WorldWideScience

Sample records for totalitarian economics consumers

  1. Consumer Economics and Consumer Mathematics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…

  2. Gloves-off Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)

  3. RETHINKING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: PRELUDE TO TOTALITARIANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel David

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the long course of human evolution and political experimentation, liberal democracy, especially after the events of 1989, has come to be seen as the best political system. In fact, we seemed to have reached the only system compatible with liberty, after the dreadful experiences of Communist and Nazi totalitarianism, and its twin in the economic realm - capitalism. But is liberalism really conducive to freedom? I argue that evil – or totalitarianism – arises from the combination of both the Platonic and Augustinian views: ignorance of values and the pursuit of one’s egotistic desires. Evil has an essentially private nature. In this sense, totalitarianism may arise from a utilitarian culture that sees people – or some forms of knowledge – as worthless and disposable objects.

  4. The new totalitarian society

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout hi...

  5. The new totalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  6. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  7. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  8. Consumer and Family Economics. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This consumer and family economics curriculum guide was developed for use in home economics education in Texas. At the beginning is a list of the competencies and the subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. The conceptual outline as shown in the…

  9. Philosophy and Post-Totalitarian Practices

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    Serhii Yosypenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This writing aims to outline the principles of researches on philosophy in Central and Eastern European countries, preferably USSR, in the latest soviet and post-soviet periods. In author’s opinion, the crucial points for such kind of research are: a to discover a correlation between philosophy and the phenomenon of totalitarianism; b to correlate a soviet philosophy with totalitarian experience. The article considers methodological and axiological problems in research of post-totalitarian practices in general as such as in philosophy. In author’s opinion the main problem in development of the post-soviet philosophy is interiorisation of intellectual, cultural and social practices, which were formed concerning to totalitarian experience. This became a reason of “cynicism” and “nihilism” of post-soviet philosophy. It’s impossible to cast mentioned phenomena off without consideration of totalitarian phenomenon and critical reconsideration of the own totalitarian experience.

  10. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N

    2013-01-01

    Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The political use of psychiatry: A comparison between totalitarian regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Giannuli, Aldo Sabino

    2017-03-01

    After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China. One of the features that are common to most of the dictatorships is that the use of psychiatry has become more prominent when the regimes have had the need to make more acceptable the imprisonment of enemies in the eyes of the world. This for example happened in the Nazi regime when sterilization and killing of psychiatric patients was explained as a kind of euthanasia, or in the Soviet Union after the formal closure of the corrective labor camps and the slow resumption of relations with the capitalistic world, or in China to justify persecution of religious minorities and preserve economic relations with Western countries. Psychiatry has been variously used by totalitarian regimes as a means of political persecution and especially when it was necessary to make acceptable to public opinion the imprisonment of political opponents.

  12. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  13. 22 CFR 40.34 - Immigrant membership in totalitarian party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization Advocating Totalitarian Dictatorship in the United States. In accordance with the definition of... not advocate the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship, is not considered...

  14. Wait, bond, and buy : Consumer responses to economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yabar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although economic crises tend to be perceived as a time in which consumers cut back on expenditures (including cars, clothes, and houses), market data also shows that sales of certain products increase during economic downturns. How do consumers respond to an economic crisis? And what is the

  15. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  16. Choices in the Marketplace: A Basic Unit on Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Paul; Stevahn, Laurie

    Consumer decision-making and its consequences for individual consumers and societal groups are examined in this economic unit for secondary school students. Seven lessons focus on developing an understanding of the concepts of scarcity, supply and demand, resources, choice, price, and interdependence and on fostering an economic way of thinking.…

  17. Consumer decisionmaking: insights from behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhua Di; James C. Murdoch

    2010-01-01

    The increased complexity of the financial markets has made it difficult for consumers to choose products that best serve their interests. Behavioral economists explore consumers' psychological process in making decisions, such as immediate gratification, overconfidence, inertia or a lack of cognitive ability to understand the costs and benefits of financial services.

  18. Three S's for Teaching Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjala, Jeanette A.

    1989-01-01

    Business educators have an opportunity to help students develop skills and acquire knowledge necessary to become rational consumers. Involving students is more effective than using lectures--it encourages the practice of rational decision making. (JOW)

  19. Political myths and totalitarianism: an anthropological analysis of their causal interrelationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the key political, anthropological and socio-cultural functions of political myths in the appearance and functioning of totalitarian regimes. A special emphasis is put on structural elements of the myth (mythemes) and the mythic content (narratives) in the processes of artificial construction of a new society (community) based on the myth-inspired ideological postulates. The paper argues that the establishment of totalitarianism marked a certain anthropological devolution. This devolution, in turn, proceeds through the deconstruction of civil society as an organic social sphere and the artificial construction of a new political community based on ideological postulates and political myths. In support of this assertion, it is first shown how the mythical narratives--transformed into political concepts and programs--were the basis of (re)interpretation of the world, society and individual, and essentially determined the nature and functioning of the totalitarian regimes. Then, the specific political myths are analyzed and compared, as well as their content and origin, and particularly their dual function. It in turn is analyzed in the framework of the classical society-community dichotomy, where the (civil) society is founded socio-politically on the social contract, and the (political) community socio-anthropologically on political myth. In a situation of identity and legitimacy crisis, anomie and the weakening of social cohesion--the characteristic conditions of the great economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century that enabled the emergence of totalitarianism--society as a contracting community does not work. A strong need for meaning (at the individual and societal level) affects the citizens' susceptibility to (political) concepts of (re)constitution of (political) community with which they can identify. Right there, totalitarian movements use the cohesive power of the political myth that replaces the rationally based

  20. The DCFR and consumer protection: an economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luth, H.A.; Cseres, K.; Larouche, P.; Chirico, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss consumer protection in the DCFR. It will screen the DCFR and its model of consumer protection through the lens of economic analysis. The assessment will examine the general role of mandatory rules, which justification grounds they are based on and how this general model is

  1. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioural economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, E.H.; Miyapuram, K.P.; Tobler, P.N.; Pammi, C.; Srinivasan, N.

    2013-01-01

    People make many decisions throughout the day involving finances, food and health. Many of these decisions involve considering alternatives that will occur at some point in the future. Behavioural economics is a field that studies how people make these decisions (Camerer, 1999)[[Au: The reference

  2. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  3. Hannah Arendt, Education, and the Question of Totalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the ways in which Arendt's writings on totalitarianism act as a warning sign for political and miseducational circumstances in the USA. Because the term totalitarianism has been used imprudently (largely in the mass media) to express repressive conditions in so-called models of democracy, this paper seeks to…

  4. Consumer Preferences Determine Resilience of Ecological-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Baumgärtner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform a model analysis to study the origins of limited resilience in coupled ecological-economic systems. We demonstrate that under open access to ecosystems for profit-maximizing harvesting forms, the resilience properties of the system are essentially determined by consumer preferences for ecosystem services. In particular, we show that complementarity and relative importance of ecosystem services in consumption may significantly decrease the resilience of (almost any given state of the system. We conclude that the role of consumer preferences and management institutions is not just to facilitate adaptation to, or transformation of, some natural dynamics of ecosystems. Rather, consumer preferences and management institutions are themselves important determinants of the fundamental dynamic characteristics of coupled ecological-economic systems, such as limited resilience.

  5. New market actors: economic social movements and politicized consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Portilho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.

  6. Psychology of Economics in the Analysis of Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jonas Alves Correia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychology of Economics addresses issues far beyond market research. Thus, studies in this area also observe variables such as work, unemployment, decisions about purchases and savings, investments, financing, responses to advertising, among others. The present research was carried out with the objective of analyzing, through the fundamentals of consumer behavior, its relation to the propensity for compulsive or superfluous consumption. This quantitative study relates, using as means of phenomena and variables a description of the consumers behavior through the statistical tool Propensity Score Matching of Stata software. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was applied online from April to August in 2016. Data analysis was performed by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression with controlled dummy variables (dependent variable, whether or not it belongs to the consumer group Compulsive by the set of explanatory (independent variables. The results showed that the average monthly spending of compulsive consumers increases, and the higher the income of individuals, the greater the spending on unnecessary or superfluous consumption. Considering the gender variable, male individuals have higher levels of unnecessary spending and are prone to superfluous consumption. Thus, consumption is composed of influences for purchase and that the consumer determines consumption, according to economic position (income factor and cultural factors (customs, needs, impulsivities within the society.

  7. Unveiling consumer's privacy paradox behaviour in an economic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiwalla, Luvai F; Li, Xiao-Bai

    2016-01-01

    Privacy paradox is of great interest to IS researchers and firms gathering personal information. It has been studied from social, behavioural, and economic perspectives independently. However, prior research has not examined the degrees of influence these perspectives contribute to the privacy paradox problem. We combine both economic and behavioural perspectives in our study of the privacy paradox with a price valuation of personal information through an economic experiment combined with a behavioural study on privacy paradox. Our goal is to reveal more insights on the privacy paradox through economic valuation on personal information. Results indicate that general privacy concerns or individual disclosure concerns do not have a significant influence on the price valuation of personal information. Instead, prior disclosure behaviour in specific scenario, like with healthcare providers or social networks, is a better indicator of consumer price valuations.

