad son los caninos infectados con el parásito. En el Distrito de Santa Marta la población de caninos es alta, sin embargo, no se conoce la prevalencia de la toxocariosis en estos animales ni en el humano. El propósito del presente estudio fue establecer la exposición a Toxocara canis en escolares entre 2 y 16 años de la comuna 7 del Distrito de Santa Marta. Se determinaron los niveles sanguíneos de IgG contra el antígeno de secreción/excreción de larvas L2 de Toxocara canis y los niveles de IgE total. También se evaluó la presencia de parasitismo intestinal y de factores epidemiológicos y clínicos relacionados con la toxocariosis humana. En una muestra de 133 niños, el 42,1% fueron seropositivos a Toxocara canis y 92,5% tuvo niveles sanguíneos de IgE total elevados. Los factores epidemiológicos asociados con la exposición al Toxocara fueron ausencia de agua potable (p <0,0001, ausencia de alcantarillado (p = 0,034, contacto con el suelo (p <0,0001 y presencia de mascotas (perro, p =0,013 y gato, p =0,0069. También se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con la infección por otros helmintos (p = 0,0069 y la IgE total elevada (p = 0,0134. No se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con la infección intestinal por protozoos, con la desnutrición aguda (WAZ ≤ -2SD o con la desnutrición crónica (HAZ ≤ -2SD. (DUAZARY 2010, 183 - 190AbstractThe toxocariosis is a zoonosis caused by ingestion of infective eggs of parasites toxocara species, present in the contaminated soil. Human infection by Toxocara canis is a major cause of visceral larva migration syndrome. The main source of the disease are

  11. Characterization and differential expression analysis of Toxocara canis aquaporin-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-Fang; Hu, Ling; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode of canids with a worldwide distribution, causing an important but neglected parasitic zoonosis in humans. Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of water channel proteins, which function as membrane channels to regulate water homeostasis. In this study, the coding sequence of aquaporin-1 gene of T. canis (Tc-aqp-1) was cloned and characterized. The obtained Tc-aqp-1 coding sequence was 933 bp in length, which predicted to encode 311 amino acids. Two conserved asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs were identified in the multiple sequence alignments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest relationship between T. canis and Opisthorchis viverrini based on aquaporin-1 amino acid sequence. A structure was predicted with ligand binding sites predicted at H93, N95, N226, L94, I79, and I210 and with active sites predicted at I256 and G207. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations predicted its cellular component term of integral component of plasma membrane (GO: 0005887), molecular function term of channel activity (GO: 0015250), and biological process term of water transport (GO: 0006833). Tissue expression analysis revealed that the Tc-aqp-1 was highly expressed in the intestine of adult male. The findings of the present study provide the basis for further functional studies of T. canis aquaporin-1.

  12. Tissue expression pattern of ABCG transporter indicates functional roles in reproduction of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-Li; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Kuang, Ce-Yan; Jiang, Ai-Yun; Li, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2018-03-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which involve in a range of biological processes in various organisms. In present study, the full-length coding sequence of abcg-5 gene of T. canis (Tc-abcg-5) was cloned and characterized. A 633 aa polypeptide containing two conserved Walker A and Walker B motifs was predicted from a continuous 1902 nt open reading frame. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the transcriptional levels of Tc-abcg-5 gene in adult male and female worms, which indicated high mRNA level of Tc-abcg-5 in the reproductive tract of adult female T. canis. Tc-abcg-5 was expressed to produce rabbit polyclonal antiserum against recombinant TcABCG5. Indirect-fluorescence immunohistochemical assays were carried out to detect the tissue distribution of TcABCG5, which showed predominant distribution of TcABCG5 in the uterus (especially in the germ cells) of adult female T. canis. Tissue transcription and expression pattern of Tc-abcg-5 indicated that Tc-abcg-5 might play essential roles in the reproduction of this parasitic nematode.

  13. Tissue distribution and functional analysis of vitellogenin-6 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2017-06-01

    Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T. canis. The fragment of Tc-vit-6 encoding a vWD domain, was cloned and expressed to produce a rabbit anti-TcvWD polyclonal antibody. Tissue distribution of TcVg6 was detected by immunohistochemical assays, which showed predominant distribution of TcVg6 in the tissues of intestine, as well as reproductive tract (including some of the germ cells) and musculature of male and female adult worms. Collectively, these results indicated multiple biological roles of TcVg6 apart from that in the reproduction of T. canis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Disinvasive activity of Briz 25% e.c. against Toxocara canis eggs (experimental studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Pautova, E A; Shchuchinova, L D

    2013-01-01

    The insectoacaricid Briz 25% e.c. was tested for its effects on Toxocara canis eggs in pure culture. In the solar-illuminated laboratory at 22-23°C, T. canis eggs of pure culture were destroyed on days 17-18 when in 1.25% aqueous emulsion of the insectoacaricid Briz 25% e.c. (0.313% with reference to the active ingredient cypermethrin). Within the egg, the parasite failed to die not only in the stage of protoblast (5-6 days), but also in the stages of semiformed (4 days) and mobile larva (7-8 days), i.e. for 16-17 days of the experiment. After eggshell destruction, T. canis larvae actively entered the working aqueous emulsion of Briz 25% e.c. and died within the first hours in the test agent. The working aqueous emulsion of Briz 25% e.c. (1.25% with reference to the agent or 0.313% to the active ingredient cypermethrin) exerted ovicidal and larvicidal activities against the pathogen of T. canis in the pure culture on days 17-18 at 22-23°C.

  15. Prevalencia de Toxocara canis y otros parásitos gastrointestinales en caninos ambulantes de Sogamoso

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    Erika Sarmiento-Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años ha crecido la población de  caninos,  especialmente  los  ambulantes,  los cuales  son portadores de una  gran  variedad de parásitos gastrointestinales zoonóticos, destacándose la presencia de helmintos como la Toxocara canis. Este parásito, cuando  infesta al hombre, puede producir una afección por localización errática denominada “larva migrans”, por ser huésped  inespecífico. Esta enfermedad es particularmente importante en niños, ancianos y en personas  inmuno-deprimidas; se adquiere por la ingesta de huevos viables de Toxocara spp. (Grodsinky, 2003. Así, el objetivo de este estudio  fue hacer una prevalencia para determinar la presencia de T canis y otros helmintos parásitos en el tracto digestivo de perros ambulantes, en la ciudad de Sogamoso, de los cuales, aleatoriamente en  los cinco puntos cardinales y teniendo en cuenta la edad y el sexo de los caninos se colectaron 150 muestras por toma de pellizco en las heces, a las cuales se les reali-zó  la  técnica de concentración de Richi-Frick, que se escogió por  su  especificidad para huevos de Toxocara spp. Los resultados arrojaron  los siguientes resultados: el 67,3% (101 de las muestras se encontraron contaminadas con al menos un tipo de entidad parasitaria;  la presencia de Toxocara canis como entidad sola o en infestación combi- nada  fue del 52,6%  (79. En cuanto la edad, en caninos de menos de uno año fue de 56,9 % y en adultos  jóvenes fue del 37,9%; respecto del sexo, las hembras  obtuvieron  el  25,3%, mientras  los machos el 74,7%. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, con el  fin de evitar la transmisión de parasitosis zoonóticas es necesario fomentar campañas de desparasitación y manejo adecuado delas heces de los caninos.

  16. Proteinases in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis second-stage larvae: zymography and modeling insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo Ernesto; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; García-Tovar, Carlos Gerardo; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Components released in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis larvae (TES) include phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (TES26), mucins (TES120, MUC2-5), and C-type lectins (TES32, TES70) and their biochemical, immunological, and diagnostic properties have been extensively studied albeit proteinase activities towards physiological substrates are almost unknown. Proteolytic activities in TES samples were first analyzed by gel electrophoresis with gelatin as substrate. Major activities of ~400, 120, and 32 kDa in TES were relatively similar over a broad pH range (5.5-9.0) and all these were of the serine-type as leupeptin abolished gelatinolysis. Further, the ~400 kDa component degraded all physiological substrates tested (laminin, fibronectin, albumin, and goat IgG) and the 120 kDa component degraded albumin and goat IgG while proteinases of lower MW (45, 32, and 26 kDa) only degraded laminin and fibronectin, preferentially at alkaline pH (9.0). By protein modeling approaches using the known sequences of TES components, only TES26 and MUC4 displayed folding patterns significantly related to reference serine proteinases. These data suggest that most of serine proteinase activities secreted in vitro by infective larvae of T. canis have intriguing nature but otherwise help the parasite to affect multiple components of somatic organs and bodily fluids within the infected host.

  17. [Frequency of the antibody anti-Toxocara canis in a community along the Uatumã river, State of Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Márcia Melo; Martins, Marilaine; Sardinha, José Felipe; Souza, Luciana Orêncio de; Chaves, Andreza; Tavares, Antonio de Matos

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Waimiri and Atroari settlements in Balbina, between July and October 2006, with the aims of estimating the frequency of the antibody anti-Toxocara canis of the IgG class and studying the epidemiological and sociocultural variables. Thirty-four families were studied and 100 individuals were included, corresponding to 5% (100/2000) of the population of the settlements. The age range was 0-76 years (mean = 22.9; standard deviation = 18). The gender distribution was 53% female and 47% male. The samples were 52% positive for Toxocara canis, 44.5% negative and 3.2% inconclusive. The number of individuals who tested serologically negative in Atroari (29.5%; 13/44) was lower than in Waimiri (46.4%; 26/56). In relation to contact with dogs, among the 55 individuals with contact in their homes, 60% (33/55) were positive for Ac anti-Toxocara canis and 40% (22/55) were negative (chi2= 14.317; p = 0.026). Among the individuals who had contact in their homes with puppies, 66.6% (10/15) were serologically positive (chi2= 22.149; p=0.008). The existence of home contact with dogs and puppies showed an association with the presence of Ac anti-Toxocara canis in the study population.

  18. Draft Genome of Toxocara canis, a Pathogen Responsible for Visceral Larva Migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jinhwa; Won, Jungim; Yoon, Jeehee; Lee, UnJoo; Kim, Jong-Il; Huh, Sun

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at constructing a draft genome of the adult female worm Toxocara canis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, as well as to find new genes after annotation using functional genomics tools. Using an NGS machine, we produced DNA read data of T. canis . The de novo assembly of the read data was performed using SOAPdenovo. RNA read data were assembled using Trinity. Structural annotation, homology search, functional annotation, classification of protein domains, and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out. Besides them, recently developed tools such as MAKER, PASA, Evidence Modeler, and Blast2GO were used. The scaffold DNA was obtained, the N50 was 108,950 bp, and the overall length was 341,776,187 bp. The N50 of the transcriptome was 940 bp, and its length was 53,046,952 bp. The GC content of the entire genome was 39.3%. The total number of genes was 20,178, and the total number of protein sequences was 22,358. Of the 22,358 protein sequences, 4,992 were newly observed in T. canis . Following proteins previously unknown were found: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase cbl-b and antigen T-cell receptor, zeta chain for T-cell and B-cell regulation; endoprotease bli-4 for cuticle metabolism; mucin 12Ea and polymorphic mucin variant C6/1/40r2.1 for mucin production; tropomodulin-family protein and ryanodine receptor calcium release channels for muscle movement. We were able to find new hypothetical polypeptides sequences unique to T. canis , and the findings of this study are capable of serving as a basis for extending our biological understanding of T. canis .

  19. In vitro and in vivo effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 on Toxocara canis

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    Paula G Chiodo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the larvicidal effect of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 (Ef7121 on the Toxocara canis cycle both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, T. canis larvae were incubated with the supernatants of Ef7121 (EI and mutant Ef7121 (EIm, in a pre-culture of Ef7121 (EII and in a fresh culture with Ef7121 (EIII and the Ef7121 mutant strain (EIIIm. The viability of the larvae was calculated after a 48 h incubation. A significant reduction of the viability of T. canis larvae was observed in EI, EII and EIII. A decrease of this inhibitory effect was observed in EIm and EIIIm (p = 0.008. In the in vivo experiments, mice were orally inoculated with three doses of Ef7121. To study the probiotic persistence in the intestine, the animals were sacrificed every four days and their intestines were dissected. The initial average bacterial levels were 9.7 x 10(4 for Ef7121 (colony forming units/g. At the end of the assay the levels were 1.46 x 10(4. No bacterial translocation was detected in mesenteric lymphatic nodules and spleen. Ef7121 interference with the biological cycle was evaluated in mice challenged with T. canis. The interference was significant when the mice were challenged with probiotic and T. canis simultaneously (p = 0.001, but it was not significant when the challenge was performed 15 days after administration of the bacterial inoculum (p = 0.06. In conclusion, Ef7121 possessed in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity.

  20. Comparison of functional gene annotation of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara canis using CLC genomics workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Uk; Park, Sang Kyun; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Mi Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Jung, Ho-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Yun; Yu, Hak Sun

    2013-10-01

    The ascarids, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in dogs. In order to understand biological differences of 2 ascarids, we analyzed gene expression profiles of female adults of T. canis and T. leonina using CLC Genomics Workbench, and the results were compared with those of free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A total of 2,880 and 7,949 ESTs were collected from T. leonina and T. canis, respectively. The length of ESTs ranged from 106 to 4,637 bp with an average insert size of 820 bp. Overall, our results showed that most functional gene annotations of 2 ascarids were quite similar to each other in 3 major categories, i.e., cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Although some different transcript expression categories were found, the distance was short and it was not enough to explain their different lifestyles. However, we found distinguished transcript differences between ascarid parasites and free-living nematodes. Understanding evolutionary genetic changes might be helpful for studies of the lifestyle and evolution of parasites.

  1. Serodiagnosis of toxocariasis by ELISA using crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2013-08-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T. canis excretory-secretory antigen to detect specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. We investigated the serodiagnostic efficacy of ELISA using crude antigen of T. canis larvae (TCLA). Serum specimens of 64 clinically confirmed toxocariasis, 115 healthy controls, and 119 other tissue-invading helminthiases were screened by ELISA using TCLA. The ELISA using TCLA showed 92.2% (59/64 patient samples) sensitivity and 86.6% (103/119) specificity. Its positive diagnostic predictivity was 78.7% and negative predictivity was 97.8%. No serum of healthy controls reacted but that of anisakiasis (45.5%), gnathostomiasis (19.2%), clonorchiasis (15.8%), sparganosis (11.1%), and cysticercosis (6.3%) cross-reacted. Immunoblot analysis on TCLA recognized antigenic proteins of 28- and 30-kDa bands in their dominant protein quantity and strong blotting reactivity. The present results indicate that the ELISA using our TCLA antigen is acceptable by the sensitivity and specificity for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA with TCLA is recommended to make differential diagnosis for patients with any sign of organ infiltration and eosinophilia.

  2. Toxocara canis and Toxocara vitulorum: molecular characterization, discrimination, and phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial (ATP synthase subunit 6 and 12S) and nuclear ribosomal (ITS-2 and 28S) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Yatawara, Lalani; Rajapakse, R P V J; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara vitulorum are two important parasites of dogs and buffaloes with public health concern. The objectives of the present study are to identify molecular markers to discriminate these closely related parasites and to determine their phylogenetic position and genetic diversity within the genus Toxocara. Thus, two mitochondrial genes (complete ATPase 6 and partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA)), two nuclear ribosomal genes (second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2)), and part of the large subunit 28S region were analyzed. Nucleotide sequence (597 bp) and predicted amino acid sequences of the complete ATPase 6 gene (199 amino acids) of both species (T. canis and T. vitulorum) are similar in size with the Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis. There was 88% nucleotide similarity between T. canis and T. vitulorum and many transversions present in the 12S gene. Analyses of the ITS-2 and 28S regions revealed that the 28S region was more conserved (95% nucleotide similarity between T. canis and T. vitulorum) than the ITS-2 region (85%). This study has provided useful molecular markers for the molecular epidemiological investigation of Toxocara species. Further, phylogenetic analyses of the ITS-2 and 28S genes have indicated that the members of the genus Toxocara form a distinct group with reference to their definitive hosts.

  3. Distribution and dynamics of soil contamination with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in Poland and prevention measures proposed after 20 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-30

    The studies conducted in the years 1994-2013 allowed to determine the distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in the soil of different types of urban and rural areas in Poland and to establish seasonal and multi-year dynamics of soil contamination with T. cati and T. canis eggs. Out of 3309 soil samples examined, 14.9% contained the eggs and the average density was 3.43 eggs/100g of soil. The level of soil contamination was the highest in cities, lower in villages, and lowest in small towns. In urban areas eggs of T. cati were found more frequently than of T. canis, while in rural areas the opposite was true. Both, in urban and rural areas, the sites most heavily contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs were household surroundings (backyards). Recreation areas (parks, playgrounds, lake beaches) were significantly less contaminated. In older parts of Poznań, in backyards, soil contamination with the eggs was generally high each month, being lowest in July and highest in December and the prevalence of T. cati eggs was much higher than of T. canis. The prevention policy introduced in the city thus far - paying great attention to dog faeces but not to cats was unsatisfactory. After 18 years of such policy, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs dropped significantly but it was not a linear phenomenon - the intensity of soil contamination fluctuated. To be more effective, preventive measures should be preceded with discrimination of T. canis and T. cati eggs recovered in the soil and for this purpose the new molecular techniques should be applied. A survey conducted in the population in 2010 showed that people's awareness on the significance of pets in the transmission of dangerous zoonoses to humans was unsatisfactory. We recommend to expand the knowledge of the subject among the populace. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Anti-helmínticos na toxocaríase experimental: efeito na recuperação de larvas de Toxocara canis e na resposta humoral Anthelmintics in experimental toxocariasis: effects on larval recovery of Toxocara canis and on immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Zevallos Lescano

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a recuperação de larvas na fase crônica de camundongos infectados por Toxocara canis, bem como a presença de anticorpos anti-Toxocara após tratamento com ivermectina, mebendazol ou tiabendazol, durante cinco dias consecutivos. Os animais foram sangrados pelo plexo retroorbitário entre 30 e 270 dias após a infecção (DPI. Os soros foram processados pela técnica de enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA para pesquisa de anticorpos da imunoglobulina da classe G (IgG, utilizando antígeno ES de T. canis. Aos 270 DPI, os animais foram sacrificados para recuperação de larvas no sistema nervoso central, no fígado, nos pulmões e músculos. Os resultados do teste imunoenzimático indicam que, aos 20 dias após tratamento (50 DPI, o nível de anticorpos anti-Toxocara IgG aumentou nos três grupos tratados, mantendo-se elevado ao longo do experimento até o 270º DPI. Em relação aos animais infectados e não-tratados, observou-se decréscimo significativo no número de larvas recuperadas nos animais dos três grupos tratados, não se conseguindo a cura parasitológica. Com este estudo conclui-se que as três drogas utilizadas no experimento têm eficácia similar.The effects of treatment with ivermectin, mebendazole or tiabendazole, during five days, on the larval recovery and immune response to Toxocara canis in experimental chronically infected mice were studied. Animals were bled, using the retro-orbital plexus between the 30th and the 270th days post-infection (Dpi, and sera were processed by ELISA technique for IgG antibodies using ES antigen from T. canis. On day 270 all the animals were killed for larval recovery in the central nervous system, liver, lungs and carcass. Immunoenzimatic test results indicate that 20 days after treatment (50 DPI the anti-Toxocara IgG antibody level increased in the three treated groups and remained elevated until 270 DPI. It was observed a significative decrease in larvae recovered from

  5. Intraspecific variation between the ITS sequences of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina from different host species in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt-Wyrwas, R; Mizgajska-Wiktor, H; Pacoń, J; Jarosz, W

    2013-12-01

    Some parasitic nematodes can inhabit different definitive hosts, which raises the question of the intraspecific variability of the nematode genotype affecting their preferences to choose particular species as hosts. Additionally, the issue of a possible intraspecific DNA microheterogeneity in specimens from different parts of the world seems to be interesting, especially from the evolutionary point of view. The problem was analysed in three related species - Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina - specimens originating from Central Europe (Poland). Using specific primers for species identification, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 regions were amplified and then sequenced. The sequences obtained were compared with sequences previously described for specimens originating from other geographical locations. No differences in nucleotide sequences were established in T. canis isolated from two different hosts (dogs and foxes). A comparison of ITS sequences of T. canis from Poland with sequences deposited in GenBank showed that the scope of intraspecific variability of the species did not exceed 0.4%, while in T. cati the differences did not exceed 2%. Significant differences were found in T. leonina, where ITS-1 differed by 3% and ITS-2 by as much as 7.4% in specimens collected from foxes in Poland and dogs in Australia. Such scope of differences in the nucleotide sequence seems to exceed the intraspecific variation of the species.

  6. The 33.1 kDa Excretory/secretory Protein Produced by Toxocara canis Larvae Serves as a Potential Common Biomarker for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis in Paratenic Animals and Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Hung; Vo, Doan-Trung; Thai, Thi-Tuyet-Trinh; LE, Thi-Thanh-Thao; LE, Thanh-Dong; Hoang, Nghia-Son

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis disease caused by the closely related nematode species Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati which parasitise Canidae and Felidae respectively. In paratenic hosts, larvae of these worms cause multiple organ damage. However, how these paratenic hosts response to these worms and whether any common biomarker can be applied for diagnosis are still unclear. Excreted/secreted (E/S) antigens were prepared by culture of T. canis larvae in vitro. Using a western blot (WB) assay the humoral IgG responses, induced by Toxocara spp. larvae to the worm's E/S antigens in different infected hosts including mice, rabbits and human, were examined. In a mouse model of toxocariasis, intraperitoneal injection of T. canis larvae induces inflammatory leukocyte accumulation in the liver and the lungs but not in the brain, although a remarkable number of larvae were detected in this organ. Mice and rabbits responded differently to Toxocara spp. resulting in distinct heterogenous WB band patterns. Mice and rabbits both responded to a 33.1 kDa E/S constituent that turned out to be the most sensitive protein for serodiagnosis. Sera from human toxocariasis patients showed heterogenous WB band patterns similar to those observed in rabbits and all responded to the 33.1 kDa band. 33.1 kDa E/S protein can be considered as a critical common biomarker for toxocariasis immuno-diagnosis in both paratenic animals and human and its specificity requires further investigation.

  7. [THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOCARA CANIS EGGS IN THE NATURAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF GORNO-ALTAISK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, E A; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The time of development and survival of Toxocara canis eggs in the soil of Gorno-Altaisk was experimen- tally investigated in 2011-2014. In July 2011, T.canis eggs matured at 3-5-cm soil depths from the stage of 1-2 blastomeres to invading larva within 12 days at a daily average temperature of +23°C and at a relative humidity of 82%. At 3-5-cm soil depths, more than 70% of invaded T. canis eggs preserved their viability through- out the experimental period (4 years). The paper gives evidence for the seasonal survival of invaded T. canis eggs in relation of the length of soil stay.

  8. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs) against Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Annette; Schroeder, Iris; Altreuther, Gertraut; Settje, Terry; Charles, Samuel; Wolken, Sonja; Kok, Dawid J; Ketzis, Jennifer; Young, David; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala) was evaluated in nine randomised,blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies in naturally or experimentally infected dogs. The product was used at the proposed minimum dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy. Worm burdens in the control dogs ranged between 0 and 409 worms of the respective stage for T. canis and between 4 and 655 worms for hookworms. The studies demonstrated 100 % efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against mature adult, ≥ 94.7 %efficacy against immature adult and 99.3 % efficacy against the L4 larval stage of T. canis. The efficacy against mature adult A. caninum was ≥ 99.5 % and the efficacy against mature adult U. stenocephala was 100 %. All differences between treatment and control groups were statistically significant and no gender effect was found. It can be concluded that the emodepside/toltrazuril suspension represents a safe and highly effective product in dogs with nematode (T. canis, hookworms) infection.

  9. Prevalensi Infeksi Cacing Toxocara Canis pada Anjing Kintamani Bali di Desa Sukawana, Kecamatan Kintamani, Kabupaten Bangli, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Evayana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi infeksi cacing Toxocara canis pada Anjing Kintamani Bali di Desa Sukawana, Kecamatan Kintamani, Kabupaten Bangli, Bali. Sebanyak 90 sampel feses Anjing Kintamani Bali diperiksa menggunakan metode kosentrasi apung. Hasil penelitian, diperoleh bahwa prevalensi infeksi cacing Toxocara canis pada Anjing Kintamani Bali sebesar 22,22% (20/90. Pevalensi infeksi berdasarkan umur dibawah satu tahun sebesar 22,85% dan umur diatas satu tahun sebesar 21,81%. Prevalensi berdasarkan jenis kelamin, pada anjing jantan sebesar 25% dan pada anjing betina sebesar 18,42%. Sedangkan prevalensi berdasarkan sistem pemeliharaan, pada anjing dikandangkan sebesar 21,42% dan pada anjing yang dilepaskan sebesar 22,91%. Hasil uji Chi-square didapatkan umur, jenis kelamin dan sistem pemeliharaan tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan (P>0.05 antara satu dengan yang lain.

  10. Fungi predatory activity on embryonated Toxocara canis eggs inoculated in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and destruction of second stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiura, Emy; Del Carmen Garcia Lopes, Aline; da Paz, Jeanne Saraiva; Gava, Maylla Garschagen; Flecher, Mayra Cunha; Colares, Manuela; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; da Fonseca, Leandro Abreu; Lacerda, Tracy; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs after interacting with isolated nematophagous fungi of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4), and test the predatory activity of the isolated AC001 on T. canis second stage larvae after 7 days of interaction. In assay A, 5000 embryonated T. canis eggs previously in contact with the AC001 and VC4 isolated for 10 days were inoculated into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), and then these animals were necropsied to collect material (digested liver, intestine, muscles and lungs) at 3-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals after inoculation. In assay A, the results demonstrated that the prior interaction of the eggs with isolated AC001 and VC4 decreases the amount of larvae found in the collected organs. Difference (p canis eggs with the tested fungal isolates were efficient in reducing the development and migration of this parasite, in addition to the first report of proven predatory activity on L2.

