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Sample records for toxic freshwater cyanobacterium

  1. Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangeul, L.; Quillardet, P.; Castets, A.M.; Humbert, J.F.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Cortez, D.; Tolonen, A.; Zhang, C.C.; Gribaldo, S.; Kehr, J.C.; Zilliges, Y.; Ziemert, N.; Becker, S.; Talla, E.; Latifi, A.; Billault, A.; Lepelletier, A.; Dittmann, E.; Bouchier, C.; Tandeau de Marsac, N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There

  2. Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Amel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. Results Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 has revealed the high plasticity of its genome: 11.7% DNA repeats containing more than 1,000 bases, 6.8% putative transposases and 21 putative restriction enzymes. Compared to the genomes of other cyanobacterial lineages, strain PCC 7806 contains a large number of atypical genes that may have been acquired by lateral transfers. Metabolic pathways, such as fermentation and a methionine salvage pathway, have been identified, as have genes for programmed cell death that may be related to the rapid disappearance of Microcystis blooms in nature. Analysis of the PCC 7806 genome also reveals striking novel biosynthetic features that might help to elucidate the ecological impact of secondary metabolites and lead to the discovery of novel metabolites for new biotechnological applications. M. aeruginosa and other large cyanobacterial genomes exhibit a rapid loss of synteny in contrast to other microbial genomes. Conclusion Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 appears to have adopted an evolutionary strategy relying on unusual genome plasticity to adapt to eutrophic freshwater ecosystems, a property shared by another strain of M. aeruginosa (NIES-843. Comparisons of the genomes of PCC 7806 and other cyanobacterial strains indicate that a similar strategy may have also been used by the marine strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 to adapt to other ecological niches, such as oligotrophic open oceans.

  3. Temperature and irradiance influences on cadmium and zinc uptake and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This study is the first to study the influences of temperature and light irradiance, two critical factors for the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, on metal uptake, subcellular distribution, and toxicity in a freshwater cyanobacterium commonly blooming in eutrophic lakes. → With increasing metal exposure, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis became more sensitive to metal toxicity under elevated irradiance and temperature, primarily as a result of increased uptake and accumulation. → Cd in the metal rich granule faction increased under Cd exposure, suggesting that MRG may partially detoxify Cd in the cyanobacterial cells. → This study implies that temperature and irradiance may influence the chemical cycling of metals during cyanobacterial blooming in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. - Abstract: Temperature and light irradiance are important factors affecting the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, we examined the influences of different temperatures (15, 24, and 30 ° C ) and irradiances (18, 32, and 55 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) on the uptake and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn was analyzed. Enhanced growth rates were observed for the cyanobacterial cells incubated at higher temperature or irradiance conditions with lower metal concentrations. With increasing ambient Cd or Zn concentrations, both cellular growth rate and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited at elevated irradiance conditions. The observed increase in Cd and Zn toxicity might be attributed to the enhanced metal uptake and accumulation in Microcystis. Based on the intracellular Cd concentration, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) values were higher at the higher temperature or irradiance treatment. The subcellular distribution demonstrated that Cd in the metal rich granule (MRG) faction increased with elevated [Cd 2+ ] concentration

  4. The success of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in freshwaters is enhanced by the combined effects of light intensity and temperature

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    Sylvia Bonilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters are thought to be a consequence of the combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and climate change. It is expected that climate change will affect water mixing regimes that alter the water transparency and ultimately the light environment for phytoplankton. Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii are expanding from tropical towards temperate regions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this expansion, including an increase in water temperature due to climate change and the high phenotypic plasticity of the species that allows it to exploit different light environments. We performed an analysis based on eight lakes in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions to examine the distribution and abundance of C. raciborskii in relation to water temperature and transparency. We then conducted a series of short-term factorial experiments that combined three temperatures and two light intensity levels using C. raciborskii cultures alone and in interaction with another cyanobacterium to identify its growth capacity. Our results from the field, in contrast to predictions, showed no differences in dominance (>40% to the total biovolume of C. raciborskii between climate regions. C. raciborskii was able to dominate the phytoplankton in a wide range of light environments (euphotic zone = 1.5 to 5 m, euphotic zone/mixing zone ratio <0.5 to >1.5. Moreover, C. raciborskii was capable of dominating the phytoplankton at low temperatures (<15°C. Our experimental results showed that C. raciborskii growing in interaction was enhanced by the increase of the temperature and light intensity. C. raciborskii growth in high light intensities and at a wide range of temperatures, suggests that any advantage that this species may derive from climate change that favors its dominance in the phytoplankton is likely due to changes in the light environment rather than changes in

  5. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  6. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these

  7. Comparative genomics reveals diversified CRISPR-Cas systems of globally distributed Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium

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    Chen eYang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and dominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes around the world. Microcystis cells can produce toxic secondary metabolites, such as microcystins, which are harmful to human health. Two M. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two highly eutrophic lakes in China and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed with the 12 other available M. aeruginosa genomes and closely related unicellular cyanobacterium. Each genome of M. aeruginosa containing at least one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR locus and total 71 loci were identified, suggesting it is ubiquitous in M. aeruginosa genomes. In addition to the previously reported subtype I-D cas gene sets, three CAS subtypes I-A, III-A and III-B were identified and characterized in this study. Seven types of CRISPR direct repeat have close association with CAS subtype, confirming that different and specific secondary structures of CRISPR repeats are important for the recognition, binding and process of corresponding cas gene sets. Homology search of the CRISPR spacer sequences provides a history of not only resistance to bacteriophages and plasmids known to be associated with M. aeruginosa, but also the ability to target much more exogenous genetic material in the natural environment. These adaptive and heritable defense mechanisms play a vital role in keeping genomic stability and self-maintenance by restriction of horizontal gene transfer. Maintaining genomic stability and modulating genomic plasticity are both important evolutionary strategies for M. aeruginosa in adaptation and survival in various habitats.

  8. Acclimation to and recovery from cadmium and zinc exposure by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jin; Yang Liuyan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    To understand the metal tolerance of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated its acclimation to and recovery from cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) exposure. The intracellular Cd and Zn (intra-Cd and intra-Zn) quotas increased upon acclimation to increased metal concentrations and were reduced following 1-day or 5-day recovery. Different acclimation to varying metal concentrations or durations (5 days or 15 days) did not have significant effects on the short-term uptake of Cd or Zn, whereas a 1-day recovery period promoted Cd or Zn uptake significantly. The values of median growth-inhibition concentrations (free ion concentration or intracellular quota) increased when the cyanobacterial cells were acclimated to higher Cd or Zn concentrations, indicating that M. aeruginosa became more tolerant to these metals. Consistent with the significant increase in metal uptake, the cyanobacteria become very sensitive to metals following 1-day recovery. A longer recovery (5 days) led to comparable uptake and toxicity responses to the controls. The efflux rate constants were not significantly different following metal acclimation. In the subcellular metal measurements, Cd was mostly distributed in the soluble fraction, whereas Zn was distributed evenly in the adsorbed, insoluble and soluble fractions of the cells. This study suggested the strong ability of these cyanobacteria to acclimate to different environments.

  9. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-01-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently ...

  10. Seawater cultivation of freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 drastically alters amino acid composition and glycogen metabolism

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    Hiroko eIijima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water use assessment is important for bioproduction using cyanobacteria. For eco-friendly reasons, seawater should preferably be used for cyanobacteria cultivation instead of freshwater. In this study, we demonstrated that the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 could be grown in a medium based on seawater. The Synechocystis wild-type strain grew well in an artificial seawater (ASW medium supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The addition of HEPES buffer improved cell growth overall, although the growth in ASW medium was inferior to that in the synthetic BG-11 medium. The levels of proteins involved in sugar metabolism changed depending on the culture conditions. The biosynthesis of several amino acids including aspartate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ornithine, and lysine, was highly up-regulated by cultivation in ASW. Two types of natural seawater (NSW were also made available for the cultivation of Synechocystis cells, with supplementation of both nitrogen and phosphorus sources. These results revealed the potential use of seawater for the cultivation of freshwater cyanobacteria, which would help to reduce freshwater consumption during biorefinery using cyanobacteria.

  11. Inflammatory effects of the toxic cyanobacterium Geitlerinema amphibium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Camila Ranzatto; Bruni, Fernanda Miriane; Elias, Fabiana; Rangel, Marisa; Pantoja, Patricia Araujo; Sant'anna, Célia Leite; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Monica; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz

    2011-11-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria in public water reservoirs may cause severe health issues for livestock and human beings. Geitlerinema amphibium, which is frequently found in São Paulo City's drinking water supplies, showed toxicity in the standard mouse bioassay, while displaying signs of intoxication and post-mortem findings different from those showed by animals intoxicated by known cyanotoxins. We report here the alterations caused by G. amphibium methanolic extract on mouse microcirculatory network, as seen by in vivo intravital microscopy, besides observations on leukocyte migration, cytokine quantitation, and results of toxicological essays. Our data showed that G. amphibium methanolic extract displayed time- and dose-dependent pro-inflammatory activity, and that at lower doses [125 and 250 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] increased the leukocyte rolling, caused partial venular stasis, as well as induced an increase in leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood and peritoneal washings. At higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w.), the extract caused ischemic injury leading to animal death. As confirmed by mass spectrometric studies and polymyxin B test, the G. amphibium methanolic extract did not contain lipopolysaccharides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microcystis aeruginosa : source of toxic microcystins in drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , which is the most common toxic cyanobacterium in eutrophic freshwater. The association of environmental parameters with cyanobacterial blooms and the toxicity of microcystin are discussed. Also, the synthesis of the microcystins, as well as ...

  13. Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.

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    Nicolas von Alvensleben

    Full Text Available Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass.

  14. Merocyclophanes C and D from the Cultured Freshwater Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (UIC 10110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Daniel S; Chen, Wei-Lun; Lantvit, Daniel D; Zhang, Xiaoli; Krunic, Aleksej; Burdette, Joanna E; Eustaquio, Alessandra; Orjala, Jimmy

    2017-04-28

    Merocyclophanes C and D (1 and 2) were isolated from the cell extract of the cultured cyanobacterium UIC 10110. The structures were determined by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and confirmed by 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations were determined using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Merocyclophanes C and D represent the first known analogues of the merocyclophane core structure, a recently discovered scaffold of [7,7] paracyclophanes characterized by an α-branched methyl at C-1/C-14; 1 and 2 showed antiproliferative activity against the MDA-MB-435 cell line with IC 50 values of 1.6 and 0.9 μM, respectively. Partial 16S analysis determined UIC 10110 to be a Nostoc sp., and it was found to clade with UIC 10062 Nostoc sp., the only other strain known to produce merocyclophanes. The genome of UIC 10110 was sequenced, and a biosynthetic gene cluster was identified that is proposed to encode type I and type III polyketide synthases that are potentially responsible for production of the merocyclophanes; however, further experiments will be required to verify the true function of the gene cluster. The gene cluster provides a genetic basis for the observed structural differences of the [7,7] paracyclophane core structures.

  15. Novel toxic effects associated with a tropical Limnothrix/Geitlerinema-like cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Catherine; Froscio, Suzanne; Campbell, Rebecca; Monis, Paul; Humpage, Andrew; Fabbro, Larelle

    2011-06-01

    The presence of a toxic strain of a fine filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the Oscillatorialean family Pseudanabaenacea was detected during a survey of cyanobacterial taxa associated with the presence of cylindrospermopsin in dams in Central Queensland (Australia). The strain, AC0243, was isolated and cultured, its genomic DNA extracted and 16S RNA gene sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis placed AC0243 with Limnothrix species, although this genus appears polyphyletic. Moreover, not all morphological characters are consistent with this genus but more closely fit the description of Geitlerinema unigranulatum (R.N. Singh) Komárek and Azevedo. The potential toxic effects of AC0243 extract were assessed chemically and biologically. Cell free protein synthesis was inhibited by the extract. Exposure of Vero cells to the extract resulted in a significant reduction in cellular ATP levels following 24-72 h incubation. The presence of cylindrospermopsin was excluded based on the nature of responses obtained in cell and cell-free assays; in addition, (i) it could not be detected by HPLC, LC-MS, or immunological assay, and (ii) no genes currently associated with the production of cylindrospermopsin were found in the genome. Other known cyanobacterial toxins were not detected. The apparent novelty of this toxin is discussed. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identification of the n-1 fatty acid as an antibacterial constituent from the edible freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Naoya; Yonejima, Kohsuke; Sugawa, Takao; Igarashi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum occurs in cool, clear streams and its gelatinous colonies, called "ashitsuki," have been eaten in ancient Japan. Its ethanolic extract was found to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and activity-guided fractionation yielded an unusual n-1 fatty acid, (9Z,12Z)-9,12,15-hexadecatrienoic acid (1), as one of the active principles. It inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at MIC 64 μg/mL.

  17. Risk Levels of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Portuguese Recreational Freshwaters

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    Carina Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese freshwater reservoirs are important socio-economic resources, namely for recreational use. National legislation concerning bathing waters does not include mandatory levels or guidelines for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. This is an issue of concern since cyanotoxin-based evidence is insufficient to change the law, and the collection of scientific evidence has been hampered by the lack of regulatory levels for cyanotoxins in bathing waters. In this work, we evaluate the profile of cyanobacteria and microcystins (MC in eight freshwater reservoirs from the center of Portugal, used for bathing/recreation, in order to determine the risk levels concerning toxic cyanobacteria occurrence. Three of the reservoirs did not pose a risk of MC contamination. However, two reservoirs presented a high risk in 7% of the samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for MC in bathing waters (above 20 µg/L. In the remaining three reservoirs, the risk concerning microcystins occurrence was low. However, they exhibited recurrent blooms and persistent contamination with MC up to 4 µg/L. Thus, the risk of exposure to MC and potential acute and/or chronic health outcomes should not be disregarded in these reservoirs. These results contribute to characterize the cyanobacterial blooms profile and to map the risk of toxic cyanobacteria and microcystins occurrence in Portuguese inland waters.

  18. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-01-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC 5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l -1 , LC 5 ) and lead (0.12 mg l -1 , LC 5 ), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l -1 , LC 5 ). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  19. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madoni, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.madoni@unipr.it; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC{sub 5} values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}) and lead (0.12 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments.

  20. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  1. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Ostracod: Stenocypris major

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    Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults of freshwater ostracod Stenocypris major (Crustacea, Candonidae were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, and manganese (Mn concentrations. Mortality was assessed, and median lethal times (LT50 and concentrations (LC50 were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC50s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 25.2, 13.1, 1189.8, 526.2, 19743.7, 278.9, 3101.9, and 510.2 μg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in S. major increases with exposure to increasing concentrations, and Cd was the most toxic to S. major, followed by Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Al, and Ni (Cd>Cu>Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Al>Ni. Comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean reveals that S. major is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested crustacean.

  2. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

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    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, and manganese (Mn concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50 and concentrations (LC50 were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L−1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al. Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals.

  3. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243 on Bufo marinus Larvae

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    Olivia Daniels

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Limnothrix (strain AC0243 is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243 live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.

  4. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 μ M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further

  6. Comparative toxicity of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Tyler D; Kinley, Ciera M; Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Rodgers, John H

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) is a granular algaecide containing H2O2 as an active ingredient to control growth of noxious algae. Measurements of sensitivities of target and non-target species to hydrogen peroxide are necessary for water resource managers to make informed decisions and minimize risks for non-target species when treating noxious algae. The objective of this study was to measure and compare responses among a target noxious alga (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa) and non-target organisms including a eukaryotic alga (chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to exposures of hydrogen peroxide as SCP. Hydrogen peroxide exposures were confirmed using the I3(-) method. SCP margins of safety for these organisms were compared with published toxicity data to provide context for other commonly used algaecides and herbicides (e.g. copper formulations, endothall, and diquat dibromide). Algal responses (cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations) and animal mortality were measured after 96h aqueous exposures to SCP in laboratory-formulated water to estimate EC50 and LC50 values, as well as potency slopes. Despite a shorter test duration, M. aeruginosa was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide as SCP (96h EC50:0.9-1.0mgL(-)(1) H2O2) than the eukaryotic alga P. subcapitata (7-d EC50:5.2-9.2mgL(-1) H2O2), indicating potential for selective control of prokaryotic algae. For the three non-target animals evaluated, measured 96-h LC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 19.7mgL(-1) H2O2. C. dubia was the most sensitive species, and the least sensitive species was P. promelas, which is not likely to be affected by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide as SCP that would be used to control noxious algae (e.g. M. aeruginosa). Based on information from peer-reviewed literature, other algaecides could be similarly selective for cyanobacteria. Of the

  7. Review on the effects of toxicants on freshwater ecosystem functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, K.; Bundschuh, M.; Schäfer, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 122 peer-reviewed studies on the effects of organic toxicants and heavy metals on three fundamental ecosystem functions in freshwater ecosystems, i.e. leaf litter breakdown, primary production and community respiration. From each study meeting the inclusion criteria, the concentration resulting in a reduction of at least 20% in an ecosystem function was standardized based on median effect concentrations of standard test organisms (i.e. algae and daphnids). For pesticides, more than one third of observations indicated reductions in ecosystem functions at concentrations that are assumed being protective in regulation. Moreover, the reduction in leaf litter breakdown was more pronounced in the presence of invertebrate decomposers compared to studies where only microorganisms were involved in this function. High variability within and between studies hampered the derivation of a concentration–effect relationship. Hence, if ecosystem functions are to be included as protection goal in chemical risk assessment standardized methods are required. -- Highlights: •Quantitative review of 122 studies on effects of toxicants on ecosystem functions. •Variation between studies hampered derivation of concentration–effect relationships. •Adverse effects of pesticide were observed below thresholds corresponding to regulation. •Effects on leaf breakdown were greater when invertebrates were involved. -- Concentrations assumed as protective in chemical regulation cause adverse effects in three fundamental ecosystem functions

  8. Acute toxicity of excess mercury on the photosynthetic performance of cyanobacterium, S. platensis--assessment by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C M; Chau, C W; Zhang, J H

    2000-07-01

    Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In this study, acute toxicity of excess Hg on the photosynthetic performance of the cyanobacterium S. platensis, was investigated by use of chlorophyll fluorescence analysis after cells were exposed to excess Hg (up to 20 microM) for 2 h. The results determined from the fast fluorescence kinetics showed that Hg induced a significant increase in the proportion of the Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centers. The fluorescence parameters measured under the steady state of photosynthesis demonstrated that the increase of Hg concentration led to a decrease in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry, the efficiency of excitation energy capture by the open PSII reaction centers, and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport. Mercury also resulted in a decrease in the coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. Mercury may have an acute toxicity on cyanobacteria by inhibiting the quantum yield of photosynthesis sensitively and rapidly. Such changes occurred before any other visible damages that may be evaluated by other conventional measurements. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can be used as a useful physiological tool to assess early stages of change in photosynthetic performance of algae in response to heavy metal pollution.

  9. Towards long-read metagenomics: complete assembly of three novel genomes from bacteria dependent on a diazotrophic cyanobacterium in a freshwater lake co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Connor B; Otten, Timothy G; Brown, Nathan M; Dreher, Theo W

    2017-01-01

    Here we report three complete bacterial genome assemblies from a PacBio shotgun metagenome of a co-culture from Upper Klamath Lake, OR. Genome annotations and culture conditions indicate these bacteria are dependent on carbon and nitrogen fixation from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, whose genome was assembled to draft-quality . Due to their taxonomic novelty relative to previously sequenced bacteria, we have temporarily designated these bacteria as incertae sedis Hyphomonadaceae strain UKL13-1 (3,501,508 bp and 56.12% GC), incertae sedis Betaproteobacterium strain UKL13-2 (3,387,087 bp and 54.98% GC), and incertae sedis Bacteroidetes strain UKL13-3 (3,236,529 bp and 37.33% GC). Each genome consists of a single circular chromosome with no identified plasmids. When compared with binned Illumina assemblies of the same three genomes, there was ~7% discrepancy in total genome length. Gaps where Illumina assemblies broke were often due to repetitive elements. Within these missing sequences were essential genes and genes associated with a variety of functional categories. Annotated gene content reveals that both Proteobacteria are aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, with Betaproteobacterium UKL13-2 potentially capable of phototrophic oxidation of sulfur compounds. Both proteobacterial genomes contain transporters suggesting they are scavenging fixed nitrogen from A. flos-aquae in the form of ammonium. Bacteroidetes UKL13-3 has few completely annotated biosynthetic pathways, and has a comparatively higher proportion of unannotated genes. The genomes were detected in only a few other freshwater metagenomes, suggesting that these bacteria are not ubiquitous in freshwater systems. Our results indicate that long-read sequencing is a viable method for sequencing dominant members from low-diversity microbial communities, and should be considered for environmental metagenomics when conditions meet these requirements.

  10. Cadmium as toxicant in Freshwater Cyprinid, Labeo rohita

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sajo

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... urbanization, expansion of industrial activity, industrial wasteful effluents .... blood capillaries, and sinusoids were randomly distri- buted. ..... cholinesterase activity of freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Peters. Asia.

  11. Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2004-01-01

    The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant microcystin produced by Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I was the highly toxic [ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR, which accounted for ca. 80% of the total microcystins. We assigned a structure of [DMAdda5]microcystin-LR and [d-Asp3,ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR and a partial structure of three new [ADMAdda5]-XR type of microcystin variants. Interestingly, Nostoc spp. strains IO-102-I and 152 synthesized only the rare ADMAdda and DMAdda subfamilies of microcystin variants. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated congruence between genes involved directly in microcystin biosynthesis and the 16S rRNA and rpoC1 genes of Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I. Nostoc sp. strain 152 and the Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I are distantly related, revealing a sporadic distribution of toxin production in the genus Nostoc. Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I is closely related to Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and other symbiotic Nostoc strains and most likely belongs to this species. Together, this suggests that other terrestrial and aquatic strains of the genus Nostoc may have retained the genes necessary for microcystin biosynthesis. PMID:15466511

  12. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Caroline; Wirth, Jennifer F; Suttle, Curtis A

    2016-06-14

    Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages. Filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc are widespread and ecologically important in freshwater, yet little is known about the genomic content of their viruses. Here we report the first genomic analysis of cyanophages infecting

  13. LexA Binds to Transcription Regulatory Site of Cell Division Gene ftsZ in Toxic Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Morimoto, Daichi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Takashi

    2018-05-17

    Previously, we showed that DNA replication and cell division in toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa are coordinated by transcriptional regulation of cell division gene ftsZ and that an unknown protein specifically bound upstream of ftsZ (BpFz; DNA-binding protein to an upstream site of ftsZ) during successful DNA replication and cell division. Here, we purified BpFz from M. aeruginosa strain NIES-298 using DNA-affinity chromatography and gel-slicing combined with gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of BpFz was identified as TNLESLTQ, which was identical to that of transcription repressor LexA from NIES-843. EMSA analysis using mutant probes showed that the sequence GTACTAN 3 GTGTTC was important in LexA binding. Comparison of the upstream regions of lexA in the genomes of closely related cyanobacteria suggested that the sequence TASTRNNNNTGTWC could be a putative LexA recognition sequence (LexA box). Searches for TASTRNNNNTGTWC as a transcriptional regulatory site (TRS) in the genome of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 showed that it was present in genes involved in cell division, photosynthesis, and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis. Considering that BpFz binds to the TRS of ftsZ during normal cell division, LexA may function as a transcriptional activator of genes related to cell reproduction in M. aeruginosa, including ftsZ. This may be an example of informality in the control of bacterial cell division.

  14. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chénard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages.

  15. Interactions between nutrients and toxicants in shallow freshwater model ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the influence of the trophic status of a shallow freshwater system and/or the presence of persistent pollutants in the sediment on the fate and ecological effects of an insecticide and a fungicide/biocide. Additionally, this thesis aims to shed light on the influence of

  16. Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Shiye; Liang, Huishuang; Zhao, Yunlong; Chen, Liqiao; Li, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a cost

  17. Effects of limonene stress on the growth of and microcystin release by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xi; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Yaqin; Zeng, Xiaoxia

    2014-07-01

    The effects of limonene exposure on the growth of Microcystisaeruginosa and the release of toxic intracellular microcystin (MCY) were tested by evaluating the results obtained from the batch culture experiments with M. aeruginosa FACHB-905. The time series of cell as well as intracellular and extracellular MCY concentrations were evaluated during 5d of the incubation. After exposure to limonene, the number of cells gradually diminished; the net log cell reduction after 5d of the exposure was 3.0, 3.6, and 3.8log when the initial cell densities were set at 1.6×10(7), 1.1×10(6) and 4.1×10(5)cell/mL, respectively. Limonene was found to significantly influence the production and release of MCY. As the limonene exposure could inhibit the increase in the number of cells, the increase in the total MCY concentration in the medium was also inhibited. In the presence of limonene, the intracellular MCY was gradually released into the medium through a gradual reduction in the number of cells. The extracellular MCY concentration in the medium was significantly higher in the limonene-exposed samples than in the control samples, which confirmed that limonene cannot decompose the extracellular MCY. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  20. Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2004-01-01

    The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant micr...

  1. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  2. Growth Characteristics of an Estuarine Heterocystous Cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guimarães

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new estuarine filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium was isolated from intertidal sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (Brazil. The isolate may represent a new genus related to Cylindrospermopsis. While the latter is planktonic, contains gas vesicles, and is toxic, the newly isolated strain is benthic and does not contain gas vesicles. It is not known whether the new strain is toxic. It grows equally well in freshwater, brackish and full salinity growth media, in the absence of inorganic or organic combined nitrogen, with a growth rate 0.6 d-1. Nitrogenase, the enzyme complex responsible for fixing dinitrogen, was most active during the initial growth phase and its activity was not different between the different salinities tested (freshwater, brackish, and full salinity seawater. Salinity shock also did not affect nitrogenase activity. The frequency of heterocysts was high, coinciding with high nitrogenase activity during the initial growth phase, but decreased subsequently. However, the frequency of heterocysts decreased considerably more at higher salinity, while no change in nitrogenase activity occurred, indicating a higher efficiency of dinitrogen fixation. Akinete frequency was low in the initial growth phase and higher in the late growth phase. Akinete frequency was much lower at high salinity, which might indicate better growth conditions or that akinete differentiation was under the same control as heterocyst differentiation. These trends have hitherto not been reported for heterocystous cyanobacteria but they seem to be well fitted for an estuarine life style.

  3. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters

  4. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  5. Phosphorus addition reverses the positive effect of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelle, Orlando; White, Jeffrey D; Horst, Geoffrey P; Hamilton, Stephen K

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have positive effects on the toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, at low phosphorus (P) concentrations, but negative effects on M. aeruginosa at high P, with a large-scale enclosure experiment in an oligotrophic lake. After three weeks, mussels had a significantly positive effect on M. aeruginosa at ambient P (total phosphorus, TP ∼10 μg L⁻¹), and a significantly negative effect at high P (simulating a TP of ∼40 μg L⁻¹ in lakes). Positive and negative effects were strong and very similar in magnitude. Thus, we were able to ameliorate a negative effect of Dreissena invasion on water quality (i.e., promotion of Microcystis) by adding P to water from an oligotrophic lake. Our results are congruent with many field observations of Microcystis response to Dreissena invasion across ecosystems of varying P availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  7. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  8. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  9. Toxicity of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on a Freshwater Green Algal Strain of Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Oukarroum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A freshwater microalga strain of Chlorella vulgaris was used to investigate toxic effects induced by nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs in suspension. Algal cells were exposed during 96 h to 0–100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs and analyzed by flow cytometry. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles in tested media showed a soluble fraction (free Ni2+ of only 6.42% for 100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs, indicating the low solubility capacity of these NPs. Toxicity analysis showed cellular alterations which were related to NiO-NPs concentration, such as inhibition in cell division (relative cell size and granularity, deterioration of the photosynthetic apparatus (chlorophyll synthesis and photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, and oxidative stress (ROS production. The change in cellular viability demonstrated to be a very sensitive biomarker of NiO-NPs toxicity with EC50 of 13.7 mg L−1. Analysis by TEM and X-ray confirmed that NiO-NPs were able to cross biological membranes and to accumulate inside algal cells. Therefore, this study provides a characterization of both physicochemical and toxicological properties of NiO-NPs suspensions in tested media. The use of the freshwater strain of C. vulgaris demonstrated to be a sensitive bioindicator of NiO-NPs toxicity on the viability of green algae.

  10. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Cyanobacteria Diversity and Toxic Potential in Ten Freshwater Lakes in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinang, Som Cit; Poh, Keong Bun; Shamsudin, Syakirah; Sinden, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in magnitude and frequency worldwide. However, this issue has not been adequately addressed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to better understand eutrophication levels, cyanobacteria diversity, and microcystin concentrations in ten Malaysian freshwater lakes. The results revealed that most lakes were eutrophic, with total phosphorus and total chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 15 to 4270 µg L(-1) and 1.1 to 903.1 µg L(-1), respectively. Cyanobacteria were detected in all lakes, and identified as Microcystis spp., Planktothrix spp., Phormidium spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Lyngbya spp. Microcystis spp. was the most commonly observed and most abundant cyanobacteria recorded. Semi-quantitative microcystin analysis indicated the presence of microcystin in all lakes. These findings illustrate the potential health risk of cyanobacteria in Malaysia freshwater lakes, thus magnifying the importance of cyanobacteria monitoring and management in Malaysian waterways.

  12. Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [WRc-NSF, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, SL7 2HD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Conrad, A.U. [Weinberg Group, Blue Tower, Box 16, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538, Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S. [CEFIC, Ave E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Research, Environment Centre, Bebington, Wirral, Merseyside, L63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), to freshwater benthic organisms was assessed during exposure to spiked sediment. Lethal and sub-lethal end-points were monitored for two organisms (oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans). Results demonstrated relatively low toxicity (LOECs >100 mg/kg dry weight). No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of 81 mg/kg dw (Lumbriculus) and 100 mg/kg dw (Caenorhabditis) were determined. For the oligochaete, no specific endpoint was particularly sensitive to LAS. For the nematode, egg production was the most sensitive endpoint. Significant degradation was measured over the 28-day duration of the Lumbriculus study, equating to a half-life of 20 days in sediment. - This paper provides sediment toxicity data for LAS, essential for a detailed and accurate environment risk assessment.

  13. Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.; Marshall, S.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), to freshwater benthic organisms was assessed during exposure to spiked sediment. Lethal and sub-lethal end-points were monitored for two organisms (oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans). Results demonstrated relatively low toxicity (LOECs >100 mg/kg dry weight). No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of 81 mg/kg dw (Lumbriculus) and 100 mg/kg dw (Caenorhabditis) were determined. For the oligochaete, no specific endpoint was particularly sensitive to LAS. For the nematode, egg production was the most sensitive endpoint. Significant degradation was measured over the 28-day duration of the Lumbriculus study, equating to a half-life of 20 days in sediment. - This paper provides sediment toxicity data for LAS, essential for a detailed and accurate environment risk assessment

  14. Chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Kemble, Nile E.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chronic toxicity of Ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. A 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS; 0.94–38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (TOC; 0.42–10%). Chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia sp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, and Lampsilis siliquoidea) in 2 spiked sediments. Nickel toxicity thresholds estimated from species-sensitivity distributions were 97 µg/g and 752 µg/g (total recoverable Ni; dry wt basis) for sediments with low and high concentrations of AVS and TOC, respectively. Sensitive species were tested with 6 additional sediments. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for Hyalella and Gammarus, but not Hexagenia, were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks based on Ni in porewater and in simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) normalized to AVS and TOC. For Hexagenia, sediment EC20s increased at less than an equimolar basis with increased AVS, and toxicity occurred in several sediments with Ni concentrations in SEM less than AVS. The authors hypothesize that circulation of oxygenated water by Hexagenia led to oxidation of AVS in burrows, creating microenvironments with high Ni exposure. Despite these unexpected results, a strong relationship between Hexagenia EC20s and AVS could provide a basis for conservative site-specific sediment quality guidelines for Ni.

  15. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  16. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  17. Crystalline phase-dependent eco-toxicity of titania nanoparticles to freshwater biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Qian, Jin; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jingjing; Tian, Xin; Lu, Bianhe; Shen, Mengmeng

    2017-01-01

    The potential toxic impacts of different crystal phases of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) on freshwater biofilms, especially under ultraviolet C irradiation (UVC), are unknown. Here, adverse impacts of three phases (anatase, rutile, and P25, 50 mg L −1 respectively) with UVC irradiation (An-UV, Ru-UV, and P25-UV) on freshwater biofilms were conducted. Characterization experiments revealed that rutile TNPs had a higher water environment stability than anatase and P25 TNPs, possessing a stronger photocatalytic activity under UVC irradiation. Phase-dependent inhibition of cell viability and significant decreases of four- and five-fold in algal biomass at 12 h of exposure were observed compared with unexposed biofilms. Moreover, phase-dependent oxidative stress resulted in remarkably significant reductions (P < 0.01) of the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms, to 40.32% (P25-UV), 48.39% (An-UV), and 46.77% (Ru-UV) of the plateau value obtained in the unexposed biofilms. A shift in community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms, indicating cyanobacteria and green algae were more tolerant than diatoms when exposed to TNPs. In terms of the toxic mechanisms, rutile TNPs resulted in apoptosis by inducing excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas P25 and anatase TNPs tended to catalyze enormous acellular ROS lead to cell necrosis under UVC irradiation. - Highlights: • Phase-dependent response of freshwater biofilms to three TNPs was studied with UVC. • Rutile is more stable yet P25 and anatase own better photooxidation level in water. • Decrease in Chl-a and φM and a shift in algae bio-cenosis were phase-dependent. • Phase-dependent stress induced cellular or acellular ROS to reduce cells viability. • Rutile tend to induced apoptosis yet P25 and anatase prefer to cause cell necrosis. - Crystalline-dependent eco-toxicity of TNPs to freshwater biofilms show allotrope of nanoparticles must be considered

  18. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lisa H., E-mail: lhnowell@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Placer Hall, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Water Science Center, 2130 SW 5" t" h Avenue, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Ingersoll, Christopher G., E-mail: cingersoll@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65021 (United States); Moran, Patrick W., E-mail: pwmoran@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, 934 Broadway, Suite 300, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  19. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  20. Intracellular uptake: a possible mechanism for silver engineered nanoparticle toxicity to a freshwater alga Ochromonas danica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jun Miao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and toxicity of silver engineered nanoparticles (Ag-ENs to the mixotrophic freshwater alga Ochromonas danica were examined in the present study to determine whether any other mechanisms are involved in their algal toxicity besides Ag(+ liberation outside the cells. Despite their good dispersability, the Ag-ENs were found to continuously aggregate and dissolve rapidly. When the initial nanoparticle concentration was lower than 10 µM, the total dissolved Ag(+ concentration ([Ag(+](T in the suspending media reached its maximum after 1 d and then decreased suggesting that Ag(+ release might be limited by the nanoparticle surface area under these conditions. Furthermore, Ag-EN dissolution extent remarkably increased in the presence of glutathione. In the Ag-EN toxicity experiment, glutathione was also used to eliminate the indirect effects of Ag(+ that was released. However, remarkable toxicity was still observed although the free Ag(+ concentration in the media was orders of magnitude lower than the non-observed effect concentration of Ag(+ itself. Such inhibitive effects were mitigated when more glutathione was added, but could never be completely eliminated. Most importantly, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Ag-ENs can be taken in and accumulated inside the algal cells, where they exerted their toxic effects. Therefore, nanoparticle internalization may be an alternative pathway through which algal growth can be influenced.