  8. Nuclear power and the economic interests of consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, G.

    1982-06-01

    This study examines the main economic issues surrounding the use of nuclear power from a broadly consumer perspective. It sets out to answer four related questions: has nuclear investment been good value in the past; are current plans for nuclear investment (especially at Heysham II and beyond) likely to be good value in the future; what are the likely economic consequences if there is an explicit or de facto moratorium on the building of more nuclear power plants; and what strategic factors influence decision-making about nuclear investment and what are their consequences for consumers. (It should be noted that the CEGB's 'Statement of Case' for a PWR at Sizewell was published too late to be taken into account in this report). (author)

  9. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  10. An analysis of totalitarian consciousness in Frankfurt School socio-critical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Demura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed the main ideas of Frankfurt School representatives, namely Theodor. W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, Erich Fromm. The author attempted to identify the main causes of neototalitarianism formation and the formation of totalitarian regime in the 20th century. In the attempt the author based on the main researches and fundamental works of Frankfurt school representatives. It was established an interdependency between the Enlightenment practice and the mythologizing of consciousness; the role of culture was determined. The role of ideological system as one of the forms of social mythology was described. It was established the regularity between ‘happy consciousness’ of the Consumer Society and myths and ideological system effecting rooting in the society mass consciousness of the 20th century. The relevance of the article is determined by the need for critical thinking of the development of totalitarian states culture that today is becoming obvious. An awareness of the fact that social consciousness of post-Soviet states still guided by myths that were created and instituted by totalitarian culture makes us serious study of the problems mythologizing of consciousness and ideological influence. Therefore the deliverance from prejudice and the transition to a new round of democratic society is not possible without studying the formations foundations of mass society and the functions of culture in it. Moreover, the solution of modernity global problems and the transition on qualitatively new round of social and cultural development is impossible without definition of conditions that identified the construction of Western civilization.

  11. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  12. The New Totalitarians: Social Identities and Radical Islamist Political Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the ideologically-driven grand political strategy of the Islamist extremists, which represents a totalitarian, transnational, and, in many versions, universalist social revolutionary movement...

  13. The economics of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs: prescribed to improve consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris

    2003-10-01

    According to economic theory, one might expect that the informational content of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only drugs would improve consumers' welfare. However, contrasting the models of consumer and market behaviour underlying this theory with the realities of the prescription-only drug market reveals that this market is distinct in ways that render it unlikely that advertising will serve an unbiased and strictly informative function. A review of qualitative evidence regarding the informational content of drug advertising supports this conclusion. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising concentrates on particular products, and features of those products, to the exclusion of others, and the information provided has frequently been found to be biased or misleading in regulatory and academic evaluations. Governments that have so far resisted direct-to-consumer advertising should invest in independent sources of evidence that could help consumers and professionals to better understand the risks and benefits of treating disease with alternative drug and non-drug therapies, rather than permitting direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

  14. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  15. National Economic Policies: The Impact on Consumer Welfare. Proceedings of the American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (29th, Kansas City, Missouri, March 16-19, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Karen P., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the texts of the papers presented at a conference on consumer interests. Addressed in the first series of concurrent sessions are the following topics: consumers' new economic positions, consumers' choices with respect to price and quality trade-offs, time value in consumption decisions, and consumer information issues.…

  16. The Development of a Distributive Interactive Computing Model in Consumer Economics, Utilizing Jerome S. Bruner's Theory of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.

    A computerized delivery system in consumer economics developed at the University of Delaware uses the PLATO system to provide a basis for analyzing consumer behavior in the marketplace. The 16 sequential lessons, part of the Consumer in the Marketplace Series (CMS), demonstrate consumer economic theory in layman's terms and are structured to focus…

  17. Can measures of the consumer debt burden reliably predict an economic slowdown?

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1996-01-01

    Some analysts and business executives are becoming concerned that recent increases in the consumer debt burden may foreshadow an economic slowdown. Higher debt increases the risk that a household may experience financial distress in the event of an adverse economic shock, such as the loss of a job or large uninsured medical expenses. As the risk of financial distress rises, households may become less willing to spend on consumer goods, particularly big ticket items such as automobiles and hom...

  18. Considering consumer choice in the economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Governments are increasing their focus on mandatory public health programmes following positive economic evaluations of their impact. This review aims to examine whether loss of consumer choice should be included in economic evaluations of mandatory health programmes (MHP). A systematic literature review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of MHP, whether they discuss the impact on consumer choice and any methodological limitations. Overall 39 economic evaluations were identified, of which 10 discussed the loss of consumer choice and 6 attempted to place a value on the loss of consumer choice. Methodological limitations included: measuring the marginal cost of compliance, unavailability of price elasticity estimates, the impact of income effects, double counting health impacts, biased willingness-to-pay responses, and "protest" responses. Overall it was found that the inclusion of the loss of consumer choice rarely impacted on the final outcome of the study. The impact of MHP on the loss of consumer choice has largely been ignored in economic evaluations. Its importance remains uncertain due to its infrequent inclusion and significant methodological limitations. Further research regarding which methodology is best for valuing the loss of consumer choice and whether it is important to the final implementation decision is warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Snail Farmers, Consumers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...

  20. A Review of Economic Behaviour of Drug Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Borumand

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug problem is one of the most worrying issues of the presenet century in all countries and anti-drug addiction programs are included in the agenda of all governments and international community. Drug abuse/addiction in Iran has been one of the most important social and economical problems for several years and the number and percentage of drug users/addicts are growing. Campaign against this phenomenon needs in-depth recognition of all aspects (economic, social and political of this problem. So, such programs will be successful in fighting against illicit drugs and drug addiction if they are developed and implemented through a realistic recognition. One can not hope the success of anti-drug programs if they are not planned on the basis of researches. Therefore, reviewing the economical aspect of illicit drugs via usrers’ viewpoints will help to undrestand illicit drug addiction phenomenon. In this article, the behaviour of drug usres is studied on the basis of micro-economic traditional assumptions. The relation between deman and prices of illicit drugs, the relation between tendency to drug consumption and the amount of drug consumption and the relaion between drug consumption and criminal acts are among the discussed issues of this article. Finally, a summary of the situation of illicit drug consumption is presented.

  1. Totalitarianism and Shared Values, a Management by the Discourses? The International Olympic Academy as a Totalitarian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ricaud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to remind how the Olympic movement comprises the germs of totalitarianism known as the continual project of the command of a common ideal to individuals. The articlewill try toexplain howsuch a logic canbe realized at amicro-organizational scale, meaning at the level of interactionsbetween individuals.This article is also the result of a particularly theoretical thought by researchers who have taken part in the organization and have actively observed and participated to it.Given the importance of micro-powers in totalitarianism and the analysis being developed around the mechanism of knowledge and powerby Michel Foucault, it stands out that the speech logics have a sharp and permanent influence, far from the idea that the power and strength of great speeches would be the main cause for the influence on their addresses.An intra-organizational analysis has indeed made it possible to determine that the importance of the organizational speech is the main aspect both to spread the Olympic ideology, to set the individual in a pre-established cognitive mechanism and to strengthen the bond between the members of the organization essential to ensure its continuity. This article intends to go beyond the macro-social conception of the influence of masses that establishes the aura of the leader or the charisma of an idealized speech and intends to show that the ideology develops in the subtle game of micro-relations and requires to be spread by everyone. The combination of speech and action within the interpersonal relations seems to be the main aspect of the ideological influence on its members.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v1i2.29

  2. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy: Totalitarian Menace or Monolithic Illusion? An Analysis of the Axis Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, James

    2004-01-01

    .... The advance of Italo-German interests during from 1935 to the beginning of the Second World War--an era characterized by the Great Depression and appeasement--also created an aura of totalitarian...

  3. Typology of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis: A segmentation study from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrandjiev Hristo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of results from a survey-based market research of Bulgarian households. In the first part of the paper the author analyzes the changes of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis in Bulgaria. Here, the author presents market segmentation from the point of view of consumer behavior changes in times of economic crisis. Four segments (clusters were discovered, and profiled. The similarities/dissimilarities between clusters are presented through the technique of multidimensional scaling (MDS The research project is planned, organized and realized within the Scientific Research Program of University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  4. Liberalism - neoliberalism - market fundamentalism: from the concept of freedom to the totalitarian dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Chelischev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article further describes the ideological, historical, socio-political and economic circumstances, responsible for the specific direction of a new form of the ideology of liberalism - contemporary liberalism (neo-liberalism. The special attention, along with the analysis of the ideas of the founder of original theory of the state intervention in the economic life of the society of John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946, is given to “neoliberal” economic constructions of an ideological orientation of Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992 and Milton Friedman (1912-2006, defenders of a liberal principle of self-regulation of economy, free from any regalements. The author, on the basis of the analysis of primary sources and examples from a political and social life of some States, shows that in theory the resurgence of liberalism in the form of neo-liberalism personified the idea of the priority of the individual to society and the State, the market - before planning and regulation, the human rights - before the power authority and the team. However in practice this revival was accompanied by displacement of accents and growth of ideological tendencies. Thus, theorists and practitioners of neo-liberalism lined up quite utopian model not only of economic, but also of social relations. Article details the mechanisms by which the theoretical constructions of economists-neoliberals were emasculated by politicians who gradually reduced them to the primitive and convenient theses, justifying any actions of the authorities. Over time, these points have become “undeniable truths”, through which neo-liberalism became dogmatic, and its economic credo has got obvious fundamentalist character, having turned to market dogma of totalitarian type.