  11. Comparison of the Biological Properties of Two Strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom Samson Associated to Their Antagonistic Effect onto Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortari, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of nematodes by fungi is a promising field of application at large scale. Nematode egg is probably the most resistant stage in the nematode life-cycle, however they are susceptible to colonization and destruction by fungal egg-parasites. Fungal extra-cellular enzymes are able to degrade the main chemical constituents of nematode eggshell and at least they are partly responsible for fungal penetration and/or digestion of the internal tissues. Paecilomyces lilacinus was reported as an ovicidal fungus of Toxocara canis eggs in vitro, a parasite of dogs causing toxocarosis. Two wild-type P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and LPSC # 44 strains, isolated from soil in the main park in the city of La Plata and an agricultural field, respectively, in Argentina, showed antagonism onto T. canis eggs. Besides from the isolation source, both strains showed similar hydrolytic profiles activities, ovicidal effect, and grew well on chitin agar, although no chitinolytic activity was detected. Nevertheless, both strains displayed proteolytic and chitinolytic activities in liquid cultures, with maximum values at 14 days of growth. Variable enzyme activities were observed on carboxymethylcellulose and starch agars, whereas the lipolytic activity was poor in both. Percentage of infected T. canis eggs was found 65.6% and 63.2% for P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 and # 44 strains respectively. Our results a priori indicate that P. lilacinus LPSC # 876 shows suitable characteristics as a potential agent for biocontrol of T. canis.

  12. A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Qualizza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara.

  13. Helminth Infections and Cardiovascular Diseases: Toxocara Species is Contributing to the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the “larva migrans” syndrome. The clinical manifestations of toxocariasis are divided into visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and neurotoxocariasis. Subclinical infection is often referred to as covert toxocariasis. One of the primary causes of death all around the world is cardiovascular disease that accounted for up to 30 percent of all-cause mortality. Cardiovascular disease and more precisely atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is predicted to remain the single leading cause of death (23.3 million deaths by 2030). A-quarter of people presenting the disease does not show any of the known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, there is considerable interest in looking for novel components affecting cardiovascular health, especially for those that could improve global cardiovascular risk prediction. This review endeavours to summarize the clinical aspects, new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives of toxocaral disease with cardiovascular manifestations. PMID:27492228

  14. Differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati based on PCR-RFLP analyses of rDNA-ITS and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, Fattaneh; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter; Mirhendi, Hossein; Barazesh, Afshin; Ebrahimi, Sepideh; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2017-09-26

    The definitive genetic identification of Toxocara species is currently based on PCR/sequencing. The objectives of the present study were to design and conduct an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for identification of Toxocara species. In silico analyses using the DNASIS and NEBcutter softwares were performed with rDNA internal transcribed spacers, and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 sequences obtained in our previous studies along with relevant sequences deposited in GenBank. Consequently, RFLP profiles were designed and all isolates of T. canis and T. cati collected from dogs and cats in different geographical areas of Iran were investigated with the RFLP method using some of the identified suitable enzymes. The findings of in silico analyses predicted that on the cox1 gene only the MboII enzyme is appropriate for PCR-RFLP to reliably distinguish the two species. No suitable enzyme for PCR-RFLP on the nad1 gene was identified that yields the same pattern for all isolates of a species. DNASIS software showed that there are 241 suitable restriction enzymes for the differentiation of T. canis from T. cati based on ITS sequences. RsaI, MvaI and SalI enzymes were selected to evaluate the reliability of the in silico PCR-RFLP. The sizes of restriction fragments obtained by PCR-RFLP of all samples consistently matched the expected RFLP patterns. The ITS sequences are usually conserved and the PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS sequence is recommended for the molecular differentiation of Toxocara species and can provide a reliable tool for identification purposes particularly at the larval and egg stages.

  15. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxocara canis, and Toxocara cati in Austria: a nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, W; Herkner, H; Tobudic, S; Faas, A; Mooseder, G; Burgmann, H; Auer, H

    2013-11-01

    Despite emerging risks for the spread of zoonotic diseases, data on human exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp., the causative parasites of the two most important helminthozoonoses in Central Europe, are limited. To investigate risk factors and exposure, we conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional serological study in 1046 healthy individuals, of which 425 were soldiers and 621 were civilians. Serum samples and information on possible risk factors for exposure, including previous foreign military assignments, residential area, animal contact, and regular outdoor activities, were obtained. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. were examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive in the ELISA for antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis were considered positive only after confirmation by western blot. Overall, 66 (6.3%) individuals tested positive in the serologic screening for Toxocara spp. Occupational animal contact was the only risk factor significantly associated with a higher risk for being seropositive. None of the individuals were positive for antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that exposure to Toxocara spp. is widespread in Austria and occupational animal contact is a risk factor for seropositivity.

  17. Efficacy of two anthelmintic treatments, spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs with natural Toxocara spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura

    2017-11-30

    Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental transmission of Toxocara canis from Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana cockroaches to a paratenic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, T; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Prado-Ochoa, M G; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2017-11-15

    The present study assessed the capacity of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana to disseminate and transmit infective phases of T. canis to rats, which were used as a model paratenic host. P. americana and B. germanica inoculated orally with T. canis larvated eggs shed eggs and larvae in their fecal matter during the first 6days post-inoculation. Larvae were recovered from the brain, lungs, kidneys and liver of rats that had been inoculated with either infected cockroaches or their feces. ELISAs of serum detected an increase of antibodies anti-T. canis excretion-secretion antigens, whereas Western Blot (WB) showed 4 bands (120, 50, 35 and 28kDa) that were similar to those found in positive control rats. Macroscopically, the liver and kidneys of infected rats had hemorrhagic areas with milk-spot-like lesions. The lungs showed diffuse grey protuberances. Histologically, hemorrhagic areas with leucocytic infiltrate were observed in the liver, lungs and kidneys. Some larvae were found within a granuloma that was surrounded by eosinophils and other leucocytic infiltrates. Larvae were found in the brain, but without inflammatory infiltrate. Both cockroach species that ingested larvated eggs of T. canis may shed viable larvae or eggs in their fecal matter. The induction of specific serum antibodies, presence of larvae in tissues and characteristic lesions associated with larval migration in the organs of rats that had ingested either whole adults or feces of B. germanica or P. americana demonstrate the capacity of these cockroaches to transmit toxocariosis to paratenic hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxocara cati infections in domestic cats from two communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to study the prevalence and intensity of infection with Toxocara cati in some selected domestic cats from two communities in south-western Nigeria. Faecal samples of 200 cats were collected through a direct rectal swab using a long forceps from households with cat from Ode Irele ...

  20. [Prevalence of infection by Toxocara in schoolchildren in the community of El Moján, Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedrique, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis; Estévez, Jesús; Cheng-Ng, Rosita; Araujo-Fernández, Merle; Castellano, José; Araujo, José; Cabrera, Lilibeth

    2004-12-01

    The systemic Toxocariasis or migrant larva is a helminto-zoonosis caused by the migration of nematode larvae through human tissues mainly, of the canine helminth Toxocara canis, which can infect humans, especially children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-T. canis antibodies in an infantile population. Serum samples of 73 children of either sex with ages between 4 and 6 years were examined. The determination of anti-Toxocara antibodies was carried out through an ELISA test (using excretory/secretory antigen from the Toxocara larvae). The statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi square test, the Fisher exact test and the correlation of Spearman. The overall prevalence of infection was 9.72%, the highest percentage (50%) was observed in 4 year-old children (3/6), there were significant differences among the ages. No differences were observed with regard to sex. An inverse correlation was observed between the age and ELISA positivity. These results suggest that the toxocariasis is frequent in children from this community.

  1. The 33.1 kDa Excretory/secretory Protein Produced by Toxo-cara canis Larvae Serves as a Potential Common Biomarker for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis in Paratenic Animals and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Hung NGUYEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis disease caused by the closely related nematode species Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati which parasitise Canidae and Felidae respectively. In paratenic hosts, larvae of these worms cause multiple organ damage. However, how these paratenic hosts response to these worms and whether any common biomarker can be applied for diagnosis are still unclear.Methods: Excreted/secreted (E/S antigens were prepared by culture of T. canis larvae in vitro. Using a western blot (WB assay the humoral IgG responses, induced by Toxocara spp. larvae to the worm’s E/S antigens in different infected hosts including mice, rabbits and human, were examined.Results: In a mouse model of toxocariasis, intraperitoneal injection of T. canis larvae induces inflammatory leukocyte accumulation in the liver and the lungs but not in the brain, although a remarkable number of larvae were detected in this organ. Mice and rabbits responded differently to Toxocara spp. resulting in distinct heterogenous WB band patterns. Mice and rabbits both responded to a 33.1 kDa E/S constituent that turned out to be the most sensitive protein for serodiagnosis. Sera from human toxocariasis patients showed heterogenous WB band patterns similar to those observed in rabbits and all responded to the 33.1 kDa band. Conclusion: 33.1 kDa E/S protein can be considered as a critical common biomarker for toxocariasis immuno-diagnosis in both paratenic animals and human and its specificity requires further investigation.

  2. Toxocara canis: Het effect van behandeling met anti-interleukine-5 en anti-interleukine-4 op immunologische en ontstekingsparameters in de longen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs J; Pitstra B; Rouws C; Rees E van; Savelkoul HFJ; LPM; VUA/celbiologie en immunologie; EUR/MF

    1995-01-01

    De toenames van eosinofiele granulocyten en IgE concentraties in Toxocara canis geinfecteerde BALB/c muizen werden geblokkeerd door behandeling met ratte-hybridoma cellen die respectievelijk anti-interleukine-5 (anti-IL-5) en anti-IL-4 produceerden. Doel was het effect te bestuderen van deze

  3. Toxocara canis in household dogs: prevalence, risk factors and owners' attitude towards deworming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors for shedding of Toxocara eggs were determined for 916 Dutch household dogs older than 6 months. Additionally, the owners answered a questionnaire about their dogs and their attitude towards routine deworming was assessed. Faecal samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. The overall prevalence of dogs shedding Toxocara eggs was 4.6 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk for 1-7-year-old dogs to shed Toxocara eggs was significantly lower (OR 0.38) than that of 6-12-month-old dogs. Compared to dogs walking ≤20 % of the time off-leash, those ranging freely 50-80 % and 80-100 % of the time had a significantly higher risk (OR 10.49 and 13.52, respectively) of shedding Toxocara eggs. Other risk factors were coprophagy (OR 2.44) and recently being kenneled (OR 2.76). Although the applied deworming frequency was not significantly associated with shedding Toxocara eggs, there was a trend towards no shedding in dogs under strict supervision that were dewormed 3-4 times a year. Most dog owners (68 %) recognized 'dog's health' as the main reason for deworming. Only 16 % of dogs were dewormed four times a year. It was concluded that the prevalence of Toxocara egg-shedding household dogs is almost unchanged over recent years and that the knowledge of owners is insufficient to expect sound decisions on routine deworming.

  4. Presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies and risk factors in children from the Amecameca and Chalco regions of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Nadyeli Nava; Núñez, Camilo Romero; Guiliana, Bautista Gómez Linda; García, Pedro Abel Hernández; Cárdenas, Rafael Heredia

    2015-05-30

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease that poses a threat to public health worldwide. This disease primarily affects children and is caused by the presence in the digestive tract of a common roundworm of dogs, Toxocara canis, or cats, Toxocara cati. Toxocara is responsible for the presentation of various syndromes in humans depending on the affected organs. In this study, the prevalence of anti-T. canis antibodies was investigated in children aged 3-16 years from semirural populations in the municipalities of Amecameca and Chalco in México. An ELISA was used to determine the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in blood samples. Of the 183 sera obtained for this study, 22 were positive for anti-T. canis antibodies (12.02%). Of these, 6.50% were from males and 5.4% were from females. Risk factors were investigated and it was found that living near a cattle operation had a statistically significant association with (Chi(2) = 5.51 and p = 0.01) and was a risk factor for (OR = 4.25, p = 0.02) seropositivity to T. canis. Keeping dogs with short hair (Chi(2) = 3.24 and p = 0.07) showed a tendency toward seropositivity for T. canis, as did the habit of sleeping with pets (Chi(2) = 3.46 and p = 0.06). Seropositivity to T. canis was confirmed in children in the Amecameca and Chalco regions of México and the risk factors were identified. These findings provide important insight into the prevalence and spread of this zoonotic parasite.

  5. A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) for the detection of larva-specific antibodies to Toxocara canis in human sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.V.; Quinn, R.; Bruce, R.G.; Girdwood, R.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) was shown to be sensitive and reproducible when used with excretory/secretory antigen of Toxocara canis second stage larvae. Whatman No. 50 filter paper (5 mm discs) gave the most consistent and clear results with antigen at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and could be stored for up to 3 weeks in vacuo at -70 0 C. Antigen coated discs were incubated with test sera at 1 : 10 dilution for 3 h at room temperature (21 0 C), reacted with [ 125 I]anti-human IgG for 1 h and counts determined in a gamma counter. Sera from patients with fascioliasis, taeniasis, schistosomiasis, oxyuriasis, trichinellosis and ancyclostomiasis gave counts similar to cord serum controls. Sera from patients with ascariasis gave counts of up to twice as great as controls, but sera from patients with toxicariasis produced counts of 7,000-13,000, a 4-6 fold increase. (Auth.)

  6. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (p<0.05) increased in larvae incubated with 40ng/mL of PRL for 10 days. A 465-bp length fragment was amplified from larvae gDNA by PCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and evaluation of the recombinant antigen TES-30 of Toxocara canis for the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Ana M; Mesa, Jairo A; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Edwin B; García, Gisela M; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-03

    Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.  The gene that codes for TES-30 was cloned in the expression vector pET28a (+) using single-stranded oligonucleotides united by PCR. The protein rTES-30 was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromotography. Seroreactivity of rTES-30 was evaluated by immunoblot. Given that there is no gold standard test, the behaviour of the antigen was compared with the method that is routinely used to immunodiagnose toxocariasis, i.e., the conventional ELISA technique using excretion/secretion antigens.  The rTES-30 was produced from an Escherichia coli LB culture which yielded 2.25 mg/L of the antigen with a purity of 95%. The results obtained showed 73% (46/63) concordance of reactivity between the rTES-30 immunoblot and the conventional ELISA, and 100% concordance with the nonreactive sera (21). Nineteen of the 21 sera positive for other parasitoses reacted with ELISA, while only seven of these were positive with the rTES-30 immunoblot. Concordance between the ELISA and the immunoblot was moderate (kappa coefficient: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.41- 0.74).  The data presented show the potential of the rTES-30 inmunoblot for confirmation of possible ELISA positives, not only in epidemiological studies, but also as a candidate for the development of diagnostic tests for ocular toxocariasis in Colombia.

  8. HEPATIC VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS DUE TO TOXOCARA CANIS IN A 72-YEAR-OLD MAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ki Dong; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Kyoung Kon; Suh, Heuy Sun; Hwang, In Cheol; Choi, Seung Joon

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic toxocariasis is visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara. We report a case of hepatic toxocariasis detected incidentally during a health checkup. The patient had elevated levels of eosinophils, total IgE, and anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging he had a single, 2.16 cm, oval, ill-defined, low-attenuation hepatic nodule which was best appreciated during the portal venous phase of the scan. Clinicians should consider hepatic toxocariasis as a possible diagnosis in any individual who presents with eosinophilia of unknown etiology and an ill-defined hepatic lesion on CT imaging.

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati) in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Hasan, Shakir; Poornachandar, Anantula; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ascarid infection in Asiatic lions using scat samples, based on microscopic analysis, PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA and sequence analysis of the amplicons. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of eggs of Toxascaris leonina in eleven of the sixteen scat samples analysed and in one of these eleven scats eggs of Toxocara cati were also detected. In five of the scats eggs were not detectable. The presence of T. leonina in all the infected samples was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the ITS-2 of ribosomal RNA gene and five of these also showed amplicons corresponding to T. cati, respectively. Toxocara canis infection was not observed in any of the scat samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS-2 region indicated 97% to 99% similarity with T. leonina and T. cati, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of ascarid infection in captive Asiatic lions from a zoological garden of India. This study also indicates that Asiatic lions are more prone to infection either with T. leonina or T. cati and the parasite is not host specific.

  10. Sero-epidemiology of Toxocara canis infection in children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short questionnaire was designed to obtain data on respondents as to age, gender, educational level, locality of residence, habits of washing of fruits, vegetable and hands before eating, keeping of pet (dogs or cats) , and history of playing with soil and pets. Clinical information was also collected. Associations between ...

  11. An alternate technique for isolation of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Colli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a sausage-casing membrane for dialysis of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES. The protein concentrated by the tested membrane was compared with that obtained using a Sigma commercial membrane, as were the protein fractions found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Standard positive and negative serum samples were evaluated in an ELISA immunoassay, and equivalent data were obtained in all steps, indicating that the sausage-casing membrane is efficient, besides being less expensive to process.O objetivo do presente estudo foi testar a eficácia de uma membrana utilizada para o preparo de embutidos, na obtenção do antígeno de excreção e secreção de Toxocara (TES. A concentração protéica foi comparada com a obtida com a membrana Sigma tanto quanto as frações protéicas separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Amostras de soros padrão positivo e negativo foram avaliadas no teste imunoenzimático ELISA. Dados equivalentes foram observados em todas as etapas, sugerindo que a membrana possa ser utilizada para diálise por ser eficiente e de menor custo no preparo do antígeno.

  12. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ANTÍGENOS INMUNODOMINANTES ESPECÍFICOS EN PRODUCTOS DE EXCRECIÓN/SECRECIÓN DE LARVAS DE Toxocara canisI IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC IMMUNODOMINANT ANTIGENS IN SECRETION / EXCRETION PRODUCTS OF Toxocara canis L A RVA E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherlene Mosquera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxocariasis is the infection caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati , parasites of dogs and cats, respectively. Man is an accidental host, when is infected with eggs from these parasites. The larvae invade organs or the eyeball, producing two syndromes, visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. The diagnosis presents difficulties due to non-specific symptoms and the larvae can only be evidenced by biopsies. Immunological methods are an alternative, but may have cross-reactions with other parasites. Due to limitations in the diagnosis of the disease, the main objective of this work was to identify the specific immunodominant antigens in excretion/secretion products of T. cani s larvae, by Western blotting technique. The reaction conditions were standardized, by determining optimal antigen concentration and dilutions of reagents and sera. Subsequently, the standardized technique was performed using sera from individuals with toxocariasis, individuals with other parasitic infections and healthy individuals. The results showed that the optimal concentrations of excretory/ secretory antigen was 10 μg/strip, and dilutions of 1/100 and 1/5,000 for serum and conjugate, respectively. Recognition of immunodominant bands of 26, 40 and 57 kDa was observed only by sera from individuals with toxocariasis, while patients with other parasitic diseases and healthy individuals did not recognize any of these bands. Antigens of 26 and 57 kDa have been described as specific for the diagnosis of toxocariasis, while the 40 kDa band had not been previously identified. The Western blotting technique allowed a sensitive and specific diagnosis of human toxocariasis

  13. Freqüência de anticorpo anti-Toxocara canis em comunidade do Rio Uatumã, no Estado do Amazonas Frequency of the antibody anti-Toxocara canis in a community along the Uatumã river, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Melo Damian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado nas Vilas Waimiri e Atroari em Balbina, entre julho e outubro de 2006, com o objetivo de estimar a freqüência de anticorpo antiToxocara canis da classe IgG e avaliar as variáveis epidemiológicas e socioculturais. Foram estudadas 34 famílias e incluídos 100 indivíduos, o que correspondeu a 5% (100/2.000 da população das vilas. A idade variou de zero a 76 anos (M=22,9 Dp=18. Quanto ao gênero, 53% eram femininos e 47% masculino; 52% das amostras foram positivas para Toxocara canis, 44,5% negativas e 3,2% inconclusivas. Observou-se menor número de indivíduos com sorologia negativa na Vila Atroari 29,5% (13/44 em comparação com a Waimiri 46,4% (26/56. Com relação ao contato com cães, dos 55 indivíduos com contato domiciliar 60% (33/55 foram positivos para anticorpo antiToxocara canis Apresentaram sorologia positiva 66,6% (10/15 dos indivíduos que tinham contato domiciliar com filhotes de cão (chi²22,149 p=0,008. A existência de contato domiciliar com cães e filhotes mostrou associação com a presença de anticorpo anti-Toxocara canis na população estudada.A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Waimiri and Atroari settlements in Balbina, between July and October 2006, with the aims of estimating the frequency of the antibody anti-Toxocara canis of the IgG class and studying the epidemiological and sociocultural variables. Thirty-four families were studied and 100 individuals were included, corresponding to 5% (100/2000 of the population of the settlements. The age range was 0-76 years (mean = 22.9; standard deviation = 18. The gender distribution was 53% female and 47% male. The samples were 52% positive for Toxocara canis, 44.5% negative and 3.2% inconclusive. The number of individuals who tested serologically negative in Atroari (29.5%; 13/44 was lower than in Waimiri (46.4%; 26/56. In relation to contact with dogs, among the 55 individuals with contact in their homes, 60% (33

  14. FREQUENCY OF ANTI- Toxocara spp. ANTIBODIES IN INDIVIDUALS ATTENDED BY THE CENTRO DE SALUD FAMILIAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH Toxocara canis EGGS IN DOG FECES, IN THE COASTAL NIEBLA TOWN, CHILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Catalina; Torres, Patricio; Jercic, María Isabel; Lobos, Marta; Oyarce, Alan; Miranda, Juan Carlos; Ayala, Salvador

    2016-09-22

    The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA). Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany), and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France). Hematological exams were performed using an automated blood counter and blood smears. Dog feces were collected from the ground along the main road in Niebla, including rural and urban locations. Ninety (25.4%) of the 355 examined individuals were positive by the ELISA test. The frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies and the infection risk were significantly higher (p 0.05).

  15. FREQUENCY OF ANTI- Toxocara spp. ANTIBODIES IN INDIVIDUALS ATTENDED BY THE CENTRO DE SALUD FAMILIAR AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH Toxocara canis EGGS IN DOG FECES, IN THE COASTAL NIEBLA TOWN, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina VARGAS

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in individuals attended by the Centro de Salud Familiar in the coastal Niebla town, Chile, was related to the host and to environmental factors. IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies were detected with a commercial ELISA kit (SCIMEDX Corporation, USA. Samples with undetermined absorbance values were subjected to an additional ELISA standardized by the Instituto de Salud Pública, Chilean Health Ministry, a commercial ELISA (NOVATEC, Germany, and a commercial Western blot kit (LDBio Diagnostics, France. Hematological exams were performed using an automated blood counter and blood smears. Dog feces were collected from the ground along the main road in Niebla, including rural and urban locations. Ninety (25.4% of the 355 examined individuals were positive by the ELISA test. The frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies and the infection risk were significantly higher (p 0.05.

  16. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (pcanis (49–69%) than in A. suum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (pcanis, as compared with A. suum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs.

  17. Infection by Microsporum canis in Paediatric Patients: A Veterinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquetti, Mario; Min, Anna Rita Molinar; Scacchetti, Stefania; Dogliero, Andrea; Peano, Andrea

    2017-09-19

    Microsporum canis is a dermatophyte fungus of which cats and dogs are recognized as the natural hosts. M. canis is also easily transmitted to humans, causing lesions to the glabrous skin ( tinea corporis ) and to the head ( tinea capitis ). The present study describes some cases of infection with M. canis in children from a veterinary perspective, highlighting some important features of this clinical entity (e.g., the necessity to identify the animal source of infection with appropriate diagnostic tests; the fact that infected cats may present with no or atypical dermatological signs; and the importance of the environment as a fungal reserve).

  18. Toxocara Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrett, Andrew N; Erickson, Lance D; Gale, Shawn D; Stone, Allison; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2017-12-01

    Caused by the parasitic nematodes Toxocara canis and cati , toxocariasis in humans can result in covert toxocariasis, ocular toxocariasis, visceral larval migrans, and neurotoxocariasis. A common infection, toxocariasis exposure varies widely within and between countries, with a previous estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence using data from 1988 to 1994 in the United States of approximately 13%. Age, poverty, sex, educational attainment, ethnicity, and region have been associated with Toxocara seroprevalence. In this study, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of and factors associated with Toxocara seropositivity in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 to 2014 to provide a more recent estimate of Toxocara seroprevalence in the United States. We found an overall Toxocara seroprevalence of 5.1%. Increasing age, male sex, low educational attainment, low income, and immigration status each was associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Mexican Americans had reduced odds of exposure. These findings show that exposure to Toxocara continues in the United States and that several demographic factors influence the risk of exposure.

  19. The ue of polysiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol beads as solid phase in IgG anti-Toxocara canis detection using a recombinant antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Andrade Lima Coêlho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunodetection of human IgG anti-Toxocara canis was developed based on ELISA and on the use of polysiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol (POS/PVA beads. A recombinant antigen was covalently immobilized, via glutaraldehyde, onto this hybrid inorganic-organic composite, which was prepared by the sol-gel technique. Using only 31.2 ng antigen per bead, a peroxidase conjugate dilution of 1:10,000 and a serum dilution of 1:200 were adequate for the establishment of the procedure. This procedure is comparable to that which utilizes the adsorption of the antigen to conventional PVC plates. However, the difference between positive and negative sera mean absorbances was larger for this new glass based assay. In addition to the performance of the POS/PVA bead as a matrix for immunodetection, its easy synthesis and low cost are additional advantages for commercial application.

  20. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-10-30

    Oct 30, 2014 ... determine the prevalence of Babesia canis and the correlation of infection with age, sex, breed, types of management and presence .... Table 3: Breed distribution of Babesia infection in dogs in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT. Breed ... the management style of the dogs and infection with. Babesia. Table 5 ...