  1. TOXIC EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE BIOTA OF FRESHWATER RESERVOIRS OF UKRAINE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the studies of toxic and lethal concentrations of pesticides on phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish in current conditions of Ukraine. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that pesticides with different chemical origins have disastrous effects on everyone without the exception of freshwater biota organisms. The article highlights the peculiarities of the toxic effects of pesticides of major chemical groups, which are used or stored in Ukraine. Their toxic and lethal concentrations for the major species of phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and ichthyofauna reservoirs are considered. The data on basic features of behavioral reactions of aquatic organisms on poisoning by pesticides are provided. The basic structural and systemic diosrders of homeostasis of the organisms of aquatic biota are described. The effect of pesticides on phytoplankton needs further research, however, is was found that they have common feature as the disturbace of photosynthesis process and accumulation. In turn, this provoques kills in water bodies and poisoning of phytoplanctivorous fish. Zooplanktonic organisms are highly sensitive to pesticides; hence they can be used as an indicator of the state of fresh water. It was found that, pesticides depending on their concentration have different toxic effects on zooplankton organisms. The effect of pesticides on benthic organisms was little investigated. It is known that benthic communities respond to the presence of pesticide by changes in species composition, number of species, abundance and biomass of benthos in general and individual taxonomic groups of benthic invertebrates. The toxicity of pesticides for fish depends on their chemical nature, the form of the preparation, dose, fish species and age, water temperature and the content of oxygen and salts. In particular, juvenile fish are much more sensitive to the chemicals, and an increase in

  2. Influence of global change-related impacts on the mercury toxicity of freshwater algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Muñiz, Selene; Gomà, Joan; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The climatic-change related increase of temperatures, are expected to alter the distribution and survival of freshwater species, ecosystem functions, and also the effects of toxicants to aquatic biota. This study has thus assessed, as a first time, the modulating effect of climate-change drivers on the mercury (Hg) toxicity of freshwater algal photosynthesis. Natural benthic algal communities (periphyton) have been exposed to Hg under present and future temperature scenarios (rise of 5 °C). The modulating effect of other factors (also altered by global change), as the quality and amount of suspended and dissolved materials in the rivers, has been also assessed, exposing algae to Hg in natural river water or a synthetic medium. The EC50 values ranged from the 0.15-0.74 ppm for the most sensitive communities, to the 24-40 ppm for the most tolerant. The higher tolerance shown by communities exposed to higher Hg concentrations, as Jabarrella was in agreement with the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance concept. In other cases, the dominance of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata explained the tolerance or sensitivity of the community to the Hg toxicity. Results shown that while increases in the suspended solids reduced Hg bioavailability, changes in the dissolved materials - such as organic carbon - may increase it and thus its toxic effects on biota. The impacts of the increase of temperatures on the toxicological behaviour of periphyton (combining both changes at species composition and physiological acclimation) would be certainly modulated by other effects at the land level (i.e., alterations in the amount and quality of dissolved and particulate substances arriving to the rivers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew; Handy, Richard D; Shaw, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  5. IOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR BIOTA OF FRESHWATER BODIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd is probable or unknown. Besides biological importance, we also know about toxicity of heavy metals – a group of mineral polluting substances, which are the most distributed and dangerous for biota. Their negative effect includes drastic deterioration of conditions for existence of the majority of aquatic organisms, some species disappear, others reduce their number, components of trophic chains are lost, links in ecosystems become broken, and productivity of biocenoses decreases. Practical value. An array of generalized information will be useful for scientists who investigate freshwater ecosystems and effect of toxicants on them, in particular heavy metals.

  6. Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markich, Scott J., E-mail: smarkich@optusnet.com.au

    2013-01-15

    There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1}) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1}) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50) = 134 μg L{sup −1} U at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness, increasing to 547 μg L{sup −1} U at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K = 6.25 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness, decreasing to log K = 5.64 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup −1} hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}, UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer

  7. Differential sensitivity of five cyanobacterial strains to ammonium toxicity and its inhibitory mechanism on the photosynthesis of rice-field cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Guozheng; Deblois, Charles P.; Liu Shuwen; Juneau, Philippe; Qiu Baosheng

    2008-01-01

    Effects of two fertilizers, NH 4 Cl and KCl, on the growth of the edible cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc) and four other cyanobacterial strains were compared at pH 8.3 ± 0.2 and 25 deg. C. Their growth was decreased by at least 65% at 10 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl but no inhibitory effect was observed at the same level of KCl. Meanwhile, the strains exhibited a great variation of sensitivity to NH 4 + toxicity in the order: Ge-Xian-Mi > Anabaena azotica FACHB 118 > Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905 > M. aeruginosa FACHB 315 > Synechococcus FACHB 805. The 96-h EC 50 value for relative growth rate with regard to NH 4 + for Ge-Xian-Mi was 1.105 mmol L -1 , which was much less than the NH 4 + concentration in many agricultural soils (2-20 mmol L -1 ). This indicated that the use of ammonium as nitrogen fertilizer was responsible for the reduced resource of Ge-Xian-Mi in the paddy field. After 96 h exposure to 1 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl, the photosynthetic rate, F v /F m value, saturating irradiance for photosynthesis and PSII activity of Ge-Xian-Mi colonies were remarkably decreased. The chlorophyll synthesis of Ge-Xian-Mi was more sensitive to NH 4 + toxicity than phycobiliproteins. Thus, the functional absorption cross section of Ge-Xian-Mi PSII was increased markedly at NH 4 Cl levels ≥1 mmol L -1 and the electron transport on the acceptor side of PSII was significantly accelerated by NH 4 Cl addition ≥3 mmol L -1 . Dark respiration of Ge-Xian-Mi was significantly increased by 246% and 384% at 5 and 10 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl, respectively. The rapid fluorescence rise kinetics indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII was the inhibitory site of NH 4 +

  8. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  9. Endosulfan is toxic to the reproductive health of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Fakhar ul; Jalali, Samina; Shafqat, Mustafa Nawaz; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic to aquatic life. Endosulfan might hamper the reproductive health of indigenous fish in agricultural areas of Pakistan where this pesticide is sprayed widely. The aim of the current study is to investigate the toxic effects of endosulfan on selected reproductive parameters of male freshwater fish, Cyprinion watsoni. Two concentrations of endosulfan (0.5 and 1 ppb for 30 days exposure) were tested for their effects on body weight, body length, and testicular weight, length, and width. Testicular testosterone was assayed from tissue extracts using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A significant increase in the mortality rate was observed in both treated groups during both spawning and quiescent seasons. The overall behavior of fish in the aquarium was normal in all control and treated groups. However, the treated fish exhibited anxiety after treatment with endosulfan. The body weight and length, and testicular weight, length and width were not significantly different to the control group. The testicular testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in both endosulfan-treated groups compared to the control. The decrease was dose-dependent, with a significant difference between the two treated groups. The histomorphological results demonstrated various testicular alterations in the treated groups. These alterations included an increase in interlobular areas and clumping patterns in spermatocytes/spermatids. Because spermatids eventually differentiate into sperms, their low count will directly result in lower sperm count. Taken together, these results suggest that endosulfan is a toxicant that at least disturbs testosterone levels (possibly others) and negatively impacts the reproductive health of male freshwater fish.

  10. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    organic matter in sediment and soils, it is particularly important to determine their effects on freshwater mussels and other freshwater benthic invertebrates in contact with sediments, as available toxicity studies with pelagic species, mainly Daphnia magna, may not be representative of these benthic organisms. Finally, there is a critical need for studies of the chronic effects of fungicides on reproduction, immunocompetence, and ecosystem function; sublethal endpoints with population and community-level relevance.

  11. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  12. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  13. Differential sensitivity of five cyanobacterial strains to ammonium toxicity and its inhibitory mechanism on the photosynthesis of rice-field cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Guozheng [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Deblois, Charles P. [Department des Sciences Biologiques, TOXEN, Canada Research Chair on Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre-ville, C.P. 8888 Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Liu Shuwen [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Juneau, Philippe [Department des Sciences Biologiques, TOXEN, Canada Research Chair on Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre-ville, C.P. 8888 Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Qiu Baosheng [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)], E-mail: bsqiu@public.wh.hb.cn

    2008-08-29

    Effects of two fertilizers, NH{sub 4}Cl and KCl, on the growth of the edible cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc) and four other cyanobacterial strains were compared at pH 8.3 {+-} 0.2 and 25 deg. C. Their growth was decreased by at least 65% at 10 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl but no inhibitory effect was observed at the same level of KCl. Meanwhile, the strains exhibited a great variation of sensitivity to NH{sub 4}{sup +} toxicity in the order: Ge-Xian-Mi > Anabaena azotica FACHB 118 > Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905 > M. aeruginosa FACHB 315 > Synechococcus FACHB 805. The 96-h EC{sub 50} value for relative growth rate with regard to NH{sub 4}{sup +} for Ge-Xian-Mi was 1.105 mmol L{sup -1}, which was much less than the NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration in many agricultural soils (2-20 mmol L{sup -1}). This indicated that the use of ammonium as nitrogen fertilizer was responsible for the reduced resource of Ge-Xian-Mi in the paddy field. After 96 h exposure to 1 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl, the photosynthetic rate, F{sub v}/F{sub m} value, saturating irradiance for photosynthesis and PSII activity of Ge-Xian-Mi colonies were remarkably decreased. The chlorophyll synthesis of Ge-Xian-Mi was more sensitive to NH{sub 4}{sup +} toxicity than phycobiliproteins. Thus, the functional absorption cross section of Ge-Xian-Mi PSII was increased markedly at NH{sub 4}Cl levels {>=}1 mmol L{sup -1} and the electron transport on the acceptor side of PSII was significantly accelerated by NH{sub 4}Cl addition {>=}3 mmol L{sup -1}. Dark respiration of Ge-Xian-Mi was significantly increased by 246% and 384% at 5 and 10 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. The rapid fluorescence rise kinetics indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII was the inhibitory site of NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  14. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  15. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  16. Growth Characteristics of an Estuarine Heterocystous Cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimarães, P.; Yunes, J.S.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new estuarine filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium was isolated from intertidal sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (Brazil). The isolate may represent a new genus related to Cylindrospermopsis. While the latter is planktonic, contains gas vesicles, and is toxic, the newly isolated strain

  17. Management of a toxic cyanobacterium bloom (Planktothrix rubescens) affecting an Italian drinking water basin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Nigro di Gregorio, Federica; Lucentini, Luca; Ferretti, Emanuele; Ottaviani, Massimo; Ungaro, Nicola; Abis, Pier Paolo; Cannarozzi de Grazia, Matteo

    2013-01-02

    An extraordinary bloom of Planktothrix rubescens, which can produce microcystins (MCs), was observed in early 2009 in the Occhito basin, used even as a source of drinking water in Southern Italy. Several activities, coordinated by a task force, were implemented to assess and manage the risk associated to drinking water contaminated by cyanobacteria. Main actions were: evaluation of analytical protocols for screening and confirmatory purpose, monitoring the drinking water supply chain, training of operators, a dedicated web site for risk communication. ELISA assay was considered suitable for health authorities as screening method for MCs and to optimize frequency of sampling according to alert levels, and as internal control for the water supplier. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method able to quantify 9 MCs was optimized with the aim of supporting health authorities in a comprehensive risk evaluation based on the relative toxicity of different congeners. Short, medium, and long-term corrective actions were implemented to mitigate the health risk. Preoxidation with chlorine dioxide followed by flocculation and settling have been shown to be effective in removing MCs in the water treatment plant. Over two years, despite the high levels of cyanobacteria (up to 160 × 10(6) cells/L) and MCs (28.4 μg/L) initially reached in surface waters, the drinking water distribution was never limited.

  18. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  19. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  20. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinger, Céline; Parant, Marc; Rousselle, Philippe; Immel, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50 Cd , while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results. - Highlights: ► First study of arsenate toxicity in a Crustacean gammarid. ► Specific toxicological and behavioural responses to AsV and Cd contamination. ► Each metal led to specific-action mechanisms. ► Different energetic reallocation could explain specific behavioural responses. - This study brings to light the potential relationship between toxicological effects and behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed at both Cadmium and Arsenate.

  1. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D. [Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  3. Toxicity induced by dieldrin and chlorpyrifos in the freshwater crayfish Cambarellus montezumae (Cambaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Díaz-Barriga Arceo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity induced by insecticides in aquatic organisms is of utmost relevance because it may give a clue about the degree of health or damage of the involved ecosystem. In the present report, we determined the effect of dieldrin (DD and chlorpyrifos (CP on the freshwater crayfish, Cambarellus montezumae. The organisms (4-6cm in diameter were collected in the Ignacio Ramírez Reservoir, situated at 50km Northeast of Mexico City, in the Rio Lerma Basin. Initially, we determined the LC50 value with the Probit method, then the DNA damage with single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay applied at 24, 48, and 72h of exposure to the brain and hepatopancreas of animals exposed (in reconstituted water to 0.05 and 0.5µg/L of each insecticide. In the hepatopancreas of the same organisms, we determined the lipid peroxidation by applying the TBARS test. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation were also evaluated with the same methods to organisms exposed in water from the reservoir. In regard to the LC50 at 72h of exposure, we found a value of 5.1µg/L and a value of 5.62µg/L for DD and CP, respectively. The comet assay applied at different exposure times showed significant DNA damage to both organs, with respect to the control level. In the case of DD, statistical significance was observed for the two doses in the whole evaluated schedule. CP was genotoxic in the brain with the high dose at 72h, and in the hepatopancreas with the two tested doses at all evaluated exposure times. Also, a significant lipid peroxidation increase was detected with the two doses of insecticides. In the study with water from the reservoir, a more pronounced DNA damage was detected. Our results showed strong DNA damage induced by both insecticides in the crayfish, as well as a correlation with the lipid peroxidation effect, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the genotoxic alteration. Our results also showed the usefulness of the studied organism as well as the

  4. Spatial analysis of toxic emissions in LCA: a sub-continental nested USEtox model with freshwater archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounina, Anna; Margni, Manuele; Shaked, Shanna; Bulle, Cécile; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    This paper develops continent-specific factors for the USEtox model and analyses the accuracy of different model architectures, spatial scales and archetypes in evaluating toxic impacts, with a focus on freshwater pathways. Inter-continental variation is analysed by comparing chemical fate and intake fractions between sub-continental zones of two life cycle impact assessment models: (1) the nested USEtox model parameterized with sub-continental zones and (2) the spatially differentiated IMPACTWorld model with 17 interconnected sub-continental regions. Substance residence time in water varies by up to two orders of magnitude among the 17 zones assessed with IMPACTWorld and USEtox, and intake fraction varies by up to three orders of magnitude. Despite this variation, the nested USEtox model succeeds in mimicking the results of the spatially differentiated model, with the exception of very persistent volatile pollutants that can be transported to polar regions. Intra-continental variation is analysed by comparing fate and intake fractions modelled with the a-spatial (one box) IMPACT Europe continental model vs. the spatially differentiated version of the same model. Results show that the one box model might overestimate chemical fate and characterisation factors for freshwater eco-toxicity of persistent pollutants by up to three orders of magnitude for point source emissions. Subdividing Europe into three archetypes, based on freshwater residence time (how long it takes water to reach the sea), improves the prediction of fate and intake fractions for point source emissions, bringing them within a factor five compared to the spatial model. We demonstrated that a sub-continental nested model such as USEtox, with continent-specific parameterization complemented with freshwater archetypes, can thus represent inter- and intra-continental spatial variations, whilst minimizing model complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  6. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  7. Influence of temperature on fluoride toxicity and bioaccumulation in the nonindigenous freshwater mollusk Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piero, Stefania; Masiero, Luciano; Casellato, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Fluoride toxicity and bioaccumulation tests (short- and long-term) were performed on the nonindigenous freshwater mollusk Dreissena polymorpha at two different temperatures: 17 ± 0.5°C and 22 ± 0.5°C. Concentrations that did not result in toxicity in short-term experiments (96 h) induced effects over a longer period (17 weeks), especially at the warmest temperature, highlighting the role of this parameter. Fluoride bioaccumulation increased linearly with increasing concentration and temperature, reaching 4,202 µg F(-)/g dry weight in soft tissues only after 48 h of exposure at 22°C at a concentration of 640 mg F(-)/L. Comparing tolerance to fluoride and bioaccumulation values of this species with those of other freshwater invertebrates, D. polymorpha was much more resistant and revealed its capacity to accumulate a great quantity of this xenobiotic substance. The results of the present study demonstrated that fluoride accumulation in the soft tissue of this animal was much higher (up to 1,409.6 µg F(-)/g dry wt) than that in its shell (up to 706.4 µg F(-)/g dry wt). If we consider this datum and the fact that D. polymorpha is widespread in many aquatic ecosystems around the world, representing a food source for many birds and other vertebrates, we must acknowledge the possibility that it can represent a serious danger in view of fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  9. Molecular toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles to the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is associated with supra-environmental exposure concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nadine S.; Merrifield, Ruth; Williams, Tim D.; Chipman, J. Kevin; Lead, Jamie R.; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as fuel catalysts and consequently are likely to enter the environment. Their potential impacts on. biota at environmentally relevant concentrations, including uptake and toxicity, remain to be elucidated and quantitative data on which to assess risk are sparse. Therefore, a definitive assessment of the molecular and phenotypic effects of ceria NPs was undertaken, using well-characterised mono-dispersed NPs as their toxicity is likely to be higher, enabling a conservative hazard assessment. Unbiased transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to investigate the potential toxicity of tightly constrained 4–5 nm ceria NPs to the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a sentinel freshwater species. A wide range of exposure concentrations were investigated from predicted environmental levels, to support hazard assessment, to supra-environmental levels to provide insight into molecular toxicity pathways. Ceria NPs were internalised into intracellular vesicles within C. reinhardtii, yet caused no significant effect on algal growth at any exposure concentration. Molecular perturbations were only detected at supra-environmental ceria NP-concentrations, primarily down-regulation of photosynthesis and carbon fixation with associated effects on energy metabolism. For acute exposures to small mono-dispersed particles, it can be concluded there should be little concern regarding their dispersal into the environment for this trophic level. PMID:25740379

  10. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Brunson, E.L.; Burton, G.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hoke, R.A.; Landrum, P.F.; Norberg-King, T. J.; Winger, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  11. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  12. Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, Paul L.; Nyman, John A.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated the extent to which various common hydrocarbon measures can be used to predict toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms due to fouling by oil. Actual toxicity results, on laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms using two water-column species and a benthic species, were described earlier. The hydrocarbon measures used were TPH g , TPH FID , TPH MS , TTAH (sum of 41 target aromatic hydrocarbons), principal components of 41 TAHs, and each individual TAH. In general, toxicity was more closely related to TPH MS levels than to TPH FID and (especially) TPH g levels. The strongest relationships were found for TTAH levels and for the principal components of the TAHs. Regressions of toxicity on many individual TAHs were also strong, with a single group of compounds explaining as much as 59% of the variation in survival. While the various regressions were highly significant statistically and at times able to accurately predict broad differences in toxicity, the high variation in survival at a specific hydrocarbon concentration indicates that these hydrocarbon measures can not substitute for actual toxicity determinations in accurately ranking the toxicity of samples from oiled freshwater marshes. - Hydrocarbon measurements cannot be substituted for actual toxicity determinations

  13. Metal toxicity characterization factors for marine ecosystems: considering the importance of the estuary for freshwater emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... with an estuary removal process to calculate FF. BF and EF were taken from Dong et al. Environ Sci Technol 50:269–278 (2016). Site-generic marine CFs were derived from site-dependent marine CFs. Different averaging principles were tested, and the approach representing estuary discharge rate was identified...... between both methods. Accounting for estuary removal particularly influences marine ecotoxicity CFs for emission to freshwater of metals that have a strong tendency to complex-bind to particles. It indicates the importance of including estuary in the characterization modelling when dealing with those...

  14. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Maj-Britt Bjergager; Nørum, Ulrik; Kretschmann, Andreas; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2016-04-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle-associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epibenthic freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) using brief pulse exposures followed by a 144 h post exposure recovery phase. Humic acid (HA) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (MM) were used as model sorbents in environmentally realistic concentrations (5, 25 and 125 mg L(-1)). Mortality of G. pulex was recorded during the post exposure recovery phase and locomotor behavior was measured during exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that HA in concentrations ≥25 mg L(-1) adsorbed the majority of pyrethroids but only reduced mortality of G. pulex up to a factor of four compared to pyrethroid-only treatments. MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10% for bifenthrin and 70% for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration-response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced in the presence of HA, whereas behavioral responses and immobilisation rate were increased in the presence of MM. This indicates that G. pulex was capable of sensing the bioavailable fraction of lambda-cyhalothrin. Our results imply that suspended particles reduce to only a limited extent the toxicity of pyrethroids to G. pulex and that passive uptake of pyrethroids can be significant even when pyrethroids are adsorbed to suspended particles.

  16. UVΑ pre-irradiation to P25 titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhanced its toxicity towards freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Hemamalini; Palamadai Krishnan, Suresh; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-04-02

    There has recently been an increase in the usage of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs). P25 TiO 2 NPs, a mixture of anatase and rutile phase in 3:1 ratio, are generally used for photocatalytic applications because both phases exhibit a synergistic effect on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 NPs. In the present study, increased toxicity of UVA-pre-irradiated P25 TiO 2 NPs on freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was assessed under visible light and dark exposure conditions at actual low concentrations (0.3, 3 and 35 μM of Ti). Photocatalytic property of P25 TiO 2 NPs caused disaggregation of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs, thus significantly decreasing the mean hydrodynamic diameter (MHD) (188.74 ± 0.54 nm) than that of non-irradiated NPs (232.26 ± 0.44). This decrease in diameter of UVA-pre-irradiated NPs may increase its biological activity towards algal samples. All concentrations of pre-irradiated NPs, under both light and dark conditions, showed a significantly lesser cell viability (p effects of UVA-pre-irradiated TiO 2 NPs on freshwater algae, thereby emphasising the need for ecological risk assessments of metal oxide nanoparticles in a natural experimental medium.

  17. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. - Highlights: • AgNP coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), PVP-AgNP were efficiently assimilated by Lymnaea stagnalis. • Water chemistry has no influence on the dietary uptake of PVP-AgNP by snails. - L. Stagnalis assimilated PVP-AgNPs efficiently from food and water chemistry had no influence on their uptake and toxicity

  18. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  19. Transcriptome assembly and expression profiling of molecular responses to cadmium toxicity in hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Ting Li, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chin Lee, Shao; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious global problem, which causes irreversible toxic effects on animals. Freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, is a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed in benthic habitats whereby it tends to accumulate Cd and other toxicants. However, its molecular responses to Cd toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses of its hepatopancreas with and without Cd treatments. A total of 7.78 G clean reads were obtained from the pooled samples, and 68,648 unigenes with an average size of 622 bp were assembled, in which 5,436 were metabolism-associated and 2,728 were stimulus response-associated that include 380 immunity-related unigenes. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that most genes involved in macromolecular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification and anti-oxidant defense were up-regulated by Cd exposure, whereas immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. The current data indicate that Cd exposure alters gene expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results provide the first comprehensive S.henanense transcriptome dataset, which is useful for biological and ecotoxicological studies on this crab and its related species at molecular level, and some key Cd-responsive genes may provide candidate biomarkers for monitoring aquatic pollution by heavy metals.

  20. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} toxicity to freshwater algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Brad M., E-mail: Brad.Angel@csiro.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Vallotton, Pascal [Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Apte, Simon C. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} less toxic than micron-sized CeO{sub 2}. • UV light filters prevented ROS generation by CeO{sub 2}. • ROS not toxic mechanism: CeO{sub 2} toxicity was similar in presence and absence of ROS. • Strong sorption of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in synthetic fresh water. • CeO{sub 2} sorption to cells was prevented and toxicity mitigated in the presence of DOC. - Abstract: The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10–34 nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO{sub 2} to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal–CeO{sub 2} interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by ‘switching off’ ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113–193 nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO{sub 2} dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6–28 mg/L compared with 59 mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100 mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2

  1. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M; Gold, Lois S.

    2008-01-01

    , and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified......, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude......Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe...

  2. IOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE AND TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS FOR BIOTA OF FRESHWATER BODIES (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hrytsyniak; N. Kolesnyk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sources of scientific information on biological functions of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd) and their negative effect on biota of fresh water bodies. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that the majority of the studied heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cum and Co) played an important role in vital functions of freshwater organisms. The significance of other studied heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) is probable or unknown. Besides bi...

  3. Toxicity of 35 trace elements in coal to freshwater biota: a data base with automated retrieval capabilities. [313 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Strand, R. H.; Anderson, R. M.

    1977-06-01

    Data are tabulated on the toxicity to freshwater biota of 35 trace elements with the potential for release to the environment from coal conversion effluents. The entire data base is presented on a microfiche appended to the document, in the interest of portability and accessibility. The data were gathered from a variety of research papers, compendia, and reviews. Details of water chemistry and test conditions are presented when available from the documents consulted. The data base may be used by referring directly to the tabulated data as they appear on the microfiche, or, with appropriate computer facilities, by manipulation (sorting, subsetting, or merging) of the data to meet the particular needs of the investigator. The data may be used as they appear in the data base, or the data base may be used to index the cited original papers.

  4. Combined toxicity of two crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) of Titania nanoparticles towards freshwater microalgae: Chlorella sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswarya, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Alex, Sruthi Ann; Iyer, Siddharth; Chaudhuri, Gouri [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chandrasekaran, Prathna Thanjavur [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Bhalerao, Gopalkrishna M.; Chakravarty, Sujoy [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Toxicity of two crystalline phases of titania NPs on freshwater microalgae studied. • (Anatase, Rutile) mixture showed additive and antagonistic effect on microalgae. • Rutile had more colloidal stability than anatase and binary mixtures. • ROS generation varied with the crystallinity of the NPs. • Ultrastructural damages observed in TEM images. - Abstract: In view of the increasing usage of anatase and rutile crystalline phases of titania NPs in the consumer products, their entry into the aquatic environment may pose a serious risk to the ecosystem. In the present study, the possible toxic impact of anatase and rutile nanoparticles (individually and in binary mixture) was investigated using freshwater microalgae, Chlorella sp. at low exposure concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) in freshwater medium under UV irradiation. Reduction of cell viability as well as a reduction in chlorophyll content were observed due to the presence of NPs. An antagonistic effect was noted at certain concentrations of binary mixture such as (0.25, 0.25), (0.25, 0.5), and (0.5, 0.5) mg/L, and an additive effect for the other combinations, (0.25, 1), (0.5, 0.25), (0.5, 1), (1, 0.25), (1, 0.5), and (1, 1) mg/L. The hydrodynamic size analyses in the test medium revealed that rutile NPs were more stable in lake water than the anatase and binary mixtures [at 6 h, the sizes of anatase (1 mg/L), rutile NPs (1 mg/L), and binary mixture (1, 1 mg/L) were 948.83 ± 35.01 nm, 555.74 ± 19.93 nm, and 1620.24 ± 237.87 nm, respectively]. The generation of oxidative stress was found to be strongly dependent on the crystallinity of the nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed damages in the nucleus and cell membrane of algal cells due to the interaction of anatase NPs, whereas rutile NPs were found to cause chloroplast and internal organelle damages. Mis-shaped chloroplasts, lack of nucleus, and starch-pyrenoid complex were noted in binary

  5. Modulatory effects of Zn2+ ions on the toxicity of citrate- and PVP-capped gold nanoparticles towards freshwater algae, Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswarya, V; Johnson, J B; Parashar, Abhinav; Pulimi, Mrudula; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are widely used for medical purposes, both in diagnostics as well as drug delivery, and hence are prone to release and distribution in the environment. Thus, we have explored the effects of GNPs with two distinct surface capping (citrate and PVP), and three different sizes (16, 27, and 37 nm) at 0.01-, 0.1-, and 1-mg L -1 concentrations on a predominant freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus in the sterile freshwater matrix. We have also investigated how an abundant metal ion from freshwater, i.e., Zn 2+ ions may modulate the effects of the selected GNPs (40 nm, citrate, and PVP capped). Preliminary toxicity results revealed that gold nanoparticles were highly toxic in comparison to zinc ions alone. A significant modulation in the toxicity of Zn ions was not noticed in the presence of GNPs. In contrast, zinc ions minimized the toxicity produced by GNPs (both CIT-37 and PVP-37), despite its individual toxicity. Approximately, about 42, 33, and 25% toxicity reduction was noted at 0.05-, 0.5-, and 5-mg L -1 Zn ions, respectively, for CIT-37 GNPs, while 31% (0.05 mg L -1 ), 24% (0.5 mg L -1 ), and 9% (5 mg L -1 ) of toxicity reduction were noted for PVP-37 GNPs. Maximum toxicity reduction was seen at 0.05 mg L -1 of Zn ions. Abbott modeling substantiated antagonistic effects offered by Zn 2+ ions on GNPs. Stability and sedimentation data revealed that the addition of zinc ions gradually induced the aggregation of NPs and in turn significantly reduced the toxicity of GNPs. Thus, the naturally existing ions like Zn 2+ have an ability to modulate the toxicity of GNPs in a real-world environment scenario.

  6. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  7. The Toxicity of Nitroguanidine and Photolyzed Nitroguandine to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    presently stored in lagoons and holding ponds; release of Wu could result from leakage, overflows, or leaching from the storage facilities. 2...111-112. *16. American Society for Testing and Materials. 1980. Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates

  8. Toxicity assessment of reference and natural freshwater sediments with the luminotox assay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dellamatrice, PM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available to exist between LuminoTox-Solid Phase Assay (Lum-SPA) and Microtox Solid Phase Assay (Mic-SPA) indicating that both tests display a similar toxicity response pattern for CRM sediments having differing contaminant profiles. The sediment elutriate Lum...

  9. Assessing the toxicity and risk of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early life stages of freshwater mussels in the Canadian province of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Rochfort, Q; McInnis, R; Exall, K; Gillis, P L

    2017-11-01

    In temperate urbanized areas where road salting is used for winter road maintenance, the level of chloride in surface waters has been increasing. While a number of studies have shown that the early-life stages of freshwater mussels are particularly sensitive to salt; few studies have examined the toxicity of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early-life stages of freshwater mussels to confirm that chloride is the driver of toxicity in this mixture. This study examines the acute toxicity of field-collected winter road runoff to the glochidia of wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) (48 h exposure) and newly released juvenile fatmucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) (road run-off created with moderately hard synthetic water (∼80 mg CaCO 3 /L) were 1177 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1011-1344 mg Cl - /L) and 2276 mg Cl - /L (95% CI: 1698-2854 mg Cl - /L), respectively. These effect concentrations correspond with the toxicity of chloride reported in other studies, indicating that chloride is likely the driver of toxicity in salt-impacted road-runoff, with other contaminants (e.g., metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) playing a de minimis role. Toxicity data from the current study and literature and concentrations of chloride in the surface waters of Ontario were used to conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of chloride to early-life stage freshwater mussels. The assessment indicated that chronic exposure to elevated chloride levels could pose a risk to freshwater mussels; further investigation is warranted to ensure that the most sensitive organisms are protected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  11. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

    2013-10-01

    Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  14. Experimental toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium in freshwater periphytic diatoms in relation with biofilm maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Thi Thuy; Morin, Soizic; Coste, Michel; Herlory, Olivier; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnes; Boudou, Alain

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine cadmium accumulation in freshwater biofilm, its effects on biofilm development and on diatom community structure in laboratory experimental conditions. A suspension of a biofilm originated from the Riou-Mort River (South West France) was inoculated into three experimental units containing clean glass substrates under laboratory conditions. Settling and already developed biofilms were exposed to a Cd concentration of 100 μg L -1 . Metal accumulation (total and intracellular metal content) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed. Both total and intracellular Cd accumulated by the biofilm throughout the experiment increased with duration of metal exposure. Biofilms in the course of maturation were showed higher Cd content and less effective development than settled biofilms. However diatom communities in younger biofilms exposed to Cd increased their tolerance to Cd by a highly significant development of Nitzschia palea. In contrast, Cd exposure had different effect in installed biofilm and taxonomic composition. These results indicate that mature biofilm may limit Cd accumulation into its architecture and protect diatom communities from the effects of metals.

  15. Toxicity of triphenyltin and tributyltin to the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in a new sediment biotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duft, Martina; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Tillmann, Michaela; Markert, Bernd; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, the xeno-androgens triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT), were investigated in a new whole-sediment biotest with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Artificial sediments were spiked with seven concentrations, ranging from 10 to 500 microg nominal TPT-Sn/kg dry weight and TBT-Sn/kg dry weight, respectively. We analyzed the responses of the test species after two, four, and eight weeks exposure. For both compounds, P. antipodarum exhibited a sharp decline in the number of embryos sheltered in its brood pouch in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in comparison to the control sediment. The number of new, still unshelled embryos turned out to be the most sensitive parameter. The lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was equivalent to the lowest administered concentration (10 microg/kg of each test compound) for most parameters and thus no no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) could be established. The calculation of effect concentrations (EC10) resulted in even lower values for both substances (EC10 after eight weeks for unshelled embryos: 0.03 microg TPT-Sn/kg, EC10 after four weeks for unshelled embryos: 0.98 microg TBT-Sn/kg). Our results indicate that P. antipodarum is highly sensitive to both endocrine disruptors TPT and TBT at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  16. Acute toxic responses of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, to methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.B.; Morita, M.; Ragin, J.; Best, J. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Toxic responses of planaria to various aquatic habitat concentrations of methylmercury chloride (MMC) were investigated. One hundred percent lethality occurred within 5 h in 2 ppM MMC, 24 h in 1 ppM MMC, and 5 days in 0.5 ppM MMC. No deaths occurred in 0.2 ppM MMC over a 10 day period, however, non-lethal toxic responses were observed. Varying degrees of head resorption, progressing caudally from the snout were observed. With continuing exposure, partial head regeneration and recovery toward more normal appearance occurred by 10 days. Teratogenic effects were observed in surgical decapitation experiments. Head regeneration was retarded in 0.1 and 0.2 ppM MMC. Malformations, visible lesions, or gross behavioral abnormalities were produced by 2 week exposure of planaria to concentrations of 20 ppB MMC or lower. (RJC)

  17. Two stressors and a community - Effects of hydrological disturbance and a toxicant on freshwater zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfli, Nathalie C. [Department of System Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Knillmann, Saskia [Department of System Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Ecosystem Analyses, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Liess, Matthias [Department of System Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Noskov, Yury A. [Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Frunze St. 11, 630091 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schaefer, Ralf B. [Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Beketov, Mikhail A., E-mail: mikhail.beketov@ufz.de [Department of System Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Climate change models predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme fluctuations in water level in aquatic habitats. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the combined effects of hydrological fluctuations and toxicants on aquatic biological communities. We investigated the individual and combined effects of the insecticide esfenvalerate and recurring fluctuations in water level on zooplankton communities in a system of 55 outdoor pond microcosms. The communities were exposed to esfenvalerate contamination as a single pulse (at 0.03, 0.3, or 3 {mu}g/L) and gradual removal of water and its subsequent replacement over three cycles and monitored until 84 days after contamination. The results showed that the sensitivities of the community and its constituent populations to the toxicant were increased by the hydrological stress. Specifically, for both the community structure and abundance of Daphnia spp. the lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) were 0.03 and 0.3 {mu}g/L for the series with fluctuating and constant water levels, respectively. Despite these differences in sensitivity, the interactive effects of the two stressors were found to be additive for both the community structure and the abundance of the most affected species. Presumably, it was not possible to detect synergism due to the strong individual effects of the water level fluctuations. Recovery times in the series exposed to the highest pesticide concentration were 64 and 55 days under fluctuating and constant water level regimes, respectively. Competition and water quality are suggested to be the major factors that underlie the observed effects of fluctuations in the water level. For the ecological risk assessment of toxicants, the present results suggest that (i) community sensitivity may vary substantially, depending on the environmental context, and (ii) this variability can be assessed experimentally to derive safety factors (coefficients used to avoid unexpected effects

  18. Influence of Cyanobacterial Bloom on Freshwater Biocoenosis. Use of Bioassays for Cyanobacterial Microcystins Toxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues presented in this study concern a very important problem of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in surface water used for water supply purposes. The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cyanotoxic risk in the catchment area of the Obrzyca River (including Sławskie lake which is the beginning of the river, which is a source of drinking water for the inhabitants of Zielona Góra. In order to evaluate toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom it was conducted toxicological testing using aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Dugesia tigrina and heterotrophic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test samples were collected from May to October, 2012. The most toxic was a sample collected from Lake Sławskie on 20th October when cyanobacteria bloom with a predominance of Microcystis aeruginosa occurred and the amount of microcystins was the largest. The methanol extract of the sample was toxic only above a concentration of 6·103 mg·dm-3. The lethal concentration (48-h LC 50 for Daphnia magna was 3.09·103 and for Dugesia tigrina (240-h LC 50 1.51·103 mg·dm-3 of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR. The same extract stimulated growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis cells.