  5. Arbitrability limitation in consumer (B2C disputes? : Consumers´ protection as legal and economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Bělohlávek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of consumers became a phenomenon of many governmental politics. Retrieval of a balance between privat autonomy and protection of a weaker party is very sensitive. The particular degree of consumers protection through limitation of contractual autonomy (in B2C contracts as well as procedural autonomy (regarding B2C dispute resolution mechanisms, as chosen by particular governments, has both legal and economic effects, in positive and negative sense. The European Court of Human Rights adjudicated repeatedly that traditional court litigation is not capable to grant effective protection to contractual claims in many countries. Arbitration is therefore one of possible tools for B2C dispute resolution, even if many countries and obviously the EU Commission followe rather an opposite strategy (keeping down arbitrability of B2C disputes in the opposite to US trends. Arbitration is not a cure-all and definitely not a method suitable for the resolution of any and all types of disputes. It has its proponents as well as opponents. Indeed, it is hard to claim that a particular type (class of disputes is a priori fit to be resolved in arbitration, rather than litigation, or vice versa. This also applies to consumer disputes (disputes from consumer contracts. It is fairly undisputable that consumers deserve a certain degree of specific protection in cases in which they are forced to enter into a particular contract and have no other option than to accept the conditions stipulated by the other party (the professional. But we cannot principally claim that the resolution of these disputes in court would be more suitable than arbitration or any other, the so-called alternative, dispute resolution method (ADR. Despite the basically undisputed importance of and the need for special consumer protection (whether provided by special laws, typically in Europe, or on the basis of general legal principles and the application of general contract law, like in the

  6. Enhancing the economic value and consumer preferences of commercial mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather creative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The research objectives were to design, assess the economic value and consumer preference level of stingray leather products. The research method included a product design, analysis of economic value and consumer preferences. Mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather, with a length of 50 cm and width of 30 cm, were processed into ID card wallet, man and women’s wallet and key holder. The number of respondents involved to analyze the preference level is 75 respondents (students, lecturers and employees of Universitas Gadjah Mada). Indicators of consumer preferences were model, color, price and purchasing power. The price of ID card wallet is Rp. 450,000; women wallet is Rp. 650,000 and a key holder is Rp. 300,000. Consumer preferences on ID card wallet were as follow: 84 % stated very interesting model; 83 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 53 % had enough. Consumer preferences of women’s wallet were as follow: 81 % stated very interesting model; 84 % stated very interesting color; 56 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough. Consumer preferences on key holder were as follow: 49 % stated interesting model; 72 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough.

  7. The Future of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) and Home Economics: An International and Intergenerational Vignette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, Sue L.T.; Hustvedt, G.; Smith, M.G.; Roubanis, J.L.; Lee, S.J.; Scholl, J.; Makela, C.J.; Wahlen, S.; Goldsmith, E.B.; Chen, P.; DeVaney, S.A.; West, G.E.; Murnane, J.; Turkki, Kaija

    2015-01-01

    This unique Feature article comprises a collage of contributions submitted by family and consumer sciences (FCS) practitioners from around the world (also called home economics, human ecology, and human sciences). As Interim Editor (this is my last issue), I reached out to FCS/home economists from

  8. IDENTIFICATOIN AS A SOCIO-ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF REGULATION OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Gubnelova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of basic types and factors of identification as a result of socialization and social relations. Identified criteria and specific identification of consumer behavior as regulator of material well-being and socio-economic development of the region.

  9. The influence of economic and marketing factors on market behaviour of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kicińska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high value of the market of young consumers in Poland, both children and the youth constitute a very attractive segment of consumers. A very high rate of them have their own money. This article aims at evaluation of influence of economic and marketing determinants on market choices of teenagers. The research shows that the determinants are of a crucial significance; the most important being the quality of goods and their prices. The most popular source of income for teenagers is the pocket money received from their parents. Young consumers use different ways of promotion and ways of sales support. Professional service and the possibility of the return of the product are the most appreciated assets of trading points.

  10. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic demand response model in liberalised electricity markets with respect to flexibility of consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Before restructuring in the electricity industry, the primary decision-makers of the electricity market were deemed to be power generation and transmission companies, market regulation boards, and power industry regulators. In this traditional structure, consumers were interested in receiving...... electricity at flat rates while paying no attention to the problems of this industry. This attitude was the source of many problems, sometimes leading to collapse of power systems and widespread blackouts. Restructuring of the electricity industry however provided a multitude of solutions to these problems....... The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  12. 4. From Literature to Politics: How Rousseau Has Come to Symbolize Totalitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Salvat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It was widely believed after WW2 that totalitarianism could be traced back to Rousseau’s rationalistic utopia. This idea conveyed, in particular, by Berlin’s Two Concepts of Liberty and  Hayek’s Road to Serfdom, is still popular in some political circles. This article intends, however,  to demonstrate that rather than originating from Kantian readings of the Social Contract, the totalitarian interpretations of Rousseau’s work essentially arose from his literary and autobiographical writings. It is Romanticism, and its alleged political and moral deviances, that is indeed targeted through Rousseau.

  13. How Marketing Instruments Affect Consumer Behavior in Times of Economic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naďa Birčiaková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the behavioural changes in groups of consumers and households on the market with individual commodities, based on the classification of individual reasonable consumption. Consumers expressed the degree of influence in their decision-making on satisfying their needs through selected key marketing factors such as price, brand, quality, habits and experience, advertising, recommendation from friends and relatives, packaging, discounts, new items, and so on. The analysis sought to determine whether the changes in the economic situation in the Czech Republic have an impact on the degree of marketing instrument influence on consumer behavior and decision-making. To express the degree of influence 10 point opinion scale is used. Thanks to the investigation taking place in 2007 with 609 respondents and in 2013 with 516 respondents, it was possible, it was possible to deal with the search for evidence of differences in the importance of individual factors using the Wilcoxon test. In 2013, attention was also paid to the degree of influence of some marketing tools such as price, quality and discount events on consumer behavior and decision-making in selected groups of households created by different income levels and different level of education achieved by the head of the household. The influence is expressed by radial graphs.

  14. History Textbook Writing in a Post-Totalitarian and Authoritarian Context: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadora, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses school history writing in a specific context: Belarus--a post-totalitarian and authoritarian state. School history teaching has always been a powerful instrument for transmitting national identity and legitimising political structures, and political authorities tend to control it. Perestroika marked the beginning of a new…

  15. Theoretical and historical bases of formation of social and economic nature of consumer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Іванівна Мілька

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of cooperation and cooperative approaches to address these concepts and the importance of social and economic component at different stages of development of the cooperative movement and the theory of cooperation are described in the article. Opinions of the scientists about the non-profit nature of the cooperative are considered and researched. Based on the study the main conceptual provisions of cooperation are highlighted and proposed the author's definition of consumer cooperatives is proposed on the basis of the research 

  16. Economic, energy and greenhouse emissions impacts of some consumer choice, technology and government outlay options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports

  17. Energy-Using Durables – Why Consumers Refrain from Economically Optimal Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Renate, E-mail: schubert@econ.gess.ethz.ch; Stadelmann, Marcel [ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-23

    Sustainable development requires increasing the energy efficiency, decreasing the growth rates of energy demand, and decreasing the CO{sub 2} emissions. In many countries, households’ energy consumption is responsible for a considerable share of total energy demand and CO{sub 2} emissions. Energy-using durables are essential in this context. Aiming at sustainability, private households should buy more energy-efficient durables and use them in a more efficient way. In principle, it might even be economically optimal to buy the more energy-efficient products, since they result in lower total costs over their lifetime – thus resulting in a positive net present value (NPV). However, when observing private households’ purchase decisions, they often do not correspond to the economic optimum, resulting in an “energy-efficiency gap.” This paper investigates into the reasons for the persistence of such a gap between energy-efficient products that would be economically optimal – but from which consumers refrain – and less energy-efficient products that consumers actually own or buy although they entail larger life-cycle costs. Factors, which seem to deter private households from purchasing energy-efficient products with positive NPVs, are, for example, insufficient information, limited attention, or inertia. We will show how these and other factors hinder private households from identifying and realizing their economically optimal choices and how such barriers can be overcome. We will present how properly designed energy labels could help to overcome the information-related causes of inefficiently low energy-efficiency investments and provide some additional policy recommendations that could help reaching the aforementioned goal of a reduction of households’ energy demand and CO{sub 2} emissions in an adequate way.

  18. Energy-Using Durables – Why Consumers Refrain from Economically Optimal Choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Renate; Stadelmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development requires increasing the energy efficiency, decreasing the growth rates of energy demand, and decreasing the CO 2 emissions. In many countries, households’ energy consumption is responsible for a considerable share of total energy demand and CO 2 emissions. Energy-using durables are essential in this context. Aiming at sustainability, private households should buy more energy-efficient durables and use them in a more efficient way. In principle, it might even be economically optimal to buy the more energy-efficient products, since they result in lower total costs over their lifetime – thus resulting in a positive net present value (NPV). However, when observing private households’ purchase decisions, they often do not correspond to the economic optimum, resulting in an “energy-efficiency gap.” This paper investigates into the reasons for the persistence of such a gap between energy-efficient products that would be economically optimal – but from which consumers refrain – and less energy-efficient products that consumers actually own or buy although they entail larger life-cycle costs. Factors, which seem to deter private households from purchasing energy-efficient products with positive NPVs, are, for example, insufficient information, limited attention, or inertia. We will show how these and other factors hinder private households from identifying and realizing their economically optimal choices and how such barriers can be overcome. We will present how properly designed energy labels could help to overcome the information-related causes of inefficiently low energy-efficiency investments and provide some additional policy recommendations that could help reaching the aforementioned goal of a reduction of households’ energy demand and CO 2 emissions in an adequate way.

  19. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  20. Consumer Protection and Behavioral Economics: To BE or Not to BE?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Beales

    2008-01-01

    The foundation of consumer protection policy is respect for consumer choice. Modern consumer protection recognizes the need to preserve information markets and to carefully structure interventions to ensure compatibility with how consumers actually process information.

  1. The role of testosterone and estrogen in consumer behavior and social & economic decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Migration AND Development in Post-Totalitarian Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora-Maria Daghie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the migration issues in Argentina, as they are perceived through the lenses of the European Union. Argentine society has faced capital changes in the past twenty years, going from a militarist regime to market economy and liberal democracy. All these have culminated with a profound economic crisis at the beginning of the years 2000, changing perceptions and creating new social patterns. Even though Argentine was since its creation a nation of immigrants, in the latest years this has become a sensitive issue. Deteriorating economic factors gave birth to an anti-immigration wave and to an emigration phenomenon.