  1. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

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    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  2. Arginine kinase in Toxocara canis: Exon-intron organization, functional analysis of site-directed mutants and evaluation of putative enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Yatawara, Lalani; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    To determine exon/intron organization of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) AK (TCAK) and to test green and black tea and several other chemicals against the activity of recombinant TCAK in the guanidino-specific region by site-directed mutants. Amplification of genomic DNA fragments containing introns was carried out by PCRs. The open-reading frame (1200 bp) of TCAK (wild type) was cloned into the BamH1/SalI site of pMAL-c2X. The maltose-binding protein-TCAK fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli TB1 cells. The purity of the expressed enzyme was verified by SDS-PAGE. Mutations were introduced into the guanidino-specific region and other areas of pMAL/TCAK by PCR. Enzyme activity was measured with an NADH-linked assay at 25 °C for the forward reaction (phosphagen synthesis). Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene structure. The lengths of the introns ranged from 542 bp to 2 500 bp. All introns begin with gt and end with ag. Furthermore, we measured the enzyme activity of site-directed mutants of the recombinant TCAK. The K m value of the mutant (Alanine to Serine) decreased indicating a higher affinity for substrate arginine than the wild-type. The K m value of the mutant (Serine to Glycine) increased to 0.19 mM. The K m value (0.19 mM) of the double mutant (Alanine-Serine to Serine-Glycine) was slightly greater than in the wild-type (0.12 mM). In addition, several other chemicals were tested; including plant extract Azadiracta indica (A. indica), an aminoglycoside antibiotic (aminosidine), a citrus flavonoid glycoside (rutin) and a commercially available catechin mixture against TCAK. Green and black tea (1:10 dilution) produced 15% and 25% inhibition of TCAK, respectively. The extract of A. indica produced 5% inhibition of TCAK. Moreover, green and black tea produced a non-competitive type of inhibition and A. indica produced a mixed-type of inhibition on TCAK. Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene

  3. Neurotoxocarosis: marked preference of Toxocara canis for the cerebrum and T. cati for the cerebellum in the paratenic model host mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Beineke, Andreas; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

    2014-04-22

    Infective larvae of the worldwide occurring zoonotic roundworm T. canis exhibit a marked affinity to the nervous tissues of paratenic hosts. In humans, most cases of neurotoxocarosis are considered to be caused by larvae of T. canis as T. cati larvae have rarely been found in the CNS in previous studies. However, direct comparison of studies is difficult as larval migration depends on a variety of factors including mouse strains and inoculation doses. Therefore, the present study aims to provide a direct comparison of both roundworm species in mice as a model for paratenic hosts with specific focus on the CNS during the acute and chronic phase of disease to provide a basis for further studies dealing with neurotoxocarosis. C57Bl/6J mice were infected with 2000 embryonated T. canis and T. cati eggs, respectively as well as Balb/c mice infected with T. cati eggs only. On 8 time points post infection, organs were removed and microscopically examined for respective larvae. Special focus was put on the CNS, including analysis of larval distribution in the cerebrum and cerebellum, right and left hemisphere as well as eyes and spinal cord. Additionally, brains of all infection groups as well as uninfected controls were examined histopathologically to characterize neurostructural damage. Significant differences in larval distribution were observed between and within the infection groups during the course of infection. As expected, significantly higher recovery rates of T. canis than T. cati larvae were determined in the brain. Surprisingly, significantly more T. canis larvae could be found in cerebra of infected mice whereas T. cati larvae were mainly located in the cerebellum. Structural damage in brain tissue could be observed in all infection groups, being more severe in brains of T. canis infected mice. The data obtained provides an extensive characterization of migrational routes of T. canis and T. cati in the paratenic host mouse in direct comparison. Even though to

  4. Identification of Isolates of Streptococcus canis Infecting Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; Engler, Kathryn H.; Gudmundsdottir, Gudny; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2001-01-01

    During a survey of Group G and C streptococcal infections of humans two epidemiologically unrelated Group G streptococcal isolates were identified, one from a case of bacteremia and one from a wound infection. These isolates were atypical among this sample in that the emm gene could not be amplified from them by PCR. Biochemical characterization identified the isolates as Streptococcus canis, an organism normally associated with animal hosts. The biochemical identification was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and comparison with sequences of the S. canis type strain and other related streptococci of animals and humans. Comparative sequencing of fragments of two other housekeeping genes, sodA and mutS, confirmed that the isolates are most closely related to S. canis. The identification of two isolates of S. canis from a relatively small sample set suggests that the practice of identifying streptococci only by the Lancefield serological group may result in underestimation of the presence of S. canis in the human population. PMID:11682560

  5. Toxocara Seroprevalence among Clinically Healthy Individuals, Pregnant Women and Psychiatric Patients and Associated Risk Factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Yu, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Li, Bing; Qian, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection. Methodology/Principle Findings Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866) was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445) than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431) and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990) was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05–0.08, PToxocara infection. Conclusions/Significance The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential morbidity associated with Toxocara infection. PMID:25101756

  6. Infection of Dogs with Hepatozoon canis and Other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in the circulating neutrophils of eight naturally infected dogs presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The dogs were aged between four months and three years and showed varied clinical signs and haematological findings. Clinical ...

  7. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of infection with Babesia canis in dogs in Gwagwalada metropolis of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria, from November 2013 to January 2014. Blood samples were collected from 101 dogs and examined for the parasite. Data obtained were ...

  8. Experimentally induced clinical Cystoisospora canis coccidiosis in dogs with prior natural patent Cystoisospora ohioensis-like or C. canis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2013-10-01

    Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 μm (range 35-42 by 26-31 μm). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis.

  9. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

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    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  10. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  11. Soil Contamination With Eggs of Toxocara Species in Public Parks of Karaj, Iran

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    Mohammad Zibaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the zoonotic helminth diseases that is usually occurred with exposure to contaminated soil. Both Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are considered the causative agents of Toxocara infection. Objectives: This survey was intended to provide data on the Toxocara species eggs contamination in soil samples in the public parks of Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out among 200 soil samples collected from 12 public parks between August and September 2016 to examine the soil contamination with Toxocara species eggs. Soil samples were tested for the presence of Toxocara eggs using sucrose flotation method. Results: Prevalence of Toxocara species eggs in soil samples collected from public parks was 36.4%. The highest number of eggs recovered from 200 g of soil was 20. A total of 200 eggs were recovered and 7.6% were fully developed to embryonated egg stages. The contamination rate in the third region in 4 studied areas was higher than the other regions. A similar tendency was observed in park areas, so that parks higher than 5000 m2 were highly contaminated. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, soils of the public parks in Karaj are one of the main risk factors for human toxocariasis.

  12. Larva migrans syndrome caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworm infections in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A; Hombu, A; Wang, Z; Maruyama, H

    2016-09-01

    Larva migrans syndrome (LMS) caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworms is generally believed to be more common in children, while a report from Japan suggests that it is more common in adults. We conducted a large-scale retrospective study to confirm these findings and to clarify what caused the difference between Japan and other countries, to reveal overlooked aspects of this disease. The clinical information of 911 cases which we diagnosed as Toxocara or Ascaris LMS during 2001 and 2015 was analysed. Information used included age, sex, address (city or county), chief complaint, present history, dietary history, overseas travelling history, medical imaging findings and laboratory data (white blood cell count, peripheral blood eosinophil number and total IgE). The sex ratio of the disease was 2.37 (male/female = 641/270). The number of patients not younger than 20 years old were 97.8 and 95.1 % among males and females, respectively. Major disease types were visceral, ocular, neural and asymptomatic. The visceral type was more prevalent in older patients, while younger patients were more vulnerable to ocular symptoms. More than two-thirds of the patients whose dietary habits were recorded had a history of ingesting raw or undercooked animal meat. LMS caused by Toxocara or Ascaris is primarily a disease of adult males in Japan, who probably acquired infections by eating raw or undercooked animal meat/liver. Healthcare specialists should draw public attention to the risk of raw or undercooked animal meat in Europe as well.

  13. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

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    Shahram Khademvatan

    Full Text Available Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%. T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34% of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  14. PCR-Based Molecular Characterization of Toxocara spp. Using Feces of Stray Cats: A Study from Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%). T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34%) of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:23755213

  15. Toxocara and Ascaris seropositivity among patients suspected of visceral and ocular larva migrans in the Netherlands: trends from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, E; Herremans, T; Harms, M G; Hoek, D; Kortbeek, L M

    2011-07-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively, that can also infect humans. These zoonotic helminths have a worldwide distribution and are also endemic in the Netherlands. Infection with Toxocara sp. may result in visceral larva migrans (VLM) or ocular larva migrans (OLM) caused by the migrating larvae. Although A. suum has been reported to occasionally mature to the adult stage in humans, clinical cases of VLM suspected to be caused by A. suum have been described. Diagnosis of these helminth infections relies mainly on serology. Here we analyse the results from the Toxocara and Ascaris IgG-ELISA from a total of 2,838 serum samples from VLM and OLM suspected patients that were sent to our institution from 1998 to 2009. Results indicate that for each year the Ascaris seropositivity is significantly higher compared to the Toxocara seropositivity. Furthermore, while Toxocara seropositivity has decreased over time, the Ascaris seropositivity has not significantly changed for the past 12 years. The Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was also shown to increases with age and, while gender has no influence on the Ascaris seropositivity, males showed higher Toxocara seropositivity.

  16. Using optical tweezers to examine the chemotactic force to a single inflammatory cell--eosinophil stimulated by chemoattractants prepared from Toxocara Canis larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Po-Chen; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Ke-Min; Jen, Lin-Ni; Liu, Cheng-tzu; Hsu, Long

    2005-08-01

    Granulocytes are a group of white blood cells belonging to the innate immune system in human and in murine in which eosinophils play an important role in worm infection-induced inflammation. The migration of these cells is well characterized and has been separated into four steps: rolling, adhesion, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis, however, the physical characteristics of the chemotactic force to eosinophils from worm component remain largely unknown. Note that optical tweezers are featured in the manipulation of a single cell and the measurement of biological forces. Therefore, we propose to use optical tweezers to examine the chemotactic force to a eosinophil from a T. canis lavae preparation in terms of distance during the migration of eosinophil.

  17. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

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    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  18. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

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    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological

  19. Toxocara Seroprevalence in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: Chance Association or Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Tuncay; Kaplan, Yüksel; Ataş, Eser; Öztuna, Derya; Berilgen, Said

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) are believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between toxocariasis and Parkinson disease (PD). Patients were selected from people who were admitted to the Movement Disorders Branch, Neurology Department of Elazığ University Faculty of Medicine Elazığ, Turkey. We studied specific IgG antibodies against Toxocara canis (T. canis) in 50 patients with idiopathic Parkinson and 50 healthy volunteers. We investigated the clinical history of three patients infected with T. canis. We also studied specific IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in these groups. Antibodies anti-Toxocara canis were found in 3 idiopathic PD (6%) (P = 0.121) and antibody titer was not found in control. A patient had history of the presence of dog in current dog ownership. We did not detect any statistically significant association between T. canis and IPD. But, we believe that further comprehensive studies are required for understanding whether there is a causal relation between toxocariasis and PD. We didn't find possible association between Toxoplasma gondii and IPD (P = 0.617). PMID:23509761

  20. Toxocara Seroprevalence in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: Chance Association or Coincidence?

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    Tuncay Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD are believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between toxocariasis and Parkinson disease (PD. Patients were selected from people who were admitted to the Movement Disorders Branch, Neurology Department of Elazığ University Faculty of Medicine Elazığ, Turkey. We studied specific IgG antibodies against Toxocara canis (T. canis in 50 patients with idiopathic Parkinson and 50 healthy volunteers. We investigated the clinical history of three patients infected with T. canis. We also studied specific IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in these groups. Antibodies anti-Toxocara canis were found in 3 idiopathic PD (6% (P=0.121 and antibody titer was not found in control. A patient had history of the presence of dog in current dog ownership. We did not detect any statistically significant association between T. canis and IPD. But, we believe that further comprehensive studies are required for understanding whether there is a causal relation between toxocariasis and PD. We didn’t find possible association between Toxoplasma gondii and IPD (P=0.617.

  1. Frequency of antibodies to Toxocara in Cuban schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariego, I.; Kanobana, K.; Junco, R.; Vereecken, K.; Nunez, F.A.; Polman, K.; Bonet, M.; Rojas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of antibodies to Toxocara in Cuban schoolchildren. Methods The frequency of antibodies to Toxocara canis was assessed with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kit in school-aged children from two municipalities of Cuba.

  2. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

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    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma.To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city.The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy.Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity.The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  3. Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Lívia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction. PMID:23133689

  4. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

  5. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  6. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    ; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product......Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...

  7. Brain injury-associated biomarkers of TGF-beta1, S100B, GFAP, NF-L, tTG, AbetaPP, and tau were concomitantly enhanced and the UPS was impaired during acute brain injury caused by Toxocara canis in mice

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    Ji Dar-Der

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the outcomes and sequelae after different types of brain injury (BI are variable and difficult to predict, investigations on whether enhanced expressions of BI-associated biomarkers (BIABs, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, S100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, neurofilament light chain (NF-L, tissue transglutaminases (tTGs, β-amyloid precursor proteins (AβPP, and tau are present as well as whether impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS is present have been widely used to help delineate pathophysiological mechanisms in various BIs. Larvae of Toxocara canis can invade the brain and cause BI in humans and mice, leading to cerebral toxocariasis (CT. Because the parasitic burden is light in CT, it may be too cryptic to be detected in humans, making it difficult to clearly understand the pathogenesis of subtle BI in CT. Since the pathogenesis of murine toxocariasis is very similar to that in humans, it appears appropriate to use a murine model to investigate the pathogenesis of CT. Methods BIAB expressions and UPS function in the brains of mice inoculated with a single dose of 250 T. canis embryonated eggs was investigated from 3 days (dpi to 8 weeks post-infection (wpi by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Results Results revealed that at 4 and 8 wpi, T. canis larvae were found to have invaded areas around the choroid plexus but without eliciting leukocyte infiltration in brains of infected mice; nevertheless, astrogliosis, an indicator of BI, with 78.9~142.0-fold increases in GFAP expression was present. Meanwhile, markedly increased levels of other BIAB proteins including TGF-β1, S100B, NF-L, tTG, AβPP, and tau, with increases ranging 2.0~12.0-fold were found, although their corresponding mRNA expressions were not found to be present at 8 wpi. Concomitantly, UPS impairment was evidenced by the overexpression of conjugated ubiquitin and ubiquitin in the brain. Conclusion Further studies

  8. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  9. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control sample...

  10. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio V Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is a common feline parasite transmitted by the ingestion of embryonated eggs, by the transmammary route or by predation of paratenic hosts harbouring third-stage larvae in their bodies. In the present study, the larval distribution of T. cati in tissues and organs of Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with 300 embryonated eggs was analysed. Third-stage larvae were recovered from livers, lungs, kidneys, eyes, brains and carcasses of infected rats, following tissue digestion with HCl 0.5% for 24 h at 37°C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found.

  11. Frequency of toxocara infection in children attended by the health public service of Maringá, south Brazil Freqüência de infecção por Toxocara em crianças atendidas em serviço público de Maringá, sul do Brasil

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    Márcia L. Paludo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specific laboratorial diagnosis methods and precise symptoms makes the toxocariasis a neglected disease in Public Health Services. This study aims to determine the frequency of Toxocara spp. infection in children attended by the Health Public Service of Hospital Municipal de Maringá, South Brazil. To evaluate the association of epidemiological and clinical data, an observational and cross-section study was carried out. From 14,690 attended children/year aged from seven month to 12 years old, 450 serum samples were randomly collected from September/2004 to September/2005. A questionnaire was used to evaluate epidemiological, clinical and hematological data. An ELISA using Toxocara canis larval excretory-secretory products as antigen detected 130 (28.8% positive sera, mainly between children from seven month to five years old (p = 0.0016. Significant correlation was observed between positive serology for Toxocara, and frequent playing in sandbox at school or daycare center (p = 0.011 and the presence of a cat at home (p = 0.056. From the families, 50% were dog owners which exposed soil backyards. Eosinophilia (p = 0.776, and signs and symptoms analyzed (fever p = 0.992, pneumonia p = 0.289, cold-like symptoms p = 0.277, cough p = 0.783, gastrointestinal problems p = 0.877, migraine p = 0.979, abdominal pain p = 0.965, joint pain p = 0.686 and skin rash p = 0.105 could not be related to the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, two asthmatics children showed titles of 1:10,240 and accentuated eosinophilia (p = 0.0001. The authors emphasize the needs of prevention activities.A falta de métodos de diagnóstico laboratorial específico e sintomas específicos fazem da toxocaríase uma doença negligenciada nos serviços públicos de saúde. Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a freqüência de infecção por Toxocara spp. em crianças atendidas no serviço público do Hospital Municipal de Maringá, sul do Brasil, e

  12. Helminth infections in faecal samples of Apennine wolf (Canis lupus italicus) and Marsican brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in two protected national parks of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Barbara; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Angelucci, Simone; Amicucci, Cristina; Bartolini, Roberto; Marangi, Marianna; Di Cesare, Angela

    This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65.21%), these being the most frequent association: E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Thirty-seven (46.25%) out of the 80 faecal samples from bears were positive for parasite eggs. Fourteen (37.83%) samples were positive for B. transfuga, and six (16.21%) of them also contained Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, one (2.7%) E. aerophilus and one (2.7%) both E. aerophilus and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria. Of the other samples, 19 (51.35%) were positive for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, two (5.4%) for E. aerophilus and two (5.4%) for both. Molecular analysis found the roundworm and capillariid eggs found in wolves and bear samples to be Toxocara canis, Baylisascaris transfuga and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). Considering the high prevalence of zoonotic intestinal helminths detected in this study, it is important to improve the knowledge and awareness of the general public and park operators regarding the potential health risk associated with infections in wildlife.

  13. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  14. PRESENCE OF ANTI-TOXOCARA ANTIBODIES IN CHILDREN SELECTED AT HOSPITAL UNIVERSITÁRIO, CAMPO GRANDE, MS, BRAZIL

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    Maria de Fatima C. MATOS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Larva Migrans syndrome (VLM results from the presence or migration of helminth larvae in humans, who nonetheless only play the role of paratenic hosts in the helminths' life cycle. In humans, VLM can be caused by larvae of various nematode species, chiefly those of the ascarid Toxocara canis, which can then be found at a variety of body sites, such as the liver, lungs, heart, and brain. Clinical and pathological manifestations depend primarily on larvae number and location, infection duration, reinfection occurrence, and host's immunological condition. Signs and symptoms may range from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. In humans, infection is acquired through ingestion of T. canis eggs present in soil, containing larvae in the infective stage7, 8, 9. Indeed, eggs of Toxocara sp. have been found in sandboxes in several public places in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state2. This study was carried out to detect the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending the Pediatrics division of Hospital Universitário of Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul at Campo Grande, Brazil. Over the years 1992-94, 454 serum samples, obtained from children of 5.25 ± 3.28 years of mean age and selected at that hospital on the basis of eosinophil count greater than or equal to 1000/mm3 of blood, were tested for the presence of antibodies by means of the ELISA technique employing Toxocara canis larvae excretory-secretory antigens5. A high prevalence rate for toxocariasis (35.55% was found, which was observed to be associated with eosinophil levels lower than those usually reported in literature. Furthermore, a higher frequency of positive serology among boys was also observed (13 cases in contrast to only 3 among girls, a result also reported by other authors

  15. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril/emodepside plus clindamycin in treating Hepatozoon canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Giannelli, Alessio; de Caprariis, Donato; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) is among the most widespread vector-borne infections of dogs, primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks. Based on the absence of a consensus on the treatment regimes for canine hepatozoonosis, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (5-6 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week for 6 weeks), and of toltrazuril/emodepside (Procox(®), 15 mg/kg once a day for 6 days) in association with clindamycin (15 mg/kg once a day for 21 days) in treating naturally infected dogs. At the enrollment time (T0), 32 dogs, cytologically or molecularly positive for H. canis, were assigned to test and control groups. Animals were treated according to the specific therapeutic protocol, and the presence of H. canis gamonts was assessed weekly by cytology and PCR throughout six months (T1-T19). In addition, any abnormality in leucocyte morphology was evaluated and recorded. Results indicate that, in spite of a reduction in the percentage of infected dogs, both treatments did not provide parasitological cure. Accordingly, new treatment protocols or active compounds against H. canis should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

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    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-08-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including use of a common udder cloth and failure to use postmilking teat disinfection. Infected cows had macroscopically normal udders and milk, but significantly higher somatic cell counts than Strep. canis-negative herd mates. The outbreak was controlled through antibiotic treatment of lactating cows, early dry-off with dry cow therapy, culling of infected animals, and implementation of standard mastitis prevention measures. Cure was significantly more likely in dry-treated cows (87.5%) and cows treated during lactation (67%) than in untreated cows (9%). Whereas mastitis due to group G streptococci or Strep. canis in dairy cows is usually limited to sporadic cases of environmental (canine or feline) origin, this case study shows that crossing of the host species barrier by Strep. canis may result in an outbreak of mastitis if management conditions are conducive to contagious transmission. In such a situation, measures that are successful in control of Strep. agalactiae can also be used to control Strep. canis mastitis.

  18. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 151 soil samples and 135 canine faecal samples were collected from 7 public sandpits and 12 public parks, over a 4 month-period. Soil samples were tested by a modified centrifugation and sedimentation/flotation technique and faecal samples were tested by an adaptation of the Cornell-Wisconsin method. Molecular analysis and sequencing were performed to discriminate Toxocara species in the soil. Overall, 85.7% of the sandpits (6/7) and 50.0% of the parks (6/12) were contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs. The molecular analysis of soil samples showed that, 85.5% of the sandpits and 34.4% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara cati eggs. Faecal analysis showed that 12.5% of the sandpits and 3.9% of the parks contained Toxocara canis eggs. In total, 53.0% of soil and 5.9% of faecal samples were positive for Toxocara spp. Additionally, 56.0% of the eggs recovered from the samples were embryonated after 60 days of incubation, therefore considered viable and infective. The average density was 4.2 eggs per hundred grams of soil. Public parks and playground sandpits in the Lisbon area were found to be heavily contaminated with T. cati eggs, representing a serious menace to public health as the studied areas represent common places where people of all ages, particularly children, recreate. This study sounds an alarm bell regarding the necessity to undertake effective measures such as reduction of stray animals, active faecal

  19. Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were

  20. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  1. Thrombocyte indices in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum

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    Funda Özata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study alterations in trombocyte numbers and trombocyte indices were investigated in 51 dogs naturally infected with E. canis and/or A. phagocytophilum. Achieved results were compared to those of 20 healty dogs comprising control group. Materials and methods. Naturally occuring vector borne diseases were diagnosed by use of a canine point-of-care ELISA kit (Snap 4Dx, Idexx. Dogs were enrolled into 3 groups as follows; II. group involved A. phagocytophilum infected dogs (n=10, III. group (n=13 E. canis+ A. phagocytophilum co-infected, and IV. group (n=28 E. canis infected dogs. Healthy controls (n=20 were enrolled in group I. Results. Mean PLT counts were significantly decreased in II., III. and IV. groups (159.6±63.5, 142.3±44.3, 148.7±33.5, respectively in comparison to control group (370.4±28.6 (p≤0.01. Mean PCT values in groups II., III. and IV. (0.1530±0.590, 0.1531±0.0441, 0.1450±0.314, respectively were significantly decreased in contrast to control group (0.3695±0.0283 (p≤0.01. Between PLT and PCT values, statistically significant positive correlation (p≤0.01 (r=0.988, 0.990 and 0.981, respectively was evident among groups II., III. and IV. Conclusions. Infected dogs showed significant alterations (p≤0.01 among mean PLT and PCT values and a positive correlation was evident between those 2 parameters (p≤0.01, whereas alterations on mean MPV and PDWc were not statistically significant. Finally it was suggested that according to the aforimentioned results, PLT and PCT values may be used as valuable parameters for diagnosis and probably for monitorization and prognosis in infected dogs with Ehrlichiosis and/or Anaplasmosis.

  2. Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis

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    Jacqueline Ribeiro de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Castro J.R., Silva C.B., Souza M.A., Salaberry S.R.S., Guimarães E.C., Mundim A.V. & Lima-Ribeiro A.M.C. [Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis.] Altera- ções hematológicas em cães naturalmente infectados por Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus e Brucella canis. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:49-54, 2014. Laboratório de Doenças Infectocontagiosas, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Ceará s/n, Bloco 2D, Sala 33, Campus Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: jack_ufu@yahoo.com.br The investigations of leptospirosis and brucellosis canine act as sanitary control in public health and zoonoses because they were established by close contact between dog and human. The aim was to determine the main hematological reagents in asymptomatic dogs against Leptospira spp. Brucella abortus and Brucella canis naturally infected, living in urban areas in the city of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. We examined 140 blood samples from clinically healthy dogs, males and females and different ages. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, with a collection of twelve serovars, whereas, brucellosis was identified through the tests of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID for B. canis and buffered acidified antigen (TAA confirmed 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME for B. abortus. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the calculation of simple percentages, mean and standard deviation. He applied and short sample t test for two independent samples to assess whether there were significant differences (p<0.05 between hematological parameters obtained. Dogs evaluated, 15% (21/140 and 2.85% (4/140 were reactive to Leptospira spp. and B. abortus, respectively. There was no sample reagent against B. canis. It was concluded that although no specific thrombocytopenia may be a significant finding in dogs

  3. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). S...

  4. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  5. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  6. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2011-09-01

    Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n = 6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI.

  7. Case report of canine co-infection with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Stefanovska Jovana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine leishmaniasis (CanL due to Leishmania infantum and canine monocytic ehrilichiosis (CME due to Ehrlichia canis are common diseases with zoonotic potential in the Mediterranean area. Their prevalence in R. Macedonia as a neighboring Mediterranean county is expected. In both diseases similar clinical symptoms can be manifested in dogs such as: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, epistaxis, fever, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, ocular signs. This case report present an atypical case of 11 year old female Samoyed with starting single clinical symptom epistaxys. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed the presence only of CanL, which was diagnosed using indirect immunofluorescence method and ELISA. First laboratory findings showed normal hematological and renal profiles. Dog was put on a treatment with Allopurinol (20mg/kg, p/o for at least 9 months. Termination of the therapy after 6 months brought a numerous clinical symptoms involving weakness, dehydration, pale mucous membranes lost pupilar reflex, uremic breath and biochemical parameters revealed a renal failure. Using a commercial ELISA kit Ehrlichia canis as a co infection was diagnosed. Most probably the second infectious agent was induced in the past 6 months, causing more severe pathological effects than CanL infection alone.