  19. Influence of Cyanobacterial Bloom on Freshwater Biocoenosis. Use of Bioassays for Cyanobacterial Microcystins Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Czyżewska, Wanda

    2017-03-01

    The issues presented in this study concern a very important problem of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in surface water used for water supply purposes. The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cyanotoxic risk in the catchment area of the Obrzyca River (including Sławskie lake which is the beginning of the river), which is a source of drinking water for the inhabitants of Zielona Góra. In order to evaluate toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom it was conducted toxicological testing using aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Dugesia tigrina) and heterotrophic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens). Test samples were collected from May to October, 2012. The most toxic was a sample collected from Lake Sławskie on 20th October when cyanobacteria bloom with a predominance of Microcystis aeruginosa occurred and the amount of microcystins was the largest. The methanol extract of the sample was toxic only above a concentration of 6·103 mg·dm-3. The lethal concentration (48-h LC 50) for Daphnia magna was 3.09·103 and for Dugesia tigrina (240-h LC 50) 1.51·103 mg·dm-3 of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR). The same extract stimulated growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis cells.

  20. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Effects of temperature on the acute toxicity of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, and Hg) to the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J.; Torreblanca, A.; Nunez, A.

    1987-05-01

    Chromium, an essential trace element for humans and animals is involved in normal carbohydrate metabolism; however, it is toxic at high concentrations. There is no evidence that cadmium and mercury are biologically essential but their toxicity for organisms is well known. Both cause toxic effects at low concentrations to most organisms, especially in combination with other environmental variables such as temperature. Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and waste waters in this area. In 1978, the American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii appeared in lake Albufera and in the surrounding rice fields. Without adequate sanitary control, the crayfish is presently being fished commercially for human consumption. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the degree of toxicity of various heavy metals (chromium, cadmium and mercury) to freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii at various temperatures.

  2. Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Wu, Xiangtian; Li, Yundong; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-04-15

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are susceptible to fluoride contamination of their environment. In this study, we examined the tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Carp were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoride (35-124 mg/L) and sampled at 30, 60 and 90 days. The accumulation of fluoride in the tissues increased with the level and duration of exposure. Steady state was not achieved under the experimental conditions. The gills accumulated the highest levels of fluoride followed by the liver>brain>kidney>muscle>intestine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed for the enzyme activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the gills after the fish were exposed for 90 days. Also, accumulation of fluoride was associated with the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the gill tissues, suggesting that fluoride promoted oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations revealed injuries to gill tissues and chloride cells, with the severity of injury increasing with exposure concentration. These results suggest that chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride may induce toxicity in the common carp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  4. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Rule, K.L.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.F.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion

  5. Metabolomics to Explore Imidacloprid-Induced Toxicity in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufi, Sara; Stel, Jente M; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja H; Leonards, Pim E G

    2015-12-15

    Modern toxicology is seeking new testing methods to better understand toxicological effects. One of the most concerning chemicals is the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Although imidacloprid is designed to target insects, recent studies have shown adverse effects on nontarget species. Metabolomics was applied to investigate imidacloprid-induced sublethal toxicity in the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The snails (n = 10 snails) were exposed for 10 days to increasing imidacloprid concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L). The comparison between control and exposure groups highlighted the involvement and perturbation of many biological pathways. The levels of several metabolites belonging to different metabolite classes were significantly changed by imidacloprid exposure. A change in the amino acids and nucleotide metabolites like tryptophan, proline, phenylalanine, uridine, and guanosine was found. Many fatty acids were down-regulated, and the levels of the polyamines, spermidine and putrescine, were found to be increased which is an indication of neuron cell injury. A turnover increase between choline and acetylcholine led us to hypothesize an increase in cholinergic gene expression to overcome imidacloprid binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Metabolomics revealed imidacloprid induced metabolic changes at low and environmentally relevant concentration in a nontarget species and generated a novel mechanistic hypothesis.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Tribulus terrestris extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Bupesh, G; Stalin, A; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The potential protective role of Tribulus terrestris in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The effect of oral exposure of acetaminophen (500 mg/kg) in O. mossambicus at 24-h duration was evaluated. The plant extract (250 mg/kg) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. It was judged from the tissue-damaging level and antioxidant levels in liver, gill, muscle and kidney tissues. Further acetaminophen impact induced a significant rise in the tissue-damaging level, and the antioxidant level was discernible from the enzyme activity modulations such as glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidase and reduced glutathione. The levels of all these enzymes have significantly (p terrestris extract (250 kg/mg). Histopathological changes of liver, gill and muscle samples were compared with respective controls. The results of the present study specify the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of T. terrestris against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in freshwater fish, O. mossambicus.

  7. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  8. Genetically modified cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    diazotrophic cultures of the cyanobacterium N. muscorum in quantities of 5 .... growth media and then used for estimation of their characteristics. Each reading is ..... 1224–1232. Christian J H B 1950 The influence of nutrition on the water rela-.

  9. Effects of salinity acclimation on the endocrine disruption and acute toxicity of bifenthrin in freshwater and euryhaline strains of Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riar, Navneet; Crago, Jordan; Jiang, Weiying; Maryoung, Lindley A; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin is frequently detected at ng/L concentrations in tributaries of the San Francisco Bay Delta. The estuary is also experiencing increasing salinity through climate change and water redirection. To evaluate the impacts of hypersaline conditions on bifenthrin toxicity in anadromous salmonids of the San Francisco Bay Delta (CA, USA), a 14-d laboratory exposure was performed using 2 strains of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) acclimated to freshwater and to 8 g/L and 17 g/L salinity. The fish were then exposed to nominal concentrations of 0 µg/L, 0.1 µg/L, and 1.5 µg/L bifenthrin. Rainbow trout exhibited significant mortality following exposure to 1.5 µg/L (1.07 ± 0.35 µg/L measured) bifenthrin in freshwater. Elevated levels of Na⁺ /K⁺ adenosine triphosphatase α1A mRNA subunit expression was observed in the gill of rainbow trout acclimated to hypersaline conditions relative to freshwater animals. No significant difference was noted in Na⁺ /K⁺ adenosine triphosphatase subunit levels in brains of either strain in freshwater or hypersaline conditions. Likewise, significant differences were not observed in plasma vitellogenin or steroid hormone concentrations in either strain whether maintained in freshwater or saltwater. Saltwater acclimation significantly reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-catalyzed biotransformation of bifenthrin in liver microsomes of rainbow trout but not of steelhead. The present study showed that, relative to steelhead, rainbow trout have different responses to bifenthrin acute toxicity as well as different rates of hepatic bifenthrin biotransformation and regulation of Na⁺ /K⁺ adenosine triphosphatase subunits in gills. These data indicate that significant differences exist between the strains and that animal life history may have important effects on the susceptibility of each strain to environmental contaminants. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  11. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  12. Toxic effect of Cr(VI) in presence of n-TiO2 and n-Al2O3 particles towards freshwater microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity and toxicity of the soluble toxicants in the presence of the engineered nanomaterials is not well explored. In this study, the probable effects of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles (n-TiO2, n-Al2O3) on the toxicity of Cr(VI) were assessed with the dominant freshwater algae, Scenedesmus obliquus, in a low range of exposure concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 1μg/mL). In the presence of 0.05μg/mL n-TiO2, the toxicity of Cr(VI) decreased considerably, which was presumably due to the Cr(VI) adsorption on the nanoparticle surface leading to its aggregation and precipitation. The elevated n-TiO2 concentrations (0.5 and 1μg/mL) did not significantly influence Cr(VI) bio-availability, and a dose dependent toxicity of Cr(VI) was observed. On the other hand, n-Al2O3 did not have any significant effect on the Cr(VI) toxicity. The microscopic observations presented additional information on the morphological changes of the algal cells in the presence of the binary toxicants. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggested contribution of oxidative stress on toxicity and LDH release confirmed membrane permeability of algal cells upon stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential risk of acute toxicity induced by AgI cloud seeding on soil and freshwater biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, C; Costa, G; Ortiz, L T; Nande, M; Rodríguez-Membibre, M L; Martín, M; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2016-11-01

    Silver iodide is one of the most common nucleating materials used in cloud seeding. Previous cloud seeding studies have concluded that AgI is not practically bioavailable in the environment but instead remains in soils and sediments such that the free Ag amounts are likely too low to induce a toxicological effect. However, none of these studies has considered the continued use of this practice on the same geographical areas and thus the potential cumulative effect of environmental AgI. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of acute toxicity caused by AgI exposure under laboratory conditions at the concentration expected in the environment after repeated treatments on selected soil and aquatic biota. To achieve the aims, the viability of soil bacteria Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas stutzeri and the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to different silver iodide concentrations have been evaluated. Freshwater green algae Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa were exposed to silver iodide in culture medium, and their cell viability and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Additionally, BOD5 exertion and the Microtox® toxicity test were included in the battery of toxicological assays. Both tests exhibited a moderate AgI adverse effect at the highest concentration (12.5µM) tested. However, AgI concentrations below 2.5µM increased BOD5. Although no impact on the growth and survival endpoints in the soil worm C. elegans was recorded after AgI exposures, a moderate decrease in cell viability was found for both of the assessed soil bacterial strains at the studied concentrations. Comparison between the studied species showed that the cyanobacteria were more sensitive than green algae. Exposure to AgI at 0.43μM, the reference value used in monitoring environmental impact, induced a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity that is primarily associated with the respiration (80% inhibition) and, to a lesser

  14. Temporal assessment of copper speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in UK freshwaters using chemical equilibrium and biotic ligand models: Implications for compliance with copper environmental quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathouri, Maria; Korre, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Although significant progress has been made in understanding how environmental factors modify the speciation, bioavailability and toxicity of metals such as copper in aquatic environments, the current methods used to establish water quality standards do not necessarily consider the different geological and geochemical characteristics of a given site and the factors that affect copper fate, bioavailability potential and toxicity. In addition, the temporal variation in the concentration and bioavailable metal fraction is also important in freshwater systems. The work presented in this paper illustrates the temporal and seasonal variability of a range of water quality parameters, and Cu speciation, bioavailability and toxicity at four freshwaters sites in the UK. Rivers Coquet, Cree, Lower Clyde and Eden (Kent) were selected to cover a broad range of different geochemical environments and site characteristics. The monitoring data used covered a period of around six years at almost monthly intervals. Chemical equilibrium modelling was used to study temporal variations in Cu speciation and was combined with acute toxicity modelling to assess Cu bioavailability for two aquatic species, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The estimated copper bioavailability, toxicity levels and the corresponding ecosystem risks were analysed in relation to key water quality parameters (alkalinity, pH and DOC). Although copper concentrations did not vary much during the sampling period or between the seasons at the different sites; copper bioavailability varied markedly. In addition, through the chronic-Cu BLM-based on the voluntary risk assessment approach, the potential environmental risk in terms of the chronic toxicity was assessed. A much higher likelihood of toxicity effects was found during the cold period at all sites. It is suggested that besides the metal (copper) concentration in the surface water environment, the variability and seasonality of other important water quality

  15. Comparative investigation of toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd-based quantum dots and Cd salt in freshwater plant Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlitbová, Pavlína; Novotný, Karel; Pořízka, Pavel; Klus, Jakub; Lubal, Přemysl; Zlámalová-Gargošová, Helena; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity of two different sources of cadmium, i.e. CdCl 2 and Cd-based Quantum Dots (QDs), for freshwater model plant Lemna minor L. Cadmium telluride QDs were capped with two coating ligands: glutathione (GSH) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Growth rate inhibition and final biomass inhibition of L. minor after 168-h exposure were monitored as toxicity endpoints. Dose-response curves for Cd toxicity and EC50 168h values were statistically evaluated for all sources of Cd to uncover possible differences among the toxicities of tested compounds. Total Cd content and its bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in L. minor after the exposure period were also determined to distinguish Cd bioaccumulation patterns with respect to different test compounds. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with lateral resolution of 200µm was employed in order to obtain two-dimensional maps of Cd spatial distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results show that GSH- and MPA-capped Cd-based QDs have similar toxicity for L. minor, but are significantly less toxic than CdCl 2 . However, both sources of Cd lead to similar patterns of Cd bioaccumulation and distribution in L. minor fronds. Our results are in line with previous reports that the main mediators of Cd toxicity and bioaccumulation in aquatic plants are Cd 2+ ions dissolved from Cd-based QDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioavailability and toxicity of metals from a contaminated sediment by acid mine drainage: linking exposure-response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea to contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    Streams and rivers strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) have legal vacuum in terms of assessing the water toxicity, since the use of conventional environmental quality biomarkers is not possible due to the absence of macroinvertebrate organisms. The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has been widely used as a biomonitor of metal contamination by AMD in freshwater systems. However, these clams are considered an invasive species in Spain and the transplantation in the field study is not allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency. To evaluate the use of the freshwater bivalve C. fluminea as a potential biomonitor for sediments contaminated by AMD, the metal bioavailability and toxicity were investigated in laboratory by exposure of clams to polluted sediments for 14 days. The studied sediments were classified as slightly contaminated with As, Cr, and Ni; moderately contaminated with Co; considerably contaminated with Pb; and heavily contaminated with Cd, Zn, and specially Cu, being reported as very toxic to Microtox. On the fourth day of the exposure, the clams exhibited an increase in concentration of Ga, Ba, Sb, and Bi (more than 100 %), followed by Co, Ni, and Pb (more than 60 %). After the fourth day, a decrease in concentration was observed for almost all metals studied except Ni. An allometric function was used to determine the relationship between the increases in metal concentration in soft tissue and the increasing bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments.

  17. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  18. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@ugent.be; Nys, C., E-mail: chnys.nys@ugent.be; Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Chronic toxicity of Pb varied 4-fold among three algae species. • The use of an organic P avoided Pb precipitation in the experiments. • pH and Dissolved Organic Carbon strongly affect Pb toxicity, Ca and Mg do not. • A bioavailability model was developed that accurately predicts toxicity. • Algae may become the most sensitive species to Pb above pH 7.4. - Abstract: Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-h) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing 4 mg fulvic acid (FA)/L and containing organic phosphorous (P), i.e. glycerol-2-phosphate, instead of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} to prevent lead-phosphate mineral precipitation. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4-fold more sensitive to Pb than Chlorella kesslerii, with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the middle. The influence of medium physico-chemistry was therefore investigated in detail with P. subcapitata. In synthetic test media, higher concentrations of fulvic acid or lower pH protected against toxicity of (filtered) Pb to P. subcapitata, while effects of increased Ca or Mg on Pb toxicity were less clear. When toxicity was expressed on a free Pb{sup 2+} ion activity basis, a log-linear, 260-fold increase of toxicity was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.6. Effects of fulvic acid were calculated to be much more limited (1.9-fold) and were probably even non-existent (depending on the affinity constant for Pb binding to fulvic acid that was used for calculating speciation). A relatively simple bioavailability model, consisting of a log-linear pH effect on Pb{sup 2+} ion toxicity linked to the geochemical speciation model Visual Minteq (with the default NICA-Donnan description of metal and proton binding to fulvic acid), provided relatively

  19. Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: Development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Nys, C.; Janssen, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronic toxicity of Pb varied 4-fold among three algae species. • The use of an organic P avoided Pb precipitation in the experiments. • pH and Dissolved Organic Carbon strongly affect Pb toxicity, Ca and Mg do not. • A bioavailability model was developed that accurately predicts toxicity. • Algae may become the most sensitive species to Pb above pH 7.4. - Abstract: Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-h) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing 4 mg fulvic acid (FA)/L and containing organic phosphorous (P), i.e. glycerol-2-phosphate, instead of PO 4 3− to prevent lead-phosphate mineral precipitation. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4-fold more sensitive to Pb than Chlorella kesslerii, with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the middle. The influence of medium physico-chemistry was therefore investigated in detail with P. subcapitata. In synthetic test media, higher concentrations of fulvic acid or lower pH protected against toxicity of (filtered) Pb to P. subcapitata, while effects of increased Ca or Mg on Pb toxicity were less clear. When toxicity was expressed on a free Pb 2+ ion activity basis, a log-linear, 260-fold increase of toxicity was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.6. Effects of fulvic acid were calculated to be much more limited (1.9-fold) and were probably even non-existent (depending on the affinity constant for Pb binding to fulvic acid that was used for calculating speciation). A relatively simple bioavailability model, consisting of a log-linear pH effect on Pb 2+ ion toxicity linked to the geochemical speciation model Visual Minteq (with the default NICA-Donnan description of metal and proton binding to fulvic acid), provided relatively accurate toxicity

  20. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L -1 ). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  1. Toxicity of TiO2, in nanoparticle or bulk form to freshwater and marine microalgae under visible light and UV-A radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; Yeste, M P; Gatica, J M; Blasco, J

    2017-08-01

    Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) has become a part of our daily life and the high environmental concentrations predicted to accumulate in aquatic ecosystems are cause for concern. Although TiO 2 has only limited reactivity, at the nanoscale level its physico-chemical properties and toxicity are different compared with bulk material. Phytoplankton is a key trophic level in fresh and marine ecosystems, and the toxicity provoked by these nanoparticles can affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Two microalgae species, one freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and the other marine (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), have been selected for testing the toxicity of TiO 2 in NP and conventional bulk form and, given its photo-catalytic properties, the effect of UV-A was also checked. Growth inhibition, quantum yield reduction, increase of intracellular ROS production, membrane cell damage and production of exo-polymeric substances (EPS) were selected as variables to measure. TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 show a relationship between the size of agglomerates and time in freshwater and saltwater, but not in ultrapure water. Under two treatments, UV-A (6 h per day) and no UV-A exposure, NPs triggered stronger cytotoxic responses than bulk material. TiO 2 NPs were also associated with greater production of reactive oxygen species and damage to membrane. However, microalgae exposed to TiO 2 NPs and bulk TiO 2 under UV-A were found to be more sensitive than in the visible light condition. The marine species (P. tricornutum) was more sensitive than the freshwater species, and higher Ti internalization was measured. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) were released from microalgae in the culture media, in the presence of TiO 2 in both forms. This may be a possible defense mechanism by these cells, which would enhance processes of homoagglomeration and settling, and thus reduce bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh-Luu; Shimizu, Kazuya; Dao, Thanh-Son; Hong-Do, Lan-Chi; Utsumi, Motoo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana . Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin)-LR eq  L -1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs) by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g -1 dry weight (DW) of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g -1 DW of covalently bound MC). Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg -1  day -1 ), suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  3. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Luu Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana. Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin-LReq L−1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g−1 dry weight (DW of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g−1 DW of covalently bound MC. Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg−1 day−1, suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  4. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  5. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Das, Sangita

    2009-01-01

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC 50 ) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC 50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC 50 s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK sp ), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC 50 s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC 50 s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  6. Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ina; Bachmann, Jean; Kühnen, Ute; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Maletzki, Dirk; Schlüter, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the growth inhibition effect of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on four photoautotrophic aquatic species: the freshwater microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae, the monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, and the dicotyledonous macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Both antibiotics, which act by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, demonstrated high toxicity to A. flos-aquae and L. minor and moderate to slight toxicity to D. subspicatus and M. spicatum. The cyanobacterium was the most sensitive species with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 173 and 10.2 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Lemna minor proved to be similarly sensitive, with EC50 values of 107 and 62.5 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. While enrofloxacin was more toxic to green algae, ciprofloxacin was more toxic to cyanobacteria. Calculated EC50s for D. subspicatus were 5,568 µg/L and >8,042 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. These data, as well as effect data from the literature, were compared with predicted and reported environmental concentrations. For two of the four species, a risk was identified at ciprofloxacin concentrations found in surface waters, sewage treatment plant influents and effluents, as well as in hospital effluents. For ciprofloxacin the results of the present study indicate a risk even at the predicted environmental concentration. In contrast, for enrofloxacin no risk was identified at predicted and measured concentrations. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Effect of nitrogen on cellular production and release of the neurotoxin anatoxin-a in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGagnon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatoxin-a (ANTX is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales. We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146 µg/L and 1683 µg•g-1 dry weight at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nutrient stress as described recently for another cyanotoxin (microcystin.

  8. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bere, Taurai; Tundisi, Jose Galizia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L -1 Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L -1 Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L -1 ) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L -1 ) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being sequestered compared to Cr

  9. Toxicity and sorption kinetics of dissolved cadmium and chromium III on tropical freshwater phytoperiphyton in laboratory mesocosm experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bere, Taurai, E-mail: taubere@yahoo.com [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Univeridade Federal De Sao Carlos, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tundisi, Jose Galizia [Instituto Internacional de Ecologia, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the interactive effects of Cd and Cr III on tropical phytoperiphyton community growth, metal sorption kinetics, as well as Cd and Cr mixtures toxicity to diatom assemblages in laboratory mesocosm experiments. A natural phytoperiphyton community sampled from the Monjolinho River (South of Brazil) was inoculated into seven experimental systems containing clean glass substrates for phytoperiphyton colonization. The communities were exposed to mixtures of dissolved Cd and Cr concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg.L{sup -1} Cd and 0.05 and 0.2 mg.L{sup -1} Cr. Phytoperiphyton chlorophyll a, ash-free dry mass, growth rate, diatom cell density and diatom community composition were analyzed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of colonization. High Cd concentration (0.1 mg.L{sup -1}) affects phytoperiphyton growth while high concentration of Cr (0.2 mg.L{sup -1}) decreased the toxic effects of Cd on phytoperiphyton growth demonstrating the importance of studying metal mixtures in field studies. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kuetzing) Czarnecki, and Nitzschia palea (Kuetzing) Smith and reduction of sensitive ones like Fragilaria capucina Desmazieres, Navicula cryptocephala (Grunow) Cleve, Encyonema silesiacum (Bleisch) Mann, Eunotia bilunaris (Ehrenberg) Mills and Gomphonema parvulum (Kuetzing) Kuetzing), of phytoperiphyton communities with increasing Cd and Cr concentrations and exposure duration have been demonstrated in this study making phytoperiphyton communities appropriate monitors of metal mixtures in aquatic systems. Good Cd and Cr accumulation capacity by phytoperiphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular metal content in phytoperiphyton reflecting the effects of dissolved concentrations of metal in the culture media and exposure duration. Increase in both Cd and Cr reduced sequestration of each other, with generally more Cd being

  10. Arsenic Demethylation by a C·As Lyase in Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Ye, Jun; Xue, Xi-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Arsenic, a ubiquitous toxic substance, exists mainly as inorganic forms in the environment. It is perceived that organoarsenicals can be demethylated and degraded into inorganic arsenic by microorganisms. Few studies have focused on the mechanism of arsenic demethylation in bacteria. Here, we investigated arsenic demethylation in a typical freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. This bacterium was able to demethylate monomethylarsenite [MAs(III)] rapidly to arsenite [As(III)] and also had the ability to demethylate monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] to As(III). The NsarsI encoding a C·As lyase responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was cloned from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and heterologously expressed in an As-hypersensitive strain Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC). Expression of NsarsI was shown to confer MAs(III) resistance through arsenic demethylation. The purified NsArsI was further identified and functionally characterized in vitro. NsArsI existed mainly as the trimeric state, and the kinetic data were well-fit to the Hill equation with K0.5 = 7.55 ± 0.33 μM for MAs(III), Vmax = 0.79 ± 0.02 μM min(-1), and h = 2.7. Both of the NsArsI truncated derivatives lacking the C-terminal 10 residues (ArsI10) or 23 residues (ArsI23) had a reduced ability of MAs(III) demethylation. These results provide new insights for understanding the important role of cyanobacteria in arsenic biogeochemical cycling in the environment.

  11. Exiguobacterium mediated arsenic removal and its protective effect against arsenic induced toxicity and oxidative damage in freshwater fish, Channa striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and its removal from contaminated water has become a global challenge. The use of bacteria in this regard finds a promising solution. In the present study, Exiguobacterium sp. As-9, which is an arsenic resistant bacterium, was selected with respect to its arsenic removal efficiency. Quantification of arsenic in the water treated with bacterium showed that Exiguobacterium efficiently removed up to 99% of arsenic in less than 20 h. In order to reveal the possible effect of this bacterium in removal of arsenic from water and protecting fishes from the detrimental effects of arsenic, we initiated a range of studies on fresh water fish, Channa striata. It was observed that the fishes introduced into bacteria treated water displayed no symptoms of arsenic toxicity which was marked by a decreased oxidative damage, whereas the fishes exposed to arsenic revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the oxidative stress together with the elevated levels of malondialdehyde. Determination of the bioaccumulation of arsenic in the liver tissues of C. striata using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS revealed an increased As(III accumulation in the fishes exposed to arsenic whereas the arsenic level in the control and bacteria treated fishes were found below the detectable limit. In conclusion, this study presents the strategies of bacterial arsenic removal with possible directions for future research.

  12. Mixture toxicity of three photosystem II inhibitors (atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron) toward photosynthesis of freshwater phytoplankton studied in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Escher, Beate; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2008-09-01

    Mixture toxicity of three herbicides with the same mode of action was studied in a long-term outdoor mesocosm study. Photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton as the direct target site of the herbicides was chosen as physiological response parameter. The three photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron were applied as 30% hazardous concentrations (HC30), which we derived from species sensitivity distributions calculated on the basis of EC50 growth inhibition data. The respective herbicide mixture comprised 1/3 of the HC30 of each herbicide. Short-term laboratory experiments revealed that the HC30 values corresponded to EC40 values when regarding photosynthetic activity as the response parameter. In the outdoor mesocosm experiment, effects of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron and their mixture on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton were investigated during a five-week period with constant exposure and a subsequent five-month postexposure period when the herbicides dissipated. The results demonstrated that mixture effects determined at the beginning of constant exposure can be described by concentration addition since the mixture elicited a phytotoxic effect comparable to the single herbicides. Declining effects on photosynthetic activity during the experiment might be explained by both a decrease in water herbicide concentrations and by the induction of community tolerance.

  13. Prediction of the bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in freshwaters. Comparison between speciation models and passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Jordi; Roig, Neus; Giménez Papiol, Gemma; Pérez-Gallego, Elena; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this work is to predict the bioavailability of the Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cr and Se in 6 sites within the Ebro River basin. In situ Diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGTs) and classical sampling have been used and compared. The potentially bioavailable fractions of each PTE was estimated by modelling their chemical speciation using three programs (WHAM 7.0, Visual MINTEQ 3.1 and Bio-met), following the suggestions published in recent European regulations. Results of the equilibrium-based models WHAM 7.0 and Visual MINTEQ 3.1 indicate that As, Cd, Ni, Se and Zn, predominate as free metals ions or forming inorganic soluble complexes. Copper, Pb and Hg bioavailability is conditioned by their affinity to dissolved humic substances. According to Visual MINTEQ 3.1, Cr is subjected to redox reactions, being Cr (VI) present (at low concentrations) in the studied rivers. According to Bio-met model, the bioavailability of Cu and Zn is highly influenced by soluble organic matter and water hardness, respectively. For most PTEs, the bioavailability estimated by deploying DGTs in river waters tends to be slightly lower than the estimation obtained with speciation models, since in real conditions more environmental factors take place comparing to the finite number of parameters considered in models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Linking embryo toxicity with genotoxic responses in the freshwater snail Physa acuta: single exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, fluoxetine, bisphenol A, vinclozolin and exposure to binary mixtures with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Aparicio, Natalia; Fernández, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Genotoxic effects on fauna after waterborne pollutant exposure have been demonstrated by numerous research programmes. Less effort has been focused on establishing relationship between genotoxicity and long-term responses at higher levels of biological organization. Taking into account that embryos may be more sensitive indicators of reproductive impairment than alterations in fertility, we have developed two assays in multiwell plates to address correlations between embryo toxicity and genotoxicity. The potential teratogenicity was assessed by analyzing abnormal development and mortality of Physa acuta at embryonic stage. Genotoxicity was measured by the micronucleus (MN) test using embryonic cells. Our results showed that linkage between genotoxicity and embryo toxicity depends on mechanisms of action of compounds under study. Embryo toxic responses showed a clear dose-related tendency whereas no clear dose-dependent effect was observed in micronucleus induction. The higher embryo toxicity was produced by benzo(a)pyrene exposure followed by fluoxetine and bisphenol A. Vinclozolin was the lower embryo toxic compound. Binary mixtures with BaP always resulted in higher embryo toxicity than single exposures but antagonistic effects were observed for MN induction. Benzo(a)pyrene produced the higher MN induction at 0.04 mg/L, which also produced clear embryo toxic effects. Fluoxetine did not induce cytogenetic effects but 0.25mg/L altered embryonic development. Bisphenol A significantly reduced hatchability at 0.5mg/L while MN induction appeared with higher treatments than those that start causing teratogenicity. Much higher concentration of vinclozolin (5mg/L) reduced hatchability and induced maximum MN formation. In conclusion, while validating one biomarker of genotoxicity and employing one ecologically relevant effect, we have evaluated the relative sensitivity of a freshwater mollusc for a range of chemicals. The embryo toxicity test is a starting point for the

  15. Substance-specific water quality criteria for the protection of South African freshwater ecosystems: methods for derivation and initial results for some inorganic toxic substances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems form the resource base on which water users, such as the agricultural, recreational, domestic and industrial sectors depend. These essential resources therefore need to be protected and maintained in a healthy state...

  16. Nitrogen uptake dynamics of a persistent cyanobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, persistent cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more frequent and are often associated with effects of global climate change. In June 2009, a widespread bloom of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp., appeared in North Lake and False Bay of Lake St Lucia – a large (360 km2) estuarine lake system ...

  17. Photoacclimation of cultured strains of the cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bañares-España, E.; Kromkamp, J.C.; López-Rodas, V.; Costas, E.; Flores-Moya, A.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa forms blooms that can consist of colonies. We have investigated how M.aeruginosa acclimatizes to changing light conditions such as can occur during blooms. Three different strains were exposed to two irradiance levels: lower (LL) and higher (HL) than the

  18. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  19. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epi......Current ecotoxicological research on particle associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin....... MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10% for bifenthrin and 70% for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration–response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced...

  20. Two New Lyngbyatoxin Derivatives from the Cyanobacterium, Moorea producens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Moorea producens, is a known causative organism of food poisoning and seaweed dermatitis (also known as “swimmer’s itch”. Two new toxic compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies, as well as optical rotations and CD spectra indicated two new lyngbyatoxin derivatives, 2-oxo-3(R-hydroxy-lyngbyatoxin A (1 and 2-oxo-3(R-hydroxy-13-N-desmethyl-lyngbyatoxin A (2. The cytotoxicity and lethal activities of 1 and 2 were approximately 10- to 150-times less potent than lyngbyatoxin A. Additionally, the binding activities of 1 and 2 possessed 10,000-times lower affinity for the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. These findings suggest that these new lyngbyatoxin derivatives may mediate their acute toxicities through a non-PKC activation pathway.

  1. Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Rastogi, A.

    2008-01-01

    This communication presents results pertaining to the sorptive and desorptive studies carried out on chromium(VI) removal onto nonviable freshwater cyanobacterium (Nostoc muscorum) biomass. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of chromium(VI), such as the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of biosorbent, the contact time with the biosorbent, the temperature for the removal of chromium, the effect of light metal ions and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of chromium on to cyanobacterial species obeyed both the first and the second-order rate equation and the experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 22.92 mg/g at 25 o C and pH 3.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and the values of thermodynamic parameters of the process were calculated. Various properties of the cyanobacterium, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, surface area calculation by BET method and surface functionality by FTIR. Sorption-desorption of chromium into inorganic solutions and distilled water were observed and this indicated the biosorbent could be regenerated using 0.1 M HNO 3 and EDTA with upto 80% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cyanobacterial biomass N. muscorum could be used as an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of chromium(VI) bearing wastewater

  2. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  3. Stress and toxicity of biologically important transition metals (Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on phytoplankton in a tropical freshwater system: An investigation with pigment analysis by HPLC

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Acharyya, T.; Bandyopadhyay, D.

    for the destruction of H 2 O 2 , leading to the production of free radicals and oxidative destruction of membrane lipids (Sandmann & Boger 1980). This metal ion may react with sulphydryl groups to lower intracellular thiol concentration, or it may interfere... attempts are now being made to relate metal toxicity to speciation and the concentration of free metal ions. Most studies in which the toxicity of metals to microorganisms has been varied by addition of organic complexing agents suggest that not only...

  4. Microbial interactions with the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and their dependence on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziallas, Claudia; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    and their associated community often masked this temperature effect. Both macro- and microenvironment of active cyanobacterial strains were characterized by high pH and oxygen values creating a unique habitat that potentially affects microbial diversity and function. For example, archaea including ‘anaerobic......Associated heterotrophic bacteria alter the microenvironment of cyanobacteria and potentially influence cyanobacterial development. Therefore, we studied interactions of the unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with heterotrophic bacteria. The associated bacterial community...... was greatly driven by temperature as seen by DNA Wngerprinting. However, the associated microbes also closely interacted with the cyanobacteria indicating changing ecological consequence of the associated bacterial community with temperature. Whereas concentration of dissolved organic carbon in cyanobacterial...

  5. Sacrolide A, a new antimicrobial and cytotoxic oxylipin macrolide from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Oku

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic gelatinous colonies of freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, a luxury ingredient for Japanese cuisine, were found to contain a new oxylipin-derived macrolide, sacrolide A (1, as an antimicrobial component. The configuration of two chiral centers in 1 was determined by a combination of chiral anisotropy analysis and conformational analysis of different ring-opened derivatives. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of some species of Gram-positive bacteria, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, and was also cytotoxic to 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. Concern about potential food intoxication caused by accidental massive ingestion of A. sacrum was dispelled by the absence of 1 in commercial products. A manual procedure for degrading 1 in raw colonies was also developed, enabling a convenient on-site detoxification at restaurants or for personal consumption.

  6. Radiation characteristics and effective optical properties of dumbbell-shaped cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This study presents experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. during their exponential growth in F medium. Their scattering phase function at 633 nm average spectral absorption and scattering cross-sections between 400 and 750 nm were measured. In addition, an inverse method was used for retrieving the spectral effective complex index of refraction of overlapping or touching bispheres and quadspheres from their absorption and scattering cross-sections. The inverse method combines a genetic algorithm and a forward model based on Lorenz–Mie theory, treating bispheres and quadspheres as projected area and volume-equivalent coated spheres. The inverse method was successfully validated with numerically predicted average absorption and scattering cross-sections of suspensions consisting of bispheres and quadspheres, with realistic size distributions, using the T-matrix method. It was able to retrieve the monomers' complex index of refraction with size parameter up to 11, relative refraction index less than 1.3, and absorption index less than 0.1. Then, the inverse method was applied to retrieve the effective spectral complex index of refraction of Synechocystis sp. approximated as randomly oriented aggregates consisting of two overlapping homogeneous spheres. Both the measured absorption cross-section and the retrieved absorption index featured peaks at 435 and 676 nm corresponding to chlorophyll a, a peak at 625 nm corresponding to phycocyanin, and a shoulder around 485 nm corresponding to carotenoids. These results can be used to optimize and control light transfer in photobioreactors. The inverse method and the equivalent coated sphere model could be applied to other optically soft particles of similar morphologies. - Highlights: • Radiation characteristics of Synechocystis sp. were measured during exponential growth. • This unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium features an interesting

  7. Turtles: Freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Bowden, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    With their iconic shells, turtles are morphologically distinct in being the only extant or extinct vertebrate animals to have their shoulders and hips inside their rib cages. By the time an asteroid hit the earth 65.5 million years ago, causing the extinction of dinosaurs, turtles were already an ancient lineage that was 70% through their evolutionary history to date. The remarkable evolutionary success of turtles over 220 million years is due to a combination of both conservative and effective life history traits and an essentially unchanging morphology that withstood the test of time. However, the life history traits of many species make them particularly susceptible to overharvest and habitat destruction in the modern world, and a majority of the world’s species face serious conservation challenges with several extinctions documented in modern times. The global plight of turtles is underscored by the fact that the percentage of imperiled species exceeds that of even the critically endangered primates.Freshwater turtles, with over 260 recognized species, have become a focus on a worldwide scale for many conservation issues. This article is a synthesis of a diverse body of information on the general biology of freshwater turtles, with particular emphasis on the extensive research on ecology, life history, and behavior that has been accomplished in the last half century. Much of the research has been applicable to the aforementioned conservation challenges. The studies presented include a combination of laboratory and field experiments and observational studies on this intriguing group of animals.