  3. The Social and Economic Factors Influence upon the Healthcare Services Consumers Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian GÂRDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research in the field of healthcare services consumer behaviour represents a very complex task with multiple implications. The consumer behaviour is much nuanced depending on the type of services or products that we are referring on. In the case of healthcare services, the behaviour is more complex than other services and is influenced mainly by special motivations like the need for a proper health status or the need to recover from a certain disease. The present article is proposing a qualitative type research as an in-depth interview with dentists regarding their perception about the influence that social and economic factors can have upon the consumers’ behaviour. The results of the research suggest that the influence of social factors is very complex, from the simple more intense concern related with dental hygiene and appearance of teeth up to anxious behaviour and isolation in the case of patients with severe dental diseases that have affected their face bones structure or the capacity to chew and speak. These findings shows that the consumers’ behaviour can be shaped by the complex interaction of different factors, and the response from dentists and those in charge with the provision of dental healthcare services can make the difference between a sustainable consumption and a dramatic route of unsatisfied consumers’ expectations.

  4. Post-communist democracy vs. totalitarianism: Contrasting patterns of need satisfaction and societal frustration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2017), s. 99-111 ISSN 0967-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Totalitarianism * Post- communism * Frustration * Societal frustration * Democracy * Memory * Maslow * Hierarchy of needs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016

  5. Post-communist democracy vs. totalitarianism: Contrasting patterns of need satisfaction and societal frustration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2017), s. 99-111 ISSN 0967-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Totalitarianism * Post-communism * Frustration * Societal frustration * Democracy * Memory * Maslow * Hierarchy of needs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016

  6. The unidirectional relationship between consumer confidence and PSI-20 returns - The influence of the economic cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Duarte Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to determine the relationship between market sentiment and rates of return on the main Portuguese benchmark and verify whether this relationship is influenced by different economic cycles. Given the subjectivity inherent to the use of variables capturing investor sentiment, the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI was used as a benchmark. To achieve the proposed objective, an analysis of time series stationarity, Pearson correlation, and Granger causality using the autoregressive vectors model was carried out, followed by the Least Squares Method with macroeconomic variables. The results obtained suggest a one-way relationship between stock market returns and the sentiment variable. In fact, in times of recession, investor pessimism induces linear behavior and the sentiment-return relationship is more evident. This article will thus be of interest both to the academic community, in providing a basis for future investigations, and to managers and investors, with regards to the perception that the predictability of returns will be easier in periods of recession.

  7. Estimating the Costs to Consumers of the U.S. Sugar Quota: An Exercise for Introductory Economics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a classroom exercise using the restrictive tariffs on sugar to examine issues of protectionism and international trade. Discusses related issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the formation of large regional trading blocks. Includes a hands-on calculation of the economic impact of the quota on consumers. (MJP)

  8. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  9. The Effect of Consumer Expectation Index, Economic Condition Index and Crude Oil Price on Indonesian Government Bond Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Budiawan Tjandrasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments sell bonds to finance their budget. The investors willing to buy government bonds because of the yield they will get, but on the other hand if government bond yields is  too high it would burden the state in paying the interest due. Various studies have been done to find the variables that affect government bond yield significantly, such as exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate, and oil price. This study found two more variables namely consumer expectations index and the economic conditions index to complement the variables that have been discovered. Those two variables are used as a proxy of economic stability of a country, the increase of those variables represent the increase of economic stability and will reduce the level of risk and lowering the yield that investors demand. This research use descriptive method and explanatory study with secondary data using multivariate regression equation model. The results shown consumer expectation index and economic condition index have significant effect on Indonesian Government Bond yield. To keep consumer expectation index and economic condition index increase government should give a positive signal and a sense of security to investor.

  10. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-12-01

    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  11. The political Thought of José Gaos. The Criticism of Totalitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolín Sánchez Cuervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jose Gaos's diverse writings are reviewed, many of them scantily known and still unpublished, related to the area of the politics in the wide sense of the term. It was the case of some reflections motivated by the global protagonism of the war, the totalitarianism and the technocracy in the current manners of life, including those that are typical of the democratic western companies. In line with this protagonism, Gaos raised a genealogical review of the secularizing process of modern rationality, which will connect with some of his big worries, such as the possibility of the philosophy itself and the possibility of the Hispanic philosophy especially.

  12. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rational Choice, Consumer Vulnerability and Empowerment: Diverging Economic Perspectives and Issues for Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Bălău-Ariton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of consumer choice seen from two quite diverging perspectives: rational choice theory and consumer empowerment as it is currently measured by available research at European Union level. The question we try to answer is: In what manner do the assumptions on consumer rational choice influence the actual understanding of choice and the improvement of the fairness of the choice? To this aim we review the basic theoretical ideas on rational choice and consumer empowerment, as well as the conclusions of previous research on Romanian consumers’ empowerment current situation. The main finding of this analysis is that Romanian consumer choice needs more awareness, an increase of consumer skills and more active individual involvement in discussing these issues.

  14. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime.

  15. National originality of the architecture of Khreshchatyk as a unique ensemble of the period of totalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Olena

    2018-03-01

    Khreschatyk is a page apart in the history of world architecture. While it has a number of distinct characteristics of totalitarian architecture, Khreschatyk is the only architectural ensemble of the period to combine na-tional tradition with the exalted sentiment of Soviet architecture of the Stalin era. Also, it uniquely matched architecture and landscape. The façades has elements of Ukrainian baroque, which sets Khreschatyk apart from similar ensembles of the 1940s-1950s in other countries that mainly drew upon Ne-oclassicism or Modernism. While period architecture in other countries is typically marked by its grand scale and heavily accentuated civic spirit - complete with a denigration of the individual at the expense of the manifest greatness of Authority, Khreschatyk stand out for its pronounced harmony as an environment based on the careful preservation of old heritage, the skill-ful use of the landscape, and the introduction of traditional motifs, alongside an almost total lack of Soviet symbols. Unlike the grim grandness of totali-tarian architecture in other countries, the facades of the residential buildings that line Khreschatyk emanate joie de vivre and admiration for the fertility of Ukrainian soil.

  16. Laibach and the NSK: Aestheticising the East/West Nexus in Post-Totalitarian Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects a study in how the Slovenian art collective the NSK (Neue Slowenische Kunst, and more specifically its sub-group Laibach, interrogate the representation of Central and Eastern European cultural memory in the context of post-Socialism, and operate as a nexus between Eastern Europe and the West. Emerging in the wake of Tito's death and shaped by the break-up of Yugoslavia, the NSK were founded in 1984, in Ljubljana (northern Slovenia.  The NSK is a multi-disciplinary collective primarily comprised of three groups: IRWIN (visual arts, Noordung (theatre, and its most influential delivery system, Laibach (music.  Brought to academic scrutiny in the West by Slavoj Žižek for their subversive strategy of over-identification with the totalitarian spectacle, Laibach are Slovenia’s most famous cultural export, with a global following, and an international and domestic history of controversy. With the strategy of Retrogardism, Laibach and the NSK re-mythologise totalitarian iconography associated with Nazi Kunst and Socialist Realism.  Through this process of re-mythologisation Laibach explore the unfinished narrative of Communism and the legacy of the European traumatic historical in the context of a ‘post-ideological’ age.

  17. A 3-stage model for assessing the probable economic effects of direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ronald J; Ramachandran, Sulabha; Zachry, Woodie M

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry employs a variety of marketing strategies that have previously been directed primarily toward physicians. However, mass media direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs has emerged as a ubiquitous promotional strategy. This article explores the economics of DTC advertising in greater depth than has been done in the past by using a 3-stage economic model to assess the pertinent literature and to show the probable effects of DTC advertising in the United States. Economics literature on the subject was searched using the Journal of Economic Literature. Health services literature was searched using computer callback devices. Spending on DTC advertising in the United States increased from $17 million in 1985 to $2.5 billion in 2000. Proponents of DTC advertising claim that it provides valuable product-related information to health care professionals and patients, may contribute to better use of medications, and helps patients take charge of their own health care. Opponents argue that DTC advertising provides misleading messages rather than well-balanced, evidence-based information. The literature is replete with opinions about the effects of prescription drug advertising on pharmaceutical drug prices and physician-prescribing patterns, but few studies have addressed the issues beyond opinion surveys. The economic literature on advertising effects in other markets, however, may provide insight. DTC advertising indirectly affects the price and the quantity of production of pharmaceuticals via its effect on changes in consumer demand.

  18. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  19. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  20. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  1. The European Union as a Totalitarian Nightmare: Dystopian Visions in the Discourse of the UK Independence Party (UKIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of UKIP’s discourse on the EU, particularly that of leader Nigel Farage, this paper argues that the party depicts the EU in dystopian terms; in particular it compares it to dystopian narratives such as Orwell’s 1984, totalitarian communist regimes, Nazi Germany and ‘failed states’ such as North Korea.

  2. Physical culture beyond the conditions of soviet totalitarian culture development (1920-s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Y.O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the state and development of physical culture and sports in the USSR the interwar years. Found a place of physical culture in the formation of Soviet totalitarianism. The study used mainly archival documents. It focuses on the paradigmatic orientation of physical education, in fact - for her militarnost. It substantiates the idea that physical culture in the study period served not so much a sport or recreational functions as ideological. It is noted that the sports policy of the Communist Party is granted the benefit of multisport events. It is proved that a decisive role in the development of physical culture and sports areas in the USSR played amateur men.

  3. Violence through language in the Romanian totalitarian discourse (1945-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Cristian Semeniuc

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Just as in any other totalitarian regime, the communist political discourse and the mass-media of that time employed to a great extent the strategy of the attack against the „enemy”, regardless of whether this enemy was domestic or foreign, real or imaginary. From a linguistic point of view, identifying, isolating and classifying the procedures used by the communists to this purpose means including these formulae into the typology of wooden language, whose features were accounted for by Françoise Thom. „The passage of attack”, a possible name for the ritual violent excerpt usually found in propagandistic speeches or articles, is mainly characterised by the fact that it is invariably present in these texts, it is shorter than the one devoted to „accomplishments” and contains linguistic prefabricates, repeated for years in a row, usually with no substantial change in form or meaning.