  8. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

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    Kostro Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.

  9. Brucella canis infection in dogs from commercial breeding kennels in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keid, L B; Chiebao, D P; Batinga, M C A; Faita, T; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F de S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M

    2017-06-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnosis through blood culture. The association between clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis and positive results through blood culture was determined. Of the 753 dogs tested, 166 (22.0%) had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis and 158 (20.9%) had positive blood cultures. Seventy-two dogs had positive blood culture and had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis, while 91 dogs showed at least one clinical manifestation suggestive of brucellosis although blood culture was negative. Of the 38 kennels, 16 (42.1%) had at least one positive dog. The prevalence of infection in each kennel varied from 3.8% to 62.6%. Abortion/stillbirth, failure to conceive and enlargement of lymph nodes were significantly associated with brucellosis in female. No association of clinical signs and positive results in blood culture was observed in males. None of the kennels has been carrying out programmes to control brucellosis, and the sale of infected dogs was considered a common practice yielding risks to the public health, in view of the zoonotic potential of the infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  11. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Gisele Braziliano Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  12. Increased AST/ALT ratio in azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, W; Gójska-Zygner, O; Norbury, L J; Wedrychowicz, H

    2012-01-01

    The AST/ALT ratio was estimated in 182 dogs infected with Babesia canis. Among these dogs 65 had anaemia and 68 were azotaemic. Student's t test was used to compare means of the AST/ALT ratio in anaemic and non-anaemic dogs, and in azotaemic and non-azotaemic dogs (p < 0.05). The differences in AST/ALT ratio between anaemic (1.52 +/- 1.15) and non-anaemic (1.76 +/- 1.34) dogs were statistically insignificant (p = 0.23), however, the comparison of AST/ALT ratio between azotaemic (2.68 +/- 1.52) and non-azotaemic (1.08 +/- 0.53) dogs revealed a significantly higher value of this index in azotaemic dogs (p = 0.00). The present results suggest that kidney injury contributed to increased AST activity in these dogs.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  14. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  15. Plasma insulin concentrations in hypoglycaemic dogs with Babesia canis rossi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, P; Schoeman, J P

    2008-03-25

    Hypoglycaemia has been identified as a life-threatening metabolic complication in almost 20% of severely ill dogs suffering from babesiosis due to Babesia canis rossi infection, and has been correlated with mortality. Hyperinsulinaemia as a result of inappropriate insulin secretion may precipitate hypoglycaemia, and has been suggested as a possible cause of hypoglycaemia in human and murine malaria. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, including 94 dogs with naturally occurring virulent babesiosis, sought to identify the presence of inappropriate insulin secretion in hypoglycaemic canine babesiosis. Pre-treatment jugular blood samples were collected for simultaneous determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Animals were retrospectively divided into three groups: hypoglycaemic (BG5.5 mmol/L; n=16). The median insulin concentrations for the hypoglycaemic, normoglycaemic, and hyperglycaemic groups were 10.7 pmol/L, 10.7 pmol/L, and 21.7 pmol/L, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in insulin concentration between the three groups. Additionally, the median insulin concentration in the hypoglycaemic and normoglycaemic groups was below the detection limit of the assay, suggesting that insulin secretion was appropriately low (i.e. undetectable) in these cases. Only two dogs had inappropriately elevated insulin concentrations. One of these dogs was hypoglycaemic. We conclude that hyperinsulinaemia is an infrequent cause of hypoglycaemia in virulent canine babesiosis. Other causes of hypoglycaemia, such as increased glucose consumption, depletion of hepatic glycogen stores, and hepatic dysfunction with impaired gluconeogenesis, are speculated to play more important roles in the pathophysiology of hypoglycaemia in canine babesiosis.

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANTI- Toxocara ANTIBODIES IN A RANDOM SAMPLE OF INPATIENTS AT A CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL IN VITÓRIA, ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL

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    MOREIRA-SILVA Sandra F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the streets of Vitória, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, are large number of stray dogs, many of which are infected with Toxocara canis, suggesting a high risk for human infection. In order to investigate the prevalence of Toxocara infection in children in Espírito Santo we studied the prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 100 random inpatients over one year of age, at the Children's Hospital N.S. da Glória, the reference children's hospital for the State.All the sera were collected during the period between October 1996 and January 1997. The mean age was 6.6±4.1 yrs. (1 to 14 yrs., median 6yrs. and there were patients from all of the different wards of the hospital. Sixty-eigth patients came from the metropolitan area of Vitória and the other 32 from 17 other municipalities. The anti-Toxocara antibodies were investigated by ELISA-IgG using a secretory-excretory antigen obtained from second stage larvae. All sera were adsorbed with Ascaris suum antigen before the test. Thirty-nine sera (39% were positive, predominantly from boys, but the gender difference was not statistically significant (boys:25/56 or 44.6%; girls:14/44 or 31.8%; p=0.311. The prevalence of positive sera was higher, but not statistically significant, in children from the urban periphery of metropolitan Vitória (formed by the cities of Vitória, Cariacica, Vila Velha, Serra and Viana than in children from 17 other municipalities (44.1% and 28.1% respectively, p=0.190. Although the samples studied do not represent all children living in the State of Espírito Santo, since the Children's Hospital N.S. da Glória admits only patients from the state health system, it is probable that these results indicate a high frequency of Toxocara infection in children living in Espírito Santo. Further studies of population samples are necessary to ascertain the prevalence of Toxocara infection in our country.

  17. Toxocara seroprevalence in children from a subtropical city in Argentina Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti Toxocara en niños de una ciudad subtropical de Argentina

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    José Mario ALONSO

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies from Argentina have focused on toxocariasis as an environmental problem of big cities, and there are no available data about children infection from small or middle-sized cities. In order to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in infantile population, 206 children from Resistencia, of both sexes, aged 1-14 years old were studied by Elisa testing with E/S T. canis L2 antigens. Hematological parameters and immunoglobulin levels were determined; five days' stool samples were studied and epidemiological data were obtained by means of a questionnaire to parents. Results showed that 73% of the children had one or more dogs living at home, 57% reported geophagia and 37.9% were positive for Toxocara serology, but there was no significant difference in prevalence neither for boys and girls, nor concerning age. An increased risk of infection was observed in age groups 5-6 and 7-8 for boys, and in age groups 3-4 and 5-6 for girls.La mayoría de los estudios realizados en Argentina, han enfocado a la Toxocariosis como un problema medioambiental propio de las grandes ciudades y no existen datos acerca de esta infección entre los niños de ciudades medianas o pequeñas. A fin de determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxocara en la población infantil de la ciudad de Resistencia, se estudiaron 206 niños de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre los 1-14 años, mediante el test de Elisa, empleando antígenos E/S de larva L2 de Toxocara canis. También se evaluaron los niveles de inmunoglobulinas séricas y los parámetros hematológicos; se efectuaron análisis coproparasitológico seriados en heces de 5 días y se recolectó información epidemiológica mediante cuestionario a los padres. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que el 73% de los niños tenían uno o mas perros viviendo en la casa, que el 57% tenían antecedentes de geofagia y que el 37.9% tenían serología positiva para Toxocara, aunque no hubo diferencias

  18. Research Note. Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections and associated lesions in wolves (Canis lupus from Italy

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    Mariacher A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections in wolves (Canis lupus in Europe are limited and data on associated lesions are lacking. In the present study urinary bladders, nasal turbinates and faecal samples from 8 necropsied wolves were examined for P. plica and E. böhmi infections and associated lesions. P. plica was identified in the bladder of four wolves. At histological examination, follicular chronic cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis were found. E. böhmi nematodes and eggs were identified from the nasal turbinates and rectal faecal samples of three wolves. Worms and eggs were found embedded in the mucosa among the nasal bone laminae. Two wolves were found coinfected by P. plica and E. böhmi. This is the first report of P. plica and E. böhmi infections in wolves from Italy and the first description of pathological lesions associated with P. plica infection in wolves.

  19. Experimental Ehrlichia canis infection changes acute-phase proteins A infecção experimental por Ehrlichia canis altera as proteínas de fase aguda

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    Thiago Demarchi Munhoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis favors prompt institution of treatment and improves the prognosis for the animal, since this disease causes mortality among dogs. Studies have shown that determining the concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs may contribute towards early detection of disease and aid in predicting the prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the APP profile in dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis, at the start of the infection and after treatment. It also investigated whether any correlation between APP levels and the clinical and laboratory alterations over the course of the disease would be possible. The results obtained showed abnormal levels of all the APPs on the third day after infection (D3, with the highest levels being reached on D18, with the exception of ceruloplasmin and acid glycoprotein, which presented their peaks on D6 and D12 respectively. We concluded that assessment of APP levels could contribute towards establishing an early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly regarding acid glycoprotein and ceruloplasmin, since these proteins were detected at increased levels even before the onset of clinical and laboratory findings of the disease.O diagnóstico precoce da erliquiose canina favorece a pronta instituição do tratamento e melhora o prognóstico do animal, pois se trata de uma doença de alta mortalidade em cães. Estudos têm apontado que a determinação da concentração de proteínas de fase aguda (PFA pode contribuir para detecção precoce de doenças e auxiliar na predição do prognóstico. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o perfil de proteínas de fase aguda (PFA em cães experimentalmente infectados com Ehrlichia canis, no início da infecção e após o tratamento. Além disso, se seria possível associá-las com as alterações clínico-laboratoriais durante o curso da doença. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que todas as PFA estudadas alteraram suas concentra

  20. Analysis of the influence of Ascaris, Borrelia, Toxocara, Toxoplasma and Mycoplasma infections on the incidence and course of Perthes disease - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard; Małecki, Krzysztof

    2013-06-28

    It is known from medical literature that such organisms as Ascaris, Borrelia, Mycoplasma, Toxocara and Toxoplasma can cause arthritis or cause vascular changes. We studied their influence on the incidence, course and outcome of Perthes disease. Sixty-one patients treated for Perthes disease were analysed. Thirty-seven of them took part in a follow-up examination after a mean of 2.8 years post first admission. A control group consisted of 22 patients treated operatively for other reasons. Blood tests, radiographic studies and a physical examination were carried out during the first admission and the follow-up visit. Serologic tests were positive for at least one pathogen in 67.2% of the patients with Perthes disease. In the control group, the tests were positive for Borrelia in 52.2% of the patients and for Mycoplasma in 40.9%, compared to antibody rates of 17.1% and 29.3%, respectively, in the group with Perthes disease. The lack of statistically significant differences in the distribution of infected vs. not-infected children according to the Herring classification suggests the absence of influence of the pathogens on the radiographic severity of Perthes disease. There were no statistically significant differences in the range of internal rotation and abduction of the affected limb between patients with negative and positive blood tests. The radiographs failed to show statistically significant differences in the structure of proximal femur between infected and non-infected children. Patients with a diagnosis of Perthes disease did not demonstrate more frequent infection with the organisms investigated than the control group. No link was found between those infestations and the course and prognosis of Perthes disease.

  1. Infecciones parasitarias del coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae en un Parque Nacional y una zona agrícola en Costa Rica Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area

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    Carmen Niehaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conforme las poblaciones humanas se expanden hacia los hábitats silvestres con sus mascotas y ganado, el potencial de transmisión de enfermedades hacia los animales silvestres -y viceversa- aumenta, y hace necesario identificar interacciones zoonóticas potenciales. Los cánidos domésticos y silvestres pueden funcionar como reservorios o diseminadores de enfermedades infecciosas (se incluyen parásitos, por lo que el coyote (Canis latrans puede también servir como indicador de la salud ecológica. Asimismo, se estudiaron los parásitos de 209 muestras de heces de coyotes en una zona mixta de área silvestre protegida y campo agrícola del Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú (PNVI en Costa Rica. La recolección fue realizada mensualmente durante un año en tres sub-áreas denominadas: Irazú (la más cercana al volcán, papales (por el cultivo de papas, y Prusia (un sector del PNVI. Entonces, se empleó examen directo y concentración mecánica, se obtuvo 36.84% de muestras positivas por al menos un helminto. La presencia de parásitos fue muy similar para ambos sectores boscosos del PNVI (33.3% en Prusia y 37.4% en Irazú, pero contrastó con el 63.63% observado en los papales. También, se identificaron uncinarias (probablemente Ancylostoma caninum, estrongilidios (posiblemente Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. y Taenia pisiformis, así como Hymenolepis diminuta, probablemente un parásito espurio proveniente de roedores ingeridos por los coyotes. Se comenta la importancia de estos primeros hallazgos y se concluye que las estaciones seca y lluviosa influyen en la presencia de los parásitos.Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area. As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or

  2. Cross-infection between cats and cows: Origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-01-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including...

  3. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts. Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6% suicide attempters and 1 (0.8% of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04–13.02; P=1.00. Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher (P=0.01 in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients.

  4. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6%) suicide attempters and 1 (0.8%) of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04-13.02; P = 1.00). Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher (P = 0.01) in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients.

  5. Case report of canine co-infection with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovska Jovana; Nikolovski Goran; Kocevski Zoran; Atanaskova Elena

    2011-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum and canine monocytic ehrilichiosis (CME) due to Ehrlichia canis are common diseases with zoonotic potential in the Mediterranean area. Their prevalence in R. Macedonia as a neighboring Mediterranean county is expected. In both diseases similar clinical symptoms can be manifested in dogs such as: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, epistaxis, fever, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, ocular signs. This case report pres...

  6. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs) against prepatent and patent infection with Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Schroeder, Iris; Joachim, Anja; Settje, Terry; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    Three randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension (Procox(®) suspension for dogs) against Isospora canis and Isospora ohioensis-complex. Unweaned puppies were experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of I. canis and/or I. ohioensis-complex. In each study, one group was treated during prepatency (2 or 4 days post infection) while dogs in the second group were treated individually after the onset of oocyst excretion of the respective coccidia species. The dogs were treated with the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight. Daily faecal oocyst counts from both groups were compared to placebotreated control groups to determine efficacy.Dogs treated during prepatent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infection showed significantly lower oocyst counts for up to 12 days compared to the control group. Oocyst counts were reduced by 90.2 - 100 % while the control groups continued to exhibit an adequate infection, except for one study where efficacy against prepatent I. canis infection faded 13 days after treatment. Following treatment of patent I. canis or I. ohioensis-complex infections, significantly lowered oocyst counts were observed for up to 9 days compared to the control group. Faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 91.5 - 100 %. In all three studies the number of days with diarrhoea was significantly lower when dogs were treated during prepatent Isospora spp. infection compared to the control groups. No adverse drug reactions were observed during the studies. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated that emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is an efficient coccidiocide for dogs.

  7. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  8. Clinical and serological evidence of Toxocara infection in school children from Morrope District, Lambayeque, Peru Evidências clínicas e sorologicas de infecção por Toxocara em escolares do Distrito de Morrope, Lambayeque, Peru

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    Yrma A. Espinoza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariosis in a child population from Morrope district, Lambayeque, Peru. From October to December 2005, 182 school children (96 male and 86 female were studied. Blood samples were collected for Toxocara ELISA-IgG test and hematological examination. Additionally, stool samples were collected for coproparasitological examination to check cross reactions. We found frequency of positives in 32.4% (59/182 with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male children (p O propósito do presente trabalho foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase humana em crianças do distrito de Morrope, Lamabayeque, Perú. Nos meses de outubro a dezembro de 2005, 182 escolares (96 meninos e 86 meninas foram estudados. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para a análise hematológica e imunológica pelo teste de ELISA-IgG-Toxocara e amostras fecais para o exame parasitológico. A freqüência geral da população foi de 32,4% (59/182 com proporção significativamente maior de positividade nos meninos. Das crianças com resultado positivo ao teste sorológico (52 meninos e sete meninas, 71,2% tinham entre cinco e 10 anos, 77,96% apresentavam sintomas respiratórios, 61,02% apresentavam manifestações oculares, 38,98% apresentavam moléstias hepáticas, 38,98% apresentavam suave ou moderada eosinofília e todos estes sinais foram estatisticamente associados ao resultado da sorologia. A presença de algum parasito intestinal foi observada em 83,5% da população estudada: Blastocystis hominis (53,3%, Giardia lamblia (31,3%, Entamoeba coli (29,1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (1,1%, Hymenolepis nana (5,49%, e Ascaris lumbricoides (3,3%, mas estes não tiveram nenhuma associação com a sorologia. A posse de cães e gatos revelou associação estatisticamente significante com a positividade para toxocaríase embora a presença destes animais no domicílio não tenha revelado tal associação. Conclui

  9. Apoptose na infecção experimental de cães domésticos com Ehrlichia canis Apoptosis in experimental infection with Ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs

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    Irma Ximena Barbosa Sanchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Erliquiose canina é uma zoonose causada pela Ehrlichia canis, bactéria Gram negativa de distribuição mundial. Alguns cães com erliquiose se tornam portadores assintomáticos enquanto outros desenvolvem uma doença aguda com morte rápida. A apoptose pode ser importante na eliminação de patógenos intracelulares, podendo, nas infecções por Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma sp., ocorrer modulação da apoptose celular para prolongar a sobrevivência desses organismos. Para avaliação do papel da apoptose na erliquiose canina, sete cães foram distribuídos em dois grupos. No Grupo inoculado, realizou-se a infecção por via intravenosa com sangue infectado com E. canis (isolado Jaboticabal, sendo realizada a inoculação com PBS estéril nos animais pertencentes ao Grupo Controle. Semanalmente e até 35 dias pós-inoculação, amostras de sangue foram coletadas e submetidas a n-PCR e reação de imunofluorescência (RIFI para confirmação da infecção. No 36° dia pós-inoculação, os animais foram eutanasiados, sendo as amostras de baço, linfonodo, rim e fígado coletadas e processadas para as técnicas de TUNEL e imunohistoquímica (Bcl-2, Bax. Verificou-se pela n-PCR que os animais inoculados se tornaram positivos para E. canis a partir da segunda semana. Pela RIFI, verificou-se animais com sorologia positiva a partir da terceira semana pós-inoculação. No grupo controle, todos os testes realizados foram negativos para E. canis. Apesar da reação de TUNEL mostrar maior incidência de apoptose no Grupo Inoculado, sendo o baço e os linfonodos os órgãos que apresentaram maior marcação, os resultados da imunohistoquímica para Bcl-2 e Bax indicam que a via intrínseca de apoptose não é importante nos órgãos analisados.Some dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis become asymptomatic while others develop an acute illness followed by quick death. Apoptosis may be an important mechanism for elimination of intracellular pathogens. Also

  10. Efficacy of Procox® oral suspension for dogs (0.1% emodepside and 2% toltrazuril) against experimental nematode (Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme) infections in cats.

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    Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Bach, Thomas; Gasda, Nadine; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    Two exploratory studies were performed to determine the optimum therapeutic dose of Procox(®) for the removal of experimental infection with mature adult Toxocara (T.) cati and Ancylostoma (A.) tubaeforme in kittens. Procox(®) is a new oral suspension containing a combination of the nematocidal and coccidiocidal active principles emodepside (0.1 %) and toltrazuril (2 %).In the first study, 18 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 450 L3 larvae of T. cati. 56 days after infection, the kittens were allocated to three treatment groups and were treated with 0.5 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1), 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2) and 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 3), respectively. In the second study, 10 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 350 L3 larvae of A. tubaeforme. Four weeks after infection, the kittens were allocated to two treatment groups and were treated with 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1) or 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2). In both studies, all kittens received a reference treatment with Drontal(®) (230 mg pyrantel embonate and 20 mg praziquantel per tablet) at the recommended dose of one tablet/4 kg body weight 5 days after treatment with Procox(®). Anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by reduction in worm numbers expelled with the faeces following treatment with Procox(®) as compared with faecal worm numbers after reference treatment with Drontal(®), by thus avoiding necropsy of the animals.In the T. cati study, emodepside was at 99.9 %, 100 % and 96.5 % effective at a dosage of 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.1 mg per kg body weight, respectively. Against A. tubaeforme emodepside was at 95.7 % and 100 % effective at a dosage of 0.1 mg and 0.25 mg per kg body weight. No adverse events were seen during either study.It can be concluded that Procox(®) is efficacious for the control of mature adult T. cati and A. tubaeforme infections in cats at a single-dose rate of 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body

  11. Wood's light in Microsporum canis positive patients.

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    Kefalidou, S; Odia, S; Gruseck, E; Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    1997-12-01

    In 64 patients with culturally proven Microsporum canis infections, Wood's light examination was performed. In 30 patients (47%) the characteristic fluorescence correlated with the cultural findings, whereas in the remaining 34 patients (53%), Microsporum canis was isolated, although Wood's light examination was negative. Of the 30 positive and 34 negative cases eight patients of each group had been pre-treated. From the results presented, Wood's light examination has a poor sensitivity in cases of Microsporum canis-infections.

  12. TRICHINELLA INFECTIONS IN RED FOXES (VULPES VULPES) AND GOLDEN JACKALS (CANIS AUREUS) IN SIX DISTRICTS OF SERBIA.

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    Dmitric, Marko; Vidanovic, Dejan; Vaskovic, Nikola; Matovic, Kazimir; Sekler, Milanko; Debeljak, Zoran; Karabasil, Nedjeljko

    2017-09-01

    Wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus), are the most important reservoirs of Trichinella spp. Although the red fox is considered one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. in Europe, only a few animals have been examined in Serbia. The present study assessed Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes and golden jackals from the six districts in Serbia. Thirty-seven carcasses of red foxes and 13 carcasses of golden jackals shot during the official hunting season were examined. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in 13 (35%) of 37 red foxes and in 8 (61%) of 13 golden jackals. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified after a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. Trichinella britovi infection was detected in 85% of red foxes and in 38% of golden jackals, and T. spiralis was detected in 15% of red foxes and in 63% of golden jackals. The findings emphasize the need for an active surveillance program for Trichinella spp. infection in wildlife in Serbia and the whole of the Balkans, with special attention on the red fox because it is widespread and occurs in high densities.

  13. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

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    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pCosta Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

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    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  15. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M.; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  17. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  18. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

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    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  19. Harnessing the Toxocara Genome to Underpin Toxocariasis Research and New Interventions.

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    Gasser, Robin B; Korhonen, Pasi K; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Young, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worms, such as flatworms (platyhelminths) and roundworms (nematodes), cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally. The ascaridoid nematode Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of socioeconomic significance worldwide. In humans, this worm causes toxocariasis (disease) mainly in underprivileged communities in both the developed and developing worlds. While reasonably well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, little is understood about the molecular biology of T. canis, its relationship with its hosts and the disease that it causes. However, a recent report of the draft genome and transcriptomes of T. canis should underpin many fundamental and applied research areas in the future. The present article gives a background on Toxocara and toxocariasis, a brief account of diagnostic approaches for specific identification and genetic analysis, and gives a perspective on the impact that the genome of T. canis and advanced molecular technologies could have on our understanding of the parasite and the diseases that it causes as well as the design of new and improved approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and control of toxocariasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. em solo no município de Moreno, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    José Lancart de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The contaminated soil with Toxocara sp. eggs is an important factor of risk to development of the zoonotic disease. Human infection is acquired by ingestion of embryonated Toxocara sp. eggs with contaminated water, food and also with dirt hands contaminated too. Usually Toxocara sp. infected dogs and cats, but sometimes humans can be affected, mainly children, causing visceral larva migrans. The goal of this study was determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs in the sand of the locality Cidade Evangelica dos orfaos, Moreno County, northeast of Brazil. Twenty-five soil samples were collected and analyzed by centrifugal flotation technique by using zinc sulfate solution at 33%. The analysis of soil samples showed 12% (3/25 of some contamination level of sand by Toxocara sp eggs. As human can be infect by accidental ingestion of embryonated Toxocara eggs, the results of this research suggest the adoption of measures who prevent the transmission of this zoonotic disease.

  1. Early Babesia canis transmission in dogs within 24 h and 8 h of infestation with infected pre-activated male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Liebenberg, Julian; Fourie, Josephus

    2018-01-17

    This study was designed to assess the ability of fed male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to transmit Babesia canis to dogs after being detached from previous canine or ovine hosts. The study was an exploratory, parallel group design conducted in two trials. All the animals were sero-negative for babesiosis prior to enrolment. In a first trial, donor dogs and donor sheep were infested with Babesia canis infected male and uninfected female ticks for 72 h. The ticks were detached and the second group of host dogs were infested for 24 h before tick removal. In a second trial, the experiment was repeated but the donor animals were infested for 88 h and the second group of host dogs were infested for 8 h prior to tick removal. After infestation, the dogs were maintained under clinical surveillance and blood samples were collected for blood smear, IFA and PCR analysis. A dog was considered infected if any of these tests were positive. All of the dogs (6 out of 6) were infected after being exposed to pre-activated male ticks for 24 h. Half of the dogs were infected after being exposed to pre-activated ticks for 8 h: 1 out of 3 dogs infested with ticks removed from sheep and 2 out of 3 dogs infested with ticks removed from dog. All the infected dogs were positive to blood smear, IFA and PCR. Three of these dogs exhibited elevated body temperature (> 39.4 °C). This study demonstrates the ability of male D. reticulatus to transmit B. canis to dogs. The study also illustrates for the first time that, regardless of the first host on which ticks may attach and start feeding, Babesia canis can be transmitted to dogs within 8 h of infestation. Since no minimal transmission time can be established for all possible natural situations, a strategy of prevention based on anti-attachment or repellency is recommended.