  8. EFFECTS OF SALINITY ACCLIMATION ON THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AND ACUTE TOXICITY OF BIFENTHRIN IN FRESHWATER AND EURYHALINE STRAINS OF ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    OpenAIRE

    Riar, Navneet; Crago, Jordan; Jiang, Weiying; Maryoung, Lindley A.; Gan, Jay; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin is frequently detected at ng/L concentrations in tributaries of the San Francisco Bay Delta. The estuary is also experiencing increasing salinity through climate change and water redirection. To evaluate the impacts of hypersaline conditions on bifenthrin toxicity in anadromous salmonids of the San Francisco Bay Delta (CA, USA), a 14-d laboratory exposure was performed using 2 strains of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) acclimated to fres...

  9. Biogeochemical tracers of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Edward J.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Fry, Brian; Capone, Douglas G.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the utility of several biogeochemical tracers for following the fate of the planktonic diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in the sea. The presence of a (CIO) fatty acid previously reported was observed in a culture of Trichodesmium but was not found in natural samples. This cyanobacterium had high concentrations of C 14 and C 16 acids, with lesser amounts of several saturated and unsaturated C 18 fatty acids. This composition was similar to that of other marine cyanobacteria. The major hydrocarbon identified was the C 17n-alkane, which was present in all samples from the five stations examined. Sterols common to algae and copepods were observed in many samples along with hopanoids representative of bacteria, suggesting a varied community structure in colonies collected from different stations. We found no unique taxonomic marker of Trichodesmium among the sterols. Measurements of the σ 15N and σ 13C in Trichodesmium samples from the SW Sargasso and NW Caribbean Seas averaged -0.4960 (range from -0.7 to -0.25960) and -12.9%0 (range from -15.2 to -11.9960), respectively, thus confirming previous observations that this cyanobacterial diazotroph has both the lowest σ 15N and highest σ 13C of any marine phytoplankter observed to date. A culture of Trichodesmium grown under diazotrophic conditions had a σ 15N between -1.3 and -3.6960. Our results support the supposition that the relatively low σ 15N and high σ 13C values observed in suspended and sediment-trapped material from some tropical and subtropical seas result from substantial input of C and N by Trichodesmium.

  10. Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Parrott, Joanne L; Galicia, Melissa; Shires, Kallie; Sullivan, Cheryl; Toito, John; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Milani, Danielle; Gillis, Patty L; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2017-10-01

    Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are few data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the present study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Eggs and larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), or 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA). The most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA was total survival with 21-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on concentration in overlying water of 1920, 74, and 35 μg/L, respectively. The most sensitive endpoint for MBA was growth with a 21-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 71 μg/L. The same endpoints were the most sensitive in terms of concentrations of DPA, PNA, DPPDA, and MBA in sediment (101, 54, 111, and 76 μg/g dry wt, respectively). Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for each SPA based on acute and chronic toxicity data generated in the present study and found in the literature. Overall, P. promelas was in the midrange of chronic sensitivity, with the most sensitive species being Tubifex tubifex. The SSDs indicate that DPA based on concentration in water is the least toxic to aquatic biota of the 4 SPAs investigated. The constructed SSDs indicate that a concentration in water and sediment of 1 μg/L and 1 μg/g dry weight, respectively, would be protective of >95% of the aquatic species tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2730-2738. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Sorption and desorption studies of chromium(VI) from nonviable cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Rastogi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2008-06-15

    This communication presents results pertaining to the sorptive and desorptive studies carried out on chromium(VI) removal onto nonviable freshwater cyanobacterium (Nostoc muscorum) biomass. Influence of varying the conditions for removal of chromium(VI), such as the pH of aqueous solution, the dosage of biosorbent, the contact time with the biosorbent, the temperature for the removal of chromium, the effect of light metal ions and the adsorption-desorption studies were investigated. Sorption interaction of chromium on to cyanobacterial species obeyed both the first and the second-order rate equation and the experimental data showed good fit with both the Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was 22.92 mg/g at 25 {sup o}C and pH 3.0. The adsorption process was endothermic and the values of thermodynamic parameters of the process were calculated. Various properties of the cyanobacterium, as adsorbent, explored in the characterization part were chemical composition of the adsorbent, surface area calculation by BET method and surface functionality by FTIR. Sorption-desorption of chromium into inorganic solutions and distilled water were observed and this indicated the biosorbent could be regenerated using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} and EDTA with upto 80% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Thus, this study demonstrated that the cyanobacterial biomass N. muscorum could be used as an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of chromium(VI) bearing wastewater.

  12. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy Rabindra N.; Nayak Nabakishore; Rath Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical ferti...

  13. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and long term studies on mapping freshwater biodiversity1. 1. R J Ranjit Daniels ... The hierarchical nature of stream organization offers opportunity to ecologists to ask .... threats, freshwater systems are losing their aesthetic value (Fig- ure 4).

  14. Freshwater Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  15. Aquatic toxicity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michaela; Weiss, Klaus; Maletzki, Dirk; Schüssler, Walter; Schudoma, Dieter; Kopf, Willi; Kühnen, Ute

    2015-02-01

    The human macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin is widespread in surface waters. Our study shows that its major metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin is found in surface waters in comparable amounts. This metabolite is known to be pharmacologically active. Additionally, clarithromycin is partly metabolised to N-desmethyl-clarithromycin, which has no antimicrobial activity. For clarithromycin, some ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms have been published. However, many of them are not conform with the scientific principles as given in the "Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards" (TGD-EQS), because numerous studies were poorly documented and the methods did not contain analytical measurements confirming that the exposure concentrations were in the range of ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. Ecotoxicological effects of clarithromycin and its two metabolites on the zebrafish Danio rerio (embryo test), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the aquatic monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, the freshwater green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) and the cyanobacterium Anabaena flosaquae were investigated in compliance with the TGD-EQS. Environmental risk assessment was performed using ErC10 values of Anabaena, the species most sensitive to clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in our testing. Based oncomparable toxicity and similar concentrations of clarithromycin and its active metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in surface waters, an additional multiplication factor of 2 to the assessment factor of 10 on the ErC10 of clarithromycin should be used. Consequently, a freshwater quality standard of 0.130 μg L(-1) is proposed for clarithromycin as the "lead substance". Taking this additional multiplication factor of 2 into account, single monitoring of clarithromycin may be sufficient, in order to reduce the number of substances listed for routine monitoring programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  17. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from effects of ammonia in freshwater... ammonia to freshwater aquatic life. On December 30, 2009, EPA published draft national recommended water... freshwater are intended to protect aquatic life and do not address human health toxicity data. The water...

  18. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Christensen, G.M.; Tucker, J.H.; Benoit, D.A.; Lewis, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

  19. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Cellular responses and bioremoval of nonylphenol by the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii 1113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Nadezda; Zaytseva, Tatyana; Kuzikova, Irina

    2017-07-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is extensively used in agricultural, industrial and household applications. Moreover, NP is the major breakdown product of the nonionic surfactants, nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), the most widely used group of surfactants. Nonylphenol is persistent in the environment, highly toxic to aquatic organisms and is a potential endocrine disruptor. NP and NPEOs have been identified as priority hazardous substances under the Environmental Quality Standards Directive 2013/39/EU and are referred to in the list of substances of particular risk to the Baltic Sea. The toxicity of NP to the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii 1113 isolated from the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea and the bioremoval of NP by P. agardhii were studied. NP in concentrations > 0.4 mg L- 1 suppressed cyanobacterial growth. The median effective concentration of NP for P. agardhii after 4 days of treatment (EC50) was 1.5 mg L- 1. The removal of NP from the culture medium was primarily due to abiotic processes and biodegradation by the cyanobacterium rather than sorption by the cells. NP significantly increased the photosynthetic pigments, extracellular proteins and soluble exopolysaccharides content. The cyanobacterial growth inhibition was accompanied by the increased synthesis of microcystin dm-RR and of the odorous metabolites, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), by P. agardhii 1113. NP also notably increased the microcystin released into the environment. Increased levels of extracellular proteins, soluble exopolysaccharides, microcystins and odorous metabolites may affect the microbial loop in aquatic ecosystems. An increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was indicative of the formation of free radicals in P. agardhii under NP stress, whereas increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and proline indicated the occurrence of a scavenging mechanism.

  1. Anti-MRSA-acting carbamidocyclophanes H-L from the Vietnamese cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CAVN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisitsch, Michael; Harmrolfs, Kirsten; Pham, Hang T L; Heiden, Stefan E; Füssel, Anna; Wiesner, Christoph; Pretsch, Alexander; Swiatecka-Hagenbruch, Monika; Niedermeyer, Timo H J; Müller, Rolf; Mundt, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    The methanol extract of the Vietnamese freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CAVN2 exhibited cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 and 5637 cancer cell lines as well as against nontumorigenic FL and HaCaT cells and was active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis indicated the presence of over 60 putative cyclophane-like compounds in an antimicrobially active methanol extract fraction. A paracyclophanes-focusing extraction and separation methodology led to the isolation of 5 new carbamidocyclophanes (1-5) and 11 known paracyclophanes (6-16). The structures and their stereochemical configurations were elucidated by a combination of spectrometric and spectroscopic methods including HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and detailed comparative CD analysis. The newly described monocarbamoylated [7.7]paracyclophanes (1, 2, 4 and 5) differ by a varying degree of chlorination in the side chains. Carbamidocyclophane J (3) is the very first reported carbamidocyclophane bearing a single halogenation in both butyl residues. Based on previous studies a detailed phylogenetic examination of cyclophane-producing cyanobacteria was carried out. The biological evaluation of 1-16 against various clinical pathogens highlighted a remarkable antimicrobial activity against MRSA with MICs of 0.1-1.0 μM, and indicated that the level of antibacterial activity is related to the presence of carbamoyl moieties.

  2. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhy Rabindra N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  3. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp. PMID:26038669

  4. Sulfate-driven elemental sparing is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in a filamentous cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutu, Andrian; Alvey, Richard M; Bashour, Sami; Zingg, Daniel; Kehoe, David M

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient that can exist at growth-limiting concentrations in freshwater environments. The freshwater cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon (also known as Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7601) is capable of remodeling the composition of its light-harvesting antennae, or phycobilisomes, in response to changes in the sulfur levels in its environment. Depletion of sulfur causes these cells to cease the accumulation of two forms of a major phycobilisome protein called phycocyanin and initiate the production of a third form of phycocyanin, which possesses a minimal number of sulfur-containing amino acids. Since phycobilisomes make up approximately 50% of the total protein in these cells, this elemental sparing response has the potential to significantly influence the fitness of this species under low-sulfur conditions. This response is specific for sulfate and occurs over the physiological range of sulfate concentrations likely to be encountered by this organism in its natural environment. F. diplosiphon has two separate sulfur deprivation responses, with low sulfate levels activating the phycobilisome remodeling response and low sulfur levels activating the chlorosis or bleaching response. The phycobilisome remodeling response results from changes in RNA abundance that are regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The potential of this response, and the more general bleaching response of cyanobacteria, to provide sulfur-containing amino acids during periods of sulfur deprivation is examined.

  5. Toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Razinkovas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. The presence of cyanobacterial toxic metabolites in the Curonian Lagoon has been investigated and demonstrated for the first time in this work (2006-2007. Microcystis aeruginosa was the most common and widely distributed species in the 2006 blooms. Nodularia spumigena was present in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, following the intrusion of brackish water from the Baltic Sea; this is the first time that this nodularin-(NOD-producing cyanobacterium has been recorded in the lagoon. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, four microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LY, MC-YR and nodularin were detected in 2006. The presence of these cyanobacterial hepatotoxic cyclic peptides was additionally confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP1. Microcystin-LR, the most frequent of them, was present in every sample at quite high concentrations (from <0.1 to 134.2 µg dm-3. In 2007, no cyanobacterial bloom was recorded and cyanotoxins were detected in only 4% of the investigated samples. A comparably high concentration of nodularin was detected in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. In one sample dimethylated MC-RR was also detected (concentration 7.5 µg dm-3.

  6. A common transport system for methionine, L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX), and phosphinothricin (PPT) in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind Kumar; Syiem, Mayashree B; Singh, Rajkumar S; Adhikari, Samrat; Rai, Amar Nath

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence, for the first time, of the occurrence of a transport system common for amino acid methionine, and methionine/glutamate analogues L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX) and phosphinothricin (PPT) in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Methionine, which is toxic to cyanobacterium, enhanced its nitrogenase activity at lower concentrations. The cyanobacterium showed a biphasic pattern of methionine uptake activity that was competitively inhibited by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, valine, glutamine, and asparagine. The methionine/glutamate analogue-resistant N. muscorum strains (MSX-R and PPT-R strains) also showed methionine-resistant phenotype accompanied by a drastic decrease in 35S methionine uptake activity. Treatment of protein extracts from these mutant strains with MSX and PPT reduced biosynthetic glutamine synthetase (GS) activity only in vitro and not in vivo. This finding implicated that MSX- and PPT-R phenotypes may have arisen due to a defect in their MSX and PPT transport activity. The simultaneous decrease in methionine uptake activity and in vitro sensitivity toward MSX and PPT of GS protein in MSX- and PPT-R strains indicated that methionine, MSX, and PPT have a common transport system that is shared by other amino acids as well in N. muscorum. Such information can become useful for isolation of methionine-producing cyanobacterial strains.

  7. Lipopolysaccharides of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raziuddin, S.; Siegelman, H.W.; Tornabene, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of two isolates of Microcystis aeruginosa were extracted with phenol/water and purified. Cesium chloride gradient ultracentrifugation of these preparations yielded only one fraction. The LPS contained significant amounts of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid, glucose, 3-deoxy sugars, glucosamine, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, hexoses, and phosphate. Heptose, a characteristic sugar component of the polysaccharide moiety of LPS of most gram-negative bacteria was absent. Lipopolysaccharides and lipid A hydrolysate of LPS preparations were active in mouse lethality and Limulus lysate gelation. The lipid A moiety was slightly less active in toxicity and Limulus lysate gelation assay than the intact LPS. The LPS and lipid A moiety of the two isolates of M. aeruginosa were less active in toxicity in mice and Limulus test than LPS of Salmonella abortus equi. 37 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  8. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis of the fast growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kristen E; Ungerer, Justin; Cobb, Ryan E; Zhao, Huimin; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2016-06-23

    As autotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are ideal chassis organisms for sustainable production of various useful compounds. The newly characterized cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 is a promising candidate for serving as a microbial cell factory because of its unusually rapid growth rate. Here, we seek to develop a genetic toolkit that enables extensive genomic engineering of Synechococcus 2973 by implementing a CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. We targeted the nblA gene because of its important role in biological response to nitrogen deprivation conditions. First, we determined that the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme is toxic in cyanobacteria, and conjugational transfer of stable, replicating constructs containing the cas9 gene resulted in lethality. However, after switching to a vector that permitted transient expression of the cas9 gene, we achieved markerless editing in 100 % of cyanobacterial exconjugants after the first patch. Moreover, we could readily cure the organisms of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a markerless deletion strain. High expression levels of the Cas9 protein in Synechococcus 2973 appear to be toxic and result in cell death. However, introduction of a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system on a plasmid backbone that leads to transient cas9 expression allowed for efficient markerless genome editing in a wild type genetic background.

  10. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  11. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Freshwater ecosystems and associated habitats harbor incrediblebiodiversity. They offer various ecosystem services andsustain human livelihoods. However, due to increasing developmentalpressure and rising water demand, these systemsare under huge threat. As a result, many aquatic species arefeared to become ...

  12. NMSBA: Aken Technologies Final Report: Toxicity Testing of Liquidoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from ‘fish pens’ on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study.

  13. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  14. Freshwater and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90 Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

  15. Three New Malyngamides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea producens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Sueyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new compounds of the malyngamide series, 6,8-di-O-acetylmalyngamide 2 (1, 6-O-acetylmalyngamide 2 (2, and N-demethyl-isomalyngamide I (3, were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization and degradation. These compounds stimulated glucose uptake in cultured L6 myotubes. In particular, 6,8-di-O-acetylmalyngamide 2 (1 showed potent activity and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

  16. Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Savrina F; Jähnig, Sonja C; Bremerich, Vanessa; Freyhof, Jörg; Harrison, Ian; He, Fengzhi; Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement; Zarfl, Christiane; Darwall, William

    2017-10-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Freshwater megafauna co-occur with up to 93% of mapped overall freshwater biodiversity. Fifty-eight percent of the 132 megafauna species included in the study are threatened, with 84% of their collective range falling outside of protected areas. Of all threatened freshwater species, 83% are found within the megafauna range, revealing the megafauna's capacity as flagship and umbrella species for fostering freshwater conservation.

  17. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  18. The effect of mixotrophic chrysophyte on toxic and colony-forming cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, E.; Cerbin, S.; Wilken, S.; Helmsing, N.R.; Ptacnik, R.; Verschoor, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. In order to test the effect of Ochromonas sp., a mixotrophic chrysophyte, on cyanobacteria, grazing experiments were performed under controlled conditions. We studied grazing on three Microcystis aeruginosa strains, varying in toxicity and morphology, as well as on one filamentous cyanobacterium,

  19. Genetic analysis of amino acid transport in the facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, J.; Thuriaux, P.; Chauvat, F.

    1987-01-01

    The existence of active transport systems (permeases) operating on amino acids in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 was demonstrated by following the initial rates of uptake with 14 C-labeled amino acids, measuring the intracellular pools of amino acids, and isolating mutants resistant to toxic amino acids. One class of mutants (Pfa1) corresponds to a regulatory defect in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, but two other classes (Can1 and Aza1) are defective in amino acid transport. The Can1 mutants are defective in the active transport of three basic amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) and in one of two transport systems operating on glutamine. The Aza1 mutants are not affected in the transport of the basic amino acids but have lost the capacity to transport all other amino acids except glutamate. The latter amino acid is probably transported by a third permease which could be identical to the Can1-independent transport operating on glutamine. Thus, genetic evidence suggests that strain 6803 has only a small number of amino acid transport systems with fairly broad specificity and that, with the exception of glutamine, each amino acid is accumulated by only one major transport system. Compared with heterotrophic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, these permeases are rather inefficient in terms of affinity (apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 6 to 60 μM) and of V/sub max/

  20. Inhibitory effects of sanguinarine against the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 and possible mechanisms of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Jihai [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Liu, Deming [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Crop Germplasm Innovation and Resource Utilization, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gong, Daoxin; Zeng, Qingru; Yan, Zhiyong [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong, E-mail: jdgu@hku.hk [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Sanguinarine was found as a strong algicidal biologically derived substance. •Sanguinarine can induce oxidative stress in the cells of Microcystis aeruginosa. •Photosystem is a target of toxicity of sanguinarine on M. aeruginosa. •Sanguinarine can induce DNA damage and inhibit cell division. -- Abstract: Sanguinarine showed strong inhibitory effect against Microcystis aeruginosa, a typical water bloom-forming and microcystins-producing cyanobacterium. The EC50 of sanguinarine against the growth of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 was 34.54 ± 1.17 μg/L. Results of chlorophyll fluorescence transient analysis indicated that all the electron donating side, accepting side, and the reaction center of the Photosystem II (PS II) were the targets of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa NIES-843. The elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the cells of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 upon exposure indicated that sanguinarine induced oxidative stress in the active growing cells of M. aeruginosa NIES-843. Further results of gene expression analysis indicated that DNA damage and cell division inhibition were also involved in the inhibitory action mechanism of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa NIES-843. The inhibitory characteristics of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa suggest that the ecological- and public health-risks need to be evaluated before its application in cyanobacterial bloom control to avoid devastating events irreversibly.

  1. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin; Mu, Huawei; Zhang, Huoming; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Qian, Peiyuan; Wong, Christina; Qiu, Jianwen

    2013-01-01

    global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater

  2. Toxicological evaluation of parathion and azinphosmethyl in freshwater model ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the possible hazards of long-term exposure of freshwater ecosystems to low (< 1 mg m -3) concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides. Range-finding, acute and sub-acute (3 weeks) laboratory toxicity trials were

  3. Isolation, characterization and localization of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis strain MMG-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wijnholds, A.; Stal, L.J.; Hasnain, S.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium known for its nutritional value and secondary metabolites. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are an important trait of most cyanobacteria, including A. platensis. Here, we extracted and analysed different fractions of EPS from a locally isolated

  4. Isolation, characterization and localization of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Wijnholds, A.; Stal, L.J.; Hasnain, S.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrospira platensis is a cyanobacterium known for its nutritional value and secondary metabolites. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are an important trait of most cyanobacteria, including A. platensis. Here, we extracted and analysed different fractions of EPS from a locally isolated

  5. Moessbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, Shizuko

    1990-01-01

    Moessbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Moessbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with 57 Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) labeled with 57 Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B 12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with 57 Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein. (orig.)

  6. Identification of genes implicated in toxin production in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Neilan, B.A.; Saint, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a bloom-forming cyanobacterium found in both tropical and temperate climates which produces cylindrospermopsin, a potent hepatotoxic secondary metabolite. This organism is notorious for its association with a significant human poisoning incident on Palm Island...

  7. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Hofmann

    Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.

  8. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad [Dept. of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Villavogen 6, SE-752 36 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  9. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad

    2006-01-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  10. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ''Phormidium uncinatum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, V.A.; Haeder, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the β- were more rapid than that of the α- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author)

  11. The persistence and ecological impacts of a cyanobacterium genetically engineered to express mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketseoglou, Irene; Bouwer, Gustav

    2016-05-10

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120#11 has been genetically engineered to act as a delivery vehicle for Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis mosquitocidal toxins. To address ecological concerns about releasing this genetically engineered microorganism into the environment for mosquito larva control, the persistence and ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 was evaluated using multi-species, standardized aquatic microcosms. The microcosms were set up as described in ASTM E1366-02 (Standard Practice for Standardized Aquatic Microcosms: Fresh Water), with a few modifications. The treatment group microcosms were inoculated with PCC 7120#11 and key water quality parameters and non-target effects were compared between the treatment and control groups over a period of 35 days. PCC 7120#11 decreased from a concentration of 4.50 × 10(6) cells/ml (at inoculation) to 1.32 × 10(3) cells/ml after 4 weeks and larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis was only evident for two weeks after treatment. Both treatment and the interaction of treatment and time had a significant effect on nitrate, phosphate and photosynthetic microorganism concentrations. Treatment with PCC 7120#11 caused a temporary spike in ammonia in the microcosms a week after treatment, but the concentrations were well below acute and chronic criteria values for ammonia in freshwater ecosystems. Cyprinotus vidua concentrations were not significantly different between PCC 7120#11 and control microcosms. In PCC 7120#11 microcosms, Daphnia pulex concentrations were significantly lower than control concentrations between days 18 and 25. By the end of the experiment, none of the measured variables were significantly different between the treatment groups. The standard aquatic microcosm experiments provided more data on the ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 than single-organism assessments would have. On the basis of the relatively minor, short-term effects that PCC 7120

  12. Toxicology of freshwater cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H M; Arachchi, D N Magana; Abeysekara, T; Guneratne, L

    2016-07-02

    Many chemical contaminants in drinking water have been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans after prolonged exposure. Cyanobacteria are one of the most potent and diverse groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. One key component of cyanobacterial success in the environment is the production of potent toxins as secondary metabolites, which have been responsible for numerous adverse health impacts in humans. Anthropogenic activities have led to the increase of eutrophication in freshwater bodies' worldwide, causing cyanobacterial blooms to become more frequent. The present article will discuss about harmful cyanobacteria and their toxicology with special references to microcystin, nodularin, and cylindrospermopsin.

  13. A high constitutive catalase activity confers resistance to methyl viologen-promoted oxidative stress in a mutant of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

    2014-04-01

    A spontaneous methyl viologen (MV)-resistant mutant of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 was isolated and the major enzymatic antioxidants involved in combating MV-induced oxidative stress were evaluated. The mutant displayed a high constitutive catalase activity as a consequence of which, the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in the mutant was lower than the wild type (N. punctiforme) in the presence of MV. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity that consisted of a SodA (manganese-SOD) and a SodB (iron-SOD) was not suppressed in the mutant following MV treatment. The mutant was, however, characterised by a lower peroxidase activity compared with its wild type, and its improved tolerance to externally added H₂O₂ could only be attributed to enhanced catalase activity. Furthermore, MV-induced toxic effects on the wild type such as (1) loss of photosynthetic performance assessed as maximal quantum yield of photosystem II, (2) nitrogenase inactivation, and (3) filament fragmentation and cell lysis were not observed in the mutant. These findings highlight the importance of catalase in preventing MV-promoted oxidative damage and cell death in the cyanobacterium N. punctiforme. Such oxidative stress resistant mutants of cyanobacteria are likely to be a better source of biofertilisers, as they can grow and fix nitrogen in an unhindered manner in agricultural fields that are often contaminated with the herbicide MV, also commonly known as paraquat.

  14. Salt Tolerance and Polyphyly in the Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Pleurocapsales)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbers, John Robert; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant species. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the genus, 15 species were selected that had been previously isolated from different locations, including salt and freshwater environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 species, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1 and gltX genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified two distinct clades, a salt-tolerant clade and a freshwater clade. This study demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, species were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater species were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater species required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature.

  15. Freshwater algae competition and correlation between their growth and microcystin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Xana; Valero, Enrique; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    There are some different freshwater algae in Eutrophic reservoirs which bloom with specific environmental conditions, and some of them are cyanobacteria. In this investigation, we have cultivated microalgae present in natural water samples from a eutrophic reservoir. Variations in temperature and light were evaluated, as well as the competition among different green algae and cyanobacteria. There were three different freshwater algae growing together, Scenedesmus sp., Kirchneriella sp. and Microcystis aeruginosa, this cyanobacterium was the algae that reached the highest development and growth during the culture. While the algae grew, the concentration of toxin (microcystin-LR) increased until it reached the highest levels at 570 μg g -1 . Blooms occurred at temperatures of 28 ± 1.5 °C and light cycles of longer hours of light than dark. This took place during the summer months, from June to September (in the study area). At temperatures below 18 °C, algae did not grow. Blooms were reproduced to a laboratory scale in different conditions in order to understand the development of freshwater algae, as well as to help decision-making about water supply from that reservoir.

  16. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  17. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  18. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Zhou, Chen; Cai, Peng; Chen, Wenli; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Liang, Wei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2011-06-15

    Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH(4)NO(3), respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium with a high phycoerythrin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Losada, M

    1989-03-01

    The elemental and molecular composition, pigment content, and productivity of a phycoerythrin-rich nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium-an Anabaena strain isolated from the coastal lagoon Albufera de Valencia, Spain-has been investigated. When compared with other heterocystous species, this strain exhibits similar chlorophyll a, carotene, and total phycobiliprotein contents but differs remarkably in the relative proportion of specific phycobiliproteins; the content of C-phycoerythrin amounts to 8.3% (versus about 1% in the other species) of cell dry weight. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of intact phycobilisomes isolated from this Anabaena sp. corroborate the marked contribution of phycoerythrin as an antenna pigment, a circumstance that is unusual for cyanobacteria capable of fixing N(2). The pigment content of cells is affected by variations in irradiance and cell density, these adaptive changes being more patent for C-phycoerythrin than for phycocyanins. The Anabaena strain is clumpy and capable of rapid flocculation. It exhibits outdoor productivities higher than 20 g (dry weight) m day during summer.

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  1. Elevated CO2 causes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus of a toxic cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John

    2014-07-15

    We studied the physiological acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exposed to low (present day; L-CO2) and high (1300ppm; H-CO2) pCO2. Results showed that under H-CO2 the cell specific division rate (μc) was higher and the CO2- and light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Vmax and Pmax) doubled. The cells' photosynthetic affinity for CO2 (K0.5CO2) was halved compared to L-CO2 cultures. However, no significant differences were found in dark respiration rates (Rd), pigment composition and light harvesting efficiency (α). In H-CO2 cells, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), associated with state transitions of the electron transport chain (ETC), was negligible. Simultaneously, a reorganisation of PSII features including antenna connectivity (JconPSIIα), heterogeneity (PSIIα/β) and effective absorption cross sectional area (σPSIIα/β) was observed. In relation to different activities of the CCM, our findings suggest that for cells grown under H-CO2: (1) there is down-regulation of CCM activity; (2) the ability of cells to use the harvested light energy is altered; (3) the occurrence of state transitions is likely to be associated with changes of electron flow (cyclic vs linear) through the ETC; (4) changes in PSII characteristics are important in regulating state transitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Using species sensitivity distribution approach to assess the risks of commonly detected agricultural pesticides to Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Kroon, Frederieke J

    2016-02-01

    To assess the potential impacts of agricultural pesticides on tropical freshwater ecosystems, the present study developed temperature-specific, freshwater species protection concentrations (i.e., ecotoxicity threshold values) for 8 pesticides commonly detected in Australia's tropical freshwaters. Because relevant toxicity data for native tropical freshwater species to assess the ecological risks were mostly absent, scientifically robust toxicity data obtained at ≥20 °C were used for ecologically relevant taxonomic groups representing primary producers and consumers. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves were subsequently generated for predicted chronic exposure using Burrlioz 2.0 software with mixed chronic and converted acute data relevant to exposure conditions at ≥20 °C. Ecotoxicity threshold values for tropical freshwater ecosystem protection were generated for ametryn, atrazine, diuron, metolachlor, and imidacloprid (all moderate reliability), as well as simazine, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron (all low reliability). Using these SSD curves, the retrospective risk assessments for recently reported pesticide concentrations highlight that the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and diuron are of major concern for ecological health in Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems. The insecticide imidacloprid also appears to pose an emerging threat to the most sensitive species in tropical freshwater ecosystems. The exposed temperature-specific approach may be applied to develop water quality guideline values for other environmental contaminants detected in tropical freshwater ecosystems until reliable and relevant toxicity data are generated using representative native species. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Practical aids for freshwater spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, A.E.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

  4. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  5. Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2 and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3 with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82 were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium and poor (carbon source absent in medium conditions. Findings F. aestuarina BUZ 2 significantly reduced the cyanobacterial population whereas F. limi BUZ 3 did not. Physical contact between heterotrophs and autotroph was observed and the cyanobacterial cells showed some level of damage and lysis. Therefore, either contact lysis or entrapment with production of extracellular compounds in close vicinity of host cells could be considered as potential modes of action. The supernatants from pure heterotrophic cultures did not have an effect on Nostoc cultures. However, supernatant from mixed cultures of BUZ 2 and Nostoc had a negative effect on cyanobacterial growth, indicating that the lytic compounds were only produced in the presence of Nostoc. The growth and survival of tested heterotrophs was enhanced by the presence of Nostoc or its metabolites, suggesting that the heterotrophs could utilize the autotrophs and its products as a nutrient source. However, the autotroph could withstand and out-compete the heterotrophs under nutrient poor conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that the nutrients in cultivation media, which boost or reduce the number of heterotrophs, were the important factor influencing the outcome of the interplay between filamentous heterotrophs and autotrophs. For better understanding of these interactions, additional research is needed. In particular, it is necessary to elucidate the mode of action for lysis by heterotrophs, and the possible defense mechanisms of the autotrophs.

  6. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Zhou Chen; Cai Peng; Chen Wenli; Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei; Gu Jidong; Huang Qiaoyun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. → Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. → XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH 4 NO 3 , respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  7. Arsenic biotransformation by a cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xi-Mei; Yan, Yu; Xiong, Chan; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin; Pan, Ting; Ye, Jun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-09-01

    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Nostoc), a typical filamentous cyanobacterium ubiquitous in aquatic system, is recognized as a model organism to study prokaryotic cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. In this study, Nostoc cells incubated with arsenite (As(III)) for two weeks were extracted with dichloromethane/methanol (DCM/MeOH) and the extract was partitioned between water and DCM. Arsenic species in aqueous and DCM layers were determined using high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS/ESIMSMS). In addition to inorganic arsenic (iAs), the aqueous layer also contained monomethylarsonate (MAs(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMAs(V)), and the two arsenosugars, namely a glycerol arsenosugar (Oxo-Gly) and a phosphate arsenosugar (Oxo-PO4). Two major arsenosugar phospholipids (AsSugPL982 and AsSugPL984) were detected in DCM fraction. Arsenic in the growth medium was also investigated by HPLC/ICPMS and shown to be present mainly as the inorganic forms As(III) and As(V) accounting for 29%-38% and 29%-57% of the total arsenic respectively. The total arsenic of methylated arsenic, arsenosugars, and arsenosugar phospholipids in Nostoc cells with increasing As(III) exposure were not markedly different, indicating that the transformation to organoarsenic in Nostoc was not dependent on As(III) concentration in the medium. Our results provide new insights into the role of cyanobacteria in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Binding characteristics of copper and cadmium by cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhou Chen; Cai Peng [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Rong Xingmin; Dai Ke; Liang Wei [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu Jidong [Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} The carboxyl groups play a vital role in the binding of Cu(II) and Cd(II) to S. platensis cells. {yields} Ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanism for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. {yields} XAFS analysis provided evidence for the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface. - Abstract: Cyanobacteria are promising biosorbent for heavy metals in bioremediation. Although sequestration of metals by cyanobacteria is known, the actual mechanisms and ligands involved are not very well understood. The binding characteristics of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were investigated using a combination of chemical modifications, batch adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. A significant increase in Cu(II) and Cd(II) binding was observed in the range of pH 3.5-5.0. Dramatical decrease in adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) was observed after methanol esterification of the nonliving cells demonstrating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metals by S. platensis. The desorption rate of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from S. platensis surface was 72.7-80.7% and 53.7-58.0% by EDTA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, respectively, indicating that ion exchange and complexation are the dominating mechanisms for Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. XAFS analysis provided further evidence on the inner-sphere complexation of Cu by carboxyl ligands and showed that Cu is complexed by two 5-membered chelate rings on S. platensis surface.

  9. Freshwater Treatment and Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Freshwater Treatment and Test Facility, located at SANGB, has direct year-round access to water from Lake St. Clair and has a State of Michigan approved National...

  10. Effects of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia on fitness and feeding behavior of young-of-the-year (YOY) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Karl-Johan; Stenroth, Patrik; Legrand, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    This study reveals that both cyanobacterial toxicity and turbidity have the potential to reduce the growth and energy storage of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch and thereby influence survival rates. During the 1990's a reduction in recruitment of YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis) occurred along the Swedish East coast. Concurrently, large blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria have increased in the Baltic Proper and in coastal waters. This study examined whether extended exposure to toxic and non-toxic filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia affect YOY perch growth and feeding behavior under simulated bloom conditions (30 days at 50 μg Chl a L(-1)). Specific growth rate (SGR), the somatic condition index (SCI) and the lipid content of YOY perch (10-12 weeks old) were significantly lower in perch exposed to Nodularia compared to fed controls (no Nodularia). YOY perch exposed to non-toxic Nodularia displayed a higher attack rate than perch living in Nodularia free controls in 2 out of 3 trials. Reductions in growth and energy storage, mediated by cyanobacteria, increase the risk of starvation and predation and could locally influence recruitment of YOY perch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversal in competitive dominance of a toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterium in response to rising CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; Finke, J.F.; Vournazou, V.; Immers, A.K.; Kardinaal, W.E.A.; Tonk, L.; Becker, S.; van Donk, E.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of this century. Yet, how rising CO2 will affect the species composition of aquatic microbial communities is still largely an open question. In this study, we develop a resource competition model to

  12. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio Swimming Performance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Wilges Kist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501. MC-LR exposure (100 μg/L decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93% in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatt, Judith M.; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2S: (i) H2S accelerated the recovery of

  14. Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus sp. Strain NK55a.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, Sergey; Liu, Zhenfeng; Thiel, Vera; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Pinel, Nicolas; Nelson, William C.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Romine, Margaret F.; Haruta, Shin; Schuster, Stephan C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2014-01-02

    The genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus sp. strain NK55a, isolated from Nakabusa hot spring, comprises a single, circular, 2.5-Mb chromosome. The genome is predicted to encode 2358 protein coding genes, including genes for all typical cyanobacterial photosynthetic and metabolic functions. No genes encoding hydrogenases or nitrogenase were identified.