  4. Level of Satisfaction of Educational Services Consumers. Impact and Consequences for the Responsibility of an Economics Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to provide a conceptual delimitation of educational services and their main and secondary components, and to quantify the level of satisfaction of specific consumers in academic organizations specializing in economics, with a view to restructuring their responsibilities. The method of statistical investigation is the thorough investigation including the graduates of bachelor and master courses in the accounting economic field, based on a questionnaire assessing the opinions of 138 graduates from the Faculty of Economics of Pitesti, which covers the full spectrum of 93 distinct variables. The databases were analyzed from a descriptive statistical standpoint with the software package Eviews, focusing on the normality of distributions. The major assumptions concern identifying variables intensely associated with the level of satisfaction of educational services consumers, for the first three and six main service categories, defined by 36 variables marked by respondents, plus another three and respectively six categories in further 15 variables, which define secondary educational services (according to the correlation ratio. Educational organizations belonging to the academic area are naturally concerned with the requirements expressed in the complex concept of satisfaction of those trained through the programs and specializations of a faculty (in this case, an economic faculty, with the aim that the educational services provided in a sustainable manner should cover nearly all their expectations as consumers (students and MA trainees, and also the educational requirements for shaping and training skills that the graduates need in order to succeed in the labour market. The differentiated behaviours of the consumers of educational services can be found at the end of the paper, in a number of econometric models that allow a coherent strategy; they lend a much greater responsibility to the organization doing the job, namely by

  5. The different faces of the energy consumers: toward a behavioral economics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the European legislator's view, energy consumers have an important role to play in achieving the EU energy policy objectives. These include promoting competition, ensuring affordable energy prices and security of supply, as well as contributing to the European environmental and climate goals.

  6. The impact of ambiguous economic news on uncertainty and consumer confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, H.M.; Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; de Vreese, C.H.

    Journalistic practice emphasizes both positive and negative aspects of news stories. Nevertheless, the effects of ambiguous news, which includes both positive and negative information, are under-investigated. This study examines how exposure to ambiguous economic news affects uncertainty and

  7. Influence of non-economic factors in the use of personal care products: the case of male Peruvian consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Regalado Pezúa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the supply of male personal care products and services has increased considerably on a global scale. In the case of the Peruvian market, this phenomenon is still incipient despite a favorable economic outlook that has boosted the consumption in different categories. This research identifies factors that influence the consumption decision of this kind of products for the male segment. To do this, the authors used the Theory of Planned Behavior of Ajzen. The results show that male consumers´ perception of his environment (subjective norm restrains the intention of consumption of personal care products, even though the male consumer has a positive attitude toward using of these products. These factors would reflect the existence of deeply rooted taboos in Peruvian culture, based on a traditional view of man.

  8. Diversification of the economic profile and selected aspects of market activity in age groups of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an influence of the age of young consumers on chosen economic aspects of their market activity was described. It is stated that with the age of young consumers their purchasing fund and sources of its recruiting were increasing. Teenagers (secondary-school people more often demonstrate also a tendency to save money to concrete objectives, e.g. holidays, travels, training, but their current expenses are concentrating mainly around different active or passive forms of spending free time. Older teenagers are also more critical in relation to advertisements, and price and different instruments of sales promotion are factors which are exerting a significant influence on their purchase decisions. With the growth of importance of goods in the hierarchy of satisfying needs, role of determinants of choice besides the price, also a brand of the product are assumed.

  9. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  10. Direct-to-consumer promotion of prescription drugs. Economic implications for patients, payers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, S D

    2001-01-01

    Spending on outpatient prescription drugs in the US is accelerating rapidly. Although numerous factors are driving this trend, attention has recently focused on the role played by the marketing, promotion and advertising of pharmaceuticals, in particular direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. In 1997, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a 'guidance' on such mass media promotion. The guidance altered existing FDA rules and effectively permitted pharmaceutical companies to promote prescription drugs on television and radio without giving detailed or even summary information on indications, efficacy or potential adverse effects. Since then, television commercials, in particular, and print advertisements in consumer magazines and newspapers have proliferated rapidly. Pharmaceutical companies spent $US1.8 billion on DTC advertising in 1999, a 40% increase over 1998. This spending in 1999 was heavily concentrated on about 50 drugs. Evidence is growing that DTC promotion of prescription drugs is: (i) alerting consumers to the existence of new drugs and the conditions they treat; (ii) increasing consumer demand for many drugs; (iii) contributing increasingly to the recent sharp increase in the number of prescriptions being dispensed; (iv) raising sales revenues; and, thus, (v) contributing to the higher pharmaceutical costs of health insurers, government and consumers. The public policy issues surrounding DTC advertisements centre on the following questions: (i) are the advertisements leading to the inappropriate clinical use of some drugs? (ii) are the advertisements inducing both consumers and physicians to choose more costly new brand-name drugs over less expensive, but equally effective, older brand or generic drugs? (iii) do television advertisements for prescription drugs contain a balanced amount of information on benefits versus potential adverse effects? and (iv) will the revenue benefits generated by DTC advertising cause pharmaceutical companies to

  11. Teaching Units for Consumer Home Economics. Topic: Housing and Interior Decorating, Bilingual/Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadt, Ruth

    The instructional aids in this packet were designed to be used by high school home economics teachers who have Spanish speaking students with limited English skills mainstreamed into their regular classes. The teaching aids can be used by both English and Spanish speaking students at the same time because both Spanish and English are presented on…

  12. Modelling the Choices of Romanian Consumers in the Context of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Balau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption is a key factor of the nowadays post-industrial society, while it is a real engine ofproduction, diversity of offer and demand, and motive for innovation. On the other side, consumption can beharmful to the same society and to environment if it develops in an un-sustainable way. That is why,understanding the consumer behaviour is of great importance not only to satisfy his or her needs but also tofind appropriate means to educate people and issue policies that can lead to sustainable consumption anddevelopment. The paper presents some models and theories regarding the consumer behaviour and proposesmeans to influence consumption characteristics and habits of people. The modelling approach isdeterministic, using Expectancy-Value theory, taking into account not only explicit (rational choices but alsohabits or incentives (non-rational choices, in a weighted quantitative model. The novelty of the approachconsists in the way non-rational choices are taken into consideration for the existing model, and on how it isused in determining directions for sustainable consumption. The study is developed on public data regardingconsumers of general goods in Romania.

  13. Extended producer responsibility for consumer waste: the gap between economic theory and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2012-09-01

    Although economic theory supports the use of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to stimulate prevention and recycling of waste, EPR systems implemented in Europe are often criticized as a result of weak incentives for prevention and green product design. Using a stylized economic model, this article evaluates the efficiency of European EPR systems. The model reveals that the introduction of static collection targets creates a gap between theory and implementation. Static targets lead to inefficient market outcomes and weak incentives for prevention and green product design. The minimum collection targets should be complemented with a tax on producers for the non-collected waste fraction. Because such a tax internalizes the cost of waste disposal, more efficient price signals will lead to better incentives for waste management in a complex and dynamic market.

  14. THE ECONOMICS STUDENT – THE FUTURE BUSINESSMAN. FROM THE AWARENESS OF CONSUMERS' RIGHTS TO THEIR ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Teodora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The student attending courses related to business field is the one who, as a practitioner, will direct his business towards the customer. Educating such students in a spirit of recognition and respect for the rights of consumers will determine them to apply these universal axioms in their future business approach.The objective of the research is to determine the experience achieved by the business student, as a consumer of various services, expressed through the knowledge, claim and protection of his consumer’s rights in case of violation of such rights. In order to achieve this objective, we conducted a survey on a sample of 291 third-year students of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, business management specializations (The Economy of Commerce, Services and Tourism, Marketing and Management. The main results of this research show that only 69.9% of the total sample has ever experienced a situation of violation of consumers` rights, 50.5% of cases being recorded in the service-providing field. Contrary to expectations, ECTS students are those who report the lowest number of situations of this kind for the service-providing field (46.75%, the rest being associated with tangible goods. Also, when experiencing a violation of consumer’s rights, a person goes through bad moods and emotions, which will remain as a mark in the mind of that person for a longer period of time. If the complaint is resolved in favour of the customer, then such a situation generates positive emotions that tend to be evoked for a longer period of time, as well. Putting face to face the actual reaction versus recommended reaction, and analyzing the emotional implications of a person experiencing such a situation of violation of consumer rights, we consider that our work may be useful because it explains to affected consumers the actions to be taken, and namely because it emphasizes the importance of educating the future business people in the spirit

  15. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysiak, Frank C.; Weigt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  16. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysiak, Frank C., E-mail: frank.krysiak@unibas.ch; Weigt, Hannes [Department of Business and Economics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-05-19

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  17. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrysiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  18. Choice--Chance--Control. That's Life. Learning about Insurance through Secondary School Courses. Insurance Basics for Everyone; Social Sciences; Mathematics; Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insurance Education Foundation, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide, which is designed for use with secondary school students, contains four units of activities that teach the fundamentals of insurance within the context of a broad range of subjects, including social sciences, history, civics, government, mathematics, consumer economics, business, economics, life skills, family management, home…

  19. Exergetic, technological and economic study for transport of nuclear fuel energy to distant consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, V.V.; Dobrovol'skij, S.P.; Shiryaev, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Seven versions of energy transport from HTGR base power source are considered. Energy trasnport using electricity is taken as the main variant. The most promising among considered systems is the variant with steam conversion of methane, which can be used for three methods of energy transport: by converted gas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Exergetic method of analysis was used to compare different products, used by heat and electric showed that exergetic and economic efficiency of HTGR energy transport by hydrogen appeared to be the highest. Besides this, absolute ecologic purity is provided

  20. An exploration of socio-economic and food characteristics of high trans fatty acid consumers in the Dutch and UK national surveys after voluntary product reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, H L; Hutchinson, J; Ocke, M; Jewell, J; Breda, J J; Cade, J E

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) increase the risk of mortality and chronic diseases. TFA intakes have fallen since reformulation, but may still be high in certain, vulnerable, groups. This paper investigates socio-economic and food consumption characteristics of high TFA consumers after voluntary reformulation in the Netherlands and UK. Post-reformulation data of adults aged 19-64 was analysed in two national surveys: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS) collected 2007-2010 using 2*24hr recalls (N = 1933) and the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 3&4 collected 2010/11 and 2011/12 using 4-day food diaries (N = 848). The socio-economic and food consumption characteristics of the top 10% and remaining 90% TFA consumers were compared. Means of continuous data were compared using t-tests and categorical data means using chi-squared tests. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated which socio-demographic variables were associated with high TFA consumption. In the Dutch analyses, women and those born outside the Netherlands were more likely to be top 10% TFA consumers than men and Dutch-born. In the UK unadjusted analyses there was no significant trend in socio-economic characteristics between high and lower TFA consumers, but there were regional differences in the multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the Netherlands, high TFA consumers were more likely to be consumers of cakes, buns & pastries; cream; and fried potato than the remaining 90%. Whereas in the UK, high TFA consumers were more likely to be consumers of lamb; cheese; and dairy desserts and lower crisps and savoury snack consumers. Some socio-demographic differences between high and lower TFA consumers were evident post-reformulation. High TFA consumers in the Dutch 2007-10 survey appeared more likely to obtain TFA from artificial sources than those in the UK survey. Further analyses using more up-to-date food composition databases may be needed.