  2. [Seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in Canis familiaris, state of Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Carzola, Valentina; Rodríguez, Jéssicca; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans has been extensively studied in Venezuela; however, in reservoirs it has been less investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiology of T. cruzi in the state of Sucre, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalies of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. The evaluation of serum samples was performed with the CruziELISA kit and the multiple antigens binding assays (MABA). Furthermore, epidemiological surveys were applied to evaluate the risk factors. A total of dogs (average age of 2, 6 + 2.2 years, 226 males and 137 females) was evaluated. The combination of the ELISA / MABA tests detected 78 positive sera, sixty-nine negative and 10 of inconclusive results. The seroprevalence of the T. cruzi infection in dogs in the state of Sucre, was 22.1% (CI 95%: 20.58-22.4%). No significant statistic association was found between the T. cruzi infection in dogs and the evaluated epidemiological variables: hunting dogs that slept oudoors roaming freely in the populated center, sex of the animal and eating habits. The T. cruzi infection was associated to the age of canines, being significantly higher in the group of 0 to 3 years, when compared with older dogs. The high T. cruzi seroprevalence dected in dogs shows that in this región of Venezuela there prevails an important risk factor of transmissibility of this parasite to human populations.

  3. Enteric Parasitic in canines (Canis familiaris in the urban area of Coroico, Nor Yungas department of La Paz Bolivia

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    Llanos Mariana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety species of intestinal protozoa and helminthes are pathogen for the domestic animals. Between April and November 2009, a study was done with the purpose of determining the enteric parasitic infection in dogs (Cannis familiaris, 96 dogs (58 males and 38 females with owner of 10 species, one hybrid, eight age groups in two seasons of the urban area of the Coroico town, Nor Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The coproparasitology diagnostic was made by direct examination, with the Willis-Molloy flotation simple technique with a solution oversaturated of sodium chloride. It was detected one or more species of helminthes and protozoa, was used the chi-square and descriptive method for the statistical analysis. The results were: from the 96 sampled dogs, in 87% is present at less one type of parasitic shape, were identify: Ancylostoma spp, Toxocara canis, Strogyloides spp, Giardia spp, Isospora canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma spp/Uncinaria spp and Dipylidium caninum. The evaluation by season show a (p ≤ 0,05 for the Giardia spp. In a humidity season, but not for a dry season, the rest of parasites can be found in both seasons. By sex in a humidity season T.canis in females 43% and 22% in males, in dry season by sex was found T.vulpis in female with a high frequency (p ≤ 0,05, the rest of parasites do not show statistic differences in both seasons. By age in dry season T. canis and Stronyiloides sp. prevails 1-24 months and 49-72 months respectively, in a humidity season T. canis prevails in the same age (p ≤ 0,05. By race in dry season Ancylostoma spp Uncinaria spp prevails in the race Pekingese, in humidity season Strongyloides sp prevails in the Cocker race. Prevail in both seasons A. canis y T. canis. In relation to the mono-parasitism and multi-parasitism, was viewed, in both seasons the dogs multi-parasitism are more than the mono-parasitism.

  4. First report of Anaplasma platys infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum in foxes from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Gilad, Matan; Cortes, Helder C E; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Simões, Margarida; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2015-03-23

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis and the protozoan Leishmania infantum are vector-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne diseases, some of which are zoonotic. The present survey investigated the prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Leishmania in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal by molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the epidemiological role of these canids as reservoirs of infection. Blood and/or bone marrow samples were collected from 78 red foxes obtained in eight districts of northern, central and southern Portugal. Real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) amplified a 123 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and a 265 bp fragment of the L. infantum internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) region of the rRNA operon evaluated by PCR-high resolution melt analysis (PCR-HRM), with sequencing of the DNA products. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out to compare these to other sequences from Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. deposited in GenBank. A. platys was detected in 10 (14.5%) and E. canis in two (2.9%) out of 69 foxes; and L. infantum was detected in one (1.3%) of the 78 foxes. The prevalence of A. platys was significantly different from the prevalence of E. canis (p=0.016) and from that of L. infantum (p=0.002). No co-infections were found in any one of the 78 foxes. No statistically significant differences were found between the type of sample (blood and bone marrow), geographic regions (north/centre and south), age (<2 years and ≥2 years) and gender for any one of the agents. This is the first known report of A. platys in red foxes worldwide, as well as the first molecular evidence of E. canis in foxes from Portugal. The moderate prevalence of A. platys suggests that red foxes may play a role in the epidemiology of infection with this bacterium and serve as a reservoir for domestic dogs.

  5. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

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    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  6. Toxocara cati larvae in the eye of a child: a case report

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    Mohammad Zibaei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a consequence of human infection by Toxocara larvae. There are symptomatic (visceral, ocular and asymptomatic course of toxocariasis. The ocular form is very rare. We present a 6-year-old patient who developed an ocular form of toxocariasis caused by Toxocara cati. He demonstrated lesions in the peripheral retina of the right eye. White granuloma was present in the superior peripheral retina. A positive immunological assay for toxocariasis essentially completed the outcomes. On the basis of clinical manifestations and conducted examinations, a diagnosis of ocular form of toxocariasis was established. Albendazole and corticosteroids were applied in treatment. Current results clearly highlight the usefulness of excretory-secretory antigens derived from larvae of Toxocara cati for the fine diagnosis ocular larva migrans caused by Toxocara larvae.

  7. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

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    Akahane T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a

  8. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the

  9. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella canis resulting from a dog bite -- limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, T; Nagata, M; Matsumoto, T; Murayama, T; Isaka, A; Kameda, T; Fujita, M; Oana, K; Kawakami, Y

    2011-12-02

    Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous organisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the first report of dual infections due to P

  10. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  11. Comparative efficacy of oral administrated afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) with topically applied permethrin/imidacloprid (Advantix(®)) against transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; Crafford, Dionne; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus J; Schunack, Bettina

    2016-06-17

    The ability of the topical spot-on Advantix(®) (50 % permethrin/10 % imidacloprid) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs has previously been reported. The recent market introduction of chewable tablets containing the novel compounds, afoxolaner (NexGard™) and fluralaner (Bravecto™) enabled us to conduct a comparative efficacy study with respect to the ability of these three products to block transmission of E. canis by ticks to dogs. The speed of kill, immediate drop-off rate and anti-attachment efficacy of the respective products were also studied. The study was a blinded parallel group design, wherein 32 dogs were randomised into four different groups of eight dogs. Group 1 served as negative placebo control, group 2 and 3 were treated on Days 0, 28 and 56 with NexGard™ and Advantix(®), respectively. Group 4 was dosed once on Day 0 with Bravecto™. For tick efficacy assessments 50 non-infected ticks were placed onto the dogs on Days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77 and 84 and on animal tick counts were performed at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h after infestation. To evaluate the ability to block transmission of E. canis, each dog was challenged by releasing 80 adult E. canis-infected R. sanguineus ticks into their sleeping kennels on Days 31, 38, 45 and 52. The animals were monitored for clinical signs of monocytic ehrlichiosis (pyrexia and thrombocytopenia) and were tested for E. canis DNA by PCR and for specific antibodies using IFA. A dog was considered infected with E. canis if both PCR and IFA yielded positive test results up to Day 84. Mean arithmetic tick counts on dogs treated with the Advantix(®) spot-on were significantly (P < 0.0005) lower throughout the study as compared with the negative controls and was, with respect to the speed of kill and resulting onset of acaricidal efficacy, superior over NexGard™ and Bravecto™ at all time points in the 12 h period observed (3 h, 6 h and 12

  12. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

  13. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Katowice area and its environs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygierczyk, Danuta; Kwiatkowski, Sławomir; Sodowska, Henryka

    2003-01-01

    Toxocara spp. is a nematode which causes "larvae migrans visceralis" syndrome in human, especially in children. Cats and dogs are the source of infective eggs of this parasite in human environment. The eggs appear in a soil of urban and rural areas in large number. We have investigated samples of a soil from the recreation areas in Katowice city and its suburbs. The goal of this study was to determine the degree of soil contamination with eggs of Toxocara spp. Of 157 samples examined 79 (50%) contained the eggs. The highest number of eggs has been found in samples collected from landscapes, particulary from the lawn and playgrounds.

  14. The prevalence of Toxocara eggs in the sand in children's playgrounds in Frankfurt/M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düwel, D

    1984-12-01

    During an investigation of 31 sandpits in children's playgrounds in and around Frankfurt/M Toxocara eggs were detected in 27. The prevalence in areas with few or no parks (averaged 14.8 eggs 100 g-1 sand) was much higher than in districts where there was more room for the dogs to run about (5.3 eggs 100 g-1 sand). Larval development was complete in 40% of isolated Toxocara eggs after four weeks. The importance of these findings in connection with the risk, to children playing, of a possible infection (larva migrans visceralis) and preventive measures are discussed.

  15. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil of public areas in Iran: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic and widespread infection which manifest as a spectrum of syndromes in humans such as visceral, neural, ocular, covert and asymptomatic. Herein we aimed to design a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil depositories in Iran. English ...

  16. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  17. A flotation/sieving method to detect Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. eggs in soil by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umhang Gérald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil can be a source of human infection by many zoonotic helminth species including Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. The prevention of alveolar echinococcosis could be greatly improved through the identification of at-risk areas. Yet very few data are available about the detection of E. multilocularis in soil, while more studies have been reported for Toxocara spp. Identification of soil contamination by E. multilocularis eggs requires the use of specific methods. This study describes the development of a method for the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples with the concentration of eggs using a flotation/sieving method and detection by duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Toxocara spp. egg detection was also undertaken due to the widespread presence of this parasite in soil, despite it being considered less pathogenic. Method sensitivity of 100% was reached for the detection of 10 E. multilocularis eggs spiked in 10 g of soil. Concerning Toxocara spp., method sensitivity was lower but assumed to be due to the reduced effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol. The parasitological status for E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. of 63 carnivore fecal samples collected in highly endemic rural areas of France and of soil samples collected under and near these fecal samples was compared. The contamination of soil samples collected under positive fecal samples for E. multilocularis (n = 3 or Toxocara spp. (n = 19 confirmed the transfer of eggs from the definitive host to the environment.

  18. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14 a...... retain infective after refrigeration at exposure in 4 degrees C for 28 days, emphasize the zoonotic potential of poultry meat as a causative agent of human toxocarosis....

  19. Характеристика білкового складу соматичного та екскреторно-секреторного антигенів личинок Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    НЕБЕЩУК Л.В.

    2010-01-01

    Вид Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782 г.), паразитирующий в желудочно-кишечном тракте псовых, и вызывающий одно из опаснейших заболеваний животных и человека токсокароз, относится к группе геогельминтов. Проходя одну из стадий жизненного цикла в окружающей среде, яйца T. canis (далее токсокар) подвергаются воздействию различных экологических факторов, только оптимальное сочетание которых способствует их успешному развитию до инвазионной стадии....

  20. Helminth Fauna in Captive European Gray Wolves (Canis lupus lupus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindke, Johanna Daniela; Springer, Andrea; Böer, Michael; Strube, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Captive as well as free-ranging wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany, may harbor a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This study investigated endoparasites in captive European gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus) using coproscopical methods. Fecal samples were collected monthly between October 2012 and November 2013 from 18 wolf enclosures in 14 German zoological gardens, representing 72 individual wolves. In total, 1,041 fecal samples including 26 bulk samples were analyzed by the sedimentation and flotation method. The most frequently detected egg morphotypes included five nematodes [Ancylostomatidae (Ancylostoma or Uncinaria spp.), Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Capillaria/Eucoleus spp.], one cestode (Taeniidae) and one trematode (Alaria alata). 44.76% of all samples were positive for at least one of these egg morphotypes. Overall, Ancylostomatidae showed the highest frequency (30.84% of all samples), followed by Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. (19.88%), Toxocara canis (5.19%), taeniids (3.75%), Trichuris vulpis and Alaria alata (3.65% each), and Toxascaris leonina (1.25%). As fecal samples were collected from the environment and could not be assigned to individual wolves, sample results were combined per zoo and month. General linear mixed models were employed to analyze the effect of season and management factors on the occurrence of Ancylostomatidae, Capillaria/Eucoleus spp., Toxocara canis and taeniids. No statistically significant effect of season was found, whereas anthelmintic treatment negatively affected Ancylostomatidae egg excretion. Detected parasites and their prevalences are comparable to previous studies on wolf parasitism conducted elsewhere in Europe. As many of the most prevalent helminths are of zoonotic importance, routine anthelmintic treatment of captive wolves should be recommended. PMID:29312968

  1. Vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 (CaniLeish®) reduces the intensity of infection in Phlebotomus perniciosus fed on Leishmania infantum infected dogs--a preliminary xenodiagnosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Gioia; Paparcone, Rosa; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Oliva, Gaetano; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; Gradoni, Luigi

    2013-11-08

    Ten Beagle dogs at different stages of Leishmania infantum infection, among which 6 had received a full course of LiESP/QA-21 (CaniLeish(®); Virbac) vaccination, were exposed to the bites of reared Phlebotomus perniciosus to assesses their infectiousness potential. This was found to be negligible/nil in 2 seronegative dogs with subpatent infection. Among the 8 dogs with active infection (=positive serology, bone-marrow qualitative PCR and lymph node culture), 2/5 vaccinated (40.0%) and 2/3 nonvaccinated dogs (66.7%) were infectious to the sand flies (p=0.5). However significantly fewer of the sand flies which fed on the vaccinated dogs were infected when compared to those which fed on the control dogs (10/82 compared to 30/49) (chi-squared test, pdog identity included as a random effect, p=0.03). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the proportion of sand flies with >500 parasites in their gut (i.e. a higher risk for subsequent transmission): 3.7% for vaccinated dogs compared with 28.6% for nonvaccinated dogs (Fisher's exact test, pvaccinated dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal ELISA antigen for the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nakagaki, Shiori; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of three A. suum antigen preparations, i.e., the somatic adult worm antigen (As-SWAP), larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens derived from infective L3 (AsiL3-ES) and larval ES from tissue migratory L3 (AsmL3-ES), were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that all A. suum antigen preparations showed positive reaction to all sera from A. suum-infected mice, while only AsmL3-ES obtained 100 % detection of anti-A. suum antibodies in human visceral ascarosis patients. Comparing the reactivity of each A. suum antigen, sera from both A. suum-infected mice and human patients bound to AsiL3-ES significantly weaker than As-SWAP and AsmL3-ES. Moreover, the OD 450 values of ELISA with the A. suum antigen preparations and T. canis larval ES antigen (TciL3-ES) were compared in order to discriminate between ascarosis and toxocarosis. Linear discriminant analysis showed that diagnosis based on TciL3-ES and AsmL3-ES ELISA gave the most reliable result for the discrimination of infecting species. In conclusion, the application of AsmL3-ES antigen in ELISA can be recommended for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in humans.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... roundworm infections caused by Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina and whipworm infections caused by... disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis and the removal of adult Toxocara cati (roundworm) and Ancylostoma...

  5. Multiplex PCR-based identification of Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, M; Acke, E; Petrelli, D; Preziuso, S

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus canis (S. canis), Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies (S. dysgalactiae subspecies) are β-haemolytic Gram positive bacteria infecting animals and humans. S. canis and S. zooepidemicus are considered as two of the major zoonotic species of Streptococcus, while more research is needed on S. dysgalactiae subspecies bacteria. In this work, a multiplex-PCR protocol was tested on strains and clinical samples to detect S. canis, S. dysgalactiae subspecies and S. equi subspecies bacteria in dogs. All strains were correctly identified as S. canis, S. equi subspecies or S. dysgalactiae subspecies by the multiplex-PCR. The main Streptococcus species isolated from symptomatic dogs were confirmed S. canis. The multiplex-PCR protocol described is a rapid, accurate and efficient method for identifying S. canis, S. equi subspecies and S. dysgalactiae subspecies in dogs and could be used for diagnostic purposes and for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal strain induces the expression of TNF-α in leukocytes and splenocytes of experimentally infected dogs Amostra Ehrlichia canis (Jaboticabal induz a expressão de TNF-α em leucócitos e esplenócitos de cães experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Lara Maia Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis is caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia canis and is characterized by a systemic febrile disease of unknown pathogenesis. This study evaluated the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, in splenic cells and blood leukocytes during the acute phase of ehrlichiosis and after treatment with doxycycline hyclate in dogs experimentally infected with the E. canis Jaboticabal strain. The study results showed a significant expression of TNF-α 18 days post-inoculation, reducing by approximately 70% after treatment. There was a unique peak of expression of IL-10 and IFN-γ 18 and 30 days post-inoculation, respectively. This study suggests that TNF-α plays a role in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of canine ehrlichiosis and that treatment with doxycycline hyclate reduces the systemic effects of this cytokine, possibly by reducing or eliminating parasitemia.A erliquiose canina é causada pela bactéria Ehrlichia canis, que desencadeia no hospedeiro uma doença febril e sistêmica, de patogênese pouco conhecida. O presente estudo avaliou a expressão das citocinas TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, em células esplênicas e em leucócitos sanguíneos, durante a fase aguda da erliquiose e após o tratamento com hiclato de doxiciclina, em cães experimentalmente infectados com a amostra E. canis Jaboticabal. Os resultados mostraram expressão significativa de TNF-α 18 dias após a inoculação, reduzindo aproximadante 70% após o tratamento. Houve um único pico de expressão de IL-10 e de IFN-γ entre 18 e 30 dias após a inoculação, respectivamente. Este estudo sugere que o TNF-α participa da patogenia da fase aguda da erliquiose canina, e que o tratamento com hiclato de doxiciclina reduz os efeitos sistêmicos dessa citocina, possivelmente por reduzir ou eliminar a parasitemia.

  7. Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

    1997-11-01

    Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections.

  8. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children of northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroten, Anna; Toczylowski, Kacper; Kiziewicz, Bozena; Oldak, Elzbieta; Sulik, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease. Soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs appears to be the main source of infection for humans. The aim of our study was to estimate the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs in public areas in northeastern Poland followed by the assessment of seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the children's population inhabiting the areas. A total of 168 soil samples were collected in June and September from public areas, and 28 from patients' residences. They were all examined for Toxocara eggs using the centrifugal flotation technique. Two-step serological tests comprising enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) were performed in 190 children aged 2-17 without any symptoms of toxocariasis. The positive samples accounted for 36 and 32 % in the urban area, 39 and 18 % in the suburbs, and 39 and 46 % in parks, for June and September, respectively. All the sites located near the patients' residences with confirmed persistent toxocariasis were found contaminated with Toxocara eggs. A significant drop in the mean number of eggs was noted in the suburbs after summer (0.64 vs 0.18, p contamination was documented in soil from urban sandboxes and parks. The overall seroprevalence in children tested for toxocariasis was 4.2 % as determined by ELISA and WB (3.0 % in preschool children and 7.7 % in school children). The current study revealed high contamination of public areas in northeastern Poland with Toxocara eggs as well as marked seroprevalence in asymptomatic children. There is an urgent need to introduce and promote preventive health measures to limit spread of toxocariasis.

  9. Dermatophytosis of tiger caused by Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, K; Ichijo, S; Kurata, H

    1981-02-13

    Microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a Bengal tiger in April, 1979. In clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. The skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. Findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. The infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were around the hair shaft. Cuticles and cortex of the infected hairs were brittle. They were evidently digested and were easily pulled out from the hair follicles. In mycological findings numerous and typical macroconidia were observed. By cross mating of a isolate from tiger and Nannizzia otae(-) strains, cleistothecia were produced. Both organic iodide and undecylenic acid ointment were effective for therapy. In this paper the dermatophytosis of tiger caused by M. canis is described.

  10. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  11. Toxocara-induced eosinophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.; Egbers, M.W.E.C.; Lokhorst, W.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The immunoinflammatory response to parasitic nematode infections and allergic diseases have some similarities, the most profound being the increases in eosinophils and serum total IgE concentration. Whether parasitic infections stimulate or inhibit allergic asthma is a matter of debate. We

  12. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  13. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  14. A flotation/sieving method to detect Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. eggs in soil by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Bastien, Matthieu; Renault, Camille; Faisse, Marine; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Hormaz, Vanessa; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Boué, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Soil can be a source of human infection by many zoonotic helminth species including Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. The prevention of alveolar echinococcosis could be greatly improved through the identification of at-risk areas. Yet very few data are available about the detection of E. multilocularis in soil, while more studies have been reported for Toxocara spp. Identification of soil contamination by E. multilocularis eggs requires the use of specific methods. This study describes the development of a method for the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples with the concentration of eggs using a flotation/sieving method and detection by duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Toxocara spp. egg detection was also undertaken due to the widespread presence of this parasite in soil, despite it being considered less pathogenic. Method sensitivity of 100% was reached for the detection of 10 E. multilocularis eggs spiked in 10 g of soil. Concerning Toxocara spp., method sensitivity was lower but assumed to be due to the reduced effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol. The parasitological status for E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. of 63 carnivore fecal samples collected in highly endemic rural areas of France and of soil samples collected under and near these fecal samples was compared. The contamination of soil samples collected under positive fecal samples for E. multilocularis (n = 3) or Toxocara spp. (n = 19) confirmed the transfer of eggs from the definitive host to the environment. © G. Umhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  15. The Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (38th) Held in Honolulu, Hawaii on 10-14 December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    SESSION I (OTHER HELMINTHS - Continued) 130 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUSE FOSINOPHIL SPECIFIC GRANULE PROTEINS FOLLOWING TOXOCARA CANIS IN...lavage from CBA/J mice previously infected with Toxocara canis . The cells were added to cultures of juvenile worms in the presence or absence of immune...EOSINOPHIL SPECIFIC GRANULE PROTEINS FOLLOWING Toxocara canis INFECTION. F. J. Herndon and S. G. Kayes. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and

  16. Segregated settlements present an increased risk for the parasite infections spread in Northeastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipiková J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of parasitic infections among the children, dogs and its association with soil contamination in two villages with different hygiene level standards were analysed. Infections were present in both examined localities, but in the village with higher living standard, a better personal and communal hygiene level and better dogs care a lower occurrence of parasitic germs in soil was detected. High prevalence of protozoa and helminths was observed not only within canine population but also in children throughout the year in the village with lower hygiene and socio-economic standard. We have identified up to 12 taxa of parasites in 127 collected dogs’ excrements and mean prevalence was 71.65 %. The most frequent were eggs of family Ancylostomatidae and Ascaris spp., followed by Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Isospora spp. oocysts, eggs of Capillaria aerophila, Trichuris vulpis, Taenia type eggs, Dipylidium caninum, oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. and larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum. The soil samples collected near dwellings were highly contaminated. Two thirds of samples contained eggs for the most part of family Ancylostomatidae as well as genera Ascaris and Toxocara. Among the kids population helminth ova were present in 53.17 % of stool samples, where the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis diminuta and cysts of G. duodenalis were the most frequent. In contrast, parasitic diseases were not seen in children population living in the locality with common hygiene standard.

  17. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2012-05-25

    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine......Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...

  20. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Whitni K.; Bryant, Jay E.; Ahmad, Gul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species

  2. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  3. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs experimentally infected with isolates obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana), armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and dogs (Canis familiaris) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Hill, Roderick; Lewis, Samantha; Barr, Stephen C; Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Lindsay, David S

    2011-02-01

    Dogs are reservoir hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. A rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) is available commercially for canine serological testing. The ICT was developed with the use of sera from South American dogs, but it is not routinely used in the United States. We evaluated the utility of the ICT in detecting anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs from the United States. Dogs (N  =  64) were experimentally infected with United States' isolates of T. cruzi from an opossum (Didelphis virginiana), an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), and were tested after experimental infection. Sera from uninfected United States dogs (n  =  79; hemaculture negative) were used as negative controls. In a blind study, sera were tested by the ICT and compared to the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test with the use of Brazil-strain epimastigotes as antigen. The sensitivity of the ICT was 91% and the specificity was 98% in dogs experimentally infected with United States isolates. Our study indicates that the ICT could be a useful screening tool for serological surveillance of canine T. cruzi exposure in the United States.

  5. Prevalence of Toxocara canis ova in dog faeces and soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of dogs roaming the streets of Makurdi, consequently, the rate of contamination of the environment by dog faeces has also increased with serious implication for visceral and cutaneous larva migrans. 185 faecal samples collected from dogs were examined for eggs ...

  6. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-12

    Roundworms ( Toxocara canis ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and A. braziliense) are endoparasites that commonly infect young pups. Roundworms are...spp., tri- chomonads, Cryptosporidium spp., Balantidium spp., and amebas. The hel- minths include ascarids (e.g., Toxocara canis and Toxascaris... Toxocara canis , is a common parasite of the small intestines of dogs, even in closed breeding colonies. ’A 1 60 DOGS: LABORATORY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

  7. Autochthonous canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Cirule, Dina; Matise, Ilze

    2013-09-23

    This is the first report of confirmed canine babesiosis in Latvia supporting the observed geographical expansion of this disease. Between 2009 and 2011 three dogs which have not traveled outside of Latvia were diagnosed with babesiosis. Hematological analysis and serological tests for granulocytic anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and borreliosis were negative (Idexx SNAP 4Dx test). Peripheral blood erythrocytes of the three dogs contained large Babesia that were identified as Babesia canis canis by PCR. Sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene were 98-100% similar to the sequences of B. canis canis isolated from dogs in other European countries. We conclude that these are the first autochthonous canine babesiosis cases reported from Latvia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  9. Occurrence of Leishmania chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis vogeli, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis in canine blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.

  10. The role of Toxocara larva migransin hypereosinophilia with unknown origin in patients referred to laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mosayebi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection in dogs and cats, and human gets infected with larva migrants when embryonated eggs are accidentally ingested. Migration of toxocara larvae to tissues causes inflammatory responses (visceral, ocular and cerebral and eosinophilia increase in blood. This study was aimed to investigate the human toxocariasis, one of the possible causes of hypereosinophilia with an unknown origin. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 100 hypereosinophilic patients (cases and 100 people with normal eosinophil count (controls that referred to hematology department of laboratories of Arak University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Epidemiological data were collected by a questionnaire and diagnosis was performed using excreted-secreted antigens of Toxocara (TES Ag - ELISA. Results: Positive test for toxocariasis in hypereosinophilic patients was 16% and in patients with normal eosinophil count was zero (P=0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of gender, age, residential place, occupation and education level (P>0.05. However, there was a significantly higher history of contact with dogs and consumption of unclean fruits and vegetables in the infected patients (p<0.05. The mean of eosinophilia in patients with toxocariasis showed a significant difference compared with that of eosinophilia in patients not infected with toxocariasis (p=0.001. Conclusion: The results confirmed the role of toxocariasis in hypereosinophilic patients with unknown origin, and eosinophilia can be considered to analyze and treat toxocariasis.