  15. Sterol Compositions of the Filamentous Nitrogen-Fixing Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.; Go, J. V.; Dor, I.; Prell, Aleš; Hanuš, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 357-360 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nitrogen-fixing * cyanobacterium * scytonema Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  16. Nostoc PCC7524, a cyanobacterium which contains five sequence-specific deoxyribonucleases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reaston, J.; Duybesteyn, M.G.C.; Waard, Adrian de

    1982-01-01

    Five nucleotide sequence-specific deoxyribonucleases present in cell-free extracts of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC7524 have been purified and characterized. One of these enzymes, designated Nsp(7524)I cleaves at a new kind of nucleotide sequence i.e. 5'-PuCATG λ Py-3'. The other four

  17. Horizontal transfer of the nitrogen fixation gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Severin, I.; Confurius-Guns, V.; Wollenzien, U.I.A.; Stal, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes is a cosmopolitan organism, known to build microbial mats in a variety of different environments. Although most of these cyanobacterial mats are known for their capacity to fix dinitrogen, M. chthonoplastes has not been

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N-2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  19. Competition and facilitation between the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece and its associated bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S; Stomp, Maayke; Bouvier, Thierry; Fouilland, Eric; Leboulanger, Christophe; Confurius-Guns, Veronique; Weissing, Franz J; Stal, Lucas J; Huisman, Jef

    2015-01-01

    N2-fixing cyanobacteria represent a major source of new nitrogen and carbon for marine microbial communities, but little is known about their ecological interactions with associated microbiota. In this study we investigated the interactions between the unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece

  20. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  1. Effect of Selected Plant Extracts and D- and L-Lysine on the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.; Oosterhout, J.F.X.

    2014-01-01

    We tested extracts from Fructus mume, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Moringa oleifera as well as L-lysine and D-Lysine as curative measures to rapidly suppress the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIVA-CYA 43. We tested these compounds under similar conditions to facilitate comparisons. We

  2. Novel derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone are selective algicides against the musty-odor cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin K; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tucker, Craig S; Rimando, Agnes M; Ganzera, Markus; Schaneberg, Brian T

    2003-09-01

    Musty "off-flavor" in pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) costs the catfish production industry in the United States at least 30 million US dollars annually. The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja) is credited with being the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised catfish in Mississippi. The herbicides diuron and copper sulfate, currently used by catfish producers as algicides to help mitigate musty off-flavor problems, have several drawbacks, including broad-spectrum toxicity towards the entire phytoplankton community that can lead to water quality deterioration and subsequent fish death. By use of microtiter plate bioassays, a novel group of compounds derived from the natural compound 9,10-anthraquinone have been found to be much more selectively toxic towards O. perornata than diuron and copper sulfate. In efficacy studies using limnocorrals placed in catfish production ponds, application rates of 0.3 micro M (125 micro g/liter) of the most promising anthraquinone derivative, 2-[methylamino-N-(1'-methylethyl)]-9,10-anthraquinone monophosphate (anthraquinone-59), dramatically reduced the abundance of O. perornata and levels of 2-methylisoborneol, the musty compound produced by O. perornata. The abundance of green algae and diatoms increased dramatically 2 days after application of a 0.3 micro M concentration of anthraquinone-59 to pond water within the limnocorrals. The half-life of anthraquinone-59 in pond water was determined to be 19 h, making it much less persistent than diuron. Anthraquinone-59 appears to be promising for use as a selective algicide in catfish aquaculture.

  3. Novel Derivatives of 9,10-Anthraquinone Are Selective Algicides against the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin K.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tucker, Craig S.; Rimando, Agnes M.; Ganzera, Markus; Schaneberg, Brian T.

    2003-01-01

    Musty “off-flavor” in pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) costs the catfish production industry in the United States at least $30 million annually. The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja) is credited with being the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised catfish in Mississippi. The herbicides diuron and copper sulfate, currently used by catfish producers as algicides to help mitigate musty off-flavor problems, have several drawbacks, including broad-spectrum toxicity towards the entire phytoplankton community that can lead to water quality deterioration and subsequent fish death. By use of microtiter plate bioassays, a novel group of compounds derived from the natural compound 9,10-anthraquinone have been found to be much more selectively toxic towards O. perornata than diuron and copper sulfate. In efficacy studies using limnocorrals placed in catfish production ponds, application rates of 0.3 μM (125 μg/liter) of the most promising anthraquinone derivative, 2-[methylamino-N-(1′-methylethyl)]-9,10-anthraquinone monophosphate (anthraquinone-59), dramatically reduced the abundance of O. perornata and levels of 2-methylisoborneol, the musty compound produced by O. perornata. The abundance of green algae and diatoms increased dramatically 2 days after application of a 0.3 μM concentration of anthraquinone-59 to pond water within the limnocorrals. The half-life of anthraquinone-59 in pond water was determined to be 19 h, making it much less persistent than diuron. Anthraquinone-59 appears to be promising for use as a selective algicide in catfish aquaculture. PMID:12957919

  4. Dried Colony in Cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 — Several high Space Environment Tolerances for ``Tanpopo'' Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Kimura, S.; Kimura, Y.; Igarashi, Y.; Ajioka, R.; Sato, S.; Katoh, H.; Baba, K.

    2013-11-01

    A cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several space environmental tolerance. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution for the “Tanpopo” mission in Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station.

  5. Desalination - an alternative freshwater resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Global water constitutes 94 percent salt water that is from the oceans and 6% is in the form of freshwater. Out of this 6% freshwater approximately 27% is trapped in glaciers and 72% is underground. The sea water is important for transportation, fisheries. Oceans regulate climate through air sea interaction. However direct consumption of sea water is too salty to sustain human life. Water with a dissolved solids (salt) content generally below about 1000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) is considered acceptable for human consumption. The application of desalting technologies over the past 50 years have been in many of the arid zone where freshwater is available. Pakistan lies in the Sun Belt. It is considered a wide margin coastal belt (990 km), having an Exclusive Economic Zone of 240,000 km/sup 2/, that strokes trillion cubic meters of sea water that can be made available as freshwater source to meet the shortfall in the supply of domestic water through desalination along the coastal belt of Pakistan. The freshwater obtained from the other desalination processes is slightly expensive, but the cost of desalination can be considerably reduced provided that the available inexpensive or free waste energy is utilized mainly. (author)

  6. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  7. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroer, A.F.W.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Brock, T.C.M.; Matser, A.M.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with

  9. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  10. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  11. Trophic transfer of metal nanoparticles in freshwater ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal

    freshwater ecosystems range from a few ng/L in surface waters and up to mg/kg in sediments. Several studies have shown Ag ENPs to be toxic, bioaccumulative and harmful to aquatic biota within these concentration ranges. However, research on potential trophic transfer of Ag ENPs is limited. To investigate...... the aquatic ecosystems, Ag ENPs will undergo several transformation processes, ultimately leading to particles settling out of the water column. This will likely result in an increased concentration of ENPs in the sediment. In fact, predicted environmental concentrations of Ag ENPs in Danish and European...... freshwater food web. Future studies should concentrate on the internal distribution of Me-ENPs after uptake in both prey and predator, as this will increase the understanding of fate and effects of Me-ENPs on aquatic biota. Trophic transfer studies including more trophic levels, and higher pelagic organisms...

  12. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  13. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  14. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  16. Effect of cypermethrin toxicity on enzyme activities in the freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahid

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... ... and floods to large water bodies like ponds and rivers and change the water ... from the processing of sheep skin, wood industry and knitwear ... there is little information on the comprehensive effects of ... deep freezer prior to analysis. ..... insecticide monocrotophas and its effects on behaviour of an air-.

  17. Effect of cypermethrin toxicity on enzyme activities in the freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were increased in all the tissues with an increase in exposure time of cypermethrin. Though, under sublethal concentration of cypermethrin for 14, 21 and 28 days, a decreasing trend was observed in all ...

  18. Inhabitants of the Fresh-Water Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Joseph; Schroeder, Marlene

    This learner's guide is designed to assist middle school students in studying freshwater organisms. Following a brief introduction to freshwater ecology, simple line drawings facilitate the identification of plants and animals common to Florida's freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis of the short text which accompanies each illustration is upon the…

  19. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

    1980-08-01

    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  20. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  1. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eOsanai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching 5 times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique.

  2. Freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factor for metal oxide nanoparticles: A case study on titanium dioxide nanoparticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salieri, Beatrice; Righi, Serena; Pasteris, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    on freshwater organism representative of multiple trophic levels was conducted, including algae, crustaceans and fish in order to collect relevant EC50 values. Then, the toxic effect of nano-TiO2 was computed on the basis of the HC50 value. Thus, following the principle of USEtox™ model and accounting for nano...

  3. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on survival, reproduction, and behaviour of freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available -alumina, modified TiO2 (M-TiO2), and commercial TiO2 (C-TiO2) ENPs on the survival, behaviour, and early life stages of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Draparnaud). The toxicity evaluation was carried out after spiking commercial sand with ENPs concentrations of 0...

  4. A new UV-A/B protecting pigment in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, S.; Chen, T.W.; Boeger, P.

    1988-01-01

    A new ultraviolet (UV)-A/B absorbing pigment with maxima at 312 and 330 nanometers from the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is described. The pigment is found in high amounts (up to 10% of dry weight) in colonies grown under solar UV radiation but only in low concentrations in laboratory cultures illuminated by artificial light without UV. Its experimental induction by UV as well as its capacity to efficiently protect Nostoc against UV radiation is reported

  5. A new endonuclease recognizing the deoxynucleotide sequence CCNNGG from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calléja, F; Tandeau de Marsac, N; Coursin, T; van Ormondt, H; de Waard, A

    1985-09-25

    A new sequence-specific endonuclease from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC 6701 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme, SecI, is unique in recognizing the nucleotide sequence: 5' -CCNNGG-3' 3' -GGNNCC-5' and cleaves it at the position indicated by the symbol. Two other restriction endonucleases, SecII and SecIII, found in this organism are isoschizomers of MspI and MstII, respectively.

  6. Detection of Bioactive Exometabolites Produced by the Filamentous Marine Cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Nelson H.; Kumirska, Jolanta; Neumann, Jennifer; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are noted for their ability to excrete metabolites with biotic properties. This paper focuses on such exometabolites obtained from the culture of the marine filamentous cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. strain, their purification and subsequent analyses. By this means the recoveries of the active compounds, a prerequisite for properly determining their concentration, are quantified here for the first time. We demonstrate a new procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180 resin in com...

  7. CyanOmics: an integrated database of omics for the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yaohua; Feng, Jie; Li, Tao; Ge, Feng; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an important group of organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and play vital roles in both the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the Earth. The annotated genome of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, as an ideal model cyanobacterium, is available. A series of transcriptomic and proteomic studies of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells grown under different conditions have been reported. However, no database of such integrated omics studies has been constructed. Here we present Cyan...

  8. Effects of turbidity, sediment, and polyacrylamide on native freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Turbidity is a ubiquitous pollutant adversely affecting water quality and aquatic life in waterways globally. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is widely used as an effective chemical flocculent to reduce suspended sediment (SS) and turbidity. However, no information exists on the toxicity of PAM‐flocculated sediments to imperiled, but ecologically important, freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Thus, we conducted acute (96 h) and chronic (24 day) laboratory tests with juvenile fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and three exposure conditions (nonflocculated settled sediment, SS, and PAM‐flocculated settled sediment) over a range of turbidity levels (50, 250, 1,250, and 3,500 nephelometric turbidity units). Survival and sublethal endpoints of protein oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and protein concentration were used as measures of toxicity. We found no effect of turbidity levels or exposure condition on mussel survival in acute or chronic tests. However, we found significant reductions in protein concentration, ATP production, and oxidized proteins in mussels acutely exposed to the SS condition, which required water movement to maintain sediment in suspension, indicating responses that are symptoms of physiological stress. Our results suggest anionic PAM applied to reduce SS may minimize adverse effects of short‐term turbidity exposure on juvenile freshwater mussels without eliciting additional lethal or sublethal toxicity.

  9. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  10. Impacts of Heavy Metals on the Photosynthetic Production of Freshwater and Brackishwater Phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S. B.; Islam, M. S.; Das, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr at the concentration ragne of 5''4000 μg I -1 on the photosynthetic production of phytoplankton of a freshwater (Lal dighi of Cox's Bazar town) and a brackishwater ecosystem (Bankkhali river) of Bangladesh was studied. The data on water quality characteristics and phytoplankton diversity shows that the two ecosystems are different from each other. The bioassay experiment reveals that Cu was more deleterious than Zn for the primary productivity reducing 100% gross primary productivity (GPP) at 2000 μg I -1 concentration in freshwater within four hours. Whereas, both Cu and Zn ceased GPP completely in brackishwater ecosystem at the highest added concentration. The adverse impact of both Cu and Zn was higher on GPP than that of community respiration (R) in both the ecosystems. Between the two non-essential metals, Cr was more toxic to both GPP and R than that of Pb in both the ecosystems. From the median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values, it is shown that the toxic effect of Cu on GPP in the freshwater ecosystem was highest with the EC 50 value of 379.55 μg I -1 which is 2.00, 10.25 and 2.66 folds lower than those of Zn, Pb and Cr, respectively. Whereas in the brackishwater ecosystem, the toxicity of Cr on GPP was highest (EC 50 = 253.23 μg I -1 ) followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. The magnitude of hierarchy of toxicity was Cu< Zn< Cr< Pb and Cr< Cu< Zn< Pb in freshwater and brackishwater ecosystems, respectively. The toxicity pattern on GPP and R was same in the respective ecosystem. The total concentrations of all the metals followed the same trend of toxicity magnitude as in added concentrations on both GPP and R in both the ecosystems. The spatial difference in toxicity was due to the difference in hydrobiological characteristics of the waterbodies. (authors)

  11. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  12. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and freshwater fish. Neurobehavioral outcomes are usually non-specific, and imprecise exposure assessment results in a bias toward the null. Essential nutrients may promote the development of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. The lasting functional changes caused by neurodevelopmental methylmercury toxicity fit into the pattern of functional programming, with effects opposite to those linked to beneficial stimuli.

  13. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  14. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  15. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in freshwaters of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Bonilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide environmental problem. This phenomenon is typically associated with eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and changes in hydrology. In this study we analysed the distribution of planktonic cyanobacteria in Uruguay and their toxins (microcystin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, working with an interagency team (OSE, DINAMA, IM, University of the Republic and IIBCE. An historical data base (n = 3061 for 64 ecosystems, years 1980-2014 was generated. Differences between lotic and lentic ecosystems were found in terms of chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations, usually indicating eutrophication. Two geo-referenced maps for the country were generated with cyanobacteria biomass indicators and the most relevant toxin (microcystin, according to risk levels suggested by the World Health Organization for recreational waters. The areas of greatest risk of exposure were the reservoirs of large rivers (Uruguay and Río Negro and Río de la Plata beaches. In the second part of the study, up to 20 mg L-1of microcystin was quantified in bloom (scum samples, as well as the presence of genes that suggest more microcystin varieties, potentially with greater toxicity. This study provides basic information about the distribution of cyanobacteria in Uruguayan freshwaters that will be useful for national monitoring programs and scientific research.

  16. Interactive effects of pH, temperature and light during ammonia toxicity events in Elodea canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, J.J.C.; Heide, van der T.; Smolders, A.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Increased nutrient loading threatens many freshwater ecosystems. Elevated temperatures may increase the sensitivity to eutrophication in these ecosystems. Higher concentrations of possibly toxic reduced nitrogen (NHx) in the water layer may be expected as production and anaerobic breakdown rates

  17. Glutathione transferase activity and oocyte development in copepods exposed to toxic phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Koski, Marja; Hallberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    toxins generally observed in copepods. In addition, decreasing gross growth efficiency (GGE) of copepods with increasing concentration of toxic diets could be caused either by a high expenditure coping with toxins (e.g., increase in the activity of detoxification enzymes) or by a deterioration...... of reproductive tissues. To assess the effect of toxic phytoplankton on the activity of detoxification enzymes and on oocyte maturation of Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, feeding and egg production experiments were carried out with a variety of toxic diets and an adequate non-toxic food control (Rhodomonas...... spp.) all provided as single species diets. Toxic diets included the nodularin-producing cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, the dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum, and A. tamarense, which contained Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima with Diarrhetic...

  18. Tributyltin-resistant bacteria from estuarine and freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuertz, S; Miller, C E; Pfister, R M; Cooney, J J

    1991-01-01

    Resistance to tributyltin (TBT) was examined in populations from TBT-polluted sediments and nonpolluted sediments from an estuary and from fresh water as well as in pure cultures isolated from those sediments. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) for populations were higher at a TBT-polluted freshwater site than at a site without TBT, suggesting that TBT selected for a TBT-resistant population. In contrast, EC50s were significantly lower for populations from a TBT-contaminated estuarine site than for those from a site without TBT, suggesting that other factors in addition to TBT determine whether populations become resistant. EC50s for populations from TBT-contaminated freshwater sediments were nearly 30 times higher than those for populations from TBT-contaminated estuarine sediments. We defined a TBT-resistant bacterium as one which grows on trypticase soy agar containing 8.4 microM TBT, a concentration which prevented the growth of 90% of the culturable bacteria from these sediments. The toxicity of TBT in laboratory media was influenced markedly by the composition of the medium and whether it was liquid or solid. Ten TBT-resistant isolates from estuarine sediments and 19 from freshwater sediments were identified to the genus level. Two isolates, each a Bacillus sp., may be the first gram-positive bacteria isolated from fresh water in the presence of a high concentration of TBT. There was a high incidence of resistance to heavy metals: metal resistance indices were 0.76 for estuarine isolates and 0.68 for freshwater isolates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1746939

  19. A study of arsenic and chromium contamination in freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Abdul Khalik Wood; Alias Mohd Yusof; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Md Suhaimi Elias; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is generally known for its toxicity while chromium (Cr) at the appropriate amount is an essential element to man and becomes quite toxic in excessive amount. Anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, agricultural and urbanization have led to the contamination of toxic elements into aquatic that finally end up in the sediment system. Environmental process like diagenetic process causes the toxic metals to migrate from the bedrock materials into the sediment surface and lastly into the water column. This process has been recognized to be the factor of arsenic contamination in well water in several countries such as Bangladesh, Taiwan, USA and Canada. A number of samples of freshwater sediments from identified rivers and lakes at Johor Bharu area had been analyzed to determine the concentration level of As and Cr using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Certified Reference Material (CRM) namely BCSS-1 and IAEA Soil-7 were applied to provide good quality assurance control. The results obtained show that the concentrations of As in the rivers and lakes are 10-33 mg/g and 18-62 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of Cr in the rivers range between 25 mg/g to125 mg/g, while in the lake sediments the concentrations range between 173 mg/g to 301 mg/g. The lakes sediments have higher As and Cr contents than the river sediment. The results of the As and Cr concentrations were then compared to the background value proposed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA and interim freshwater sediment quality guidelines value established by Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for The Protection of Aquatic Life. (Author)

  20. Genome erosion in a nitrogen-fixing vertically transmitted endosymbiotic multicellular cyanobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a plant, the water-fern Azolla filiculoides Lam. This symbiosis was selected as it has characters which make it unique among extant cyanobacterial plant symbioses: the cyanobacterium lacks autonomous growth and is vertically transmitted between plant generations. Our results reveal features of evolutionary significance. The genome is in an eroding state, evidenced by a large proportion of pseudogenes (31.2% and a high frequency of transposable elements (approximately 600 scattered throughout the genome. Pseudogenization is found in genes such as the replication initiator dnaA and DNA repair genes, considered essential to free-living cyanobacteria. For some functional categories of genes pseudogenes are more prevalent than functional genes. Loss of function is apparent even within the 'core' gene categories of bacteria, such as genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient uptake. In contrast, serving as a critical source of nitrogen for the host, genes related to metabolic processes such as cell differentiation and nitrogen-fixation are well preserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first finding of genome degradation in a plant symbiont and phenotypically complex cyanobacterium and one of only a few extracellular endosymbionts described showing signs of reductive genome evolution. Our findings suggest an ongoing selective streamlining of this cyanobacterial genome which has resulted in an organism devoted to nitrogen fixation and devoid of autonomous growth. The cyanobacterial symbiont of Azolla

  1. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Chemical and Radiological Risks of Chronic Exposure to Uranium in Freshwater Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, T.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Adam, Ch.; Della-Vedova, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) presents a unique challenge for ecological risk assessments (ERA) because it induces both chemical and radiological toxicity, and the relative importance of these two toxicities differs among the various U source terms (i.e., natural, enriched, depleted). We present a method for the conversion between chemical concentrations (μgL -1 ) and radiological dose rates (μGyh -1 ) for a defined set of reference organisms, and apply this conversion method to previously derived chemical and radiological benchmarks to determine the extent to which these benchmarks ensure radiological and chemical protection, respectively, for U in freshwater ecosystems. Results show that the percentage of species radiologically protected by the chemical benchmark decreases with increasing degrees of U enrichment and with increasing periods of radioactive decay. In contrast, the freshwater ecosystem is almost never chemically protected by the radiological benchmark, regardless of the source term or decay period considered, confirming that the risks to the environment from uranium's chemical toxicity generally outweigh those of its radiological toxicity. These results are relevant to developing water quality criteria that protect freshwater ecosystems from the various risks associated with the nuclear applications of U exploitation, and highlight the need for (1) further research on the speciation, bioavailability, and toxicity of U-series radionuclides under different environmental conditions, and (2) the adoption of both chemical and radiological benchmarks for coherent ERAS to be conducted in U-contaminated freshwater ecosystems. (authors)

  2. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2015-10-09

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  3. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol re...

  4. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Mori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1 was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue.

  5. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anekwe Jennifer Ebele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are a unique group of emerging environmental contaminants, due to their inherent ability to induce physiological effects in human at low doses. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the presence of various PPCPs in different environmental compartments, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects to humans and wildlife. Therefore, this article reviews the current state-of-knowledge on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment. The environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria. Available literature on the sources, transport and degradation of PPCPs in the aquatic environment are evaluated, followed by a comprehensive review of the reported concentrations of different PPCP groups in the freshwater aquatic environment (water, sediment and biota of the five continents. Finally, future perspectives for research on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment are discussed in light of the identified research gaps in current knowledge.

  6. Freshwater autotrophic picoplankton: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. STOCKNER

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic picoplankton (APP are distributed worldwide and are ubiquitous in all types of lakes of varying trophic state. APP are major players in carbon production in all aquatic ecosystems, including extreme environments such as cold ice-covered and/or warm tropical lakes and thermal springs. They often form the base of complex microbial food webs, becoming prey for a multitude of protozoan and micro-invertebrate grazers, that effectively channel APP carbon to higher trophic levels including fish. In this review we examine the existing literature on freshwater autotrophic picoplankton, setting recent findings and current ecological issues within an historic framework, and include a description of the occurrence and distribution of both single-cell and colonial APP (picocyanobacteria in different types of lakes. In this review we place considerable emphasis on methodology and ecology, including sampling, counting, preservation, molecular techniques, measurement of photosynthesis, and include extensive comment on their important role in microbial food webs. The model outlined by Stockner of an increase of APP abundance and biomass and a decrease of its relative importance with the increase of phosphorus concentration in lakes has been widely accepted, and only recently confirmed in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Nevertheless the relationship which drives the APP presence and importance in lakes of differing trophic status appears with considerable variation so we must conclude that the success of APP in oligotrophic lakes worldwide is not a certainty but highly probable.

  7. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  8. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  10. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  11. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of the Iron Superoxide Dismutase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Its Response to Methyl Viologen-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Vanlalsangi, Rebecca; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

    2015-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) detoxifies cell-toxic superoxide radicals and constitutes an important component of antioxidant machinery in aerobic organisms, including cyanobacteria. The iron-containing SOD (SodB) is one of the most abundant soluble proteins in the cytosol of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, and therefore, we investigated its biochemical properties and response to oxidative stress. The putative SodB-encoding open reading frame Npun_R6491 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally hexahistidine-tagged protein. The purified recombinant protein had a SodB specific activity of 2560 ± 48 U/mg protein at pH 7.8 and was highly thermostable. The presence of a characteristic iron absorption peak at 350 nm, and its sensitivity to H2O2 and azide, confirmed that the SodB is an iron-containing SOD. Transcript level of SodB in nitrogen-fixing cultures of N. punctiforme decreased considerably (threefold) after exposure to an oxidative stress-generating herbicide methyl viologen for 4 h. Furthermore, in-gel SOD activity analysis of such cultures grown at increasing concentrations of methyl viologen also showed a loss of SodB activity. These results suggest that SodB is not the primary scavenger of superoxide radicals induced by methyl viologen in N. punctiforme.

  12. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  13. A Nostoc punctiforme sugar transporter necessary to establish a Cyanobacterium-plant symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Picossi, Silvia; Campbell, Elsie L; Meeks, John C; Flores, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    In cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium has low photosynthetic activity and is supplemented by sugars provided by the plant partner. Which sugars and cyanobacterial sugar uptake mechanism(s) are involved in the symbiosis, however, is unknown. Mutants of the symbiotically competent, facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme were constructed bearing a neomycin resistance gene cassette replacing genes in a putative sugar transport gene cluster. Results of transport activity assays using (14)C-labeled fructose and glucose and tests of heterotrophic growth with these sugars enabled the identification of an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter for fructose (Frt), a major facilitator permease for glucose (GlcP), and a porin needed for the optimal uptake of both fructose and glucose. Analysis of green fluorescent protein fluorescence in strains of N. punctiforme bearing frt::gfp fusions showed high expression in vegetative cells and akinetes, variable expression in hormogonia, and no expression in heterocysts. The symbiotic efficiency of N. punctiforme sugar transport mutants was investigated by testing their ability to infect a nonvascular plant partner, the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. Strains that were specifically unable to transport glucose did not infect the plant. These results imply a role for GlcP in establishing symbiosis under the conditions used in this work.

  14. Cellular and functional specificity among ferritin-like proteins in the multicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Ferritin-like proteins constitute a remarkably heterogeneous protein family, including ferritins, bacterioferritins and Dps proteins. The genome of the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme encodes five ferritin-like proteins. In the present paper, we report a multidimensional characterization of these proteins. Our phylogenetic and bioinformatics analyses suggest both structural and physiological differences among the ferritin-like proteins. The expression of these five genes responded differently to hydrogen peroxide treatment, with a significantly higher rise in transcript level for Npun_F3730 as compared with the other four genes. A specific role for Npun_F3730 in the cells tolerance against hydrogen peroxide was also supported by the inactivation of Npun_F3730, Npun_R5701 and Npun_R6212; among these, only the ΔNpun_F3730 strain showed an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide compared with wild type. Analysis of promoter-GFP reporter fusions of the ferritin-like genes indicated that Npun_F3730 and Npun_R5701 were expressed in all cell types of a diazotrophic culture, while Npun_F6212 was expressed specifically in heterocysts. Our study provides the first comprehensive analysis combining functional differentiation and cellular specificity within this important group of proteins in a multicellular cyanobacterium. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Growth of Cyanobacterium aponinum influenced by increasing salt concentrations and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Dominik; Bleeke, Franziska; Bergmann, Peter; Klöck, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    The increasing requirement of food neutral biofuels demands the detection of alternative sources. The use of non-arable land and waste water streams is widely discussed in this regard. A Cyanobacterium was isolated on the area of a possible algae production side near a water treatment plant in the arid desert region al-Wusta. It was identified as Cyanobacterium aponinum PB1 and is a possible lipid source. To determine its suitability of a production process using this organism, a set of laboratory experiments were performed. Its growth behavior was examined in regard to high temperatures and increasing NaCl concentrations. A productivity of 0.1 g L -1 per day was measured at an alga density below 0.75 g L -1 . C. aponinum PB1 showed no sign of altered growth behavior in media containing 70 g L -1 NaCl or less. Detection of a negative effect of NaCl on the growth using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was not more sensitive than optical density measurement.

  16. Unique thylakoid membrane architecture of a unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium revealed by electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Austin II, Jotham R; Berg, R. Howard; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  17. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of a Unicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealed by Electron Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle L.; Austin, Jotham R.; Berg, R. H.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  18. Combined Effects of CO2 and Light on the N-2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: A Mechanistic View

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levitan, O.; Kranz, S. A.; Spungin, D.; Prášil, Ondřej; Rost, B.; Berman-Frank, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 1 (2010), s. 346-356 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyanobacterium Trichodesmium * ocean * photosystem I Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.451, year: 2010

  19. Combined effect of CO2 and light on the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: Physiological responses 1[OA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kranz, S. A.; Levitan, O.; Richter, K.-U.; Prášil, Ondřej; Berman-Frank, I.; Rost, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 1 (2010), s. 334-345 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Trichodesmium IMS101 * cyanobacterium * CO2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.451, year: 2010

  20. Mono-, di- and trimeric PS I reaction center complexes isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Size, shape and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rögner, M.; Mühlenhoff, U.; Boekema, E.J.; Witt, H.T.

    1990-01-01

    Photosystem I preparations from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. were treated with high concentrations of Tris and octyl glucoside at alkaline pH and elevated temperature. A sucrose density gradient yielded three pigment-protein complexes; these were further purified on a HPLC anion-exchange

  1. Two-Step Separation of Nostotrebin 6 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) by High Performance Countercurrent Chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheel, José; Kučerová, P.; Garrard, I.; Ignatova, S.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kopecký, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 8773-8787 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nostotrebin 6 * cyanobacterium * Nostoc * HPLC separation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  2. Backbone dynamics of reduced plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis: Regions involved in electron transfer have enhanced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, L.X.; Hass, M.A.S.; Vierick, N.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of the backbone of the electron-transfer protein plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis were determined from the N-15 and C-13(alpha) R-1 and R-2) relaxation rates and steady-state [H-1]-N-15 and [H-1]-C-13 nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) using the model...

  3. Pulsed nitrogen supply induces dynamic changes in the amino acid composition and microcystin production of the harmful cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Ferreruela, G.; Tonk, L.; van Donk, E.; Huisman, J.; Visser, P.M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Planktothrix agardhii is a widespread harmful cyanobacterium of eutrophic waters, and can produce the hepatotoxins [Asp3]microcystin-LR and [Asp3]microcystin-RR. These two microcystin variants differ in their first variable amino acid position, which is occupied by either leucine (L) or arginine

  4. Pulsed nitrogen supply induces dynamic changes in the amino acid compositionand microcystin production of the harmful cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; Ferreruela, G.; Tonk, L.; Van Donk, E.; Huisman, J.; Visser, P.M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Planktothrix agardhii is a widespread harmful cyanobacterium of eutrophic waters, and can produce the hepatotoxins [Asp3]microcystin-LR and [Asp3]microcystin-RR. These two microcystin variants differ in their first variable amino acid position, which is occupied by either leucine (L) or arginine

  5. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  6. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kyle E.; Thomas, Sheeba M.; Bodour, Adria A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, βE2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  7. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    : Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and freshwater fish. Neurobehavioral outcomes are usually non-specific, and imprecise exposure assessment results in a bias toward the null. Essential nutrients may promote the development......PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS...... of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The lasting functional changes caused...

  8. The functional response of a freshwater benthic community to cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faupel, Michael; Ristau, Kai; Traunspurger, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts that in freshwater communities under chemical stress secondary production will decrease while the rate of biomass turnover (P/B) will increase. However, this concept has never been tested on organisms of smaller size (bacteria, protozoans, small metazoans), although they form the basis of the heterotrophic food web. The present work describes the results of a 7-month microcosm study, in which the effects of low and high toxic stress on an entire sediment community were examined, with cadmium (Cd) as the model pollutant (50 and 400 mg Cd kg −1 dry sediment). While metazoans and protozoans generally followed the expected trend, in bacteria both production and P/B decreased under Cd stress. These observations provide new insights into the functioning of freshwater ecosystems and demonstrate the functional consequences of toxicants on biological systems. - Highlights: ► Secondary production of freshwater organisms was estimated under cadmium stress. ► Cadmium generally decreased the production of all taxa. ► The corresponding P/B ratio increased for some taxa. ► Secondary production provides insight into the functioning of polluted ecosystems. - Cadmium alters the biomass turnover rate of a freshwater community.

  9. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  10. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  11. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration-...... days to 2 days (minitest as well as larger volume tests) in order to avoid excessive biomass growth. Shortening tests to 2 days appears necessary if light intensity and temperature are near the upper limits of the intervals stated in the ISO standard.......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  12. Status and Impacts of Arctic Freshwater Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.

    2017-12-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈5000 km3—about 25%—being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200±730 km3yr-1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice (Figure, right). Evidence exists that such discharges can impact the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and hence Atlantic sector climate. Nevertheless, it appears that the observed AMOC variability since 2004, when high quality measurements began, is not attributable to anthropogenic influence. This work is based on, and updated from, Haine et al. (2015), Carmack et al. (2016), and Haine (2016). Haine, T. W. N. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning. Nature Geoscience, 9, 479-480, 10.1038/ngeo2748, 2016. T. W. N. Haine et al., Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects, Global Planetary Change, 125, 13-35, 10.1016/j.glopacha.2014.11.013, 2015. E. Carmack et al., Fresh water and its role in the Arctic Marine System: sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans. J. G. Res. Biogeosciences, 10.1002/2015JG003140, 2016.

  13. Stability of toxin gene proportion in red-pigmented populations of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix during 29 years of re-oligotrophication of Lake Zürich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermaier Veronika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful algal blooms deteriorate the services of aquatic ecosystems. They are often formed by cyanobacteria composed of genotypes able to produce a certain toxin, for example, the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC, but also of nontoxic genotypes that either carry mutations in the genes encoding toxin synthesis or that lost those genes during evolution. In general, cyanobacterial blooms are favored by eutrophication. Very little is known about the stability of the toxic/nontoxic genotype composition during trophic change. Results Archived samples of preserved phytoplankton on filters from aquatic ecosystems that underwent changes in the trophic state provide a so far unrealized possibility to analyze the response of toxic/nontoxic genotype composition to the environment. During a period of 29 years of re-oligotrophication of the deep, physically stratified Lake Zürich (1980 to 2008, the population of the stratifying cyanobacterium Planktothrix was at a minimum during the most eutrophic years (1980 to 1984, but increased and dominated the phytoplankton during the past two decades. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that during the whole observation period the proportion of the toxic genotype was strikingly stable, that is, close to 100%. Inactive MC genotypes carrying mutations within the MC synthesis genes never became abundant. Unexpectedly, a nontoxic genotype, which lost its MC genes during evolution, and which could be shown to be dominant under eutrophic conditions in shallow polymictic lakes, also co-occurred in Lake Zürich but was never abundant. As it is most likely that this nontoxic genotype contains relatively weak gas vesicles unable to withstand the high water pressure in deep lakes, it is concluded that regular deep mixing selectively reduced its abundance through the destruction of gas vesicles. Conclusions The stability in toxic genotype dominance gives evidence for the adaptation to deep mixing of a

  14. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  15. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  16. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  17. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  18. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals to Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper was more toxic than lead and iron to both life stages. The species sensitivity distributions of O. mossambicus, as well as those of freshwater fish species from the ECOTOX database and literature, were closely predicted by the models for all three metals. The sensitivity of O. mossambicus to copper, iron and lead ...

  19. Diversity and dynamics of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloom–forming freshwater cyanobacteria pose human and livestock health problems due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds. Some non-toxic cyanobacteria accumulate as buoyant surface dwelling scums and thick mats which affect the benthic fauna by degrading aquatic habitats and giving ...

  20. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  1. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia

  2. Identifying national freshwater ecosystem priority areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights the use of systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas for managing the health of freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity and ecosystem services....

  3. Characterization of a Freshwater Crab Sudanonautes aubryi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... 2Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Marien Ngouabi - PoB 69 Congo Brazzaville ... to collect and realize a biometric characterization of this common freshwater ... information, which will be used by conservation.

  4. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Anderson, R.L.; Benoit, D.A.; Spehar, R.L.; Stokes, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish are reviewed. Subjects include: inorganic industrial pollutants, man-made disturbances and radioactive pollutants. Topics include uptake distribution, retention, mortality, and lethal doses

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    determined in water and sediment samples of freshwater systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa that ... The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water and sediments ...... Test Methods For Evaluating Solid Waste (3rd edn.) ...

  6. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  7. BMAA Inhibits Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Bergman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA, proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms.