  1. The new Nordic diet - consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic...... expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when...... adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK...

  2. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  3. What are the economic and social effects from the electric power beneficiary price of the largest consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogov, Dimitar

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years the two largest consumers of electricity 'Feni' and 'Jugohrom', were sold to the foreign strategic investor. The key issue in the negotiations with the investor was the price of electricity for these companies. The final outcome is known, they got beneficiary price. Now two questions emerge: (1) what is the exact size of the under pricing? (2) what are the economic and social effects of their activity and whether the social gain for the country is higher than the loss for the country from the under pricing of electricity. The paper is trying to give an answer on the second question. Therewith, the analyze is focused on two issues: (1) how much is the contribution of these two companies on production, export and economic growth of the Republic of Macedonia; (2) what is their impact on the living standard and social costs. Macedonian industry has very unfavorable structure with only a few export products. Restructuring of industry and widening of the array of products is a slow process. Until new products and new industries are developed, the only generator of larger export and higher economic growth is the increase of the export of existing products. 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' are some of rare Macedonian companies that have foreign strategic investor who provide stable and unlimited market (having in mind that Macedonian production is relatively small compared to the world demand for nickel and ferro silicium). Thus, the growth of export of metals produced by 'Feni industry' and 'Silmak' could be the principal generators of the growth of Macedonian economy in the period of restructuring of the industry and development of new competitive products. (Original)

  4. An exploration of socio-economic and food characteristics of high trans fatty acid consumers in the Dutch and UK national surveys after voluntary product reformulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rippin, H L; Hutchinson, J; Ocke, M; Jewell, J; Breda, J J; Cade, J E

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) increase the risk of mortality and chronic diseases. TFA intakes have fallen since reformulation, but may still be high in certain, vulnerable, groups. This paper investigates socio-economic and food consumption characteristics of high TFA consumers after voluntary

  5. A health economic model for the development and evaluation of innovations in aged care: an application to consumer-directed care-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Julie; Lancsar, Emily; Luszcz, Mary; Crotty, Maria; Gray, Len; Paterson, Jan; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-06-25

    Consumer-directed care is currently being embraced within Australia and internationally as a means of promoting autonomy and choice in the delivery of health and aged care services. Despite its wide proliferation little research has been conducted to date to assess the views and preferences of older people for consumer-directed care or to assess the costs and benefits of such an approach relative to existing models of service delivery. A comprehensive health economic model will be developed and applied to the evolution, implementation and evaluation of consumer-directed care in an Australian community aged care setting. A mixed methods approach comprising qualitative interviews and a discrete choice experiment will determine the attitudes and preferences of older people and their informal carers for consumer-directed care. The results of the qualitative interviews and the discrete choice experiment will inform the introduction of a new consumer-directed care innovation in service delivery. The cost-effectiveness of consumer-directed care will be evaluated by comparing incremental changes in resource use, costs and health and quality of life outcomes relative to traditional services. The discrete choice experiment will be repeated at the end of the implementation period to determine the extent to which attitudes and preferences change as a consequence of experience of consumer-directed care. The proposed framework will have wide applicability in the future development and economic evaluation of new innovations across the health and aged care sectors. The study is approved by Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (Project No. 6114/SBREC). Findings from the qualitative interviews, discrete choice experiments and the economic evaluation will be reported at a workshop of stakeholders to be held in 2015 and will be documented in reports and in peer reviewed journal articles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  6. Social and economic research with consumer panel data: proceedings of the first ZUMA Symposium on Consumer Panel Data, 5 and 6 October 1999

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "Eine von der Abteilung Einkommen und Verbrauch von ZUMA organisierte Arbeitsgruppe hat sich mit datentechnischem Handling und Analysepotential von komplexen Verbraucherpaneldaten, am Beispiel des ConsumerScan Haushaltspanels der Gesellschaft für Marktforschung (GfK, Nürnberg) beschäftigt und die Ergebnisse in einem Symposium im Oktober 1999 vorgestellt. Die überwiegende Zahl der vorgetragenen Arbeiten, die man als Werkstattberichte ansehen kann, sind in diesem Band 7 der ZUMA-Nachrichten Spe...

  7. FROM THE TOTALITARIAN LANGUAGE TO THE INFORMATIVE DISCOURSE. A ROMANIAN MEDIA DISCOURSE ANALYSIS DURING THE ’90S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA ROŞCA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at emphasizing the institutional transformations that occurred in the public environment following the events in December 1989 in Romania, focusing on the dismantling of mechanisms that marked the transition from the national communist propaganda discourse to the informative discourse, which laid the foundation of the public sphere in post-totalitarian Romania. The hypothesis is that Romanian media was slow in abandoning the communist press model, which explains the manichaeist discourse of nowadays media, the involvement of politics in media business and, last but not least, the extremely poor market – the poorest in Eastern Europe, as showed by the latest studies. The analysis has two components: the context analysis (historical, political, and ideological and the media discourse analysis, in line with the view of certain authors (C. Sparks with respect to the transitions in Eastern Europe and the role the media played in these processes. The discourse procedures of the totalitarian language were emphasized by investigating a corpus formed of the main publications of the printed press before and after 1989.

  8. From the Totalitarian Language to the Informative Discourse. A Romanian Media Discourse Analysis During the '90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA ROŞCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at emphasizing the institutional transformations that occurred in the public environment following the events in December 1989 in Romania, focusing on the dismantling of mechanisms that marked the transition from the national-communist propaganda discourse to the informative discourse, which laid the foundation of the public sphere in post-totalitarian Romania. The hypothesis we start from is that Romanian media was slow in abandoning the communist press model, which explains the manichaeist discourse of nowadays media, the involvement of politics in media business and, last but not least, the extremely poor market - the poorest in Eastern Europe, as showed by the latest studies. The analysis has two components: the context analysis (historical, political, ideological and the media discourse analysis (cf. P. Charaudeau, R. Fowler, John Hartley, in line with the view of certain authors (C. Sparks with respect to the transitions in Eastern Europe and the role media played in these processes. Also, we permanently referred to the theories of the public sphere explained by J. Habermas. The discourse procedures of the totalitarian language were emphasized by investigating a corpus formed of the main publications of the printed press before and after 1989.

  9. The Economic representation of environmental consumer behavior. The case of household waste; Representation economique du comportement ecologique des consommateurs. Le cas des dechets menagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, P.

    2001-12-01

    This PhD dissertation deals with the economic representation of consumer behavior with regards to their environmental conscience. The particular focus point is the production of household wastes, which is analyzed from a dual point of view: on the one hand as a consequence of consumption activities, and as a specific economic choice activity on the other. The central problem of this dissertation is thus the following: can the phenomenon 'waste' be economically represented as an individual consumption act? The first part of this thesis deals with the environmental sensitivity of consumers in general, and their sensitivity for waste in particular. It is supposed that individuals can integrate the environment in their consumption choices, when buying products on the market: this is defined as continuous environmental rationality. The second part develops the behavior of an individual that decides to separate its waste. On the basis of a qualitative survey among households, their discourse and actions are analyzed in order to define the behavior of a waste consumer-producer. One of the results of our survey is the assumption that when economic agents have an environmental conscience, this latter is not necessarily translated into consumption choices. The conscience for household wastes, which occur only after the consumption moment, defines a discontinuous environmental rationality. On this basis, we suggest to widen the traditional analytical framework of household consumption. (author)

  10. 'Frankie the Frog': the total transformation of a river basin as 'totalitarian' technology (Spain, 1946-1961).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2012-03-01

    After the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), Francisco Franco's emphasis on dam building became so intense that it is still today associated with his dictatorial rule. Rather than being purely a personal obsession, however, this intensive period of reservoir construction was the result of the influential political role played by engineers from the early years of the regime. During the years 1946-1961 some of these engineers undertook the 'total transformation' of the Noguera Ribagorzana river basin in the Catalonian Pyrenees. But this explicitly 'totalitarian' project encountered important limitations posed both by competing state agencies and by the basin's geology. Analysing the efforts of these engineers allows for new understandings of the Francoist regime and of the place of science, technology, and the landscape within it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer credit as a novel marker for economic burden and health after cancer in a diverse population of breast cancer survivors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Frick, Kevin D; Nicholas, Lauren H; Zhang, Yuehan; Subramanian, S V; Visvanathan, Kala

    2018-06-01

    Consumer credit may reflect financial hardship that patients face due to cancer treatment, which in turn may impact ability to manage health after cancer; however, credit's relationship to economic burden and health after cancer has not been evaluated. From May to September 2015, 123 women with a history of breast cancer residing in Pennsylvania or New Jersey completed a cross-sectional survey of demographics, socioeconomic position, comorbidities, SF-12 self-rated health, economic burden since cancer diagnosis, psychosocial stress, and self-reported (poor to excellent) credit quality. Ordinal logistic regression evaluated credit's contribution to economic burden and self-rated health. Mean respondent age was 64 years. Mean year from diagnosis was 11.5. Forty percent of respondents were Black or Other and 60% were White. Twenty-four percent self-reported poor credit, and 76% reported good to excellent credit quality. In adjusted models, changing income, using savings, borrowing money, and being unable to purchase a health need since cancer were associated with poorer credit. Better credit was associated with 7.72 ([1.22, 14.20], p = 0.02) higher physical health t-score, and a - 2.00 ([- 3.92, - 0.09], p = 0.04) point change in psychosocial stress. This exploratory analysis establishes the premise for consumer credit as a marker of economic burden and health for breast cancer survivors. Future work should validate these findings in larger samples and for other health conditions. Stabilizing and monitoring consumer credit may be a potential intervention point for mitigating economic burden after breast cancer.