  11. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  12. Effect of some parasitic infection on neurotransmitters in the brain of experimentally infected mice before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghafar, A E; Elkowrany, S E; Salem, S A; Menaisy, A A; Fadel, W A; Awara, W M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

  13. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp...

  15. Zoonotic Infections in Communities of the James Bay Cree Territory: An Overview of Seroprevalence

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    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cree communities of James Bay are at risk for contracting infectious diseases transmitted by wildlife. Data from serological testing for a range of zoonotic infections performed in the general population (six communities, or trappers and their spouses (one community, were abstracted from four population-based studies conducted in Cree territory (Quebec between 2005 and 2009. Evidence of exposure to Trichinella species, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Leptospira species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis was verified in all communities, whereas antibodies against Sin Nombre virus and California serogroup viruses (Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses were evaluated in three and six communities, respectively. Seroprevalence varied widely among communities: snowshoe hare virus (1% to 42%, F tularensis (14% to 37%, Leptospira species (10% to 27%, Jamestown Canyon virus (9% to 24%, C burnetii (0% to 18%, T gondii (4% to 12%, T canis (0% to 10%, E granulosus (0% to 4% and Trichinella species (0% to 1%. No subject had serological evidence of Sin Nombre virus exposure. These data suggest that large proportions of the Cree population have been exposed to at least one of the targeted zoonotic agents. The Cree population, particularly those most heavily exposed to fauna, as well as the medical staff living in these regions, should be aware of these diseases. Greater awareness would not only help to decrease exposures but would also increase the chance of appropriate diagnostic testing.

  16. Toxocara spp. eggs in public squares of Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil Ovos de Toxocara spp. em praças públicas no município de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva COELHO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, particularly important is the size of these animal populations. Sorocaba is a city with a dog population twice as large as that recommended by the World Health Organization. This fact has led to a survey of the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public square soils of this city. Thirty squares were selected, fifteen located in the outskirts of the city and fifteen downtown. Soil samples were collected from five distinct sites in the same area. The material was homogenized and drained and 100 g was mixed with a saturated solution of magnesium sulfate and 5% potassium iodine. The floating material was analyzed under the light microscope. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 16 squares, nine of which were located in the outskirts of the city and seven downtown. It was concluded that Sorocaba squares present a high rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs. The squares in the outskirts of the city presented a higher occurrence of these eggs in comparison with those downtown, although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05.A larva migrans visceral - LMV - é uma síndrome causada pela infecção humana por ovos larvados de helmintos como o Toxocara spp., que usualmente compromete o cão e o gato. Dentre os fatores de risco para a ocorrência da LMV, destaca-se o tamanho da população desses animais. Sorocaba é uma cidade com uma população canina duas vezes superior à recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Este fato levou à pesquisa da presença de ovos de Toxocara spp. no solo de áreas públicas nessa cidade. Foram escolhidas 30 praças, sendo 15 de regiões periféricas e 15 centrais. Coletaram-se amostras de solo de 5 locais distintos da mesma área. O material foi homogeneizado, tamisado e, em

  17. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-11-08

    A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

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    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  19. [Detection of Brucella canis by immunochromatography method in vague dogs captured in Temuco city, Chile, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuemmers, Christian; Lüders, Carlos; Rojas, Claudio; Serri, Michel; Castillo, Carolina; Espinoza, Rodrigo

    2013-08-01

    Brucella canis is responsible for brucellosis in dogs, causing reproductive disorders and is considered a zoonoses, as described in several countries. The epidemiological data are scarce in our country. To determine the prevalence of Brucella canis in vague dogs in Temuco city and housed in the Temuco Kennel. Quantitative and cross-section study. We used 400 samples of dogs of both sexes, different ages and mainly mixed race, which were tested by immunochromatography. Antibodies were detected in 4 samples Brucella canis which represented 1% of the population studied, 2 females (0.5%) and 2 males (0.5%). We conclude that dogs are infected by B. canis in a low range but remains a risk condition to the health of the human population if not maintained adequate sanitary control of pets, like vague dogs.

  20. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  1. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs after topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2016-05-31

    The preventive effect of fluralaner spot-on solution against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once topically with fluralaner spot-on solution (Bravecto™ Spot-on Solution) according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, all dogs were infested with 50 (±4) D. reticulatus ticks harbouring B. canis, with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h after each infestation. On day 90, ticks were removed from all dogs and counted. Prior to each infestation, the presence of B. canis in the respective tick batch was confirmed by PCR, and 12-16 % of ticks were found to be infected with B. canis. Efficacy against ticks was 99.5 and 99.3 % on days 4 and 58 after treatment, respectively and 100 % on all other days. Replacement dogs were included for any B. canis infected control dog (in total 19). All control dogs (n = 27) became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR, performed every 7 days, and by IFAT, performed every 14 days after treatment. None of the eight treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as they were tested negative by PCR and IFAT throughout the study until day 112. By comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single topical administration of fluralaner spot-on solution effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected D. reticulatus ticks over a 12-week period.

  2. Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarati, Norman L; Vassilev, George D; Tagwireyi, Whatmore M; Tavengwa, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals.

  3. Antifungal and marker effects of Talisia esculenta lectin on Microsporum canis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A Q; Melo, D F; Macedo, L M; Freire, M G M; Rocha, M F G; Sidrim, J J C; Brilhante, R S N; Teixeira, E H; Campello, C C; Pinheiro, D C S N; Lima, M G S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of lectin obtained from Talisia esculenta (TEL) seeds as a tool to recognize and study Microsporum canis. For this purpose, we investigated the antifungal and marker action of this lectin and the relationship of these effects with the presence of carbohydrates on the structure of this fungus. The in vitro antifungal activity of TEL was analysed by broth microdilution assay. In addition, TEL was assessed against the arthroconidia present on hairs obtained from infected dogs and cats. The affinity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled TEL for macroconidia and arthroconidia of M. canis was also tested. The effects of TEL on the growth of the M. canis strains began with 0.125 mg ml(-1), and 100% inhibition was obtained with a concentration of 2 mg ml(-1). The addition of carbohydrates, especially N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-mannose, inhibited these antifungal effects. TEL was able to inhibit the growth of arthroconidial chitin-rich forms of M. canis obtained from hairs of infected animals and strains cultured in Sabouraud agar. FITC-labelled TEL efficiently marked macroconidial and arthroconidial forms of M. canis, as shown by fluorescent microscopy. These results show that the inhibitory effects of TEL on M. canis growth may be related to the interaction of lectin with the carbohydrates present at the micro-organism's surface, mainly D-mannose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. Talisia esculenta can be used as an important tool in the biochemical study of M. canis or as a molecule to recognize this dermatophyte in infected tissue.

  4. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

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    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  5. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  6. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

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    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  7. Unusual Aetiology of Pasteurella canis Biovar 2 Causing Dacryocystitis in HIV Patient: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Negi, Sanjay Singh; Mehta, Rupa; Gade, Neeta

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella species are zoonotic bacterial pathogens implicated very infrequently in various human infections following animal bites or licks usually of dogs and cats. This case report described a rare clinical presentation of dacryocystitis caused by P.canis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive young male patient involved in caring of cattle. It advocates the utmost need of recognizing the wide clinical manifestation spectrum of P.canis even without prior penetrating injury. P.ca...

  8. Prevalencia del endo y ectoparasitismo en canis familiaris atendidos en dos centros veterinarios de Trujillo (peru), 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Huaman Dávila, Angélica María

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism is a common phenomenon in domestic animals, among them the dog, Canis familiaris; however, no data regarding the frequency of infestation and infection by ecto and endoparasites in different parts of Peru. In this research, we was determinated the prevalence of endo and ectoparasitism in Canis familiaris treated at two veterinary centers in Trujillo (Peru): Clinican located in urban area and San Francisco, located in marginal area between July and September 2015 and its distributio...

  9. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in a Philippine dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Balbin, Michelle M; Mingala, Claro N; Gicana, Karlo R B; Bernando, Francis A E M; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Ehrlichia canis, is distributed worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Transmission of E. canis is primarily mediated by the vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and the bacteria then infect and replicate in monocytes and macrophages. Many cases are seen in veterinary hospitals and treated routinely; however, the genetic variation of E. canis strains found in the Philippines has been poorly investigated to date. In this study, the 16S rRNA gene and the gp200 gene of E. canis were detected by polymerase chain reaction from an infected dog in the Philippines, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the gp200 gene was subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. The Philippine genotype formed a cluster with the Taiwan genotype, and was somewhat divergent from the USA and Brazil strains. This suggested that E. canis underwent evolution in East and Southeast Asia, confirming the utility of the gp200 gene for the assessment of genetic relationships among strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. QCM-based rapid detection of PCR amplification products of Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunroddith, Kespunyavee; Viseshakul, Nareerat; Chansiri, Kosum; Lieberzeit, Peter

    2018-02-25

    Ehrlichia canis is an intracellular parasitic bacterium and arthropod-borne pathogen that receives growing attention, because it leads to increasing morbidity and mortality in animals. It does so by causing canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME). Infected canines may lack obvious clinical signs and stay in chronic stage. Herein we report a rapid screening method based on PCR assay combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to design a DNA sensor for detecting E. canis in early stages of infection. The test relies on DNA amplification of target nucleotide sequences via PCR followed by detecting DNA-DNA hybridization using QCM. The approach did not result in any cross-hybridization toward other blood bacteria or parasites in dogs, such as Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis and Trypanosoma spp, but turned out selective for the target species. The limit of detection of QCM was as low as 4.1 × 10 9 molecules/μl of 289 bp E. canis PCR products corresponding to 22 copy numbers/μl of E. canis. Furthermore, the technique is also simple, does not require complicated equipment and can in principle be reused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Streptococcal infections in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frymus, Tadeusz; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S CANIS INFECTION: S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and

  12. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia.

  13. Assessment of primers designed for the subspecies-specific discrimination among Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia canis rossi by PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sabrina Castilho; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho; Romanowsky, Tatiana Nunes; da Silveira Neto, Osvaldo José; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira

    2008-03-25

    Canine babesiosis is an infectious disease caused by either Babesia gibsoni or Babesia canis protozoans. The latter is also classified under three different phylogenetic groups, referred to as subspecies B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli and B. canis rossi. The objective of the present study was to validate and standardize a PCR assay to discriminate the organisms at the subspecies level. First, the reference sequences of the 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, including the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) of the most common species and subspecies of the genus Babesia were retrieved from the GenBank database. Subspecies-specific primers (BAB3, BAB4 and BAB5) and one genus-specific primer were designed from the alignment of the sequences. The PCR assays were evaluated in three different combinations of primer pairs in order to assure complete specificity for each reaction. The results of the tests had demonstrated effectiveness of the novel primer pairs BAB1/BAB3, BAB1/BAB4 and BAB1/BAB5 for the amplification of the subspecies-specific target fragments of 746 bp (B. c. canis), 546 bp (B. c. vogeli) and 342 bp (B. c. rossi) by PCR. The original enzymatic amplification assays with novel primers reported in this paper were confirmed to be a reliable tool for the specific discrimination among B. canis subspecies by single-step PCR assays.

  14. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghomashlooyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination rate of the public parks of Isfahan city with Toxocara spp. eggs. Methods: A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 28 public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran, during the summer of 2014. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs by flotation method using sucrose solution. The prepared wet mount slides were examined under light microscope using 10 × and 40 × objectives. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21 (75% out of 28 studied public parks. Also Toxocara spp. eggs were observed in 40 (28.6% out of 140 collected soil samples. Conclusions: Contamination rate with Toxocara spp. eggs in Isfahan is fairly high. Isfahan is a city that has lots of parks and gardens. The stray dogs and cats that roam around the parks contaminate the soil. Therefore preventive measures, especially for children, should be implemented.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs: a quantitative approach to estimate the relative contributions of dogs, cats and foxes, and to assess the efficacy of advised interventions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W

    2015-07-28

    Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming regimens for >6-month-old dogs, as most of them do not actually shed Toxocara eggs. We aim to estimate the contribution of different non-juvenile hosts to the environmental Toxocara egg contamination and to assess the effects of different Toxocara-reducing interventions for dogs. A stochastic model was developed to quantify the relative contribution to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs of household dogs, household cats, stray cats, and foxes, all older than 6 months in areas with varying urbanization degrees. The model was built upon an existing model developed by Morgan et al. (2013). We used both original and published data on host density, prevalence and intensity of infection, coprophagic behaviour, faeces disposal by owners, and cats' outdoor access. Scenario analyses were performed to assess the expected reduction in dogs' egg output according to different deworming regimens and faeces clean-up compliances. Estimates referred to the Netherlands, a country free of stray dogs. Household dogs accounted for 39% of the overall egg output of >6-month-old hosts in the Netherlands, followed by stray cats (27%), household cats (19%), and foxes (15%). In urban areas, egg output was dominated by stray cats (81%). Intervention scenarios revealed that only with a high compliance (90%) to the four times a year deworming advice, dogs' contribution would drop from 39 to 28%. Alternatively, when 50% of owners would always remove their dogs' faeces, dogs' contribution would drop to 20%. Among final hosts of Toxocara older than 6 months, dogs are the main contributors to the environmental egg contamination, though cats in total (i.e. both owned and stray) transcend this

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Moraes-Filho

    Full Text Available This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME. Ticks (larvae and nymphs from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP, one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS, one from Argentina (ARG, and one from Uruguay (URU-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America.

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  20. In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from São Paulo, Brazil Isolamento e caracterização molecular de um isolado de Ehrlichia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Aguiar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in São Paulo Municipality, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (São Paulo differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA, Oklahoma (USA, and VHE (Venezuela, respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil.Foi obtido um isolado de Ehrlichia canis a partir de um cão naturalmente infectado com sinais clínicos de erliquiose, oriundo do município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O isolado foi caracterizado molecularmente pela PCR e seqüenciamento de porções dos genes dsb,16S rRNA, e p28. A seqüência parcial dos genes dsb e 16Sr RNA apresentaram-se idênticas a três e cinco seqüências respectivamente, de E. canis provenientes de diferentes países e continentes (América do Norte, África, Ásia e Europa. Contrariamente, a seqüência parcial do gene p28 do isolado São Paulo diferiu em um nucleotídeo do isolado Jake (EUA e dois nucleotídeos dos isolados Oklahoma (EUA e VHE (Venezuelan Human Ehrlichia Venezuela. Atualmente, a E. canis é a única espécie de Ehrlichia que acomete cães no Brasil.

  1. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs. To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulat...

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Costa, Francisco B.; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E....

  3. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Questing Dermacentor reticulatus harbouring Babesia canis DNA associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the Swiss Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Gilli, Urs; Gottstein, Bruno; Marreros, Nelson; Kuhnert, Peter; Daeppen, Jérôme A; Rosenberg, Gertrud; Hirt, Didier; Frey, Caroline F

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 and 2012, outbreaks of clinical canine babesiosis were observed in 2 areas of the Swiss Midlands that had no history of this disease so far. In one area, cases of canine babesiosis occurred over 2 consecutive tick seasons. The outbreaks involved 29 dogs, 4 of which died. All dogs were infected with large Babesia sp. as diagnosed in Giemsa-stained blood smears and/or PCR. These were identified as B. canis (formerly known as B. canis canis) by subsequent partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. Interestingly, the sequence indicated either a genotype with heterogeneity in the ssrRNA gene copies or double infection with different B. canis isolates. None of the dogs had a recent travel history, but one had frequently travelled to Hungary and had suffered twice from clinical babesiosis 18 and 24 months prior to the outbreak in autumn 2011. Retrospective sequencing of a stored blood DNA sample of this dog revealed B. canis, with an identical sequence to the Babesia involved in the outbreaks. For the first time in Switzerland, the partial 18S rRNA gene of B. canis could be amplified from DNA isolated from 19 out of 23 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks flagged in the same area. The sequence was identical to that found in the dogs. Furthermore, one affected dog carried a female D. reticulatus tick harbouring B. canis DNA. Our findings illustrate that, under favourable biogeographic and climatic conditions, the life-cycle of B. canis can relatively rapidly establish itself in previously non-endemic areas. Canine babesiosis should therefore always be a differential diagnosis when dogs with typical clinical signs are presented, regardless of known endemic areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge.

  6. Decontamination of carpet exposed to Microsporum canis hairs and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vacuuming and three carpet cleaning methods for the removal of Microsporum canis spores and hairs from experimentally contaminated carpets. Methods Sterile Berber carpeting was artificially contaminated with naturally infective M canis hairs and spores. Carpet swatches were vacuumed for 10 s, 30 s and 60 s, and then cultured. Three carpet cleaning methods were evaluated on area rugs experimentally contaminated with infective material: a beater brush carpet shampooing, beater brush carpet shampooing post-disinfectant application and hot water extraction. Home cleaning products labeled as having efficacy against Trichophyton species were used in addition to 1% potassium peroxymonosulfate. Carpets were cultured at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after cleaning. Good efficacy was no detectable spores at post-cleaning culture. Results All pretreatment carpet samples were culture positive for M canis (>300 colony-forming units [cfu]/site). Vacuuming did not decontaminate carpets but did remove intact hairs. Spores were not detected by wipe samples after two washings with an upright beater brush carpet shampooer or pretreatment with a disinfectant prior to carpet shampooing. Carpets cleaned with one hot water extraction technique had a decrease from 300 cfu/site to a mean of 5.5 cfu/site at 24 and 48 h post-cleaning and 2 cfu/site at day 7. The use of disinfectants was associated with odor, even when dry, and permanent discoloration. Hot water extraction cleaning was associated with the fastest drying time and no discoloration. Conclusions and relevance Carpets exposed to M canis can be disinfected via carpet shampooing or hot water extraction cleaning. Vacuuming of carpets is recommended to remove infective hairs. For homes, exposed carpeting can be decontaminated by routine washing with a carpet shampooer (twice) or hot water extraction. Use of pretreatment with a disinfectant is recommended when a high level

  7. Immunoradiometric assay for quantitation of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs with heartworm infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility (less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)) over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed.

  8. Immunoradiometric assay for quantitation of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs with heartworm infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility [less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)] over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed

  9. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  10. Characterisation of a new, highly effective method for detecting nematode eggs (Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp.) in sewage sludge containing flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Różycki, Mirosław; Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants. In the first stage, the effectiveness of the OM was compared to 4 other methods routinely used in parasitological examinations of dehydrated sewage sludge. Next, method standardisation was performed using sewage sludge samples supplemented with eggs from 3 parasite species (Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis). The study demonstrated that OM efficiency was 6-65 times greater than other methods, depending on the method and type of detected eggs. Limit of detection (LOD) calculations for the OM were performed on samples supplemented with a known number of parasite eggs resulting in 10, 5 and 3 eggs/50 g of sample for A. suum, T. vulpis and T. canis eggs, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the OM were established as 200 eggs/50 g of sample for A. suum and T. vulpis eggs and 50 eggs/50 g of sample for T. canis eggs. The rectilinear regression functions, which determined the relationship between the number of eggs detected in OM measurements and the number of eggs contained in the samples, were characterised by high and statistically significant coefficients of determination (r 2 ). The slopes of the trend lines were 0.3188, 0.3821 and 0.3276, and the intercepts were -11.223, -9.0261 and -23.15 for A. suum, T. canis and T. vulpis eggs, respectively. Method sensitivity, calculated as the slope coefficient of the regression function and expressed as a percentage, ranged

  11. 21 CFR 520.1196 - Ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immitis for up to a month (30 days) after infection and treatment and control of adult ascarids Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and adult hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. braziliense, and Uncinaria...

  12. A safe and molecular-tagged Brucella canis ghosts confers protection against virulent challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Bu, Zhaoyang; Lang, Xulong; Yan, Guangmou; Yang, Yanling; Wang, Xiuran; Wang, Xinglong

    2017-05-01

    Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction. In this study, we combined the homologous recombination (HR) and bacterial ghost technologies, generating a genetically stable B. canis ghost strain which bears no drug resistance gene. When the ghost strain grows to OD 600 of 0.6, 100% inactivation can be achieved under 42°C in 60h. The resultant BGs showed guaranteed safety and comparable immunogenicity to a live vaccine. The bacterial B0419 protein was depleted during HR process, which is subsequently proved to work as a molecular tag in distinguishing natural infection and BGs immunization through ELISA. Additionally, the BGs also conferred protection against B. canis RM6/66 and B. melitensis 16M. Therefore, the application of current BGs as a vaccine candidate and the corresponding serological diagnostic approach may provide better B. canis prevention strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania.

  14. Soil contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a university in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos Antelmo Celis; Romero Núñez, Camilo; García Contreras, Adelfa Del Carmen; Mendoza Barrera, Germán Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The contamination levels of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil samples from a university campus in Mexico City were evaluated and analysed according to garden size, and were related with the percentage of Toxocara spp. eggs and its viability according to the soil characteristics. A total of 1458 soil samples collected in 15 gardens (six large and nine small) were analysed by sedimentation-flotation with zinc sulphate solution on at 33%. Contamination was low (12.9%), and egg viability was high (65.5%). The size of the garden had no influence on the presence and viability of Toxocara spp. eggs. Contamination was negatively correlated with the percentage of vegetation (r = -0. 61, P soil samples (r = -0.51, P < 0.04). The size of the garden did not influence the presence and viability of Toxocara spp. eggs.

  15. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder C E; Eyal, Osnat; Reis, Antónia; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than by histopathological examination (23.4%) in paired bone marrow samples from the same 47 foxes. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of H. canis were 98-99% identical to those in GenBank. Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are

  16. Uji Efektivitas Beberapa Minyak Atsiri terhadap Pertumbuhan Microsporum canis secara in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunga Saridewi Nurmansyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDermatofitosis merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di daerah tropis. Minyak atsiri merupakan salah satu potensi alam Indonesia yang diketahui memiliki daya antifungi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas beberapa minyak atsiri (serai wangi, kayu manis dan cengkeh sebagai antijamur dalam mengendalikan pertumbuhan Microsporum canis penyebab dermatofitosis secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fitopatologi KP Balittro Laing Solok dari  Februari sampai April 2014. Studi eksperimental ini dilakukan dengan metode pengenceran disusun  dalam Desain Rancang Acak Lengkap dalam Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah jenis minyak atsiri (daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis, daun cengkeh. Faktor kedua adalah tingkat konsentrasi minyak atsiri (100 ppm, 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm dan 2000 ppm. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis dan daun sarasah cengkeh efektif dalam menekan pertumbuhan M. canis secara in vitro. Ketiga minyak atsiri pada konsentrasi 500 ppm telah mampu menghambat pertumbuhan M. canis hingga 100%. Minyak atsiri daun sarasah cengkeh memiliki efek antifungi paling tinggi (89,17%, diikuti minyak atsiri daun serai wangi (80,98% dan kayu manis (77,07%.                Kata kunci: minyak atsiri, serai wangi, cengkeh, kayumanis, microsporum canis AbstractDermatophytosis is an important public health problem in tropical areas. Essential oil is one of natural potential from Indonesia has been predicted as antifungal. The objective of this study was to detect effectivity some essential oils such as citronella, cinnamon and clove as antifungal to control the growth of dermatophyte infections caused by Microsporum canis by in vitro . The study was done  in the Laboratory of Phytopathology KP Balitro of Laing Solok from February until April 2014. This is an experimental study with dilution method arranged in Complete Randomized Design in

  17. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-04

    The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected

  18. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Vincent P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection. A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST of a subset of the isolates (n = 45 detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types], suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human

  19. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Zadoks, Ruth N; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Lefébure, Tristan; Lang, Ping; Werner, Brenda; Tikofsky, Linda; Moroni, Paolo; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-12-18

    Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus urinalis) is cause for concern

  20. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  1. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  2. Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados

  3. The ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to block the transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Halos, Lenaig; Larsen, Diane; Labuschagné, Michel; Erasmus, Heidi; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-06-23

    Canine babesiosis due to Babesia canis is an endemic disease in many European countries. A vaccine is available in some countries, but it does not prevent the infection and just helps in reducing the gravity of clinical signs. Therefore, the major way to help preventing the disease is by controlling tick infestations on dogs.To assess the preventive efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®), a new oral anti- flea and tick product, against Babesia canis infected adult Dermacentor reticulatus in an experimentally controlled study. Sixteen healthy mixed breed adult dogs, negative for Babesia canis antibodies were included in a single centre, randomized, blinded and controlled study to evaluate the impact of treatment with afoxolaner on the transmission of Babesia canis to dogs exposed to Dermacentor reticulatus. The dogs were randomly allocated into two groups of 8 dogs each. One group remained untreated. In the other group, dogs were treated orally with a novel formulation of afoxolaner (NexGard®) on day 0. All dogs were infested each by 50 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (equal sex ratio) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour Babesia canis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The treatment was well tolerated by all dogs without any adverse effects. Babesia canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus to all untreated control dogs, confirmed following demonstration of hyperthermia, detection of B. canis parasites in blood smears and PCR assay from blood and serology. These confirmed infected dogs were subsequently treated with imidocarb and diminazene. The treated dogs remained negative based on all criteria until the last study, Day 56, confirming that the oral treatment of dogs with NexGard® prevented transmission of Babesia canis and development of clinical babesiosis for up to 28 days. This is the first demonstration that an oral acaricidal treatment may prevent the transmission of a pathogen despite the need for the tick

  4. Toxocariasis and lung function: relevance of a neglected infection in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2014-03-01

    Toxocariasis has been highlighted as a potentially important neglected infection of poverty in developed countries that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. An association between Toxocara infection and lung function, in concert with a relatively high prevalence of infection, may mark an important mechanism by which this infection could contribute significantly to the differential morbidity across different socioeconomic groups and landscapes. To assess the potential relevance of this infection in a dense urban environment, we measured the association between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) and serology diagnosed Toxocara infection in a sample of US-born New York City residents. We identified a significant independent association between Toxocara infection and lung function, wherein those with previous Toxocara infection had a 236.9 mL reduced FEV₁ compared to those without Toxocara infection even after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, level of education, smoking status, body mass index, and pet ownership. These findings from New York City corroborate similar findings in a national sample and, while the cross-sectional data preclude a direct causal relationship, this study identifies a potentially important neglected infection in a dense urban landscape.