  8. Inhibition of motility in the cyanobacterium, Phormidium uncinatum, by solar and monochromatic UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Häder, D.P.; Watanabe, M.; Furuya, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation and monochromatic UV radiation on the motility of the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was determined. Solar radiation (mid-day, in midsummer at a location near Lisboa, Portugal) was found to impair motility within about 30 min. This effect is neither a result of a temperature increase nor of visible light. The spectral sensitivity determined using the Okazaki Largé Spectrograph shows the maximal effectiveness of radiation of ≤300 nm. The short time requirement for the response and the lack of any photoreactivation of motility argues against DNA being the UV target. Investigations using reagents diagnostic of superoxide free radicals and singlet oxygen failed to confirm the involvement of photodynamic effects as the molecular mechanism causing UV inhibition of motility

  9. Molecular cloning of a recA-like gene from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owttrim, G.W.; Coleman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A recA-like gene isolated from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was cloned and partially characterized. When introduced into Escherichia coli recA mutants, the 7.5-kilobase-pair plasmid-borne DNA insert restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and UV irradiation, as well as recombination proficiency when measured by Hfr-mediated conjugation. The cyanobacterial recA gene restored spontaneous but not mitomycin C-induced prophage production. Restriction analysis and subcloning yielded a 1.5-kilobase-pair Sau3A fragment which also restored methylmethane sulfonate resistance and coded for a 38- to 40-kilodalton polypeptide when expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system

  10. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  11. The complex effects of ocean acidification on the prominent N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haizheng; Shen, Rong; Zhang, Futing; Wen, Zuozhu; Chang, Siwei; Lin, Wenfang; Kranz, Sven A; Luo, Ya-Wei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Morel, François M M; Shi, Dalin

    2017-05-05

    Acidification of seawater caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is anticipated to influence the growth of dinitrogen (N 2 )-fixing phytoplankton, which contribute a large fraction of primary production in the tropical and subtropical ocean. We found that growth and N 2 -fixation of the ubiquitous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium decreased under acidified conditions, notwithstanding a beneficial effect of high CO 2 Acidification resulted in low cytosolic pH and reduced N 2 -fixation rates despite elevated nitrogenase concentrations. Low cytosolic pH required increased proton pumping across the thylakoid membrane and elevated adenosine triphosphate production. These requirements were not satisfied under field or experimental iron-limiting conditions, which greatly amplified the negative effect of acidification. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Space-environmental tolerances in a cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Ajioka, Reiko; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Inoue, Kotomi

    2016-07-01

    We have been investigating the tolerances to space-environments of a cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 (hereafter referred to as HK-01). Dry colonies of HK-01 had high tolerance to dry conditions, but more detailed information about tolerance to high-temperature, UV, gamma-ray and heavy particle beams were not deeply investigated. The obtained dry colonies of HK-01 after exposure to each of the conditions described above were investigated. In all of the tested colonies of HK-01 after exposure, all or some of the cells in the colonies were alive. One of the purposes of space agriculture is growing plants on Mars. In the early stages, of our research, cyanobacteria are introduced on Mars to promote the oxidation of the atmosphere and the formation of soil from Mars's regolith. HK-01 will contribute to each of these factors in the future.

  13. BMAA Inhibits Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntzon, Lotta; Erasmie, Sven; Celepli, Narin; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms. PMID:23966039

  14. Cadmium-mediated resistance to metals and antibiotics in a cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Pandey, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant strains of the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola were isolated through the step-wise transfer of the organism to higher levels of the metal. One of the Cd-resistant strains (CDsup(r)-10) showed cross-resistance to antibiotics like neomycin (1 ..mu..g/ml), chloramphenicol (3 ..mu..g/ml) but not to streptomycin. The Cd-resistant strain also tolerated elevated levels of metals such as zinc 20 ppm) and mercury (1 ppm). The stability of the metal-resistance required the presence of Cd/sup 2 +/ ions in the growth medium. It is suggested that metal resistance may also be determined by gene(s) on the antibiotic resistance plasmids in cyanobacteria.

  15. Utilization of a terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, for space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunta; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Arai, Mayumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Katoh, Hiroshi; Ajioka, Reiko; Inoue, Kotomi

    2016-07-01

    A terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 (hereafter HK-01), has several useful abilities for space habitation; photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and space environmental tolerances to vacuum, UV, gamma-ray, heavy particle beam, low and high temperature. Space environmental tolerances are important for transportation to Mars. HK-01 can grow on Martian regolith simulant (MRS) in vitro. Furthermore, HK-01 is useful as food. HK-01 may be utilized as oxygen supply, soil formation and food material for bio-chemical circulation in closed bio-ecosystems, including space habitation such as Mars. HK-01 was adopted as a biological material for the "TANPOPO" mission (JAXA et al.,), because of their high environmental tolerances. The "TANPOPO" mission is performing the space exposure experiments on the Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). The results of these experiments will show the ability of HK-01 to survive in space.

  16. Composition and occurrence of lipid droplets in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramuna, Anantha; Summers, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophylic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not increase LD numbers. LD accumulation increased when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source during exponential growth as compared to added ammonia or nitrogen-fixing conditions. Analysis of isolated LDs revealed enrichment of triacylglycerol (TAG), α-tocopherol, and C17 alkanes. LD TAG from exponential phase growth contained mainly saturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, whereas stationary phase LD TAG had additional unsaturated fatty acids characteristic of whole cells. This is the first characterization of cyanobacterial LD composition and conditions leading to their production. Based upon their abnormally large size and atypical location, these structures represent a novel sub-organelle in cyanobacteria.

  17. Phycobiliprotein accumulation in cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia and modification of antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VALUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with iron(III coordination compounds with Schiff bases as ligands and their impact on phycobiliprotein accumulation by cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia. Stimulatory effect depends on the applied dose and in case of three compounds, the concentration 20 mg/L was determined as one with moderate intensity. Lower concentrations resulted in an increase of the phycobiliprotein synthesis. There was found a significant positive correlation between phycobiliprotein content and ABTS (2.2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay values displayed by aqueous extracts from Nostoc linckia biomass cultivated in nutrient medium with these coordination compounds. Hence, it is possible to modify the antioxidant activity of Nostoc biomass by applying low concentrations of chemical stimuli.

  18. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a hetero-cystous cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad [Dept. of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, V illavagen 6, SE-752 36 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the hetero-cystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyano-bacterial cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  19. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a hetero-cystous cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad

    2006-01-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the hetero-cystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyano-bacterial cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  20. Jizanpeptins, Cyanobacterial Protease Inhibitors from a Symploca sp. Cyanobacterium Collected in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, David A; Saurí, Josep; Cohen, Ryan D; Wan, Xuemei; Videau, Patrick; Vallota-Eastman, Alec O; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Philmus, Benjamin; Sikora, Aleksandra E; Ishmael, Jane E; McPhail, Kerry L

    2018-05-29

    Jizanpeptins A-E (1-5) are micropeptin depsipeptides isolated from a Red Sea specimen of a Symploca sp. cyanobacterium. The planar structures of the jizanpeptins were established using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and contain 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp) as one of eight residues in a typical micropeptin motif, as well as a side chain terminal glyceric acid sulfate moiety. The absolute configurations of the jizanpeptins were assigned using a combination of Marfey's methodology and chiral-phase HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products compared to commercial and synthesized standards. Jizanpeptins A-E showed specific inhibition of the serine protease trypsin (IC 50 = 72 nM to 1 μM) compared to chymotrypsin (IC 50 = 1.4 to >10 μM) in vitro and were not overtly cytotoxic to HeLa cervical or NCI-H460 lung cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations.

  1. Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geosmin is a common, musty-smelling sesquiterpene, principally produced by cyanobacteria. Anabaena ucrainica (Schhorb. Watanabe, a water bloom-forming cyanobacterium, is the geosmin producer responsible for odor problems in Dianchi and Erhai lakes in China. In this study, the geosmin synthase gene (geo of A. ucrainica and its flanking regions were identified and cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genome walking. The geo gene was found to be located in a transcription unit with two cyclic nucleotide-binding protein genes (cnb. The two cnb genes were highly similar and were predicted members of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase regulator (Crp–Fnr family. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses implied that the evolution of the geosmin genes involved a horizontal gene transfer process in cyanobacteria. These genes showed a close relationship to 2-methylisoborneol genes in origin and evolution.

  2. Detection of bioactive exometabolites produced by the filamentous marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Nelson H; Kumirska, Jolanta; Neumann, Jennifer; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

    2012-08-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are noted for their ability to excrete metabolites with biotic properties. This paper focuses on such exometabolites obtained from the culture of the marine filamentous cyanobacterium Geitlerinema sp. strain, their purification and subsequent analyses. By this means the recoveries of the active compounds, a prerequisite for properly determining their concentration, are quantified here for the first time. We demonstrate a new procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180 resin in combination with the eluent isopropanol for extraction of the culture media and gas chromatography as simplified chemical analysis. This procedure reduced necessary bacteria cultivation time (from 150 to 21 days) at low volumes of culture media (300 mL) required for identification of two selected bioactive compounds: 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl and harmane.

  3. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs. industrial) adjacent to the river, and distance downstream from a point source. Given that the study of microplastics in freshwaters has only arisen in the last few years, we are still limited in our understanding of 1

  4. Toxic effects of selenium and copper on the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Aquatic toxicologists have become increasingly concerned with the effects of sublethal concentrations of toxicants on aquatic organisms. Sublethal effects of toxicants on freshwater invertebrates were reviewed. Selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are both essential trace elements and toxicants. Se has been reported to alter the toxicity of heavy metals. Planarians, Dugesia dorotocephala, were used as test animals. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) acute toxicity of Se on planarians and the effect of the number of planarians per test chamber, (2) interaction of the acute toxicity of Se and Cu on planarians, and (3) sublethal effects of Se and Cu on planarians.

  5. Isolation and Purification of Heterotetrameric Catalase from a Desiccation Tolerant Cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor, Shivali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola, isolated from bark surfaces of Mangifera indica, possessed up to four stable isoforms of catalase in addition to other antioxidative enzymes, for several years under a dry state. Purification of the two most persistent isoforms of catalase (Cat has been undertaken by employing acetone precipitation, ethanol: chloroform treatment, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The two isoforms of catalase remained almost unchanged on varying matric and osmotic hydration levels of mats of the cyanobacterium. The purification procedures resulted in a 1.3 % yield of purified single isoform (0.22 mg mL-1 protein with 709 Units mg-1 specific activity and a purity index of 0.83. Five millimolar of dithiothreitol (DTT was observed to be pertinent in maintaining the optimum redox state of the enzyme. The purification procedures additionally facilitated the simultaneous elimination and procurement of phycoerythrins (PE and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA. Each purified isoform gave a single band (~45kDa upon SDS-PAGE and denaturing urea isoelectric focusing (IEF depicted the presence of 2 subunits each of CatA and CatB. The monoisotopic mass and pI value of CatA and CatB as revealed by LC-MS analysis and internal amino acid sequencing was 78.96, 5.89 and 80.77, 5.92, respectively, showing resemblance with CatA of Erysiphe graminis subs. hordei and CatB of Ajellomyces capsulata. The heterotetrameric monofunctional catalase (~320 kDa, due to its stability in the form of resistance to ethanol: chloroform, its thermoalkaliphilic nature and the presence of innumerable hydrophobic amino acid residues (~40%, thus exhibited its potential for biotechnological applications.

  6. Effect of UV-B on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Sinha, R.P.; Häder, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) irradiation on nitrogenase and nitrate reductase (NR) activity have been studied in the filamentous and heterocystous N 2 -fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Exposure of cultures to UV-B (5W/m 2 ) for as little as 30 min caused complete inactivation of nitrogenase activity whereas nitrate reductase activity was stimulated twofold in comparison to one exposed to fluorescent white light. GS activity was also inhibited by UV-B treatment, but there was no total loss of activity even after 4 h. NR activity showed a gradual stimulation up to 4 h and thereafter it became constant. Stimulation was also obtained in reductant deficient cultures (12 h incubation in the dark) suggesting independence of NR of PS-II under UV-B. NR activity was also unaffected in the presence of DCMU, a known inhibitor of PS-II. However, both O 2 evolution and 14 CO 2 uptake were completely abolished following 30 min of UV-B treatment. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol (25 μg/mL) to cultures did not show any inhibitory effect on NR activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of UV-B treated cultures elicited gradual loss of protein bands with increasing duration of exposure. Our findings suggest that UV-B irradiance has differential effects on the enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Further studies are needed to reveal the exact mechanism involved in the stimulation of NR activity by UV-B. Whether UV-B has a direct effect on NO 2 − accumulation in the cells needs detailed investigation. (author)

  7. Temporal Gene Expression of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira in Response to Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Hanène; Monsieurs, Pieter; Coninx, Ilse; Nauts, Robin; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The edible cyanobacterium Arthrospira is resistant to ionising radiation. The cellular mechanisms underlying this radiation resistance are, however, still largely unknown. Therefore, additional molecular analysis was performed to investigate how these cells can escape from, protect against, or repair the radiation damage. Arthrospira cells were shortly exposed to different doses of 60Co gamma rays and the dynamic response was investigated by monitoring its gene expression and cell physiology at different time points after irradiation. The results revealed a fast switch from an active growth state to a kind of 'survival modus' during which the cells put photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen assimilation on hold and activate pathways for cellular protection, detoxification, and repair. The higher the radiation dose, the more pronounced this global emergency response is expressed. Genes repressed during early response, suggested a reduction of photosystem II and I activity and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycles, combined with an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). For reactive oxygen species detoxification and restoration of the redox balance in Arthrospira cells, the results suggested a powerful contribution of the antioxidant molecule glutathione. The repair mechanisms of Arthrospira cells that were immediately switched on, involve mainly proteases for damaged protein removal, single strand DNA repair and restriction modification systems, while recA was not induced. Additionally, the exposed cells showed significant increased expression of arh genes, coding for a novel group of protein of unknown function, also seen in our previous irradiation studies. This observation confirms our hypothesis that arh genes are key elements in radiation resistance of Arthrospira, requiring further investigation. This study provides new insights into phasic response and the cellular pathways involved in the radiation resistance of

  8. Temporal Gene Expression of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira in Response to Gamma Rays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanène Badri

    Full Text Available The edible cyanobacterium Arthrospira is resistant to ionising radiation. The cellular mechanisms underlying this radiation resistance are, however, still largely unknown. Therefore, additional molecular analysis was performed to investigate how these cells can escape from, protect against, or repair the radiation damage. Arthrospira cells were shortly exposed to different doses of 60Co gamma rays and the dynamic response was investigated by monitoring its gene expression and cell physiology at different time points after irradiation. The results revealed a fast switch from an active growth state to a kind of 'survival modus' during which the cells put photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen assimilation on hold and activate pathways for cellular protection, detoxification, and repair. The higher the radiation dose, the more pronounced this global emergency response is expressed. Genes repressed during early response, suggested a reduction of photosystem II and I activity and reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA and Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycles, combined with an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. For reactive oxygen species detoxification and restoration of the redox balance in Arthrospira cells, the results suggested a powerful contribution of the antioxidant molecule glutathione. The repair mechanisms of Arthrospira cells that were immediately switched on, involve mainly proteases for damaged protein removal, single strand DNA repair and restriction modification systems, while recA was not induced. Additionally, the exposed cells showed significant increased expression of arh genes, coding for a novel group of protein of unknown function, also seen in our previous irradiation studies. This observation confirms our hypothesis that arh genes are key elements in radiation resistance of Arthrospira, requiring further investigation. This study provides new insights into phasic response and the cellular pathways involved in the radiation

  9. First report of neurotoxic effect of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the motility of trematode metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, K C; Ferrão-Filho, A S; Santos, E G N; Santos, C P

    2018-03-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that can produce cytotoxic (cylindrospermopsin) and neurotoxic cyanotoxins (saxitoxins). In Brazil the strains of C. raciborskii are reported to produce only saxitoxins (STX) and their effect on fish parasites has not been tested to date. The fish Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider is a common host for the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, and this fish-parasite interaction is a model for behavioural and ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the motility of metacercariae of P. macrostomum from P. vivipara exposed to 40 mg l-1 and 400 mg l-1 of crude lyophilized extract of the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (CYRF-01) for 48 h. The fish were separated into groups of ten individuals and, after exposure, five fish from each group were dissected for counting and checking the motility of metacercariae. The other five fish were dissected after 48 h in clean water. The detection and quantification of STX in the solutions of cyanobacteria, and the gills and guts of fish, were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The crude extract of C. raciborskii caused temporary paralysis in metacercariae of P. macrostomum after exposure of fish to both concentrations, and the motility recovered after the fish were kept for 48 h in clean water. STX was detected in the guts and gills of all fish analysed, suggesting that this toxin is involved in the paralysis of metacercariae. This is the first report on the action of neurotoxins in metacercariae of fish.

  10. Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Poff, N.L.; Angermeier, P.L.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gleick, P.H.; Hairston, N.G.; Jackson, R.B.; Johnston, C.A.; Richter, B.D.; Steinman, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and societal well-being, and thus its utilization for consumption, irrigation, and transport has long taken precedence over other commodities and services provided by freshwater ecosystems. However, there is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex aquatic ecosystems provide many economically valuable services and long-term benefits to society. The short-term benefits include ecosystem goods and services, such as food supply, flood control, purification of human and industrial wastes, and habitat for plant and animal life—and these are costly, if not impossible, to replace. Long-term benefits include the sustained provision of those goods and services, as well as the adaptive capacity of aquatic ecosystems to respond to future environmental alterations, such as climate change. Thus, maintenance of the processes and properties that support freshwater ecosystem integrity should be included in debates over sustainable water resource allocation.The purpose of this report is to explain how the integrity of freshwater ecosystems depends upon adequate quantity, quality, timing, and temporal variability of water flow. Defining these requirements in a comprehensive but general manner provides a better foundation for their inclusion in current and future debates about allocation of water resources. In this way the needs of freshwater ecosystems can be legitimately recognized and addressed. We also recommend ways in which freshwater ecosystems can be protected, maintained, and restored.Freshwater ecosystem structure and function are tightly linked to the watershed or catchment of which they are a part. Because riverine networks, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting groundwaters, are literally the

  11. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  12. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  13. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  14. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1, a Filamentous Cyanobacterium with Biotechnological Potential for Alimentary Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-09-15

    Here, we report the draft genome of cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. KIOST-1 isolated from a microalgal culture pond in South Korea. The genome consists of 13 contigs containing 6,320,172 bp, and a total of 5,327 coding sequences were predicted. This genomic information will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential for alimentary purposes. Copyright © 2016 Kim and Kang.

  16. Resistance to the photosystem II herbicide diuron is dominant to sensitivity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942

    OpenAIRE

    Brusslan, Judy; Haselkorn, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The transformable cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, was used to study the genetics of resistance to the herbicide diuron. In wild-type cells, diuron binds to one of the core proteins, called D1, of photosystem II reaction centres. This binding prevents the transfer of electrons from QA, the primary quinone acceptor, to QB, which is necessary to create the charge separation that drives ATP synthesis. A single amino acid substitution in the D1 protein reduces diuron binding and confers...

  17. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJANA TRIPATHI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tripathi R, Dhuldhaj UP, Singh S. 2012. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 134-137. Effect of temperature variation on biomass accumulation, pigment composition and protein content were studied for the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, isolated from Antarctica. Results confirmed the psychrotrophic behavior (optimum growth temperature 25◦C of the cyanobacterium. Low temperature increased the duration of lag phase and exponential growth phase. Maximum increase in biomass was recorded on 24th day at 25◦C and on 12th day at 50C. The downshift from 25 to 5◦C had almost negligible effect on chl a content. Maximal protein content was recorded for cultures growing at 50C on 12th day. The carotenoids/chl a ratio was maximum (2.48 at 50C on 9th day. It remained almost constant for cultures growing at 5 and 350C. There was an induction in protein synthesis following downshift in temperature from 25 to 5◦C.

  18. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina

    addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing...... the likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...... beyond that of the individual components. Firstly, the effects of three chemicals with PBT-like properties (acetyl cedrene, pyrene and triclosan) was examined on the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Secondly, mixture bioaccumulation of the same three chemicals were assessed experimentally...

  19. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  20. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1997 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased for 836 ha or 8.40%. The total fish amount was bigger for 477 tons, or 10,52%. The feeding coefficient is 2.6 kg decreased 35% for in comparison to the bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used is bigger for 37.30%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 6.50% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 22.04/0, and the ponds with consumption fish 70.31%. The total amount in the carp ponds was 446 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 160.8 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 79.32%, followed by the trout with 11.50%, the herbivorous fish with 4.25%, while all the other fish species make up 4.93% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 69,23%, followed by the big head carp with 29.74% and the silver carp with 1.03%. Compared to the previous year the production of the carp, grass carp and tench is increased. Fish catch in open waters has decreased by 5.53% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 75.34%, herbivorous fish made up 3.89%, trout 10.66%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.70% and all other fish species 7.41%. As far as the distribution of production and catch of fish is concerned, 52,80% were sold on the market, 37.94% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortality was 1.43%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.83%. The number of fisheries workers has decreased for 8.17%, and the production per worker is bigger for 22.25%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 7.17% tons of fish.

  1. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1996.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1996 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased by 1357 ha or 11.99%. The total fish amount has decreased by 1,921.00 tons or 29.76%. The feeding coefficient is 4 kg (33.33% bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used has decreased by 18.79%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 5.99% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 21.13%, and the ponds with consumption fish 71.53%. The total fish amount in the carp ponds was 376 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 146.6 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 82.21 %, followed by the trout with 8.57%, the herbivorous fish with 4.78%, while all the other fish species make up 4.44% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 64,28%, followed by the big head carp with 26.02% and the silver carp with 9.70%. Compared to the previous year the production of the trout and tench has somewhat increased, while the production of all the other species of fish has decreased. Fish catch in open waters has increased by 19.23% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 77.46%, the herbivorous fish made up 4.32%, trout 4.32%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.99% and all other fish species 7.36%. As far as the distribution of production and catch is concerned, 46.91% were sold on the market, 39.19% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortalities were 6.23%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.67% was used. The number of fisheries workers has decreased by 17.75%, and the production per worker has also decreased by 26.62%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 5.87 tons of fish.

  2. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Effects of Nano-Titanium Dioxide on Freshwater Algal Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, Konrad J.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    To make predictions about the possible effects of nanomaterials across environments and taxa, toxicity testing must incorporate not only a variety of organisms and endpoints, but also an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie nanoparticle toxicity. Here, we report the results of a laboratory experiment in which we examined how titanium dioxide nanoparticles impact the population dynamics and production of biomass across a range of freshwater algae. We exposed 10 of the most common species of North American freshwater pelagic algae (phytoplankton) to five increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 (ranging from controls to 300 mg n-TiO2 L−1). We then examined the effects of n-TiO2 on the population growth rates and biomass production of each algal species over a period of 25 days. On average, increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 had no significant effects on algal growth rates (p = 0.376), even though there was considerable species-specific variation in responses. In contrast, exposure to n-TiO2 tended to increase maximum biomass achieved by species in culture (p = 0.06). Results suggest that titanium dioxide nanoparticles could influence certain aspects of population growth of freshwater phytoplankton, though effects are unlikely at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23071735

  4. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  5. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  6. Molecular exploration of the highly radiation resistant cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Hanène; Leys, Natalie; Wattiez, Ruddy

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium able to use sunlight to release oxygen from water and remove carbon dioxide and nitrate from water. In addition, it is suited for human consumption (edible). For these traits, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the life support system MELiSSA for recycling oxygen, water, and food during future long-haul space missions. However, during such extended missions, Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 will be exposed to continuous artificial illumination and harmful cosmic radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate how Arthrospira will react and behave when exposed to such stress environment. The cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was exposed to high gamma rays doses in order to unravel in details the response of this bacterium following such stress. Test results showed that after acute exposure to high doses of 60Co gamma radiation upto 3200 Gy, Arthrospira filaments were still able to restart photosynthesis and proliferate normally. Doses above 3200 Gy, did have a detrimental effect on the cells, and delayed post-irradiation proliferation. The photosystem activity, measured as the PSII quantum yield immediately after irradiation, decreased significantly at radiation doses above 3200 Gy. Likewise through pigment content analysis a significant decrease in phycocyanin was observed following exposure to 3200 Gy. The high tolerance of this bacterium to 60Co gamma rays (i.e. ca. 1000x more resistant than human cells for example) raised our interest to investigate in details the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this amazing resistance. Optimised DNA, RNA and protein extraction methods and a new microarray chip specific for Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 were developed to identify the global cellular and molecular response following exposure to 3200 Gy and 5000 Gy A total of 15,29 % and 30,18 % genes were found differentially expressed in RNA

  7. Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-06-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

  8. Development of freshwater aquatic life criteria for Tetrabromobisphenol A in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Suwen; Yan Zhenguang; Xu Fanfan; Wang Shengrui; Wu Fengchang

    2012-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant. It has been detected in the environment and has shown to high toxicity to aquatic organisms. To date no aquatic life criteria for TBBPA have been proposed. This work compiled all literature toxicity data of TBBPA on Chinese aquatic species. Eight resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for TBBPA. Ten genera mean acute values and three genera mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, as well as two genera toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.1475 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.0126 mg/L were derived based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in risk assessment of TBBPA in the ambient water environment. - Highlights: ► We collected all the published toxicity data of TBBPA to aquatic organisms. ► We performed acute and chronic toxicity testes with eight Chinese resident aquatic species. ► The acute and chronic water quality criteria of TBBPA were developed and validated. ► This work is valuable to predict the risks posed by TBBPA in ambient water environment. - An acute water quality criterion of 0.1475 mg/L and a chronic water quality criterion of 0.0126 mg/L for TBBPA in China were developed according to USEPA guidelines.

  9. Genome Sequence and Composition of a Tolyporphin-Producing Cyanobacterium-Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca-Ayme; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Ran; Williams, Philip G; Lindsey, Jonathan S; Miller, Eric S

    2017-10-01

    The cyanobacterial culture HT-58-2 was originally described as a strain of Tolypothrix nodosa with the ability to produce tolyporphins, which comprise a family of distinct tetrapyrrole macrocycles with reported efflux pump inhibition properties. Upon reviving the culture from what was thought to be a nonextant collection, studies of culture conditions, strain characterization, phylogeny, and genomics have been undertaken. Here, HT-58-2 was shown by 16S rRNA analysis to closely align with Brasilonema strains and not with Tolypothrix isolates. Light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy revealed cyanobacterium filaments that are decorated with attached bacteria and associated with free bacteria. Metagenomic surveys of HT-58-2 cultures revealed a diversity of bacteria dominated by Erythrobacteraceae , 97% of which are Porphyrobacter species. A dimethyl sulfoxide washing procedure was found to yield enriched cyanobacterial DNA (presumably by removing community bacteria) and sequence data sufficient for genome assembly. The finished, closed HT-58-2Cyano genome consists of 7.85 Mbp (42.6% G+C) and contains 6,581 genes. All genes for biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles (e.g., heme, chlorophyll a , and phycocyanobilin) and almost all for cobalamin were identified dispersed throughout the chromosome. Among the 6,177 protein-encoding genes, coding sequences (CDSs) for all but two of the eight enzymes for conversion of glutamic acid to protoporphyrinogen IX also were found within one major gene cluster. The cluster also includes 10 putative genes (and one hypothetical gene) encoding proteins with domains for a glycosyltransferase, two cytochrome P450 enzymes, and a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding protein. The composition of the gene cluster suggests a possible role in tolyporphin biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE A worldwide search more than 25 years ago for cyanobacterial natural products with anticancer activity identified a culture (HT-58-2) from Micronesia that

  10. [Growth and metabolite production of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (Chroococcales) in function to irradiance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Loaiza, Néstor; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Morales, Ever

    2008-06-01

    Changes in salinity, temperature and irradiance during wet and dry seasons have induced metabolic versatility in cyanobacteria from saline environments. Cyanobacteria from these environments have biotechnological potential for the production of metabolites with pharmaceutical and industrial interest. We studied the growth, dry mass and metabolite production of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. MOF-03 in function of irradiance (78, 156 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1)). All batch cultures were maintained by triplicate in constant aeration, 12:12 h photoperiod, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 35% per hundred. Maximum values of protein, carbohydrates and lipids, of 530.19 +/- 11.16, 408.94 +/- 4.27 and 56.20 +/- 1.17 microg ml(-1), respectively, were achieved at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1). Pigments, analyzed by HPLC, showed maximum values at 78 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for chlorophyll a with 7.72 +/- 0.16 microg ml(-1), and at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1) for beta-carotene and zeaxanthin with 0.70 +/- 0.01 and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microg ml(-1). Chlorophyll a:beta-carotene ratio decreased from 17.15 to 6.91 at 78 and 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-'1); whereas beta-carotene:zeaxanthin ratio showed no changes between 78 and 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 1.21, and decreased at 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), to 1.04. Also, this cyanobacterium produced the greatest cell density and dry mass at 156 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), with 406.13 +/- 21.74 x l0(6) cell ml(-1) and 1.49 +/- 0.11 mg ml(-1), respectively. Exopolysaccharide production was stable between 156 y 234 micromol q m(-2) s(-1), around 110 microg ml(-1). This Synechococcus strain shows a great potential for the production of enriched biomass with high commercial value metabolites.

  11. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  12. Predicting freshwater habitat integrity using land-use surrogates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amis, MA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater biodiversity is globally threatened due to human disturbances, but freshwater ecosystems have been accorded less protection than their terrestrial and marine counterparts. Few criteria exist for assessing the habitat integrity of rivers...

  13. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the production and catch of fish according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the product and catch in 1994 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased by 274 ha or 2,51%. The total amount of fish has decreased by 1.263 tons or 14,78%. The highest production of fish was reached by the fish farm Donji Miholjac with 1.231 kg/ha. The feeding coefficient is 3,10 kg. Only on one fish farm was the feeding coefficient less than 2.0 kg (1,40 and on two large farms this coefficient was greater than 5,00 kg. The main fish food is still wheat followed by corn. The amount of fertilizer used was decreased by 14,40%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 0,92% of the surface area of the entire fish farm, the young carp ponds 21,77% and the culturing ponds for consumption fish 76,55%. The total amount of fish in the carp ponds was 660 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 123.4 tons/ha. The carp is the highest produced fish with 80, 35%, then the herbivorous fish with 5,65 and all other fish make up 14% of the total production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 54, 70%, followed by the big head carp with 25,54% and the silver carp with 19,76%. In comparison with the previous year the production of "all other fish- has significantly increased (287%, and sheat fish 18,90%, while the production of trench has decreased (71%. Fish catch in open waters has increased by 20,57% in comparison to the previous year. Carp made up 78,07% of the total production and catch of freshwater fish, the herbivorous fish made up 5,40%, trout 4,38%, the sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2,86% and all other fish species 9,28%. As far as the distribution of production and catch, 51,60% were sold on the market, 37,54% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms , mortalities were 6,35% and for personal use (sports fishing 4,50% was used. The number

  14. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  15. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  16. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  17. Field and model investigations of freshwater lenses in coastal aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    A major problem of sustaining freshwater supply from freshwater lens is the invasion of saline groundwater into a fresh groundwater body. In many coastal areas saltwater intrusion has led to well closure and reduced freshwater supply. Furthermore, in the future saltwater intrusion is expected to

  18. Scale-based freshwater conservation planning: towards protecting freshwater biodiversity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rivers-Moore, NA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available River systems have strong linear linkages and require innovative solutions to capture these linkages from aquatic conservation planners. The authors applied an approach to freshwater conservation planning to freshwater ecosystems of Kwa...

  19. Toxicity identification evaluations of produced-water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Costa, H.J.; Brown, J.S.; Ward, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on 14 produced-water (PW) samples of various salinities from inland and offshore oil- and gas-production facilities operated by different companies in Wyoming, Texas, California, and Louisiana (USA) to evaluate the efficacy of TIE procedures in determining potential toxicants in PW effluents. The research involved acute (24- and 48-h) freshwater and marine toxicity tests on whole PW and PW fractions generated by standard US Environmental Protection Agency and PW-specific fractionation schemes. Factors influencing PW TIEs were investigated, such as the effect of salinity in selecting fractionation manipulations, the effect of toxicity test replication (i.e., reproducibility) in distinguishing changes in toxicities between whole PW and its fractions, and the suitability of different test species in PW TIEs. The results obtained and lessons learned from conducting these PW TIEs are presented in this article. Components, or fractions, contributing to toxicity differed for each PW with no specific fraction being consistently toxic. For most PW samples, toxicity attributed to any one fraction represented only part of the toxicity of the whole sample. However, no more than two fraction types were identified as potential toxicants in any sample. Potential toxicants identified during this study, besides salinity, included acidic and basic organic compound class fractions, particulates removed by filtration at pH 11, ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, material removed by pH change, and volatile compounds

  20. Optimizing the performance of Hyalella azteca in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing in the United States and elsewhere. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. Under the methods in the man...

  1. Dactylobiotus luci , a new freshwater tardigrade (Eutardigrada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new freshwater eutardigrade, Dactylobiotus luci sp. nov., is described from a permanent marsh pool (Zaphania's Pool) at 4225 m elevation in the Alpine zone of the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda. The new species is most similar to D. dervizi Biserov, 1998 in the shape of the egg processes, absence of papillae and ...

  2. 2008 NWFSC Tidal Freshwater Genetics Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Teel

    2009-05-01

    Genetic Analysis of Juvenile Chinook Salmon for inclusion in 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008. Annual Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.'

  3. Methane emission from tidal freshwater marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Nat, F.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In two tidal freshwater marshes, methane emission, production and accumulation in the pore-water have been studied. The two sites differ in their dominant vegetation, i.e., reed and bulrush, and in their heights above sea level. The reed site was elevated in relation to the bulrush site and had

  4. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  5. Heliozoa from Nigeria | Wujek | Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of seven scaled protistans were observed from four freshwater sites in Nigeria. They include the holiozoan genera Acanthocystis, Polyplacocystis, Pterocystis, and Raphidiophrys. All are new records for Africa. KEY WORDS: Heliozoa, Protozoa, Acanthocystis, Polyplacocystis, Pterocystis, Raphidiophrys Tropical ...

  6. Monitoring endangered freshwater biodiversity using environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are among the most endangered habitats on Earth, with thousands of animal species known to be threatened or already extinct. Reliable monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions but remains a challenge owing to nonstandardized methods t...

  7. Macrophytes: Freshwater Forests of Lakes and Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Karla J.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological effects on macrophytes (aquatic plants) on the freshwater ecosystem are discussed. Research questions and issues related to these organisms are also discussed, including adaptations for survival in a wet environment, ecological consequences of large-scale macrophyte eradication, seasonal changes in plant…

  8. River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... regional- or provincial-scale conservation planning. The hierarchical structure of the classifications provides scope for finer resolution, by the addition of further levels, for application at a sub-regional or municipal scale.

  9. Novel Synechococcus genomes reconstructed from freshwater reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabello-Yeves, P.J.; Haro-Moreno, J.M.; Martin-Cuadrado, A.B.; Ghai, Rohit; Picazo, A.; Camacho, A.; Rodriguez-Valera, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, June (2017), č. článku 1151. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04828S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Synechococcus * picocyanobacteria * freshwater reservoirs * metagenomics * abundance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  10. Microplastic effect thresholds for freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E.; Dede Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Now that microplastics have been detected in lakes, rivers and estuaries all over the globe, evaluating their effects on biota has become an urgent research priority. This is the first study that aims at determining the effect thresholds for a battery of six freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates

  11. Herbivory on freshwater and marine macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Wood, Kevin A.; Pagès, Jordi F.; Veen, G.F.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Santamaría, Luis; Nolet, Bart A.; Hilt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1990s, herbivory on aquatic vascular plants was considered to be of minor importance, and the predominant view was that freshwater and marine macrophytes did not take part in the food web: their primary fate was the detritivorous pathway. In the last 25 years, a substantial body of

  12. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  13. Effect of carbon and nitrogen assimilation on chlorophyll fluorescence emission by the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.M.; Lara, C. (Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Univ. de Sevilla y CSIC, Sevilla (ES)); Sivak, M.N. (Dept. of Biochemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (US))

    1992-01-01

    O{sub 2} evolution and chlorophyll A fluorescence emission have been monitored in intact cells of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans 1402-1 to study the influence of carbon and nitrogen assimilation on the operation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The pattern of fluorescence induction in dark-adapted cyanobacterial cells was different from that of higher plants. Cyanobacteria undergo large, rapid state transitions upon illumination, which lead to marked changes in the fluorescence yield, complicating the estimation of quenching coefficients. The Kautsky effect was not evident, although it could be masked by a state II-state I transition, upon illumination with actinic light. The use of inhibitors of carbon assimilation such as D,L-glyceraldehyde or iodoacetamide allowed us to relate changes in variable fluorescence to active CO{sub 2} fixation. Ammonium, but not nitrate, induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, in agreement with a previous report on green algae, indicative of an ammonium-induced state i transition. (au).