  12. Consumer Behavior Under Imperfect Information: A Review of Psychological and Marketing Research as It Relates to Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Louis L.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, theoretical economists have begun to examine the effects of imperfect information on the existence, uniqueness, and efficiency of market equilibria, both in labor markets and in consumer product markets. Two significant conclusions can be drawn from this literature: (1) the properties of market equilibria are extremely sensitive to the search strategies used by consumers or workers, and (2) the key to “stabilizing” markets at price or wage distributions which are competitive ...

  13. THE LABEL - AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR KEEPING THE CONSUMER INFORMED AND FOR PROMOTING PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria-Mihaela BRINZEA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The lifestyle and the technology evolution have significantly changed the consumers’ expectations and behaviors for the alimentary products. Paying more attention to health and welfare, consumers are looking for healthy products, which induces a special sensitivity to all information on the packaging and to the guarantees offered by the presence of official signs of quality. The quality of the product itself is undoubtedly the key to success, but before arriving there, the consumer must be convinced that the product should be bought from all the others that are available in the same category, moment at which the visual appearance of the product must fulfill his role. Deepening the analysis, we can say that although the shape, color, packaging originality are particularly important points, finally, the element that will really make the difference for consumers, today, is the label and the containing information.

  14. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS FOR RISK-ORIENTED SURVEILLANCE OVER CONSUMER PRODUCTS: TASKS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on basic legal and sub-legislative documents issued in the EU, the USA, Canada, by the WTO and Codex Alimentarius Commission which provide control of consumer products safety on the basis of assessing risks for consumers' life and health. Risk-oriented surveillance is shown as a system which makes for lower loads on business but still provides systemic control over most hazardous products. The EU legislation fixes the right to perform supranational control over state control systems existing in the EU member states in terms of their relevance and legitimacy. This supranational control is supported by organizational structures and regulatory and methodological documents. National control systems are systematically reviewed and analyzed in order to secure their conformity to supranational regulatory acts, to detect any cases of non-compliance, and to spread the best practices. Risk analysis reviews and results are open and discussable. As a result of products hazards assessment their turnover can be limited, or they can be withdrawn from the market, or additional information on hazards or risks they may cause is to be provided for consumers. Public and constantly operating systems of informing about hazardous goods are well-developed. International experience and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented surveillance over consumer products can be and should be applied in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU countries. The Eurasian Economic Union countries fix orientation at observing consumer goods safety principles in their legislation. There are also legal grounds for and practices in the sphere of risk-oriented approach to products manufactures. But it is necessary to further develop a products classification system as per consumer health risk parameters. And this task requires working out unified approaches to classification of both eatable and non-eatable products. It seems relevant to develop a public analytical database of risk

  15. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  16. High economical aplliances 2006/07. A consumer information; Besonders sparsame Haushaltsgeraete 2006/07. Eine Verbraucherinformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This brochure covers specially high economical appliances in different size and dimensions and directs on people, which are interrested in lower power- and water consumption. This Information bases on market data until Autumn 2006. The mentioned appliances are: Freezers, washing machines, dryers, dishwashers and some information on energy saving and Euro-Label. (GL)

  17. Consumer Capital as the Source of Happiness : The Missing Economic Theory Underlying the Income-Happiness Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André; Sent, Esther-Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported happiness does not generally increase with rising income, as established by Richard Easterlin. We argue that the subsequent debate in economics surrounding this income-happiness paradox has paid too little attention to the theoretical foundation for the expected positive relation

  18. Economic Feasibility Analysis for Renewable Energy Project Using an Integrated TFN–AHP–DEA Approach on the Basis of Consumer Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Gan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A renewable energy (RE project has been brought into focus in recent years. Although there is quite a lot of research to assist investors in assessing the economic feasibility of the project, because of the lack of consideration of consumer utility, the existing approaches may still cause a biased result. In order to promote further development, this study focuses on the economic feasibility analysis of the RE project on the basis of consumer utility in the whole life cycle. Therefore, an integrated approach is proposed, which consists of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP and data envelopment analysis (DEA. The first step is to determine the comprehensive cost index weights of DEA by TFN–AHP. Secondly, to solve the problem, the first DEA model, which is proposed by A. Charnes, W. W. Cooper and E. Rhodes (C2R, is established to calculate the DEA effectiveness. Then, the third task involves designing a computer-based intelligent interface (CBII to simplify realistic application and ensure performance efficiency. Finally, a solar water heater case study is demonstrated to validate the effectiveness of the entire method’s system. The study shows that this could make investors’ lives easier by using the CBII scientifically, reasonably and conveniently. Moreover, the research results could be easily extended to more complex real-world applications.

  19. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  20. The economic burden of opioid prescription by dentists: A 12-month survey of consumer expenditure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Tulio Eduardo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2017-09-01

    To describe consumer expenditure on opioids prescribed by dentists in Brazil during a 12-month period. We surveyed individual dispensed prescriptions of opioids in private pharmacies from October 2012 to September 2013. A descriptive analysis of costs included a calculation of the overall and mean maximum price to consumers. Monetary costs were converted from local currency units (Brazilian Real - BRL) to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) exchanging rates. 129,708 prescriptions were retrieved from the database. The overall expenditure on opioids was R$4,316,383.46 BRL or $2,721,315.82 (PPP). The mean cost of an individual prescription was R$33.27 BRL ($20.98 PPP), ranging from 14.19 to 3,255.60 BRL. Codeine was frequently prescribed (87.2 percent). The expenditure on opioids is a significant cost to Brazilian patients, especially given that the Brazilian Public Health System should dispense these drugs free of charge. Codeine was the most prescribed opioid. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. THE ATTITUDES AND PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS PRIVATE LABEL PRODUCTS, IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS: A STUDY OF THESSALONIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit CELA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify, in the context of the economic crisis, the Greek consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions towards private label brands, particularly towards food private label products. It uses an adapted conceptual framework and tests several hypotheses. Measures were adopted from previous literature. Self-administered questionnaires were developed and distributed to approximately 120 respondents who are residents of Thessaloniki. Six of the seven hypotheses are supported empirically, out of which two are validated partially. Thus, perceived quality, perceived risk, perceived benefits (i.e., price and packaging, trust, perceived economic situation and income level influence purchase intention towards private label products. Based on the findings, several recommendations to the retailers and recommendations for further research are provided.

  2. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  3. Do Consumers Substitute Opium for Hashish? An Economic Analysis of Simultaneous Cannabinoid and Opiate Consumption in a Legal Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Madhur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Method Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907–1918 is analyzed (n=272) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Results Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (β3) of 0.14 (p 0.10). Opium consumption (β1 = 0.47 to 0.49, p opium is slightly responsive (inelastic) to changes in its own price (β2 = −0.34 to −0.35, p Opium and hashish, a form of cannabis, are substitutes. In addition, opium consumption displays properties of habit persistence and slight price and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. PMID:26455552

  4. Do consumers substitute opium for hashish? An economic analysis of simultaneous cannabinoid and opiate consumption in a legal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Chandra, Madhur

    2015-11-01

    To analyze interrelationships in the consumption of opiates and cannabinoids in a legal regime and, specifically, whether consumers of opiates and cannabinoids treat them as substitutes for each other. Econometric dynamic panel data models for opium consumption are estimated using the generalized method of moments (GMM). A unique dataset containing information about opiate (opium) consumption from the Punjab province of British India for the years 1907-1918 is analyzed (n=252) as a function of its own price, the prices of two forms of cannabis (the leaf (bhang), and the resin (charas, or hashish)), and wage income. Cross-price elasticities are examined to reveal substitution or complementarity between opium and cannabis. Opium is a substitute for charas (or hashish), with a cross price elasticity (βˆ3) of 0.14 (pprice elasticity=0.00, p>0.10). Opium consumption (βˆ1=0.47 to 0.49, pprice (βˆ2=-0.34 to -0.35, pprice and wage income responsiveness (inelasticity) consistent with an addictive substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasie Nnenna G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%, training of mothers (19% and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%. Traditional healers (4.8% and patent medicine dealers (4.2% were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy

  6. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  7. Structural and Functional Bases of Formational, Institutional and Procedural Mechanism Using Power Resources of Stalin’s Totalitarian Regime in Western Ukraine at the Final Stage of the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Yuriivna DOKASH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented scientific, theoretical and practical aspects of the topic are considered an important prerequisite for understanding the causes and results of the mass use of the deportation repressive tool in the intensive consolidation of Stalin’s totalitarian regime in “class hostile environment” and the consequences of such a policy for the western region development, particularly at modern stage, including the Ukrainian political nation-building and the independent Ukrainian state, which is now experiencing challenges and threats that are rooted in the totalitarian past.Stalinism, as a particular political regime, was established in the western regions of Ukraine at the final stages of World War II and can be defined as a kind of left extremist totalitarianism.The main components of the efficiency of the Stalinist totalitarian regime based on the mass use of political violence and terror through the branched structure of repressive secret police. Functions of the NKVS, NKVD, prosecutors, and courts followed the strategic objectives of Stalin’s totalitarian regime in a hostile social and national environment in Western Ukraine in the complex military and political conditions of the final phase of World War II. Effective and timely implementation of policy priorities of Stalinism in the region allowed to create an appropriate institutional and procedural system, which was based on the large-scale use of political violence and employed such characteristic tools as terror, repression, deportation.