  5. Anticorpos anti-Brucella canis e anti-Brucella abortus em cães de Araguaína, Tocantins

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    Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the seroprevalence of infection by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus and to evaluate possible risk factors for infection in dogs from Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil. Sera from 374 dogs, of the urban zones of the municipality, from both sexes, were submitted to the agar-gel immunodiffusion for Brucella canis-antibodies and to rose Bengal test (AAT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA for Brucella abortus-antibodies. From the 374 tested dogs, 21 reacted in the AAT, but no one was positive in the FPA. The seroprevalence of B. canis infection found in Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil, was 44.53% (95% IC; 39.43 to 49.72. No association was found among seropositivity for B. canis and the risk factors studied. Thus, data from the present study showed that there was no infection by B. abortus among dogs in the sample and that infection by B. canis is widespread and at high prevalence in Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil.

  6. The United States Army Medical Department Journal. January-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    actively infected despite repeated treatments. Dog and cat roundworms ( Toxocara canis (Werner)/T. cati (Zeder)) were occasionally reported in fecal samples...staff in some ani- mals from a petting zoo adjacent to Camp Zama (unpublished data). A dog in Sasebo was reported to harbor Cryptosporidium canis ...Nematode Dirofi laria immitis 13 6 6 17 3 8 Trichuris vulpis 1* - 1 - - 1 Toxocara spp 3 2 - 8 - - Nematode (no further ID) - 7† - - 5 1 Strongyloides

  7. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

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    Avizeh, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic rickettsial disease transmitted by ticks. In the present study, 198 companion dogs of different ages were examined for serum antibody detection against Ehrlichia canis by means of immunochromatography assay. The dogs were selected among referred cases to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran from November 2008 to March 2010. The studied dogs were classified based on age, sex, breed, region and season. Nineteen of 198 serum samples (9.6% had antibody against E. canis. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs more than 3 year-old (16.18% (P= 0.002 and 1 – 3 years (11.86% (P= 0.016 compared with young dogs less than 1 year-old (1.41%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (10.62% than female dogs (8.24%, in the summer (11.32% and west region (11.11%. There were not significant differences between the prevalence of infection and host gender, season and region (P>0.05. Typical morulae of E. canis were observed in monocytes of four infected dogs (2.02%. Five out of 24 (20.83% of the thrombocytopenic dogs and 14 out of 174 (8.05% of the non-thrombocytopenic dogs were positive for ehrlichiosis. Of 19 seropositive dogs, six (31.58% had anemia, four (21.05% hypoalbuminemia and five (26.32% leukopenia. There were not statistically significant differences between hematological findings and prevalence of infection (P> 0.05. This is the first report indicating the presence of E. canis in companion dogs of Ahvaz district. However, the sources of infection in these dogs were not clear. Finally, the role of companion dogs in the epizootiology of E. canis infection needs to be further explored.

  8. Investigations of prevalence of antibodies to B.canis in stray dogs in territory of Belgrade

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    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers investigations of stray dogs in the territory of the city of Belgrade. A total of 184 blood serum samples were examined for the presence of antibodies specific to Brucella canis. The method of slow agglutination in a test tube with 2- mercaptoethanol was used in the diagnostic procedure. Of the 184 examined serums, 49 (26.63% had a titer of 1/50, 25 serums had a titer of 1/100 (13.58%, while 20 serums had a titer equal to or bigger than 1/200 (10.87%. Furthermore, 15 samples of full blood from serologiclly negative animals were also presented for isolation. The bacteriological finding for these samples was negative. The obtained results indicate that the number of seropositive stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade is extremely high and that 10.87% of the testes animals are definitely infected with Brucella canis.

  9. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  10. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs ([i]Ascaris[/i], [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Trichuris[/i] in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dąbrowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the [i]Ascaris [/i]spp., [i]Trichuris [/i]spp. [i]and Toxocara [/i]spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labourintensive methods for assessing viability of [i]Ascaris [/i]spp[i]., Toxocara [/i]spp[i]. and Trichuris [/i]spp[i].[/i] eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green ([i]Ascaris and Trichuris[/i] and green-blue ([i]Toxocara[/i]. However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of [i]Toxocara[/i], [i]Ascaris[/i] and [i]Trichuris[/i] eggs occurring in the sludge.

  11. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis.

  12. West-to-east differences of Babesia canis canis prevalence in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, M.; Tkadlec, Emil; Bednář, M.; Roubalová, Eva; Široký, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 180, 3-4 (2011), s. 191-196 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia canis * Slovakia * Vector-borne disease * Natural focus * PCR-RFLP Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  13. Survey of intestinal helminth parasites of puppies in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four helminth species, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum and Spirocerca lupi were recovered with the prevalences of 80%, 70%, 12% and 2% respectively. Intensity of infection was measured directly by counting worms recovered after post-mortem. The mean±(SEM) worm burden for T. canis was ...

  14. Detection of Leishmania infantum in naturally infected Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and Canis familiaris in Misiones, Argentina: the first report of a PCR-RFLP and sequencing-based confirmation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acardi, Soraya Alejandra; Liotta, Domingo Javier; Santini, María Soledad; Romagosa, Carlo Mariano; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a genotypification of Leishmania was performed using polimerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing techniques to identify species of Leishmania parasites in phlebotomine sand flies and dogs naturally infected. Between January-February of 2009, CDC light traps were used to collect insect samples from 13 capture sites in the municipality of Posadas, which is located in the province of Misiones of Argentina. Sand flies identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis were grouped into 28 separate pools for molecular biological analysis. Canine samples were taken from lymph node aspirates of two symptomatic stray animals that had been positively diagnosed with canine visceral leishmaniasis. One vector pool of 10 sand flies (1 out of the 28 pools tested) and both of the canine samples tested positively for Leishmania infantum by PCR and RFLP analysis. PCR products were confirmed by sequencing and showed a maximum identity with L. infantum. Given that infection was detected in one out of the 28 pools and that at least one infected insect was infected, it was possible to infer an infection rate at least of 0.47% for Lu. longipalpis among the analyzed samples. These results contribute to incriminate Lu. longipalpis as the vector of L. infantum in the municipality of Posadas, where cases of the disease in humans and dogs have been reported since 2005.

  15. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) and Anaplasma spp. (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, Barend L; Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Smit, Nico J; Vorster, Ilse; Harrison-White, Robert F; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2018-03-20

    Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species. Genomic DNA extracted from blood samples taken from 126 free-ranging and 16 captive black-backed jackals was subjected to reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay; 82 (57.8%) specimens reacted only with the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genera-specific probe. Full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene of five of these specimens was cloned and the recombinants sequenced. The ten 16S rDNA sequences obtained were most closely related, with approximately 99% identity, to Anaplasma sp. South African Dog, various uncultured Anaplasma spp., as well as various Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes. Ninety-one specimens were screened for haemogregarines through PCR amplification using the 18S rRNA gene; 20 (21.9%) specimens reacted positively, of which 14 (15.4%) were confirmed positive for Hepatozoon genotypes from within H. canis. Two (2.2%) specimens were found positive for two different Hepatozoon genotypes. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of 16S rDNA sequences closely related to A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. South African Dog as well as two H. canis genotypes in both free-ranging and captive black-backed jackals. Distinguishing between closely related lineages may provide insight into differences in pathogenicity and virulence of various Anaplasma and H. canis genotypes. By building up a more comprehensive understanding of the range and diversity of the bacteria and eukaryotic organisms (piroplasms and haemogregarines) in the blood of

  16. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Venco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen–antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min. Results Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites’ antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to

  17. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, Luigi; Manzocchi, Simone; Genchi, Marco; Kramer, Laura H

    2017-11-09

    Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min). Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites' antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to antibodies. Tests may even detect antigens released by

  18. Prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil of public areas in Iran: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahman Maleki

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... Table 2. Result of metaregression, the affect of sample size and year on prevalence of Toxocara spp. p. Coef. Err. t. P>t ... a huge attention must be paid to public, particularly pet owners where they should familiarize ... ies on soil samples have not mentioned detailed soil characteristics and accurate climatic ...

  19. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  20. Efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Toxocara cati in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vatta, Adriano F; Slootmans, Nathalie; King, Vickie L; Lin, Dan; McTier, Tom; Rugg, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    The efficacy of a new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner for cats was evaluated against induced infections with Ancylostoma tubaeforme (hookworm) and Toxocara cati (roundworm). Five laboratory studies were conducted using adult, purpose-bred cats. Four of the studies were designed to evaluate efficacy of the combination against A. tubaeforme, the dose-limiting gastrointestinal nematode species for selamectin. In two of these studies non-interference between selamectin and sarolaner was also evaluated. The fifth study evaluated efficacy of the combination against mixed infections of A. tubaeforme and T. cati. The hookworm isolates in three studies were of US origin, as was the roundworm isolate. In the two remaining studies, cats were inoculated with a hookworm isolate of European origin. Cats were inoculated with 150 (±50) to 200 (±50) infective hookworm larvae 30-42days prior to treatment and with 400 infective roundworm eggs 60days prior to treatment. Cats were ranked by pre-treatment faecal egg counts and randomly allocated to different treatment groups. In all studies, cats were treated at the minimum label dose to provide 6.0mg selamectin per kg bodyweight. All animals were euthanized 7-10days after treatment for worm counts. Efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of the geometric mean worm counts in the treated groups versus the placebo-treated control groups. The efficacy against adult hookworms was 99.2%, 94.3% and 100% in three of these studies, and was lower in the remaining two studies. The efficacy against T. cati was 100%. Furthermore, non-interference between sarolaner and selamectin was demonstrated. Thus, a single topical application of the new spot-on formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner at the minimum label dose is effective in the treatment of adult hookworm and roundworm infections in cats. Copyright © 2017 Zoetis Services LLC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in farmed Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Ma, Jian-Gang; Lou, Zhi-Long; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-03

    Cryptosporidium is an important genus of enteric zoonotic parasites, which can infect a wide range of animals including foxes. Little information is available concerning the prevalence and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in farmed Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in China. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Arctic foxes in China using nested PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Arctic foxes was 15.9 % (48/302), with 12.9 % in male (18/139) and 18.4 % in female (30/163) foxes, respectively. The prevalence in different farms varied from 0 to 31.43 %. The prevalence of infection in different age groups varied from 14.1 % to 19.0 %. Foxes from Hebei Province (7.8 %, 11/141) had a significantly lower Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence than those from Heilongjiang Province (22.9 %, 16/70) and Jilin Province (23.1 %, 21/91) (P= 0.0015). Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene indicated that all the 48 isolates represented C. canis. This is the first report of C. canis infection in farmed Arctic foxes in China, which also provides foundation data for preventing and controlling Cryptosporidium infection in foxes, other animals and humans.

  2. Autochthonous Babesia canis, Hepatozoon canis and imported Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Novotna, M.; Juránková, J.; Hofmannová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 138-146 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne diseases * apicomplexan parasites * PCR detection * 18S rDNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2016

  3. Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. Eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil Contaminação ambiental por ovos de Toxocara spp. em assentamento rural no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Pontal do Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, soil samples from 31 out of 121 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g/cm³. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were recovered in nine (29.03% out of the 31 plots. At least one dog was registered in 27 of the 31 plots examined (87.1% and at least one cat in 17 (54.84%. The number of pets per plot ranged from one to six (mean of 2.3 for dogs and one to 14 (mean of 1.29 for cats. In 16 plots (51.61%, the presence of both dogs and cats was observed. There was no relation between the presence of pets in the plots and soil contamination (p > 0.05. However, the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs associated to the poor conditions of the inhabitants may be an important risk factor for the human population to ocular or visceral larva migrans.Com o objetivo de avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de Toxocara spp. em assentamento rural da região do Pontal do Paranapanema, oeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, amostras de solo de oito diferentes pontos ao redor da casa de 31 dos 121 lotes do assentamento foram coletados. A recuperação de ovos foi realizada pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de nitrato de sódio (d = 1,20g/cm³. Ovos de Toxocara spp. foram recuperados em nove (29,03% dos 31 lotes. Em 27 das 31 casas amostradas (87,1%, havia pelo menos um cão e em 17 (54,84% pelo menos um gato. O número de cães por lote variou de um a seis (media de 2,3. No caso dos gatos, o número variou de um a 14 (média de 1,29. Em 16 dos 31 lotes (51,61%, havia a presença de pelo menos um cão ou gato. Não houve relação entre a presença desses animais e a contaminação do solo (p > 0,05. Entretanto, a contaminação do solo por ovos de Toxocara spp. e as precárias condi

  4. Identification of Streptococcus canis Isolated from Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus canis was isolated from 31 milk samples from 11 cows in a dairy herd (with 49 lactating cows) affected by subclinical mastitis in north Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Thirty-one isolates from the infected udder quarters were further characterized for their phenotypic and molecular properties. Most isolates (83.9%) produced α-galactosidase, and all were negative for β-d-glucuronidase. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene by the PCR method and digestion with the restriction enzymes RsaI...

  5. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Moriello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp. soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100, enilconazole (1 : 100, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16, potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%, and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions, accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1% inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate. Enilconazole (1 : 100, sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens.

  6. CHROMOSOME SET AND SOME PROBLEMS OF CANIS AUREUS IN CAUCASICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the present resort chromosome set and some problems of Canis aureus ecology is described taking into account the structure of hail high altitude zone of mountain ecosystem.

  7. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  8. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  9. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. The help-seeking behaviour of dogs (Canis familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Brodd, Louise

    2014-01-01

    During domestication, the dog( Canis familiaris), have become skilful in understanding human communication and also in communicating with humans. The wolf ( Canis lupus), is not as skilled with this interspecific communication. When dogs are faced with an unsolvable problem, they seek help from human by e.g. gazing at them. This behaviour has been studied and both age and breed group differences have been showed. In this study, we presented dogs with a task that consisted of a solvable and un...

  11. Ehrlichia canis em cães atendidos em hospital veterinário de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Ehrlichia canis in dogs attended in a veterinary hospital from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. H. Ueno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a etiologia da erliquiose monocítica canina em 70 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual Paulista, na cidade de Botucatu, durante 2001 e 2002. Os cães foram avaliados segundo achados clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais e pela amplificação parcial e sequenciamento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia. DNA de Ehrlichia canis foi amplificado e sequenciado em 28 (40,0% cães. Observou-se maior frequência deanimais positivos com idade até 12 meses (P 0,05 e 42,2% (P > 0,05 dos cães PCR positivos, respectivamente. Vinte e cinco cães com anemia ( 0,05 frente à infecção por E. canis. Todos os 28 cães positivos na PCR apresentaram trombocitopenia (This study investigated the etiology of canine ehrlichiosis and possible clinical and epidemiological data associated with the infection in 70 dogs suspect of ehrlichiosis attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the São Paulo State University in Botucatu city during 2001 and 2002. Dogs were evaluated by clinical-epidemiological and hematological data and molecular analysis by partial amplification and DNA sequencing of the ehrlichial dsb gene. E. canis DNA was amplified and sequenced in 28 (40.0% dogs. Dogs younger than 12 months old showed significantly higher infection rates (65.0%; P 0.05, and 42.4% (P > 0.05 of the PCR-positive dogs, respectively. Twenty-five anemic ( 0.05. All 28 PCR-positive dogs showed thrombocytopenia (<175 × 10³ platelets.µL-1 and revealed statistical significance (P < 0.05. E. canis was the only Ehrlichia species found in dogs in the studied region, with higher infection rates in younger dogs, and statisticallyassociated with thrombocytopenia.

  12. Point Prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum in Large Ruminants Slaughtered at Multan Abattoir

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    M. Asif Raza*, Saeed Murtaza1, H. Allah Bachaya2, Abdul Qayyum3, M. Arfan Zaman4

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of Toxocara (T. vitulorum in buffalo and cattle slaughtered at Multan abattoir. Gastro-intestinal tracts of 94 buffaloes and 48 cattle were examined for T. vitulorum. Prevalence of T. vitulorum was 63.83 and 37.50% in buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Sex wise prevalence of T. vitulorum was recorded as 39.46% (30/76 in male and 72.72% (48/66 in female.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the treatment and control of roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina), hookworms... (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations. Not for...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Dirofilaria immitis; and the treatment and control of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea infestations...

  15. Comparison of three methods for recovery of Brucella canis DNA from canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinga, Maria Cryskely A; Dos Santos, Jaíne C; Lima, Julia T R; Bigotto, Maria Fernanda D; Muner, Kerstin; Faita, Thalita; Soares, Rodrigo M; da Silva, David A V; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Diniz, Jaqueline A; Keid, Lara B

    2017-12-01

    Brucella canis, a gram-negative, facultative intracellular and zoonotic bacterium causes canine brucellosis. Direct methods are the most appropriate for the detection of canine brucellosis and bacterial isolation from blood samples has been employed as gold-standard method. However, due to the delay in obtaining results and the biological risk of the bacterial culturing, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been successfully used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of the infection. Sample preparation is a key step for successful PCR and protocols that provide high DNA yield and purity are recommended to ensure high diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR for the diagnosis of B. canis infection in 36 dogs by testing DNA of whole blood obtained through different extraction and purification protocols. Methods 1 and 2 were based on a commercial kit, using protocols recommended for DNA purification of whole blood and tissue samples, respectively. Method 3 was an in-house method based on enzymatic lysis and purification using organic solvents. The results of the PCR on samples obtained through three different DNA extraction protocols were compared to the blood culture. Of the 36 dogs, 13 (36.1%) were positive by blood culturing, while nine (25.0%), 14 (38.8%), and 15 (41.6%) were positive by PCR after DNA extraction using methods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PCR performed on DNA purified by Method 2 was as efficient as blood culturing and PCR performed on DNA purified with in-house method, but had the advantage of being less laborious and, therefore, a suitable alternative for the direct B. canis detection in dogs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  17. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    ; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara...... canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T...

  18. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of some essential oils against feline isolates of Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

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    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  20. Infecciones parasitarias del coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae en un Parque Nacional y una zona agrícola en Costa Rica

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    Carmen Niehaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conforme las poblaciones humanas se expanden hacia los hábitats silvestres con sus mascotas y ganado, el potencial de transmisión de enfermedades hacia los animales silvestres -y viceversa- aumenta, y hace necesario identificar interacciones zoonóticas potenciales. Los cánidos domésticos y silvestres pueden funcionar como reservorios o diseminadores de enfermedades infecciosas (se incluyen parásitos, por lo que el coyote (Canis latrans puede también servir como indicador de la salud ecológica. Asimismo, se estudiaron los parásitos de 209 muestras de heces de coyotes en una zona mixta de área silvestre protegida y campo agrícola del Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú (PNVI en Costa Rica. La recolección fue realizada mensualmente durante un año en tres sub-áreas denominadas: Irazú (la más cercana al volcán, papales (por el cultivo de papas, y Prusia (un sector del PNVI. Entonces, se empleó examen directo y concentración mecánica, se obtuvo 36.84% de muestras positivas por al menos un helminto. La presencia de parásitos fue muy similar para ambos sectores boscosos del PNVI (33.3% en Prusia y 37.4% en Irazú, pero contrastó con el 63.63% observado en los papales. También, se identificaron uncinarias (probablemente Ancylostoma caninum, estrongilidios (posiblemente Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. y Taenia pisiformis, así como Hymenolepis diminuta, probablemente un parásito espurio proveniente de roedores ingeridos por los coyotes. Se comenta la importancia de estos primeros hallazgos y se concluye que las estaciones seca y lluviosa influyen en la presencia de los parásitos.

  1. [Contamination of public gardens along seafront of Praia Grande City, São Paulo, Brazil, by eggs of Ancylostoma and Toxocara in dogs feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, João Manoel; dos Santos, Sérgio Vieira; Monteiro, Nabor Alves

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of the lawns and flower beds along the seafront of Praia Grande, SP, Brazil, by eggs of Ancylostoma and Toxocara in fecal samples of dogs was evaluated. Of the total samples analyzed, 45.9% were contaminated with Ancylostoma eggs and 1.2% with Toxocara eggs.

  2. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats' faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, I E; Cardillo, N; López, C; Ribicich, M; Gallo, C; Franco, A

    2006-09-10

    Toxocarosis is a worldwide parasitic infection that affects both cats and dogs. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) syn. Toxocara mystax (Zeder, 1800) prevalence was studied in faeces from stray cats collected from the open spaces of public institutions of Buenos Aires city, both building and surrounding open spaces are fenced off. Of the 465 samples obtained from March to June of 2005, 58.3% were found to have parasite eggs. The following parasites were identified from the 271 positive samples: T. cati (61.2%), Cystoisospora spp. (20.3%), Trichuris spp. (17.0%), Toxascaris leonina (15.1%), Ancylostoma spp. (14%) and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.6%). T. cati prevalence was 35.7% (95% confidence interval: 31.2-40.1), with a 42.2% single isolations. The most frequent combination was T. cati and Cystoisospora spp. (9%). More than half the areas studied showed over 40% prevalence. Seventy-one percent of the collected samples were fresh with a variable moist consistency and 29% were older with a dry consistency. A statistically significant association was found between sample consistency and presence of parasites (chi2 = 10.81; p = 0.001) as also between sample consistency and presence of T. cati (chi2 = 11.27; p = 0.0007). Moist consistencies were significantly different from the rest: consistency (wet or dry) versus parasites (z = 1.95; p = 0.02) (95% confidence interval: 0.004-0.203); consistency (wet or dry) versus T. cati (z = 3.25; p = 0.0006) (95% confidence interval: 0.075-0.254). The cat population that inhabits these public green spaces contaminates the environment, thus transforming them into dangerous spaces with a variable rate for the human population that spends time in these places.

  3. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  4. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  5. Producción y evaluación del antígeno recombinante TES-30 de Toxocara canis para el inmunodiagnóstico de toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Olave

    2016-03-01

    Conclusiones. Los datos presentados respaldan la utilidad del immunoblot rTES-30 para la confirmación de los posibles positivos por ELISA, no solo en los estudios epidemiológicos, sino también, como candidato para el desarrollo de pruebas diagnósticas de la toxocariasis ocular en Colombia.

  6. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a......, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome.......Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data...... - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Results Reassuringly, we find...

  7. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose A; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Kuderna, Lukas F K; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Larson, Greger; Orlando, Ludovic; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Hansen, Anders J; Dalén, Love; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2017-06-29

    An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a boxer dog (Canis lupus familiaris). We generated the first de novo wolf genome (Canis lupus lupus) as an additional choice of reference, and explored what implications may arise when previously published dog and wolf resequencing data are remapped to this reference. Reassuringly, we find that regardless of the reference genome choice, most evolutionary genomic analyses yield qualitatively similar results, including those exploring the structure between the wolves and dogs using admixture and principal component analysis. However, we do observe differences in the genomic coverage of re-mapped samples, the number of variants discovered, and heterozygosity estimates of the samples. In conclusion, the choice of reference is dictated by the aims of the study being undertaken; if the study focuses on the differences between the different dog breeds or the fine structure among dogs, then using the boxer reference genome is appropriate, but if the aim of the study is to look at the variation within wolves and their relationships to dogs, then there are clear benefits to using the de novo assembled wolf reference genome.