  14. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth\\'s complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism\\'s affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  15. Effect of solar radiation on photosynthesis and pigmentation in the cyanobacterium microcoleus chtihonoplastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annan, J.N.; Galyuon, I. K. A.; Donkor, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the photosynthetic oxygen production and pigmentation were investigated in the marine filamentous cyanobacterium. Microcoleus chthonoplastes harvested from the intertidal zone of the Biriwa coast in Ghana. The organism was exposed to unfiltered solar radiation (UV-B. UV-A and PAR) and solar radiation filtered through optical filters. WG320 (UV-A and PAR), GG400 (PAR only), and UG5 (only UV-B and UV-A), Photosynthetic oxygen production was impaired. The reduction in the rate of photosynthetic oxygen production took over 2 hours to occur. The photoinhibition due to unfiltered solar radiation and combined UV-A and PAR were most severe. Absorption spectra of the crude extracts of M. chthonoplastes, indicated the presence of chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as the photosynthetic pigments, which were significantly bleached under the various solar radiation wavelengths. Generally, the phycobilins were affected most. Fluorescence measurements showed peaks that decreased significantly in amplitude and also underwent a shift towards shorter wavelengths, with prolonged exposure time, indicating that energy transfer from the accessory pigments was adversely affected. The implication is that increased solar radiation may have severe consequences on the marine ecosystem. (au)

  16. Advances in the Function and Regulation of Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Veaudor, Théo; Chauvat, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In order to use cyanobacteria for the biological production of hydrogen, it is important to thoroughly study the function and the regulation of the hydrogen-production machine in order to better understand its role in the global cell metabolism and identify bottlenecks limiting H2 production. Most of the recent advances in our understanding of the bidirectional [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase (Hox) came from investigations performed in the widely-used model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 where Hox is the sole enzyme capable of combining electrons with protons to produce H2 under specific conditions. Recent findings suggested that the Hox enzyme can receive electrons from not only NAD(P)H as usually shown, but also, or even preferentially, from ferredoxin. Furthermore, plasmid-encoded functions and glutathionylation (the formation of a mixed-disulfide between the cysteines residues of a protein and the cysteine residue of glutathione) are proposed as possible new players in the function and regulation of hydrogen production. PMID:25365180

  17. Anoxygenic photosynthesis controls oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from a sulfidic spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-03-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 (-) during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. A Novel Epiphytic Chlorophyll d-containing Cyanobacterium Isolated from a Mangrove-associated Red Alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Chen, Min; Li, Yaqiong; Schliep, Martin; Trampe, Erik; West, John; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2012-12-01

    A new habitat and a new chlorophyll (Chl) d-containing cyanobacterium belonging to the genus Acaryochloris are reported in this study. Hyperspectral microscopy showed the presence of Chl d-containing microorganisms in epiphytic biofilms on a red alga (Gelidium caulacantheum) colonizing the pneumato-phores of a temperate mangrove (Avicennia marina). The presence of Chl d was further proven by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based pigment analysis and by confocal imaging of cultured cells. Enrichment of mangrove biofilm samples under near-infrared radiation (NIR) yielded the new Acaryochloris sp. MPGRS1, which was closely related in terms of 16S rRNA gene sequence to an isolate from the hypertrophic Salton Sea, USA. The new isolate used Chl d as its major photopigment; Chl d and Chl a contents were ~98% and 1%-2% of total cellular chlorophyll, respectively. These findings expand the variety of ecological niches known to harbor Chl d-containing cyanobacteria and support our working hypothesis that such oxyphototrophs may be ubiquitous in habitats depleted of visible light, but with sufficient NIR exposure. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.

  20. Simultaneous Production of Anabaenopeptins and Namalides by the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CENA543.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P; Wahlsten, Matti; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2017-11-17

    Anabaenopeptins are a diverse group of cyclic peptides, which contain an unusual ureido linkage. Namalides are shorter structural homologues of anabaenopeptins, which also contain an ureido linkage. The biosynthetic origins of namalides are unknown despite a strong resemblance to anabaenopeptins. Here, we show the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CENA543 strain producing new (nostamide B-E (2, 4, 5, and 6)) and known variants of anabaenopeptins (schizopeptin 791 (1) and anabaenopeptin 807 (3)). Surprisingly, Nostoc sp. CENA543 also produced namalide B (8) and the new namalides D (7), E (9), and F (10) in similar amounts to anabaenopeptins. Analysis of the complete Nostoc sp. CENA543 genome sequence indicates that both anabaenopeptins and namalides are produced by the same biosynthetic pathway through module skipping during biosynthesis. This unique process involves the skipping of two modules present in different nonribosomal peptide synthetases during the namalide biosynthesis. This skipping is an efficient mechanism since both anabaenopeptins and namalides are synthesized in similar amounts by Nostoc sp. CENA543. Consequently, gene skipping may be used to increase and possibly broaden the chemical diversity of related peptides produced by a single biosynthetic gene cluster. Genome mining demonstrated that the anabaenopeptin gene clusters are widespread in cyanobacteria and can also be found in tectomicrobia bacteria.

  1. Nostopeptolide plays a governing role during cellular differentiation of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Helfrich, Eric J N; Hinrichs, Katrin; Guljamow, Arthur; Ishida, Keishi; Hertweck, Christian; Dittmann, Elke

    2015-02-10

    Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as hormogonia. We have used a polyketide synthase mutant that accumulates an elevated amount of hormogonia as a tool to understand the effect of secondary metabolites on cellular differentiation of N. punctiforme. Applying MALDI imaging to illustrate the reprogramming of the secondary metabolome, nostopeptolides were identified as the predominant difference in the pks2(-) mutant secretome. Subsequent differentiation assays and visualization of cell-type-specific expression of nostopeptolides via a transcriptional reporter strain provided evidence for a multifaceted role of nostopeptolides, either as an autogenic hormogonium-repressing factor or as a chemoattractant, depending on its extracellular concentration. Although nostopeptolide is constitutively expressed in the free-living state, secreted levels dynamically change before, during, and after the hormogonium differentiation phase. The metabolite was found to be strictly down-regulated in symbiosis with Gunnera manicata and Blasia pusilla, whereas other metabolites are up-regulated, as demonstrated via MALDI imaging, suggesting plants modulate the fine-balanced cross-talk network of secondary metabolites within N. punctiforme.

  2. Structural elucidation and molecular docking of a novel antibiotic compound from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MGL001

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    Niveshika No Name

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are rich source of array of bioactive compounds. The present study reports a novel antibacterial bioactive compound purified from cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MGL001 using various chromatographic techniques viz. thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Further characterization was done using electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy (ESIMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and predicted structure of bioactive compound was 9-Ethyliminomethyl-12-(morpholin - 4 - ylmethoxy -5, 8, 13, 16 – tetraaza – hexacene - 2, 3 dicarboxylic acid (EMTAHDCA. Structure of EMTAHDCA clearly indicated that it is a novel compound that was not reported in literature or natural product database. The compound exhibited growth inhibiting effects mainly against the gram negative bacterial strains and produced maximum zone of inhibition at 150 μg/mL concentration. The compound was evaluated through in silico studies for its ability to bind 30S ribosomal fragment (PDB ID: 1YRJ, 1MWL, 1J7T and 1LC4 and OmpF porin protein (4GCP, 4GCQ and 4GCS which are the common targets of various antibiotic drugs. Comparative molecular docking study revealed that EMTAHDCA has strong binding affinity for these selected targets in comparison to a number of most commonly used antibiotics. The ability of EMTAHDCA to bind the active sites on the proteins and 30S ribosomal fragments where the antibiotic drugs generally bind indicated that it is functionally similar to the commercially available drugs.

  3. Semicontinuous cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, C.C.; Costa, J.A.V. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], Email: dqmjorge@furg.br; Reinehr, C.O. [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentacao], Email: reinehr@upf.br

    2006-01-15

    The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x}, day{sup -1}) and productivity (P{sub x}, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis) of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas) growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h) at 30 deg C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L) and high renewal rates (50% v/v) resulted in a high specific growth rate ({mu}{sub x} = 0.111 day{sup -1}) and high productivity (P{sub x} = 42.3 mg/L/day). These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable. (author)

  4. Semicontinuous cultivation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Reichert

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms such as the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been studied by researchers in many countries because these organisms can produce products with industrial potential. We studied the specific growth rate (µx, day-1 and productivity (Px, in mg/L/day of Spirulina platensis biomass, dry weight basis of two S. platensis strains (LEB-52 and Paracas growing in aerated semicontinuous culture in two-liter Erlenmeyer flasks for 90 days (2160 h at 30°C under 2500 lux of illumination in a 12 h photoperiod. Independent of the S. platensis strain used we found that low biomass concentrations (0.50 g/L and high renewal rates (50% v/v resulted in a high specific growth rate (µx = 0.111 day-1 and high productivity (Px = 42.3 mg/L/day. These values are two to four times higher than those obtained in simple batch cultivation and indicate that the semicontinuous cultivation of S. platensis is viable.

  5. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.; Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy.

  7. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM.

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    Ravi Raghav Sonani

    Full Text Available Isolated phycobilisome (PBS sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of α- and β- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of α- and β- subunits (known as αβ monomers assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM. The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Å to Rwork (Rfree of 0.158 (0.229 with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of αβ monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of α- and β- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to α-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein.

  8. Detection of weed algae in open pond cultures of Cyanobacterium aponinum using PAM

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    Dominik Winckelmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential use of non-arable land in the al-Wusta region of the Sultanate of Oman for the production of algae biomass was examined. Brackish cleaned production water from oil production supplemented with commercial fertilizer was used as growth medium. The indigenous isolate Cyanobacterium aponinum WP7(1 was grown in open ponds using batch or semi-continuous cultivation. Biomass production rates of 15–24 g/m2/day were achieved. The change of salinity due to evaporation, which was thought to be a major challenge, did not exceed 35 ppt. All cultures showed contaminations with weed algae. Contaminations with green algae or diatoms were detectable using fluorescence pattern excited by four different wavelengths using a pulse-amplitude-modulation chlorophyll fluorometer (PAM. It is possible to estimate the health level and the mayor groups of which a culture is composed using the PAM method. Therefore, the fluorescence of the photosynthetically inactive sample is compared with the fluorescence after all copies of photosystem II were closed by exposing the sample to a high-intensity light beam. A detection limit of one weed algae cell in a hundred cells was achieved.

  9. Anilofos tolerance and its mineralization by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64.

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    D P Singh

    Full Text Available This study deals with anilofos tolerance and its mineralization by the common rice field cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64. The organism tolerated anilofos up to 25 mg L(-1. The herbicide caused inhibitory effects on photosynthetic pigments of the test organism in a dose-dependent manner. The organism exhibited 60, 89, 96, 85 and 79% decrease in chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, respectively, in 20 mg L(-1 anilofos on day six. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase increased by 1.04 to 1.80 times over control cultures in presence of 20 mg L(-1 anilofos. Glutathione content decreased by 26% while proline content was unaffected by 20 mg L(-1 anilofos. The test organism showed intracellular uptake and metabolized the herbicide. Uptake of herbicide by test organism was fast during initial six hours followed by slow uptake until 120 hours. The organism exhibited maximum anilofos removal at 100 mg protein L(-1, pH 8.0 and 30°C. Its growth in phosphate deficient basal medium in the presence of anilofos (2.5 mg L(-1 indicated that herbicide was used by the strain PUPCCC 64 as a source of phosphate.

  10. CyanOmics: an integrated database of omics for the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaohua; Feng, Jie; Li, Tao; Ge, Feng; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an important group of organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and play vital roles in both the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the Earth. The annotated genome of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, as an ideal model cyanobacterium, is available. A series of transcriptomic and proteomic studies of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells grown under different conditions have been reported. However, no database of such integrated omics studies has been constructed. Here we present CyanOmics, a database based on the results of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 omics studies. CyanOmics comprises one genomic dataset, 29 transcriptomic datasets and one proteomic dataset and should prove useful for systematic and comprehensive analysis of all those data. Powerful browsing and searching tools are integrated to help users directly access information of interest with enhanced visualization of the analytical results. Furthermore, Blast is included for sequence-based similarity searching and Cluster 3.0, as well as the R hclust function is provided for cluster analyses, to increase CyanOmics's usefulness. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first integrated omics analysis database for cyanobacteria. This database should further understanding of the transcriptional patterns, and proteomic profiling of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and other cyanobacteria. Additionally, the entire database framework is applicable to any sequenced prokaryotic genome and could be applied to other integrated omics analysis projects. Database URL: http://lag.ihb.ac.cn/cyanomics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. ORGANIZATION OF THE nif GENES OF THE NONHETEROCYSTOUS CYANOBACTERIUM TRICHODESMIUM SP. IMS101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Benny; Zani, Sabino; Chen, Yi-Bu; Mellon, Mark T; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2000-08-26

    An approximately 16-kb fragment of the Trichodesmium sp. IMS101 (a nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium) "conventional"nif gene cluster was cloned and sequenced. The gene organization of the Trichodesmium and Anabaena variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase gene clusters spanning the region from nif B to nif W are similar except for the absence of two open reading frames (ORF3 and ORF1) in Trichodesmium. The Trichodesmium nif EN genes encode a fused Nif EN polypeptide that does not appear to be processed into individual Nif E and Nif N polypeptides. Fused nif EN genes were previously found in the A. variabilis nif 2 genes, but we have found that fused nif EN genes are widespread in the nonheterocystous cyanobacteria. Although the gene organization of the nonheterocystous filamentous Trichodesmium nif gene cluster is very similar to that of the A. variabilis vegetative nif 2 gene cluster, phylogenetic analysis of nif sequences do not support close relatedness of Trichodesmium and A. variabilis vegetative (nif 2) nitrogenase genes.

  12. Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.

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    Sabine Matallana-Surget

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.

  13. Effect of Selected Plant Extracts and D- and L-Lysine on the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

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    Miquel Lürling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested extracts from Fructus mume, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Moringa oleifera as well as L-lysine and D-Lysine as curative measures to rapidly suppress the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIVA-CYA 43. We tested these compounds under similar conditions to facilitate comparisons. We hypothesized that for each compound, relatively low concentrations—i.e., 5–50 mg L−1, would reduce M. aeruginosa biomass. At these low concentrations, only L-lysine caused a decline in M. aeruginosa biomass at ≥4.3 mg L−1. F. mume extract was effective to do so at high concentrations, i.e., at ≥240 mg L−1, but the others were virtually non-effective. Low pH caused by organic acids is a probable explanation for the effect of F. mume extract. No complete wipe-outs of the experimental population were achieved as Photosystem II efficiency showed a recovery after six days. L-lysine may be effective at low concentrations—meaning low material costs. However, the effect of L-lysine seems relatively short-lived. Overall, the results of our study did not support the use of the tested plant extracts and amino-acid as promising candidates for curative application in M. aeruginosa bloom control.

  14. Theoretical investigation of biomass productivities achievable in solar rectangular photobioreactors for the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Jeremy; Cornet, J F; Goetz, Vincent; Legrand, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Modeling was done to simulate whole-year running of solar rectangular photobioreactors (PBRs). Introducing the concept of ideal reactor, the maximal biomass productivity that could be achieved on Earth on nitrate as N-source was calculated. Two additional factors were also analyzed with respect to dynamic calculations over the whole year: the effect of PBR location and the effects of given operating conditions on the resulting decrease in productivity compared with the ideal one. Simulations were conducted for the cyanobacterium Arthospira platensis, giving an ideal productivity (upper limit) in the range 55-60 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a sun tracking system (and around 35-40 tX ha(-1) year(-1) for a fixed horizontal PBR). For an implantation in France (Nantes, west coast), the modification in irradiation conditions resulted in a decrease in biomass productivity of 40%. Various parameters were investigated, with special emphasis on the influence of the incident angle of solar illumination on resulting productivities, affecting both light capture and light transfer inside the bulk culture. It was also found that with appropriate optimization of the residence time as permitted by the model, productivities close to maximal could be achieved for a given location. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Enhanced ferrihydrite dissolution by a unicellular, planktonic cyanobacterium: a biological contribution to particulate iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Chana; Kessler, Nivi; Keren, Nir; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) bioavailability, as determined by its sources, sinks, solubility and speciation, places severe environmental constraints on microorganisms in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are a widespread group of aquatic, photosynthetic microorganisms with especially high iron requirements. While iron exists predominantly in particulate form, little is known about its bioavailability to cyanobacteria. Some cyanobacteria secrete iron solubilizing ligands called siderophores, yet many environmentally relevant strains do not have this ability. This work explores the bioavailability of amorphous synthetic Fe-oxides (ferrihydrite) to the non-siderophore producing, unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Iron uptake assays with 55 ferrihydrite established dissolution as a critical prerequisite for iron transport. Dissolution assays with the iron binding ligand, desferrioxamine B, demonstrated that Synechocystis 6803 enhances ferrihydrite dissolution, exerting siderophore-independent biological influence on ferrihydrite bioavailability. Dissolution mechanisms were studied using a range of experimental conditions; both cell-particle physical proximity and cellular electron flow were shown to be important determinants of bio-dissolution by Synechocystis 6803. Finally, the effects of ferrihydrite stability on bio-dissolution rates and cell physiology were measured, integrating biological and chemical aspects of ferrihydrite bioavailability. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Synechocystis 6803 actively dissolves ferrihydrite, highlighting a significant biological component to mineral phase iron bioavailability in aquatic environments. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A new antibiotic produced by the cyanobacterium-symbiotic fungus Simplicillium lanosoniveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qinglin; Dong, Rongzhen; Xing, Xiangying; Li, Yukuan

    2018-06-01

    The culture broth of the cyanobacterium-symbiotic fungus Simplicillium lanosoniveum var. Tianjinienss Q. L. Dong exhibited unanticipated antibacterial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria, particularly the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, indicating the secretion of antibiotic-like metabolite, for which the modified Sabouraud medium was the suitable medium. The antibiotic-like metabolite was separated with macroporous resins CT-12 (absorption) and 95% ethanol (desorption), purified by ion-exchange resins D301T and displayed a characteristic absorption peak at 228 nm, suggesting the presence of nitrogen. The negative biuret and ninhydrin tests confirmed the absence of -NH 2 and -COOH groups. Further, HPLC and mass spectrometry analyses showed that the retention time and molecular weight of the antibiotic-like metabolite were 4.1031 min and 163.0182 (Δ ± 2.3 ppm), respectively. Taking together, we speculated that the antibiotic-like metabolite was a new antibiotic structurally similar to alkaloid, which was the first one isolated from the species of Simplicillium genus.

  17. Bioprocess Engineering Aspects of Biopolymer Production by the Cyanobacterium Spirulina Strain LEB 18

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    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biopolymers can replace environmentally damaging plastics derived from petrochemicals. We investigated biopolymer synthesis by the cyanobacterium Spirulina strain LEB 18. Autotrophic culture used unmodified Zarrouk medium or modified Zarrouk medium in which the NaNO3 content was reduced to 0.25 g L−1 and the NaHCO3 content reduced to 8.4 g L−1 or increased to 25.2 g L−1. Heterotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 with the NaHCO3 replaced by 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose (C6H12O6 or sodium acetate (CH3COONa. Mixotrophic culture used modified Zarrouk medium containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 plus 16.8 g L−1 NaHCO3 with the addition of 0.2 g L−1, 0.4 g L−1, or 0.6 g L−1 of glucose or sodium acetate. The highest biopolymer yield was 44% when LEB 18 was growing autotrophically in media containing 0.25 g L−1 NaNO3 and 8.4 g L−1 NaHCO3.

  18. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

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    S. H. Mernild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

  19. Effects of malathion and carbendazim on Amazonian freshwater organisms: comparison of tropical and temperate species sensitivity distributions and water quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Artero, A.; Waichman, A.V.; Geber-Correa, R.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticides for freshwater ecosystems in the Amazon has relied on the use of toxicity data and water quality criteria derived for temperate regions due to a lack of ecotoxicological studies performed with indigenous species. This leaves an unknown margin of uncertainty for the

  20. Latent Toxicity of Endothall to Anadromous Salmonids During Seawater Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courter, Lauren A; Garrison, Thomas M; Courter, Ian I

    2016-05-01

    Limited evidence exists on the latent effects of toxicant exposure on the seawater adaptability of anadromous salmon and steelhead. It is unclear whether such an effect exists for the widely used and relatively non-toxic herbicide endothall. Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho), Chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha (Chinook), and anadromous rainbow trout, O. mykiss (steelhead) were subjected to a 10-day seawater challenge following freshwater treatments [0-12 mg acid equivalent (a.e)./L at 96 h]. Mean survival resulted in 82 % (n = 225), 84 % (n = 133), 90 % (n = 73) and 59 % (n = 147) survival for 0, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 mg a.e./L, respectively. Our results indicate a lower toxicity threshold compared with previously reported acute toxicity results, but higher compared with previous seawater challenge studies. We demonstrate the utility of the seawater challenge assay to accurately define toxic effects of pesticides on salmonids with complex life-histories.

  1. Diurnal Regulation of Cellular Processes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Insights from Transcriptomic, Fluxomic, and Physiological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Saha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is the most widely studied model cyanobacterium, with a well-developed omics level knowledgebase. Like the lifestyles of other cyanobacteria, that of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is tuned to diurnal changes in light intensity. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of all of the genes of this cyanobacterium over two consecutive diurnal periods. Using stringent criteria, we determined that the transcript levels of nearly 40% of the genes in Synechocystis PCC 6803 show robust diurnal oscillating behavior, with a majority of the transcripts being upregulated during the early light period. Such transcripts corresponded to a wide array of cellular processes, such as light harvesting, photosynthetic light and dark reactions, and central carbon metabolism. In contrast, transcripts of membrane transporters for transition metals involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain (e.g., iron, manganese, and copper were significantly upregulated during the late dark period. Thus, the pattern of global gene expression led to the development of two distinct transcriptional networks of coregulated oscillatory genes. These networks help describe how Synechocystis PCC 6803 regulates its metabolism toward the end of the dark period in anticipation of efficient photosynthesis during the early light period. Furthermore, in silico flux prediction of important cellular processes and experimental measurements of cellular ATP, NADP(H, and glycogen levels showed how this diurnal behavior influences its metabolic characteristics. In particular, NADPH/NADP+ showed a strong correlation with the majority of the genes whose expression peaks in the light. We conclude that this ratio is a key endogenous determinant of the diurnal behavior of this cyanobacterium.

  2. Diversity of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium: Characterization of the Woods Hole Culture Collection and Quantification of Field Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    stations on all four cruises; Fig. 5-4 C), and Plec - tonema sp. (North Pacific MP09-19, North Atlantic EN361-1, 2, 3; Fig. 5-4 D). Calothrix sp. was found in...under a chlorophyll filter; (C) ELF-labeled heterotrophic bacteria (Sta. MP09-16, 11 Aug 03, puff); (D) ELF-labeled cyanobacterium Plec - tonema sp...epiphyte of the pelagic diatom Chaetoceros (Foster and Zehr, 2006). While Plec - tonema is known to fix N2 only in lowered oxygen tension (Rippka et al

  3. Hormesis response of marine and freshwater luminescent bacteria to metal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAILI SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stimulatory effect of low concentrations of toxic chemicals on organismal metabolism, referred to as hormesis, has been found to be common in the widely used luminescence bioassay. This paper aims to study the hormesis phenomenon in both marine and freshwater luminescent bacteria, named Photobacterium phosphorem and Vibrio qinghaiensis. The effects of Cu (II, Zn (II, Cd (II and Cr (VI on luminescence of these two bacteria were studied for 0 to 75 minutes exposure by establishing dose- and time-response curves. A clear hormesis phenomenon was observed in all four testing metals at low concentrations under the condition of luminescence assays.

  4. A lithium-sensitive and sodium-tolerant 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by halA from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is closely related to its counterparts from yeasts and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.

  5. Contribution of waste water treatment plants to pesticide toxicity in agriculture catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Dieu Hien; Scharmüller, Andreas; Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-01

    Pesticide residues are frequently found in water bodies and may threaten freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. In addition to runoff or leaching from treated agricultural fields, pesticides may enter streams via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We compared the pesticide toxicity in terms of log maximum Toxic Unit (log mTU) of sampling sites in small agricultural streams of Germany with and without WWTPs in the upstream catchments. We found an approximately half log unit higher pesticide toxicity for sampling sites with WWTPs (p pesticide toxicity in streams with WWTPs. A few compounds (diuron, terbuthylazin, isoproturon, terbutryn and Metazachlor) dominated the herbicide toxicity. Pesticide toxicity was not correlated with upstream distance to WWTP (Spearman's rank correlation, rho = - 0.11, p > 0.05) suggesting that other context variables are more important to explain WWTP-driven pesticide toxicity. Our results suggest that WWTPs contribute to pesticide toxicity in German streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome Sequence and Composition of a Tolyporphin-Producing Cyanobacterium-Microbial Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Rebecca-Ayme; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Ran; Williams, Philip G.; Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Miller, Eric S.; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2017-07-28

    ABSTRACT

    The cyanobacterial culture HT-58-2 was originally described as a strain ofTolypothrix nodosawith the ability to produce tolyporphins, which comprise a family of distinct tetrapyrrole macrocycles with reported efflux pump inhibition properties. Upon reviving the culture from what was thought to be a nonextant collection, studies of culture conditions, strain characterization, phylogeny, and genomics have been undertaken. Here, HT-58-2 was shown by 16S rRNA analysis to closely align withBrasilonemastrains and not withTolypothrixisolates. Light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy revealed cyanobacterium filaments that are decorated with attached bacteria and associated with free bacteria. Metagenomic surveys of HT-58-2 cultures revealed a diversity of bacteria dominated byErythrobacteraceae, 97% of which arePorphyrobacterspecies. A dimethyl sulfoxide washing procedure was found to yield enriched cyanobacterial DNA (presumably by removing community bacteria) and sequence data sufficient for genome assembly. The finished, closed HT-58-2Cyano genome consists of 7.85 Mbp (42.6% G+C) and contains 6,581 genes. All genes for biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles (e.g., heme, chlorophylla, and phycocyanobilin) and almost all for cobalamin were identified dispersed throughout the chromosome. Among the 6,177 protein-encoding genes, coding sequences (CDSs) for all but two of the eight enzymes for conversion of glutamic acid to protoporphyrinogen IX also were found within one major gene cluster. The cluster also includes 10 putative genes (and one hypothetical gene) encoding proteins with

  7. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  8. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  9. Luminescence properties of a nanoporous freshwater diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Bondita; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Buragohain, Alak K

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater diatom frustules show special optical properties. In this paper we observed luminescence properties of the freshwater diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. To confirm the morphological properties we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to visualize the structural properties of the frustules, confirming that silica present in diatom frustules crystallizes in an α-quartz structure. Study of the optical properties of the silica frustules of diatoms using ultra-violet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy confirmed that the diatom C. meneghiniana shows luminescence in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum when irradiated with UV light. This property of diatoms can be exploited to obtain many applications in day-to-day life. Also, using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TRPL) it was confirmed that this species of diatom shows bi-exponential decay. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  11. Ethylene Regulates the Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 via an Ethylene Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Randy F; Binder, Brad M

    2016-08-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants. The ethylene receptors in plants are well studied, and it is generally assumed that they are found only in plants. In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. Plants acquired many proteins from cyanobacteria as a result of the endosymbiotic event that led to chloroplasts. We provide data that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) has a functional receptor for ethylene, Synechocystis Ethylene Response1 (SynEtr1). We first show that SynEtr1 directly binds ethylene. Second, we demonstrate that application of ethylene to Synechocystis cells or disruption of the SynEtr1 gene affects several processes, including phototaxis, type IV pilus biosynthesis, photosystem II levels, biofilm formation, and spontaneous cell sedimentation. Our data suggest a model where SynEtr1 inhibits downstream signaling and ethylene inhibits SynEtr1. This is similar to the inverse-agonist model of ethylene receptor signaling proposed for plants and suggests a conservation of structure and function that possibly originated over 1 billion years ago. Prior research showed that SynEtr1 also contains a light-responsive phytochrome-like domain. Thus, SynEtr1 is a bifunctional receptor that mediates responses to both light and ethylene. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a functional ethylene receptor in a nonplant species and suggests that that the perception of ethylene is more widespread than previously thought. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Hopanoids play a role in stress tolerance and nutrient storage in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, J N; Morton, R; Kulkarni, G; Summers, M L; Newman, D K

    2017-01-01

    Hopanes are abundant in ancient sedimentary rocks at discrete intervals in Earth history, yet interpreting their significance in the geologic record is complicated by our incomplete knowledge of what their progenitors, hopanoids, do in modern cells. To date, few studies have addressed the breadth of diversity of physiological functions of these lipids and whether those functions are conserved across the hopanoid-producing bacterial phyla. Here, we generated mutants in the filamentous cyanobacterium, Nostoc punctiforme, that are unable to make all hopanoids (shc) or 2-methylhopanoids (hpnP). While the absence of hopanoids impedes growth of vegetative cells at high temperature, the shc mutant grows faster at low temperature. This finding is consistent with hopanoids acting as membrane rigidifiers, a function shared by other hopanoid-producing phyla. Apart from impacting fitness under temperature stress, hopanoids are dispensable for vegetative cells under other stress conditions. However, hopanoids are required for stress tolerance in akinetes, a resting survival cell type. While 2-methylated hopanoids do not appear to contribute to any stress phenotype, total hopanoids and to a lesser extent 2-methylhopanoids were found to promote the formation of cyanophycin granules in akinetes. Finally, although hopanoids support symbiotic interactions between Alphaproteobacteria and plants, they do not appear to facilitate symbiosis between N. punctiforme and the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. Collectively, these findings support interpreting hopanes as general environmental stress biomarkers. If hopanoid-mediated enhancement of nitrogen-rich storage products turns out to be a conserved phenomenon in other organisms, a better understanding of this relationship may help us parse the enrichment of 2-methylhopanes in the rock record during episodes of disrupted nutrient cycling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Isolation and characterization of the small subunit of the uptake hydrogenase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleiras, Patrícia; Kellers, Petra; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjörn; Magnuson, Ann

    2013-06-21

    In nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, hydrogen evolution is associated with hydrogenases and nitrogenase, making these enzymes interesting targets for genetic engineering aimed at increased hydrogen production. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that expresses the uptake hydrogenase HupSL in heterocysts under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Little is known about the structural and biophysical properties of HupSL. The small subunit, HupS, has been postulated to contain three iron-sulfur clusters, but the details regarding their nature have been unclear due to unusual cluster binding motifs in the amino acid sequence. We now report the cloning and heterologous expression of Nostoc punctiforme HupS as a fusion protein, f-HupS. We have characterized the anaerobically purified protein by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Our results show that f-HupS contains three iron-sulfur clusters. UV-visible absorption of f-HupS has bands ∼340 and 420 nm, typical for iron-sulfur clusters. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized f-HupS shows a narrow g = 2.023 resonance, characteristic of a low-spin (S = ½) [3Fe-4S] cluster. The reduced f-HupS presents complex EPR spectra with overlapping resonances centered on g = 1.94, g = 1.91, and g = 1.88, typical of low-spin (S = ½) [4Fe-4S] clusters. Analysis of the spectroscopic data allowed us to distinguish between two species attributable to two distinct [4Fe-4S] clusters, in addition to the [3Fe-4S] cluster. This indicates that f-HupS binds [4Fe-4S] clusters despite the presence of unusual coordinating amino acids. Furthermore, our expression and purification of what seems to be an intact HupS protein allows future studies on the significance of ligand nature on redox properties of the iron-sulfur clusters of HupS.

  14. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced biohydrogen production by the N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis strain TISTR 8012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee [Program of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Laboratory of Cyanobacterial Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden); Lindblad, Peter [Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden); Incharoensakdi, Aran [Laboratory of Cyanobacterial Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    The efficiency of hydrogen production depends on several factors. We focused on external conditions leading to enhanced hydrogen production when using the N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012, a novel strain isolated from a rice paddy field in Thailand. In this study, we controlled key factors affecting hydrogen production such as cell age, light intensity, time of light incubation and source of carbon. Our results showed an enhanced hydrogen production when cells, at log phase, were adapted under N{sub 2}-fixing condition using 0.5% fructose as carbon source and a continuous illumination of 200 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 12 h under anaerobic incubation. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 32 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg chl a{sup -1} h{sup -1}. This rate was higher than that observed in the model organisms Anabaena PCC 7120, Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Synechocystis PCC 6803. This higher production was likely caused by a higher nitrogenase activity since we observed an upregulation of nifD. The production did not increase after 12 h which was probably due to an increased activity of the uptake hydrogenase as evidenced by an increased hupL transcript level. Interestingly, a proper adjustment of light conditions such as intensity and duration is important to minimize both the photodamage of the cells and the uptake hydrogenase activity. Our results indicate that A. siamensis TISTR 8012 has a high potential for hydrogen production with the ability to utilize sugars as substrate to produce hydrogen. (author)

  16. DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Van Baalen, C.; Tabita, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-[ 14 C]glutamate from 2-keto-[1- 14 C]glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with [ 14 C]bicarbonate and L-[1- 14 C]ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution

  17. Composition and functional property of photosynthetic pigments under circadian rhythm in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Richa; Pathak, Jainendra; Sundaram, Shanthy; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2018-05-01

    Circadian rhythm is an important endogenous biological signal for sustainable growth and development of cyanobacteria in natural ecosystems. Circadian effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations on pigment composition have been studied in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis under light (L)/dark (D) oscillation with a combination of 4/20, 8/16, 12/12, 16/8, 20/4 and 24/24 h time duration. Circadian exposure of PAR + UV-A (PA) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B (PAB) showed more than twofold decline in Chl a, total protein and phycocyanin (PC) in light phase and significant recovery was achieved in dark phase. The fluorescence emission wavelength of PC was shifted towards lower wavelengths in the light phase of PAB in comparison to P and PA whereas the same wavelength was retrieved in the dark phase. The production of free radicals was accelerated twofold in the light phase (24 h L) whereas the same was retrieved to the level of control during the dark phase. Oxidatively induced damage was alleviated by antioxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the light phase (0-24-h L) whereas the dark phase showed significant inhibition of the same enzymes. Similar characteristic inhibition of free radicals and recovery of PC was observed inside cellular filament after circadian rhythm of 24/24 h (L/D). Circadian exposure of P, PA and PAB significantly altered the synthesis and recovery of pigments that could be crucial for optimization and sustainable production of photosynthetic products for human welfare.

  18. The genome of Cyanothece 51142, a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium important in the marine nitrogen cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Stockel, Jana; Loh, Thomas; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Wang, Chunyan; Wollam, Aye; Fulton, Robert S.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Sherman, Louis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilson, Richard K.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-09-30

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that have significant roles in global biological carbon sequestration and oxygen production. They occupy a diverse range of habitats, from open ocean, to hot springs, deserts, and arctic waters. Cyanobacteria are known as the progenitors of the chloroplasts of plants and algae, and are the simplest known organisms to exhibit circadian behavior4. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a unicellular marine cyanobacterium capable of N2-fixation, a process that is biochemically incompatible with oxygenic photosynthesis. To resolve this problem, Cyanothece performs photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night, thus temporally separating these processes in the same cell. The genome of Cyanothece 51142 was completely sequenced and found to contain a unique arrangement of one large circular chromosome, four small plasmids, and one linear chromosome, the first report of such a linear element in a photosynthetic bacterium. Annotation of the Cyanothece genome was aided by the use of highthroughput proteomics data, enabling the reclassification of 25% of the proteins with no informative sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that nitrogen fixation is an ancient process that arose early in evolution and has subsequently been lost in many cyanobacterial strains. In cyanobacterial cells, the circadian clock influences numerous processes, including carbohydrate synthesis, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, respiration, and the cell division cycle. During a diurnal period, Cyanothece cells actively accumulate and degrade different storage inclusion bodies for the products of photosynthesis and N2-fixation. This ability to utilize metabolic compartmentalization and energy storage makes Cyanothece an ideal system for bioenergy research, as well as studies of how a unicellular organism balances multiple, often incompatible, processes in the same cell.