  8. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  9. Bacteriemia por Brucella canis: Aislamiento con el Sistema Bact-Alert Bacteriemia by Brucella canis: Isolation with the Bact-Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soloaga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available B.canis puede causar enfermedad en humanos, pero esto es poco frecuente aún en países donde la infección es común en perros. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 15 años de edad que ingresa por fiebre de quince días de evolución sin foco aparente. El exámen físico mostró dolor hepático a la palpación y adenomegalias axilares, cervicales e inguinales. La ecografía abdominal evidenció esplenomegalia, la radiografía de tóraxy el ecocardiograma transtorácico no presentaron anormalidades. Se tomaron 5 hemocultivos (sistema Bact-Alert, Biomerieux, Marcy, l’Etolie, Francia los cuales resultaron positivos; los mismos correspondieron a 2 botellas estándares (tiempo de positivización de 72 y 64,8 horas y a 3 pediátricas FAN (tiempo de positivización de 74,5; 72 y 67,2 hs. El microorganismo fue identificado en forma presuntiva por pruebas bioquímicascomo B. canis y la identificación fue confirmada en el Instituto Malbrán. Luego de 14 días de tratamiento con ceftriaxona el paciente evolucionó afebril;al tener documentación bacteriológica de B.canis, se realizó tratamiento ambulatorio durante 21 días con doxiciclina (100 mg cada 12 hs y rifampicina (600 mg/día durante 6 semanas. Se descartó compromiso óseo y la evolución fue favorable desapareciendo todos los síntomas.Brucella canis and other species of the genus Brucella can cause human disease. However, this species infrequently cause human disease, including in countries where dogs population is highly infected. A 15 years old male was admitted to the hospital with 15 days history of fever without visible focus. Physical examination revealed pain at liver palpation and axillar, cervical and inguinal lymphoadenomegalies. Abdominal ultrasonography showed spleenomegally, the chest Rx and the trans thoracic echocardiogram were normal. Five blood samples were obtained and cultured in 2 standards bottles (time of positivization 72 - 64,8 hours, and 3 pediatric FAN bottles

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Multigenes Encoding the Immunodominant 30-Kilodalton Major Outer Membrane Proteins of Ehrlichia canis and Application of the Recombinant Protein for Serodiagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Norio; Unver, Ahmet; Zhi, Ning; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    A 30-kDa major outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is the major antigen recognized by both naturally and experimentally infected dog sera. The protein cross-reacts with a serum against a recombinant 28-kDa protein (rP28), one of the outer membrane proteins of a gene (omp-1) family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Two DNA fragments of E. canis were amplified by PCR with two primer pairs based on the sequences of E. chaffeensis omp-1 genes, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment contained a partial 30-kDa protein gene of E. canis. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the partial gene probes revealed the presence of multiple copies of these genes in the E. canis genome. Three copies of the entire gene (p30, p30-1, and p30a) were cloned and sequenced from the E. canis genomic DNA. The open reading frames of the two copies (p30 and p30-1) were tandemly arranged with an intergenic space. The three copies were similar but not identical and contained a semivariable region and three hypervariable regions in the protein molecules. The following genes homologous to three E. canis 30-kDa protein genes and the E. chaffeensis omp-1 family were identified in the closely related rickettsiae: wsp from Wolbachia sp., p44 from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, msp-2 and msp-4 from Anaplasma marginale, and map-1 from Cowdria ruminantium. Phylogenetic analysis among the three E. canis 30-kDa proteins and the major surface proteins of the rickettsiae revealed that these proteins are divided into four clusters and the two E. canis 30-kDa proteins are closely related but that the third 30-kDa protein is not. The p30 gene was expressed as a fusion protein, and the antibody to the recombinant protein (rP30) was raised in a mouse. The antibody reacted with rP30 and a 30-kDa protein of purified E. canis. Twenty-nine indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive dog plasma specimens strongly recognized the rP30 of E. canis. To evaluate whether the rP30

  11. Book review, Amati cani, José Jorge Letria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con Amati cani ci discostiamo per una volta dalle pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, per dare il giusto risalto ad un’interessante raccolta di narrativa che esplora il rapporto tra l'uomo e il suo miglior amico. José Jorge Latria, noto soprattutto per essere un esponente di spicco della canzone politica portoghese e per le sue opere poetiche, teatrali e di letteratura per ragazzi, nello scrivere questo libro compie un vero e proprio atto d’amore verso i cani, con il preciso intento di costringere i lettori ad eliminare dal proprio vocabolario il gratuito modo di dire ‘mondo cane’. L’Autore delinea brevi ritratti di cani che, da Argo in poi, hanno accompagnato da amici veri i loro celebri padroni nella buona e nella cattiva sorte: racconta cioè la storia di quei cani che non sono sprofondati nella voragine dell’oblio perchè i loro padroni hanno raggiunto la celebrità nel mondo della letteratura, della politica, del cinema, delle scienze o della musica. Con a fianco un amico fedele come un cane, la vita ha avuto un sapore diverso per Ernest Hemingway, Isaac Newton, Sigmund Freud, Buster Keaton, Marilyn Monroe, Pablo Picasso, John Steinbeck, Lord Byron, Tim Burton e altri ancora, tutti personaggi che sono presenti in questo libro grazie ai cani che hanno condiviso con loro la vita e le memorie. La lettura di Amati cani dà piacere poichè in ognuno di questi racconti batte, affettuoso e delicato, il cuore di un cane; ma dà anche un pò da pensare in quanto celebra in maniera molto tenera l’amore, la fedeltà e la solidarietà tra l’uomo e il suo speciale amico a quattro zampe.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in stray dogs in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hemoparasitic infections are tick-borne diseases, which affect animals and humans. Considering the importance of canine hemoparasitic infections in veterinary clinics, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in blood samples from 182 dogs not domiciled in the city of Pato Branco, southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The prevalence of A. platys and B. vogeli was 32.9% and 10.9% respectively, and A. platys infection prevailed (p<0.001. The number of dogs positive for A. platys was larger in Winter (p<0.05. All blood samples were negative for E. canis. In the dogs, infestation by Amblyomma cajennense predominated over that by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (p<0.001; but there was no significant association between PCR and the variables presence of ticks, sex and age. Dogs infected by A. platys and B. vogeli showed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and leukocytosis; but there was no correlation between such hematological changes and infection by hemoparasites. This appears to be the first molecular study that demonstrates the existence of A. platys and B. vogeli in dogs from the southwestern region of Paraná.

  13. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm (A), erm (B), or mef (A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  14. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Taniyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus canis (Sc is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A, erm(B, or mef(A, macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  15. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  16. The glycoprotein TRP36 of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and related cattle pathogen Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV evolved from a highly variable clade of E. canis under adaptive diversifying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; de la Fuente, José

    2014-12-10

    A new species of Ehrlichia, phylogenetically distant from E. ruminantium, was found in 2010 infecting cattle in Canada. In 2012 and 2013, we reported the in vitro propagation, molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV (E. mineirensis), a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from the haemolymph of Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. A new organism, named Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV, closely related to Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV, was recently described in Brazil and after experimental infection it was shown to be pathogenic for cattle. This new emerging clade of cattle Ehrlichia pathogens is closely related to E. canis. The major immunogenic Tandem Repeat Protein (TRP36; also known as gp36) is extensively used to characterize the genetic diversity of E. canis. Homologs of TRP36 were found in both Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV. Herein, we characterized the evolution of this new Ehrlichia clade using TRP36 sequences. Our working hypothesis is that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and related microorganisms evolved from a highly variable E. canis clade. In support of our hypothesis we found that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV TRP36 evolved from a highly divergent and variable clade within E. canis and this clade evolved under episodic diversifying selection with a high proportion of sites under positive selection. Our results suggest that Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT-BV evolved from a variable clade within E. canis.

  17. Screening of bat faeces for arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa: Babesia canis and Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequences from Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein

    2015-08-28

    Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.

  18. Diagnóstico sorológico de erliquiose canina com antígeno brasileiro de Ehrlichia canis Serological diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis with Brazilian antigen of Ehrlichia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moura Aguiar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata o isolamento de Ehrlichia canis em cultivo de células DH82 e posterior padronização da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI. Leucócitos de uma cadela experimentalmente infectada com o isolado Jaboticabal de E. canis foram inoculados em cultivo de células DH82. A inoculação foi monitorada após a segunda semana, a cada 5-6 dias, através de exames citológicos e pela amplificação de um fragmento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR para confirmação da infecção. A cultura apresentou-se positiva aos 27 dias pós-inoculação pela PCR e aos 28 dias pela citologia. No 33o dia pós-inoculação, observou-se 20% de células infectadas e, aos 53 dias, 60% de infecção. Atualmente, o isolado encontra-se estabelecido em células DH82, com várias passagens atingindo 90-100% de células infectadas entre 7-10 dias após a inoculação. Após o seqüenciamento do produto de PCR, o isolado apresentou-se 100% similar à seqüência correspondente de E. canis depositada no GenBank. As células infectadas foram utilizadas como antígeno para a padronização da RIFI para detecção da infecção em cães.The present study describes a successful isolation of Ehrlichia canis and its establishment in DH82 cells, followed by the development of an Indirect Fluorescent Antibodies Test (IFAT. Leukocytes collected from an experimentally infected dog with the Jaboticabal strain of E. canis were used to inoculate a DH82 cell monolayer. Two weeks later, the inoculated culture was checked for infectivity, every 5-6 days by both cytological staining and PCR, targeting a fragment of the dsb gene. The cell culture showed to be infected by Ehrlichia on day 27 by PCR and on day 28 by cytological staining. By the day 33, the infection rate reached 20% and on day 53, 60%. Currently, the isolate is established in DH82 cells, with several passages reaching 90-100% of infected cells, within 7 to 10

  19. Conflicting results of serological, PCR and microscopic methods clarify the various risk levels of canine babesiosis in Slovakia: a complex approach to Babesia canis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubelová, Michaela; Sedlák, Kamil; Panev, Aleksandar; Široký, Pavel

    2013-01-31

    We have performed a survey of Babesia canis prevalence within group of dogs living in Southern and Western Slovakia. Blood samples and sera from 217 dogs, including individuals suspected of having babesiosis, were examined by nested PCR-RFLP, light microscopy and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The detection of B. canis DNA revealed the highest number of infected dogs in the region of Nové Zámky, with 23 B. canis-positive blood samples (35.4%, n=65), followed by an area close to Komárno (both areas of Southern Slovakia), where 1 dog out of 52 collected (1.9%) had detectible B. canis DNA in the blood stream. The serological method revealed an opposing pattern, with only 3 dogs (4.8%, n=63) sampled at Nové Zámky presenting IgG antibodies against B. canis, while in Komárno region such antibodies were detected in 15 dogs (28.8%, n=52). This discrepancy may be because the majority of samples from Nové Zámky were dogs suspected of an acute phase of canine babesiosis, whereas dogs at Komárno were sampled during a vaccination campaign, and thus were without any clinical signs of the disease. The latter group contains evidently recovered carriers of IgG against B. canis. Hence, the combination of PCR-based and serological methods enabled us to discover both recently infected as well as recovered dogs, thus obtaining a more realistic view on the epidemiological situation. Remarkably, we did not find any positive samples in the vicinity of Stupava (district Malacky, Western Slovakia), either by PCR-RFLP, microscopy or IFAT (n=100). Considering the numerous falsely diagnosed cases of canine babesiosis, we suggest that light microscopy as the simplest and most accessible diagnostic test. Southern Slovakia was confirmed as an area of high risk of canine babesiosis, whereas conclusions about B. canis spreading over Western Slovakia should be considered with wariness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrospective analyses of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis in Cebu, Philippines from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P.; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D.; Villavelez, Rex R.; Malingin, Honey Pearl F.; Barrameda, Dana Natasha M.; Naquila, Sharmaine V.; Olimpos, Shiella Mae B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to document the clinical and hematological observations of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis and to identify parameters or factors that are associated with the disease with focus on the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs. Materials and Methods: From 7 participating veterinary establishments, a total of 913 cases from 2003 to 2014 were initially assessed using inclusion criteria, including E. canis diagnosis by the attending veterinarian and the presence of ticks or history of infestation, thrombocytopenia, and/or anemia. From these, 438 cases that were found serologically positive for E. canis using commercial test kits were selected. Profile, clinical observations and hematological test results were obtained from the selected cases. Computations for statistical associations between the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs and their profile, observed clinical signs and other hematological values were performed. Results: Most of the dogs were purebred (60.0%) and female (51.1%) and were within the age range of 1-5 years (38.4%). The mean packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, and platelet count were lower than the normal values while the absolute count of basophils were higher than normal values. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) appear to be elevated. The most common clinical signs observed were inappetence (41.3%), lethargy/depression (35.6%), vomiting (32.4%), fever (18.5%), paleness (8.2%), and epistaxis (6.6%). Analyses showed that there were no significant differences on the hematological values and clinical signs between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic seropositive dogs. Moreover, very weak correlations between platelet count and RBC count, absolute lymphocyte count, and neutrophil count were found. On the other hand, only paleness (p=0.008) and epistaxis (p=0.004) were found to be significantly different between anemic and non-anemic patients. This

  1. Retrospective analyses of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis in Cebu, Philippines from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Ybañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to document the clinical and hematological observations of dogs found serologically positive for Ehrlichia canis and to identify parameters or factors that are associated with the disease with focus on the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs. Materials and Methods: From 7 participating veterinary establishments, a total of 913 cases from 2003 to 2014 were initially assessed using inclusion criteria, including E. canis diagnosis by the attending veterinarian and the presence of ticks or history of infestation, thrombocytopenia, and/or anemia. From these, 438 cases that were found serologically positive for E. canis using commercial test kits were selected. Profile, clinical observations and hematological test results were obtained from the selected cases. Computations for statistical associations between the anemic and thrombocytopenic state of the infected dogs and their profile, observed clinical signs and other hematological values were performed. Results: Most of the dogs were purebred (60.0% and female (51.1% and were within the age range of 1-5 years (38.4%. The mean packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, and platelet count were lower than the normal values while the absolute count of basophils were higher than normal values. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN appear to be elevated. The most common clinical signs observed were inappetence (41.3%, lethargy/depression (35.6%, vomiting (32.4%, fever (18.5%, paleness (8.2%, and epistaxis (6.6%. Analyses showed that there were no significant differences on the hematological values and clinical signs between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic seropositive dogs. Moreover, very weak correlations between platelet count and RBC count, absolute lymphocyte count, and neutrophil count were found. On the other hand, only paleness (p=0.008 and epistaxis (p=0.004 were found to be significantly different between anemic and non-anemic patients

  2. FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA Transvaal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA. J. DU P. BOTHMA. Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation-. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal is probably the most important problem animal in the sheep-farming areas of South Africa and especially in the Transvaal. To detennine the extent of damage.

  3. incidence of dermatophyte infections amongst some occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hand, and interdigital infections due to T.mentagrophytes were observed. There was no visible infection among either the female hair weavers or the female prison inmates. Keywords: Dermatophytosis, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, M. canis, Tinea pedis, Tinea cruris. (Af J Clinical & Exp Microbiology: 2003 4(2): 11-17) ...

  4. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariego, I.; Kanobana, K.; Rojas, L.; Speybroeck, N.; Polman, K.; Nunez, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human

  5. Coprodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs from Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Gönenç, Bahadır; Sarımehmetoğlu, Oğuz; Özbakış, Gökben

    2017-08-15

    The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Filaroides sp., Dioctophyme renale, Linguatula serrata, hookworm, Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp. and Ascaridia galli. Significantly, more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the sedimentation method (n=27) as compared to the flotation method (n=10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type b) How to Take Your Child's Temperature Impetigo Infant Botulism Infections That Pets Carry Influenza (Flu) ... Herpes Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease Measles Molluscum ...

  7. Isolation of Helicobacter canis from a Colony of Bengal Cats with Endemic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Janet E.; Marks, Stanley L.; Munson, Linda; Melli, Ann; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Yu, Shilu; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analyses, Helicobacter canis was isolated from Bengal cats with and without chronic diarrhea. Because the cats were coinfected with other potential pathogens, including Campylobacter helveticus, and because H. canis was isolated from nondiarrheic cats, the causal role of H. canis in producing the diarrhea could not be proven. Histologically, the colons of the four affected cats were characterized by mild to moderate neutrophilic, plasmacyt...

  8. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  9. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm -positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis , respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis . The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  10. Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

    2014-08-01

    Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

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    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  12. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Wolbachia sp. but not Ehrlichia canis in Croatian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Doroteja; Reil, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanja; Jurković, Daria; Lukačević, Damir; Pilat, Miroslav; Beck, Ana; Mihaljević, Željko; Vojta, Lea; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beck, Relja

    2017-11-01

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne disease. The prevalence of these pathogens in South Eastern Europe is unknown with the exception of an isolated case of A. platys detected in a dog imported into Germany from Croatia. To gain a better insight into their presence and prevalence, PCR-based screening for these bacterial pathogens was performed on domesticated dogs from different regions of Croatia. Blood samples from 1080 apparently healthy dogs from coastal and continental parts of Croatia as well as tissue samples collected from 63 deceased dogs with a history of anaemia and thrombocytopenia were collected for molecular screening by an Anaplasmataceae-specific 16S rRNA conventional PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using a second Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR assay with the PCR product sequenced for the purpose of bacterial species identification. All sequenced isolates were georeferenced and a kernel intensity estimator was used to identify clusters of greater case intensity. 42/1080 (3.8%; CI 2.7-5.0) of the healthy dogs were PCR positive for bacteria in the Anaplasmataceae. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from these positive samples revealed the presence of A. platys in 2.5% (CI 1.6-3.4%, 27 dogs), A. phagocytophilum in 0.3% (CI 0-0.6%, 3 dogs) and a Wolbachia endosymbiont in 1.1% (CI 0.4-1.6%, 12 dogs) of dogs screened in this study. Necropsied dogs were free from infection. Notably, no evidence of E. canis infection was found in any animal. This survey represents a rare molecular study of Anaplasmataceae in dogs in South Eastern Europe, confirming the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum but not E. canis. The absence of E. canis was surprising given it has been described in all other Mediterranean countries surveyed and raises questions over the regional vector capacity of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.

  13. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  14. Prevalence of Toxocara species eggs in soil samples of public health importance in and around Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Sudhakar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the possible extent of soil contamination at different public places with Toxocara species eggs. Materials and Methods: A Total of 327 samples of soil were collected and examined from different locations which are of public health importance like public parks, playgrounds, door mat dusts, Sidewalks or road sides, in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, to establish the prevalence of Toxocara eggs. Samples were also categorised in to sandy type (225 and clay type (102 which were examined by Dunsmore modified technique. Results: 42 samples out of 327 (12.84% were found to be contaminated with the Toxocara spp.eggs and public parks were more contaminated than the other sites we studied. Clay type soil samples were found to be more contaminated than sandy type with a prevalence of 17.64%. Conclusions: The prevalence of this zoonotic parasite in soil has implications for the spread of human disease in these areas. The authors believe that this may constitute a significant health risk, particularly to children. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 87-90

  15. Alta frecuencia de serología positiva contra toxocara en un hospital pediátrico del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Miranda-Choque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las enfermedades zoonóticas trasmitidas por animales domésticos pueden ser consideradas como problema en salud pública en países en desarrollo. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de serología positiva contra toxocara en niños con sospecha clínica de toxocariasis. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo trasversal. Institución: Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (INSN, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Niños con serología positiva para toxocara. Métodos: Se estudió los casos positivos para toxocara por serología, en el periodo 2007 a 2010. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencia y características de los casos seropositivos contra toxocara. Resultados: De 242 casos con sospecha de toxocara, 148 (61,2% fueron seropositivos contra toxocara, siendo la media de edad 6,8 (DE 3,8 años; el grupo etario de 2 a 10 correspondió a 69,6%; el motivo de consulta fue la eosinofilia en 70,9%. Conclusiones: El INSN atiende niños con una alta frecuencia de serología positiva contra toxocara, en pacientes sospechosos por esta enfermedad; esto ocurre principalmente en los niños de 2 a 10 años, hallándose aumento de los eosinófilos.

  16. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013, we announced three public hearings on...

  18. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Maintaining Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced...

  19. Some helminths of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis Rüpell 1840 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs of Trichuris vulpis were found in all fecal samples of Canis simensis and one had unfertilized Ascaris lumbricoides egg. Adult specimens of Echinococcus granulosus were observed once in a fecal sample of Canis simensis. Examination of additional fecal samples failed to reveal the adult parasite. However ...

  20. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand Freqüência da contaminação por Toxocara em amostras de solo de parques públicos da área urbana "Payathai", Bangkok, Tailândia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71% of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.Espécies de Toxocara são os ascarídeos mais comuns de canídeos e felídeos. A toxocaríase humana se desenvolve através da ingestão de ovos embrionados presentes no solo. Não existe nenhum relato prévio da contaminação de Toxocara em amostras de solo de áreas públicas em Bangkok. Devido a isso, nosso estudo visou o exame da freqüência de ovos de Toxocara em Parques públicos em Bangkok, Tailândia. Em um total de 175 amostras de areia e barro pesquisou-se a presença de ovos de helmintos. De acôrdo com este estudo, os ovos de Toxocara foram encontrados em 10 (5,71% das 175 amostras de solo. A elevada taxa de contaminação demonstrada neste estudo implica na importância do controle desta possível doença zoonótica: controle de cães e gatos abandonados é ainda necessário.

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... falciparum (schizont), Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii) and HIV status. Exposure to infections was determined by detection of IgG antibodies to the parasitic antigens as well as HIV [27]. Population Sample : a random sample of 5000 participants from the KHDSS were interviewed in stage II alongside ...

  2. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larvae of 4ncylostoma spp., Toxocara canis, Dipylidium canimum, Taenia spp. and othernematodes which also infect man and his domestic animals (Arambulo and. Steele, 1976; Soulsby, 1983; Ajayi and Duhlinsky,1997;. Wiwanitkit and Waenlor, 2004). This is the first study on the prevalence ofgastrointestinalhelminths ...

  3. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 49, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-epidemiology of Toxocara canis infection in children attending four selected health facilities in the central region of Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Kyei, I Ayi, JN Boampong, PK Turkson, 77-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v49i2.3 ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boampong, JN. Vol 49, No 2 (2015) - Articles Sero-epidemiology of Toxocara canis infection in children attending four selected health facilities in the central region of Ghana Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0016-9560. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  5. A coprological investigation of gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary parasites in hunting dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Johansson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    andexamined using the Baermann method. Parasites were recovered from 22.1% of the huntingdogs: Angiostrongylus vasorum (2.2%), Toxocara canis (12.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (7.3%),Taenia spp. (1.7%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Coccidia (0.6%) and unidentified trematode eggs(1.1%). Infection with only one...

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Dschang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal samples from 131 household dogs were examined for gastrointestinal helminth parasites using the simple floatation method. 116 (88.5%) of the dogs were found infected with one or more of the following parasite species: Toxocara canis (34.35%), Ancylostoma caninum (73.28%), Ancylostoma braziliense ( 14.50%), ...

  7. Unilateral absence of lung perfusion resulting from endarteritis of the pulmonary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Turini, T.L.

    This case shows endarteritis of left pulmonary artery in the angiographic study with absent perfusion of the left lung in the MAA 131 I scintigraphy. Considerations are made conderning the presumable diagnosis of infection by 'toxocara canis' larval form. The literature review don't point out a similar case. (author) [pt

  8. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas) and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus), in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Temu, S. E.; Nahonyo, C. L.; Moehlman, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and golden jackals (Canis aureus), was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determi...

  9. Toxocara (Nematoda: Ascaridida and Other Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs Contaminating Soils in Selected Urban and Rural Areas in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachel Gay V. Paller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of contamination of soils with soil transmitted helminthes (STH eggs, particularly Toxocara, was determined in selected urban and rural towns of Laguna, Philippines. Soil samples were collected from public schools, house yards, and empty lots. Results revealed that, of the 1480 soil samples collected, 460 (31% were positive for STH eggs. Toxocara sp. was the most prevalent (77%, followed by Ascaris sp. (11%, hookworms/strongyles/free-living nematodes (7%, and Trichuris sp. (5%. Some soil physicochemical parameters were also determined and associated with Toxocara eggs prevalence and density in soil. Results revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs were most prevalent in less acidic, relatively high temperature and high moisture soil conditions. They were also prevalent in sandy, silty, and loamy soil textures but less prevalent in clayey. No significant differences were found between depth 1 (0–5 cm and depth 2 (6–10 cm. This study revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs are ubiquitous and the extent of contamination in soils from the selected towns of Laguna is relatively high. Hence, the data generated in this study can be used in promoting public awareness, particularly for pet owners and local health officials, for effective prevention and control of this parasitosis.

  10. ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE Microsporum canis: UN CASO DE Tinea Capitis TRATADO TÓPICAMENTE CON AJOENE I ULTRAESTRUCTURE OF Microsporum canis: A CASE OF Tinea Capitis TREATED TOPICALLY WITH AJOENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvric Espinoza-Lemus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, topic ajoene was used (0.4% to evaluate its effects in a case of a fungal infection of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis, a dermatophytes with a known keratinophylic activity. The activity of the fungus was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, in samples extracted before the beginning and 45 days after the treatment. The most important changes were alteration of the cytoplasmic membrane, disintegration of the cytoplasm and organelles deterioration. This new evidence in the studies in vivo shows the degeneration suffered by conidia and hyphae of the fungus, compromising the cellular integrity with the topical treatment with ajoene. The cultures, 30 days after treatment, demonstrated the absence of the fungal structures maintaining this condition up to 45 days after the treatment. The study shows ultrastructurally the invasion endo-ectotrix of M. canis in human hair and the antifungal effect characteristic of ajoene with its outstanding and potent bioactivity antiproliferative bioactive in the evaluated micotic process.

  11. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  12. Comparison of pathological signs of disease in specific-pathogen-free calves after inoculation of the respiratory tract with Ureaplasma diversum or Mycoplasma canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; van Dijk, J E; Noordergraaf, J H

    1993-02-01

    To confirm the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma diversum in respiratory disease of calves, we inoculated caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived calves intranasally with a dose of 10(7) colour-changing units (CCU) or endobronchially with a dose of 10(10) CCU. Clinical signs of respiratory disease were not observed, but in the endobronchially inoculated calves, thick cuffs of round cells surrounded the bronchi, bronchioli and blood vessels, and a lobular catarrhal pneumonia developed. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of U. diversum can be demonstrated after endobronchial but not after intranasal inoculation. Similar calves were inoculated endobronchially with a dose of 2 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Mycoplasma canis. Clinical signs of respiratory disease were not observed. At day 2 after inoculation, only slight pathological signs of respiratory disease were detected, and these disappeared at day 9. M. canis was not recovered from the lungs. Hence, M. canis could not be clearly identified as a pathogen in respiratory disease of calves. By comparing the results of the various experiments, we concluded that thin cuffs of round cells in the lungs can indicate mycoplasma infections, but that these are not necessarily pathognomonic.

  13. Patterns of Exposure of Iberian Wolves (Canis lupus) to Canine Viruses in Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; López-Bao, José Vicente; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; de la Torre, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Dubovi, Edward J; Esperón, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. With the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern Spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus-2 (CPV), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (CAV-1 and CAV-2) and canine herpesvirus. Overall, 76% of the studied wolves presented evidence of exposure to CPV (96% by HI, 66% by PCR) and 75% to CAV (75% by virus neutralization (VN), 76% by PCR, of which 70% CAV-1 and 6% CAV-2). This represents the first detection of CAV-2 infection in a wild carnivore. CPV/CAV-1 co-infection occurred in 51% of the wolves. The probability of wolf exposure to CPV was positively and significantly correlated with farm density in a buffer zone around the place where the wolf was found, indicating that rural dogs might be the origin of CPV infecting wolves. CPV and CAV-1 appear to be enzootic in the Iberian wolf population, which is supported by the absence of seasonal and inter-annual variations in the proportion of positive samples detected. However, while CPV may depend on periodical introductions by dogs, CAV-1 may be maintained within the wolf population. All wolves were negative for exposure to CDV (by VN and PCR) and CHV (by PCR). The absence of acquired immunity against CDV in this population may predispose it to an elevated rate of mortality in the event of a distemper spill-over via dogs.

  14. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  15. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  16. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  17. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm...the immune system and may be involved in both the response to sepsis and malignancy. For example, in neonatal mice, BMP signaling is a normal part of

  18. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Presencia y viabilidad de Toxocara spp en suelos de parques públicos, jardines de casas y heces de perros en Nezahualcóyotl, México

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Romero Núñez

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de identificar la presencia y viabilidad de huevos de Toxocara spp. en parques de Nezahualcóyotl, México, muestras de suelos de parques públicos y jardines de casa, heces de perros con propietario y colectadas en vía pública cercanas a los parques fueron analizadas mediante técnicas de flotación sedimentación para identificar la presencia de huevos, las muestras positivas fueron incubadas para conocer el potencial de infestación. La contam