  19. A Salt-Inducible Mn-Catalase (KatB) Protects Cyanobacterium from Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Dhiman; Banerjee, Manisha; Bihani, Subhash C; Ballal, Anand

    2016-02-01

    Catalases, enzymes that detoxify H2O2, are widely distributed in all phyla, including cyanobacteria. Unlike the heme-containing catalases, the physiological roles of Mn-catalases remain inadequately characterized. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena, pretreatment of cells with NaCl resulted in unusually enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. On exposure to H2O2, the NaCl-treated Anabaena showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species, peroxides, and oxidized proteins than the control cells (i.e. not treated with NaCl) exposed to H2O2. This protective effect correlated well with the substantial increase in production of KatB, a Mn-catalase. Addition of NaCl did not safeguard the katB mutant from H2O2, suggesting that KatB was indeed responsible for detoxifying the externally added H2O2. Moreover, Anabaena deficient in KatB was susceptible to oxidative effects of salinity stress. The katB gene was strongly induced in response to osmotic stress or desiccation. Promoter-gfp analysis showed katB to be expressed only in the vegetative cells but not in heterocysts. Biochemically, KatB was an efficient, robust catalase that remained active in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl. Our findings unravel the role of Mn-catalase in acclimatization to salt/oxidative stress and demonstrate that the oxidative stress resistance of an organism can be enhanced by a simple compound such as NaCl. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Morris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH. In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co

  1. Phosphoproteome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and its dynamics during nitrogen starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eSpät

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have shaped the earth’s biosphere as the first oxygenic photoautotrophs and still play an important role in many ecosystems. The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is an essential characteristic in order to ensure survival. To this end, numerous studies have shown that bacteria use protein post-translational modifications such as Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in cell signalling, adaptation and regulation. Nevertheless, our knowledge of cyanobacterial phosphoproteomes and their dynamic response to environmental stimuli is relatively limited. In this study, we applied gel-free methods and high accuracy mass spectrometry towards the unbiased detection of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation events in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We could identify over 300 phosphorylation events in cultures grown on nitrate as exclusive nitrogen source. Chemical dimethylation labelling was applied to investigate proteome and phosphoproteome dynamics during nitrogen starvation. Our dataset describes the most comprehensive (phosphoproteome of Synechocystis to date, identifying 2,382 proteins and 183 phosphorylation events and quantifying 2,111 proteins and 148 phosphorylation events during nitrogen starvation. Global protein phosphorylation levels were increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 24 hours. Among the proteins with increased phosphorylation, the PII signalling protein showed the highest fold-change, serving as positive control. Other proteins with increased phosphorylation levels comprised functions in photosynthesis and in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. This study reveals dynamics of Synechocystis phosphoproteome in response to environmental stimuli and suggests an important role of protein Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in fundamental mechanisms of homeostatic control in cyanobacteria.

  2. The International Editorship of Freshwater Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karl E. Havens

    2001-01-01

    It is my pleasure to announce that two distinguished internationalscientists have joined the editorship of the FreshwaterSystems domain of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL — Professor BrijGopal of Jawaharlal Nehru University (India) and Dr. Manual Gra柠of the Universityof Coimbra (Portugal). Professor Gopal is the Secretary General of the NationalInstitute of Ecology, Editor of the InternationalJournal of Ecology & Environmental Science,and Chairman of the SIL (International Association of Theoretica...

  3. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Pace, Michael L; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km 3  yr −1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km 3  yr −1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  4. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  5. Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

  6. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F

    2016-03-01

    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE FRESHWATER CRAYFISH AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPESIN SOUTH TYROL: HERITAGE SPECIES AND BIOINDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÜREDER L.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid decline of crayfish in European freshwaters and continuing threat necessitate integrated actions in conservation and management of native crayfish populations. Besides biological reasons (diseases, plague, the impact of toxic and harmful substances (fertilisers, herbicides or wastewater effluents, habitat alteration or fragmentation have been responsible for their decline in some regions. The same is true for the region of South Tyrol, where compared to previous investigations, only 10 of a former total of 15 crayfish locations in the water bodies could be affirmed. Although two new populations of the non-indigenous Astacus astacus were detected, the native Austropotamobius pallipes continues to decline. While many investigations have focused accurately on causal coherences for the decline of native populations, the properties of crayfish facilitate to reverse the situation. In a few examples, the potential of Austropotamobius pallipes, the native crayfish in South Tyrol, as “surrogate species” for effective biological conservation is discussed. Given the various adequate attributes of freshwater crayfish as surrogate species (including indicator species, umbrella species and flagship species qualities, they may help to advance not only the crayfish situation itself but also freshwater ecosystem properties in general.

  8. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  9. The relative sensitivity of freshwater species to antimony(III): Implications for water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, Maximilian Obinna; Tighe, Matthew; Wang, Zhen; Ezeonyejiaku, Chigozie Damian; Pereg, Lily; Wilson, Susan C

    2017-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a pollutant in many jurisdictions, yet its threat to aquatic biota is unclear. Water quality guidelines (WQGs) for Sb are not well established and large uncertainty factors are commonly applied in derivation. We constructed freshwater species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for Sb(III) using available acute toxicity data sourced from temperate and tropical regional studies. A tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach using risk quotients (RQs) was applied for characterisation of risks presented by Sb(III) concentrations measured in the freshwater environment. Multiple parametric models were fitted for each SSD, with the optimal model used to derive the 5% hazardous concentration (HC5), defined as protective of 95% of species, and the corresponding predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The HC5 values for whole and temperate SSDs were estimated at 781 and 976 μg L -1 Sb(III), respectively, while the PNECs for both datasets were 156 and 195 μg L -1 Sb(III), respectively. Due to limited tropical data, a temperate-to-tropic extrapolation factor of 10 was used to estimate an interim PNEC for tropical regions of 20 μg L -1 Sb(III). Based on published freshwater Sb(III) concentration values across a range of locations, potential ecological risks posed by Sb(III) in some freshwater systems studied would be classified as medium to high risk, but the majority of locations sampled would fall into the low ecological risk category. Our results facilitate the understanding of toxic effects of Sb(III) to freshwater species but also demonstrate that data for Sb ERA are extremely limited.

  10. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Livia Alvarenga; Diepens, Noël J; Guo, Xiaoying; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)freshwater taxonomic groups were compared with their marine counterparts and showed overlapping values. The dynamic bioaccumulation model with species-specific bioaccumulation parameters fitted well to the experimental data and showed that bioaccumulation parameters were depended on species traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence regarding the possible role of c-phycoerythrin in ultraviolet-B tolerance in a thermophilic cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingard, C.E.; Castenholz, R.W. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Biology; Schiller, J.R. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States)

    1997-05-01

    It was recently reported that a strain of Nostoc spongiaeforme (cyanobacteria) with the photopigment c-phycoerythrin (c-PE) may be more tolerant of the adverse effects of UVB radiation than the same strain lacking c-PE due to chromatic adaptation (CA) (Tyagi et al., Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 401-407, 1992). It was proposed that this increased UVB tolerance may be due to the presence of c-PE, perhaps as a function of the ability of strains with c-PE to chromatically adapt. We tested the role of c-PE in UVB tolerance by comparing the short- and long-term effects of UVB exposure on photosynthesis pigmentation and the protein contents of four experimental cultures of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria cf. amphigranulata. These cultures consisted of a wild-type strain that produces c-PE, a green pigment variant (subcloned from the parent wild-type strain) incapable of producing c-PE and two chromatically adapted color forms of the wild-type strain that varied with regard to their total c-PE content. There were no significant results suggesting a role for c-PE in UVB tolerance. It is concluded that the photopigment c-PE does not confer enhanced resistance to the deleterious effects of UVB radiation on photosynthesis in this cyanobacterium. (author).

  12. The effects of the exopolysaccharide and growth rate on the morphogenesis of the terrestrial filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Cui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme, which contributes to carbon and nitrogen supplies in arid and semi-arid regions, adopts a filamentous colony form. Owing to its herbal and dietary values, this species has been overexploited. Largely due to the lack of understanding on its morphogenesis, artificial cultivation has not been achieved. Additionally, it may serve as a useful model for recognizing the morphological adaptation of colonial cyanobacteria in terrestrial niches. However, it shows very slow growth in native habitats and is easily disintegrated under laboratory conditions. Thus, a novel experimental system is necessary to explore its morphogenetic mechanism. Liquid-cultured N. flagelliforme has been well developed for exopolysaccharide (EPS production, in which microscopic colonies (micro-colonies are generally formed. In this study, we sought to gain some insight into the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme by examining the effects of two external factors, the EPS and environmental stress-related growth rate, on the morphological shaping of micro-colonies. Our findings indicate that the EPS matrix could act as a basal barrier, leading to the bending of trichomes during their elongation, while very slow growth is conducive to their straight elongation. These findings will guide future cultivation and application of this cyanobacterium for ecological improvement.

  13. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in the free-living cyanobacterium genus Nostoc and in plant-Nostoc symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Owen; Taylor, Oliver; Adams, David G; Knox, J Paul

    2012-10-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are a diverse family of proteoglycans associated with the cell surfaces of plants. AGP have been implicated in a wide variety of plant cell processes, including signaling in symbioses. This study investigates the existence of putative AGP in free-living cyanobacterial cultures of the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc sp. strain LBG1 and at the symbiotic interface in the symbioses between Nostoc spp. and two host plants, the angiosperm Gunnera manicata (in which the cyanobacterium is intracellular) and the liverwort Blasia pusilla (in which the cyanobacterium is extracellular). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that three AGP glycan epitopes (recognized by monoclonal antibodies LM14, MAC207, and LM2) are present in free-living Nostoc cyanobacterial species. The same three AGP glycan epitopes are present at the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiotic interface and the LM2 epitope is detected during the establishment of the Blasia-Nostoc symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis of the N. punctiforme genome identified five putative AGP core proteins that are representative of AGP classes found in plants. These results suggest a possible involvement of AGP in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses and are also suggestive of a cyanobacterial origin of AGP.

  14. Evidence regarding the possible role of c-phycoerythrin in ultraviolet-B tolerance in a thermophilic cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingard, C.E.; Castenholz, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    It was recently reported that a strain of Nostoc spongiaeforme (cyanobacteria) with the photopigment c-phycoerythrin (c-PE) may be more tolerant of the adverse effects of UVB radiation than the same strain lacking c-PE due to chromatic adaptation (CA) (Tyagi et al., Photochem. Photobiol. 55, 401-407, 1992). It was proposed that this increased UVB tolerance may be due to the presence of c-PE, perhaps as a function of the ability of strains with c-PE to chromatically adapt. We tested the role of c-PE in UVB tolerance by comparing the short- and long-term effects of UVB exposure on photosynthesis pigmentation and the protein contents of four experimental cultures of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria cf. amphigranulata. These cultures consisted of a wild-type strain that produces c-PE, a green pigment variant (subcloned from the parent wild-type strain) incapable of producing c-PE and two chromatically adapted color forms of the wild-type strain that varied with regard to their total c-PE content. There were no significant results suggesting a role for c-PE in UVB tolerance. It is concluded that the photopigment c-PE does not confer enhanced resistance to the deleterious effects of UVB radiation on photosynthesis in this cyanobacterium. (author)

  15. A Nostoc punctiforme Sugar Transporter Necessary to Establish a Cyanobacterium-Plant Symbiosis1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Picossi, Silvia; Campbell, Elsie L.; Meeks, John C.; Flores, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    In cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium has low photosynthetic activity and is supplemented by sugars provided by the plant partner. Which sugars and cyanobacterial sugar uptake mechanism(s) are involved in the symbiosis, however, is unknown. Mutants of the symbiotically competent, facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme were constructed bearing a neomycin resistance gene cassette replacing genes in a putative sugar transport gene cluster. Results of transport activity assays using 14C-labeled fructose and glucose and tests of heterotrophic growth with these sugars enabled the identification of an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter for fructose (Frt), a major facilitator permease for glucose (GlcP), and a porin needed for the optimal uptake of both fructose and glucose. Analysis of green fluorescent protein fluorescence in strains of N. punctiforme bearing frt::gfp fusions showed high expression in vegetative cells and akinetes, variable expression in hormogonia, and no expression in heterocysts. The symbiotic efficiency of N. punctiforme sugar transport mutants was investigated by testing their ability to infect a nonvascular plant partner, the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. Strains that were specifically unable to transport glucose did not infect the plant. These results imply a role for GlcP in establishing symbiosis under the conditions used in this work. PMID:23463784

  16. Characterization of the coccoid cyanobacterium Myxosarcina sp. KIOST-1 isolated from mangrove forest in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Lee, JunMo; Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to be inhabited by diverse symbiotic cyanobacterial communities that are capable of N2 fixation. To investigate its biodiversity, root sediments were collected from a mangrove forest in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and an entangled yellow-brown coccoid cyanobacterium was isolated. The isolated cyanobacterium was reproduced by multiple fission and eventually produced baeocytes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate was most similar to the genera Myxosarcina and Chroococcidiopsis in the order Pleurocapsales. Compositions of protein, lipid and carbohydrate in the cyanobacterial cells were estimated to be 19.4 ± 0.1%, 18.8 ± 0.4% and 31.5 ± 0.1%, respectively. Interestingly, total fatty acids in the isolate were mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were not detected. Based on the molecular and biochemical characteristics, the isolate was finally classified in the genus Myxosarcina, and designated as Myxosarcina sp. KIOST-1. These results will contribute to better understanding of cyanobacterial biodiversity in the mangrove forest in FSM as well as the genus Myxosarcina, and also will allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential on the basis of its cellular characteristics.

  17. Characterization of the cytochrome c oxidase in isolated and purified plasma membranes from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschek, G.A.; Wastyn, M.; Trnka, M.; Molitor, V.; Fry, I.V.; Packer, L.

    1989-01-01

    Functionally intact plasma membranes were isolated from the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anacystis nidulans through French pressure cell extrusion of lysozyme/EDTA-treated cells, separated from thylakoid membranes by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and purified by repeated recentrifugation. Origin and identity of the chlorophyll-free plasma membrane fraction were confirmed by labeling of intact cells with impermeant protein markers, [ 35 S]diazobenzenesulfonate and fluorescamine, prior to membrane isolation. Rates of oxidation of reduced horse heart cytochrome c by purified plasma and thylakoid membranes were 90 and 2 nmol min -1 (mg of protein) -1 , respectively. The cytochrome oxidase in isolated plasma membranes was identified as a copper-containing aa 3 -type enzyme from the properties of its redox-active and EDTA-resistant Cu 2+ ESR signal, the characteristic inhibition profile, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra, carbon monoxide difference spectra, photoaction and photodissociation spectra of the CO-inhibited enzyme, and immunological cross-reaction of two subunits of the enzyme with antibodies against subunits I and II, and the holoenzyme, of Paracoccus denitrificans aa 3 -type cytochrome oxidase. The data presented are the first comprehensive evidence for the occurrence of aa 3 -type cytochrome oxidase in the plasma membrane of a cyanobacterium similar to the corresponding mitochondrial enzyme

  18. HupW Protease Specifically Required for Processing of the Catalytic Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Pia; Devine, Ellenor; Stensjö, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The maturation process of [NiFe] hydrogenases includes a proteolytic cleavage of the large subunit. We constructed a mutant of Nostoc strain PCC 7120 in which hupW, encoding a putative hydrogenase-specific protease, is inactivated. Our results indicate that the protein product of hupW selectively cleaves the uptake hydrogenase in this cyanobacterium. PMID:22020512

  19. Concerted changes in gene expression and cell physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 during transitions between nitrogen and light-limited growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquirre von Wobeser, E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bok, J.M.; Krasikov, V.; Huisman, J.; Matthijs, H.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adaptation and genome-wide expression profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in response to gradual transitions between nitrogen-limited and light-limited growth conditions were measured in continuous cultures. Transitions induced changes in pigment

  20. The Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. PCC 6506 Reveals Several Gene Clusters Responsible for the Biosynthesis of Toxins and Secondary Metabolites▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Annick; Mazmouz, Rabia; Mann, Stéphane; Calteau, Alexandra; Médigue, Claudine; Ploux, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We report a draft sequence of the genome of Oscillatoria sp. PCC 6506, a cyanobacterium that produces anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, two neurotoxins, and cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxin. Beside the clusters of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of these toxins, we have found other clusters of genes likely involved in the biosynthesis of not-yet-identified secondary metabolites. PMID:20675499

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF PHOTOSYSTEM-I FROM THE THERMOPHILIC CYANOBACTERIUM SYNECHOCOCCUS SP DETERMINED BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY OF 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTTCHER, B; GRABER, P; BOEKEMA, EJ

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the Photosystem I (PS I) complex from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. has been investigated by electron microscopy and image analysis of two-dimensional crystals. Crystals were obtained from isolated PS I by removal of detergents with Bio-Beads. After negative

  2. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Walsted, Anette; Larsen, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...

  3. Use of zeolite for removing ammonia and ammonia-caused toxicity in marine toxicity identification evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, R M; Perron, M M; Cantwell, M G; Ho, K T; Serbst, J R; Pelletier, M C

    2004-11-01

    Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifying aquatic toxicants. For identifying ammonia toxicity, there are several possible methods including pH alteration and volatilization, Ulva lactuca addition, microbial degradation, and zeolite addition. Zeolite addition has been used successfully in freshwater systems to decrease ammonia concentrations and toxicity for several decades. However, zeolite in marine systems has been used less because ions in the seawater interfere with zeolite's ability to adsorb ammonia. The objective of this study was to develop a zeolite method for removing ammonia from marine waters. To accomplish this objective, we performed a series of zeolite slurry and column chromatography studies to determine uptake rate and capacity and to evaluate the effects of salinity and pH on ammonia removal. We also assessed the interaction of zeolite with several toxic metals. Success of the methods was also evaluated by measuring toxicity to two marine species: the mysid Americamysis bahia and the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. Column chromatography proved to be effective at removing a wide range of ammonia concentrations under several experimental conditions. Conversely, the slurry method was inconsistent and variable in its overall performance in removing ammonia and cannot be recommended. The metals copper, lead, and zinc were removed by zeolite in both the slurry and column treatments. The zeolite column was successful in removing ammonia toxicity for both the mysid and the amphipod, whereas the slurry was less effective. This study demonstrated that zeolite column chromatography is a useful tool for conducting marine water TIEs to decrease ammonia concentrations and characterize toxicity.

  4. USEtox fate and ecotoxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew D, Henderson; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Van de Meent, Dik

    2011-01-01

    orders of magnitude. However, for an emission to air or soil, differences in chemical properties may decrease the CF by up to 10 orders of magnitude, as a result of intermedia transfer and degradation. This result brings new clarity to the relative contributions of fate and freshwater ecotoxicity...... with characteristic properties, this work provides understanding of the basis for calculations of CFs in USEtox. In addition, it offers insight into the chemical properties and critical mechanisms covering the continuum from chemical emission to freshwater ecosystem toxicity. For an emission directly to water......The USEtox model was developed in a scientific consensus process involving comparison of and harmonization between existing environmental multimedia fate models. For freshwater ecosystem toxicity, it covers the entire impact pathway, i.e., transforming a chemical emission into potential impacts...

  5. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  6. Impact of macrozoobenthic bioturbation and wind fluctuation interactions on net methylmercury in freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Miao, Lingzhan

    2017-11-01

    The methylmercury (MeHg) as the toxic fractions has presented significant threats to biota in freshwater ecosystems. Hg methylation process is demonstrated to be manipulated by biota process (benthic disturbance and algae bloom existence) as well as the abiotic influence (wind fluctuation and illumination intensity) in freshwater ecosystems. However, the mechanisms influencing Hg methylation are still unclear, and the coupled influences of the biotic and abiotic process with the shifts in variation on methylmercury remain unexplored. Accordingly, an annular flume experiment which simulated the freshwater ecosystem, was conducted for 108 days to examine the influences of typical disturbance by chironomid larvae and wind fluctuations on MeHg variation in sediment profiles. The in-situ, passive sampler technique of revealing diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) encompassed the special resin, based on referenced extraction and coloration-computer imaging densitometry, were employed to obtain labile MeHg, Fe, and S concentrations at high resolution. The results indicate that larval bioturbation during the initial period of the experiment could diminish bioavailable MeHg concentrations and change the diffusion direction of MeHg fluxes. However, this inhibitive effect on MeHg concentrations ceased with larvae eclosion. Compared to bioturbation, wind fluctuation exerted slow but sustained inhibition on MeHg release. Furthermore, the eight parameters (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DO, labile Fe and S concentrations, pH, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) abundance in sediment, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and EC) could explain more of variation in MeHg concentrations which indicated by the canonical correspondence analysis. And these eight parameters manifest higher explanatory power for MeHg distributed in newly formed sediment. More notably, the comparison results of the multiple and simple regression directly demonstrated the DOC was the fundamental and robust

  7. Lake level fluctuations boost toxic cyanobacterial "oligotrophic blooms".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Callieri

    Full Text Available Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena, a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D. lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C:P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D. lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  8. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Green Algae – Towards a Biotic Ligand Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laruelle, Sacha; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Cupi, Denisa

    with the freshwater green algae Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata were carried out to falsify the hypothesis: “The toxicity of silver nanoparticles towards algae is solely caused by the monovalent silver ion”. These experiments were based on PHREEQC modeling of silver ion behavior (added as AgNO3) in 72h OECD algal...

  9. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... species of marine animals; the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the three-spined stickleback fish...., A. Bergman, A. Granmo, and M. Berggren. 1990. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in marine animals--A... previously peer reviewed (Ref. 3). A. Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals 1. Freshwater Species. The acute...

  10. 78 FR 73787 - Chlorsulfuron; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... identified as the minor metabolic pathway. No additional information on the absorption, distribution... aquatic plants the toxicity of chlorsulfuron is very high. (Ref. 3). Duckweed (Lemna gibba) was the most... (cell density); 120 hr capricornutum). NOEC = 0.0094 mg/L (cell density). Lemna gibba Freshwater...

  11. Paraquat toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of the herbicide paraquat on humans and animals. Topics include clinical and pathological findings, biochemical mechanisms, effects of oxygen, pulmonary effects of exposure, and effects on freshwater and marine organisms. The contamination of marijuana plants with paraquat is also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Development of a strontium chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lawrence, Gary S; Elphick, James R; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    There are no national water-quality guidelines for strontium for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in North America or elsewhere. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of strontium to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 75 mg/L to 15 000 mg/L. The majority of chronic effects occurred at concentrations above 11 mg/L; however, calculation of a representative benchmark was confounded by results from 4 studies indicating that chronic effects occurred at lower concentrations than all other studies, in 2 cases below background concentrations reported for US and European streams. Two of these studies, including 1 reporting effects below background concentrations, were repeated and found not to be reproducible; chronic effects occurred at considerably higher strontium concentrations than in the original studies. Studies with narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish were not repeated; both studies reported chronic effects below background concentrations, and both studies had been conducted by the authors of 1 of the 2 studies that were repeated and shown to be nonreproducible. Studies by these authors (3 of the 4 confounding studies), conducted over 30 yr ago, lacked detail in reporting of methods and results. It is thus likely that repeating the toad and goldfish studies would also have resulted in a higher strontium effects concentration. A strontium chronic effects benchmark of 10.7 mg/L that incorporates the results of additional testing summarized in the present study is proposed for freshwater environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Cytotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mandal, A.B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amitav@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •TiO{sub 2} NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects.

  14. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mandal, A.B.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TiO 2 NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO 2 NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects

  15. Harmful Freshwater Algal Blooms, With an Emphasis on Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Paerl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia, toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2, enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from

  16. Microbial Diversity and Toxin Risk in Tropical Freshwater Reservoirs of Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Aguiar, Ana P; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Leite, Ricardo B

    2018-05-05

    The Cape Verde islands are part of the African Sahelian arid belt that possesses an erratic rain pattern prompting the need for water reservoirs, which are now critical for the country’s sustainability. Worldwide, freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency due to global climate change and the eutrophication of water bodies, particularly in reservoirs. To date, there have been no risk assessments of cyanobacterial toxin production in these man-made structures. We evaluated this potential risk using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and full metagenome sequencing in freshwater reservoirs of Cape Verde. Our analysis revealed the presence of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera in all sampled reservoirs. Faveta potentially toxic and bloom-forming Microcystis sp., dominated our samples, while a Cryptomonas green algae and Gammaproteobacteria dominated Saquinho and Poilão reservoirs. We reconstructed and assembled the Microcystis genome, extracted from the metagenome of bulk DNA from Faveta water. Phylogenetic analysis of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa CV01’s genome revealed its close relationship with other Microcystis genomes, as well as clustering with other continental African strains, suggesting geographical coherency. In addition, it revealed several clusters of known toxin-producing genes. This survey reinforces the need to better understand the country’s microbial ecology as a whole of water reservoirs on the rise.

  17. Endosulfan and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida: a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Gary M; Carriger, John F; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2010-06-01

    Endosulfan is an insecticide-acaricide used in South Florida and is one of the remaining organochlorine insecticides registered under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act by the U.S.EPA. The technical grade material consists of two isomers (alpha-, beta-) and the main environmental metabolite in water, sediment and tissue is endosulfan sulfate through oxidation. A comprehensive probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment was conducted to determine the potential risks of existing exposures to endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in freshwaters of South Florida based on historical data (1992-2007). The assessment included hazard assessment (Tier 1) followed by probabilistic risk assessment (Tier 2). Tier 1 compared actual measured concentrations in surface freshwaters of 47 sites in South Florida from historical data to U.S.EPA numerical water quality criteria. Based on results of Tier 1, Tier 2 focused on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan at nine sites by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan [i.e., for total endosulfan (summation of concentrations of alpha- and beta-isomers plus the sulfate), alpha- plus beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate (alone)] with distributions of species effects from laboratory toxicity data. In Tier 2 the distribution of total endosulfan in fish tissue (whole body) from South Florida freshwaters was also used to determine the probability of exceeding a distribution of whole body residues of endosulfan producing mortality (critical lethal residues). Tier 1 showed the majority of endosulfan water quality violations in South Florida were at locations S-178 followed by S-177 in the C-111 system (southeastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP)). Nine surface water sampling sites were chosen for Tier 2. Tier 2 showed the highest potentially affected fraction of toxicity values (>10%) by the estimated 90th centile exposure concentration (total endosulfan) was at S-178

  18. Transcription and Regulation of the Bidirectional Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Johannes; Oliveira, Paulo; Lindblad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120) possesses an uptake hydrogenase and a bidirectional enzyme, the latter being capable of catalyzing both H2 production and evolution. The completely sequenced genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 reveals that the five structural genes encoding the bidirectional hydrogenase (hoxEFUYH) are separated in two clusters at a distance of approximately 8.8 kb. The transcription of the hox genes was examined under nitrogen-fixing conditions, and the results demonstrate that the cluster containing hoxE and hoxF can be transcribed as one polycistronic unit together with the open reading frame alr0750. The second cluster, containing hoxU, hoxY, and hoxH, is transcribed together with alr0763 and alr0765, located between the hox genes. Moreover, alr0760 and alr0761 form an additional larger operon. Nevertheless, Northern blot hybridizations revealed a rather complex transcription pattern in which the different hox genes are expressed differently. Transcriptional start points (TSPs) were identified 66 and 57 bp upstream from the start codon of alr0750 and hoxU, respectively. The transcriptions of the two clusters containing the hox genes are both induced under anaerobic conditions concomitantly with the induction of a higher level of hydrogenase activity. An additional TSP, within the annotated alr0760, 244 bp downstream from the suggested translation start codon, was identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified LexA from Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 demonstrated specific interactions between the transcriptional regulator and both hox promoter regions. However, when LexA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was used, the purified protein interacted only with the promoter region of the alr0750-hoxE-hoxF operon. A search of the whole Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 genome demonstrated the presence of 216 putative LexA binding sites in total, including recA and rec

  19. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. While Hyalella azteca methods exist for sediment tox...

  20. Education Agendas and Resistance with the Teaching and Learning of Freshwater and Extreme Freshwater Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison; McMartin, Dena; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Despite the essentiality of freshwater to all life on the planet, the populous has inadequate understandings of water. Formal education plays a key role in shaping how individuals and communities make sense of water, its accessibility, management, consumption, and hazards. This article seeks to bring attention to the infuence of cultural framings…

  1. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  2. MOLLUSKS IN RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Гудков

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuraniс elements accumulation in bivalveand gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1998–2010 was analyzed. Theresults of radiation dose as well as chromosome aberration rate estimation and analysis of hemolymphcomposition of molluscs was produced. The radiation absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3–85.0 μGy h–1. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27 % in embryotissues, and also change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered

  3. Cultured branchial epithelia from freshwater fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; PÄRt

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method for the primary culture of gill epithelial cells from freshwater rainbow trout on permeable supports, polyethylene terephthalate membranes ('filter inserts'). Primary cultures of gill cells (6-9 days in Leibowitz L-15 culture medium plus foetal bovine serum and glutamine) are trypsinized and the cells seeded onto the inserts. After 6 days of growth with L-15 medium on both surfaces (approximately isotonic to trout plasma), the cells form a tight epithelium as judged from a progressive rise in transepithelial resistance which reaches a stable plateau for a further 6 days, as long as L-15 exposure is continued on both surfaces. The cultured epithelium (approximately 8 µm thick) typically consists of 2-4 overlapping cell layers organized as in the lamellae in vivo, with large intercellular spaces, multiple desmosomes and putative tight junctions. The cells appear to be exclusively pavement-type cells with an apical surface glycocalyx, an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, no selective DASPEI staining and relatively few mitochondria. Transepithelial resistance (approximately 3.5 k cm2), permeability to a paracellular marker (polyethylene glycol-4000; 0.17x10(-6) cm s-1) and unidirectional flux of Na+ and Cl- (approximately 300 nmol cm-2 h-1) all appear realistic because they compare well with in vivo values; net fluxes of Na+ and Cl- are zero. The preparation acidifies the apical medium, which accumulates a greater concentration of ammonia. Upon exposure to apical freshwater, resistance increases six- to elevenfold and a basolateral-negative transepithelial potential (TEP) develops as in vivo. These responses occur even when mannitol is used to prevent changes in apical osmotic pressure. Net Na+ and Cl- loss rates are low over the first 12 h (-125 nmol cm-2 h-1) but increase substantially by 48 h. The elevated resistance and negative TEP gradually attenuate but remain significantly higher than pre-exposure values after 48 h of apical

  4. Toxic Mixtures in Time-The Sequence Makes the Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; O'Connor, Isabel; Escher, Beate I

    2017-03-07

    "The dose makes the poison". This principle assumes that once a chemical is cleared out of the organism (toxicokinetic recovery), it no longer has any effect. However, it overlooks the other process of re-establishing homeostasis, toxicodynamic recovery, which can be fast or slow depending on the chemical. Therefore, when organisms are exposed to two toxicants in sequence, the toxicity can differ if their order is reversed. We test this hypothesis with the freshwater crustacean Gammarus pulex and four toxicants that act on different targets (diazinon, propiconazole, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride). We found clearly different toxicity when the exposure order of two toxicants was reversed, while maintaining the same dose. Slow toxicodynamic recovery caused carry-over toxicity in subsequent exposures, thereby resulting in a sequence effect-but only when toxicodynamic recovery was slow relative to the interval between exposures. This suggests that carry-over toxicity is a useful proxy for organism fitness and that risk assessment methods should be revised as they currently could underestimate risk. We provide the first evidence that carry-over toxicity occurs among chemicals acting on different targets and when exposure is several days apart. It is therefore not only the dose that makes the poison but also the exposure sequence.

  5. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3 0 C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish; thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement. (author)

  6. Management and the conservation of freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Richardson, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Riparian areas are the terrestrial environment adjacent to water that both influences and is influenced by the aquatic feature (Gregory et al., 1991; Naiman et al., 2010). Riparian areas along streams provide shade, sources of wood and organic matter, contribute to bank stability, filter sediments, take up excess nutrients from groundwater inputs, and other key processes that protect freshwaters (e.g. Naiman et al., 2010; Richardson & Danehy, 2007; Figure 9.1). Riparian areas also increase biodiversity through habitat complexity and close juxtaposition of aquatic and terrestrial environments (Quinn et al., 2004; Naiman et al., 2010). Alterations to riparian areas, despite their small area relative to the landscape, have disproportionate effects on habitats and fish communities (Naiman et al., 2010; Wipfli & Baxter, 2010). Key habitat losses and alterations are derived from modification of riparian areas by reducing instream habitat complexity (Bilby & Ward, 1989; Fausch & Northcote, 1992; Naiman et al., 2010), diminishing the productive basis of freshwater food webs (Belsky et al., 1999; Quinn et al., 2004), increasing nutrient, contaminant and sediment intrusion (Muscutt et al., 1993; Daniels & Gilliam, 1996; Nguyen et al., 1998; Waters, 1999).

  7. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3/sup 0/C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish;thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement

  8. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  9. Persistence of environmental DNA in freshwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Dejean

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks and in the field (ponds, the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys.

  10. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  11. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Torres, D.J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, d18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of

  12. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  13. Potential impacts of alien freshwater crayfish in South Africa | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat preferences and life history characteristics of four alien species of freshwater crayfish (Cherax tenuimanus, C. destructor, C. quadricarinatus and Procambarus clarkii) are reviewed. The potential impact of these species on South African freshwater ecosystems is assessed and the desirability of allowing their ...

  14. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater marsh...

  15. Snail abundance in freshwater canals in the eastern province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ksu-network

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Recent Advances in Freshwater Biology. New Delhi. Anmol. Publication. Vol. 2. pp. 187-202. Al-Akel and Suliman. 12261. Supian Z, Ikhwanuddin AM (2002). Population dynamics of freshwater mollusks (Gastropod: Melanoides Tuberculatus) in crocker range park, Sabah. ASEAN Rev. Biodiv. Environ.

  16. Predicting freshwater habitat integrity using land-use surrogates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Quantification of potential surrogates of freshwater habitat integrity. We chose a series of land-use variables that might be suitable predictors for assessing freshwater habitat integrity from the land cover map (CSIR 2005) and added separate GIS surfaces for human population density and the distribution of ...

  17. Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a wetland of international importance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. ... A total of 87 893 fish comprising 16 species were caught. In addition to confirming the ... Key words: freshwater fish, invasive alien fishes, estuary, RAMSAR site, diversity.

  18. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  19. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving or stagnant surface waters that are enriched with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. People are exposed to potentially toxic HABs during recreation in contaminated water, after exposure to contaminated drinking water or to blue-green algae supplements. Animals may be exposed to toxic HABs after drinking contaminated surface waters or coming into contact with HABs then ingesting cyanobacteria from their bodies during self-grooming activities. As HABs are being reported more frequently in the US, it is important for veterinarians to secure good exposure histories and to recognize the potential signs and health consequences of HAB exposures. We will review the current knowledge about human and animal health effects associated with freshwater HABs and scenarios that pose the highest risks for illnesses and deaths. This abstract does not necessarily reflect EPA policy. This is a summary of One Health and Cyanobacteria for public health and public practice veterinarians at the American Veterinary Medical Association annual convention. This product is associated with SSWR 4.01B

  20. Photosynthetic and Behavioral Versatility of the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria-Boryana in a Sulfide-Rich Microbial Mat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CASTENHOLZ, RW; JØRGENSEN, BB; DAMELIO, E.

    1991-01-01

    resulted in a downward retreat. The result was a lowered irradiance level for the Oscillatoria but, nevertheless, a high rate of oxygenic photosynthesis. O. boryana is a versatile cyanobacterium that appears to avoid photoinhibitory conditions and to optimize its light intensity for photosynthesis...... with dense O. boryana populations were used to make vertical profiles at intervals of 0.1-0.2 mm and also to estimate rates of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis during rapid light-dark transitions. In addition, attenuation of irradiance was measured in mats with O. boryana by a spectroradiometer...... with mini-fiber optic probe. Light-dependent incorporation of [C-14]-bicarbonate and [C-14]-acetate was measured in collected field populations of O. boryana. The combined results led to the conclusion that populations of O. boryana typically employed sulfide-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in early...