  8. Mal-estar na civilização e desastre totalitário Malaise in civilization and totalitarian disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Villa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor interroga a relação entre o desastre totalitário e a psicanálise. Será que a psicanálise, os psicanalistas, tem algo pertinente a dizer acerca da barbárie? Esta não é uma dimensão que estaria fora do nosso campo? Será que podemos afirmar que o desastre que sobreveio na cultura não teria tido senão pouca ou nenhuma consequência sobre nossa "teoria", nossas "práticas", nossa "arte"? Não é incrível que demos seguimento à tarefa psicanalítica como se a onda da irrupção do terror e da barbárie na cultura não tivesse abalado as quatro paredes de nossos consultórios? Estas são perguntas que este artigo enfrenta e que levam o autor a se voltar sobre a questão dos estados limites a partir de sua reflexão acerca dos efeitos psíquicos duradouros do totalitarismo.Malaise in civilization and totalitarian disaster. The author cross-examines the relationship between psychoanalysis and totalitarian disaster. Does psychoanalysis, psychoanalysts, have something relevant to say about the barbarism? Isn't this a dimension which is beyond our field? Can we say that the disaster that befell the culture would not have had but little or no consequence on our "theory", our "practice" our "art"? Isn't it amazing that we follow the psychoanalytic task as if the wave of eruption of terror and barbarism in culture had not shaken the four walls of our offices? These are questions which this article is facing, and leading the author to get back on the issue of borderline states since his reflection on the lasting psychological effects of totalitarianism.

  9. Secondary School Student's Attitude towards Consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.

  10. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  11. Technical and economic aspects of thermo-chemical decomposition of biomass in the processes of transformation of it in power-consuming energy/carriers by the use of the concentrated gel of sun radiation, has been considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, K.D.; Mustafayeva, R.M.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The technical and economic assessment of process of thermo-chemical decomposition of biomass in the processes of transformation of it in power-consuming energy/carriers by the use of the concentrated gel of sun radiation, has been considered

  12. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.

  13. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  14. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  15. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  16. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  17. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  18. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  19. Destroying the National-Spiritual Values of Ukrainians during the Anti-Religious Offensive of the Soviet Totalitarian State in the 1960s and 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kindrachuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the church and religious life of Ukrainians in the context of national and political processes during the 1960s and 1970s. The author characterizes the anti-religious policy of the Soviet government, shows its directions, forms, and methods, studies the attitude of Ukraine’s title nation representatives to religious persecution and to manipulation of religious consciousness by the communist leadership, and highlights comprehensive atheistic activities and the elimination of the ways for reviving religiosity among people. The author reveals the essence, the process of creating and artificially enforcing the new Soviet ritualism in Ukrainians’ lives. This ritualism has become a convenient tool for popularizing communist ideology in the Ukrainian SSR, destroying historical memory and undermining the national identity of the Ukrainian people. The new Soviet ritualism was also a means for implementing the policy of denationalizing Ukrainians, beginning with the age-old religious oppression of Ukrainian customs, traditions, and rituals. The model of state-church policy of the Soviet power in the described period was based on the use of a variety of forms and methods of struggle against religion, including: a comprehensive control over clergy activities, destruction of religious sites and sacred objects, as well as administrative, moral, and political pressure on believers. Displacing religion, the Soviet totalitarian state destroyed not only native religious customs of the Ukrainian people, but also violated the principles of the centuries-old traditional culture and undermined the national fortitude of Ukrainians.

  20. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  1. Technical and Economic Approaches to Decrease of Power Consumption in Some Branches of the Belarusian Republican Association of Consumers Societies (Belkoopsoyuz)

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Germanovich; Y. I. Voloshin; M. I. Kichaev

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers an approach to execution of measures pertaining to higher power efficiency in some branches of consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus. The approach is based on the method for unification of the investigated enterprises. The described mechanism takes into account organizational peculiarities of the Belkoopsoyuz structure and also technical equipment of the investigated consumers’ cooperation and it permits to specify the most power consuming directions and develop t...

  2. Cognitive style and consumer innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Haskins, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    The identification of consumer innovators offers marketing managers the opportunity to tailor new products to the buyers who initiate the diffusion of innovations. Progress has been made in identifying such consumers in economic and social terms, but there are advantages of cost and convenience in isolating the personality profiles of innovators, especially during prelaunch product testing. But innovative consumers' distinctive personality traits have proved elusive. This paper reports an inv...

  3. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...

  4. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  5. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  6. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade issues within the USSR. Topics include: production, distribution, economics, housing and personal services, policies, personal income and savings.

  7. Food quality and the consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. Consumers and professionals in the food sector will differ in the way they view food quality. Professionals have knowledge and resources to establish quality based on objective criteria. Consumers lack both, and they are typically concerned with many different products...... resources, of means of transportation, of time, of knowledge. Consumers' shopping behaviour is therefore an imperfect indicator of the quality consumers want, insufficient way of communicating consumer wishes to the food sector. 3. The fact that the food producer may be separated from the consumer...... certain attributes of food products or materials which may contradict consumer intentions. Economic pressure to reduce costs may lead to deteriorating quality. 5. While the information supplied by the market may be enough to give feed back on products launched based on the trial-and-error method...

  8. Natural gas quality for the future. Part 1. Technical/economical inventory of consequences of natural gas quality variations for final consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsky, H.B.; Van Rij, M.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    By request of various market parties (suppliers and users of natural gas), the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) took a leading role in anticipating the future changes in gas quality. ELI requested an inventory of the consequences of variations in natural gas quality for end users. [nl

  9. Technical and Economic Approaches to Decrease of Power Consumption in Some Branches of the Belarusian Republican Association of Consumers Societies (Belkoopsoyuz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Germanovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach to execution of measures pertaining to higher power efficiency in some branches of consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus. The approach is based on the method for unification of the investigated enterprises. The described mechanism takes into account organizational peculiarities of the Belkoopsoyuz structure and also technical equipment of the investigated consumers’ cooperation and it permits to specify the most power consuming directions and develop typical innovation technical solutions pertaining to the objects of the consumers’ cooperation of theRepublicofBelarus.

  10. Emotions and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...

  11. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  12. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...

  13. Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective. Arnout Fischer Consumer risk perceptions is not necessarily the same as an economic weighing of risks and benefits. Consumers tend to be risk averse, tend to estimate catastrophic, unnatural or involuntary risks as larger, while personal lifestyle risks

  14. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  15. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  16. Consumer Psychology: Not necessarily a manipulative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølander, Folke

    1990-01-01

    psychology has indeed to a large extent been identified with consumer behavior research (for an account of the historical development of economic psychology, see Wärneryd, 1988). But what most writers seem to agree about today is to regard not only consumer behavior proper, but also the way individuals......Although definitions and discussion of disciplinary borderlines are tedious and often not that useful, it has to be mentioned that in this paper, a distinction is made between consumer psychology and economic psychology, with the former regarded as a subfield of the latter. Traditionally, economic...... of worker/producer as in the role of consumer. Thus, although such phenomena are undoubtedly relevant topics of economic psychology, it seems appropriate to restict the term consumer psychology, as a subfield of economic psychology, to studies of the determinants and impacts of (a) saving/spending patterns...

  17. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  18. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Popova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.

  19. 论消费者保护规制的理据--在经济和伦理之间%On Consumer Protection Regulation Basis:Between Economics and Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟瑞华

    2016-01-01

    The economics and ethics theoretical basis concerning the consumer protection and the relationship between them worth reflection. For the consumer protection law and its enforcement, on one hand the cost-benefit analysis should be used more to enhance the efficiency, whilst on the other more attention should be paid to community value cultivation to promote non-utilitarian targets such as social justice, narrowing wealth gap, etc.%消费者保护的的经济性理据和理论性理据及二者的关系值得反思。消费者保护法及其实施,一方面应该更多地利用成本收益分析来提高效率,另一方面应该更多地关注培育共同体价值,促进社会正义、缩小贫富差距等非功利性目标。

  20. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  1. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  2. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  3. CONSUMER THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BĂBĂIŢĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the economic agent – customer is a rational type of behaviour in order to maximize the satisfaction achieved through the use of commodities. In order to determine a rational behaviour, we start from the premise that every costumer has complete and accurate information on: the structure of commodities existing on the market and their ability to comply with certain wishes, market prices levels and the size of income that shall be spent in a given period in order to purchase various commodities. In order to fulfil its needs, the rational costumer has to chose from a basket of commodities the ones that: provide the greatest satisfaction under the circumstances of income and price restrictions.

  4. Economics: It's Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  5. The pseudo-scientific psychologyof the economic neo-liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to call attention to logical, axiological, psychological and historical foundations of the problem of economic neo-liberalism. The question is how to achieve psychological comprehension of the historical developpement of the idea of scientific reductionism, the idea of 'common law' and rational utilitarism (Hobbes, Locke, Smith, Bentham, of rationalism (Kant and socialism (Rousseau. In the second part of this analysis the aim is to show that the theory of mechanical simplification in the comprehension of human society is logically wrong theory and that this logically wrong theory is the premise of the social totalitarianism. Finally, the goal of our analysis (specially relevant for the Serbian society trapped today is to show that the world of actual financial reductionism and economic neo-liberalism does not understand at all the real human nature.

  6. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  7. Consumer Education: A Partnership between Schools and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Mary E.; Myers, Barbara Kimes

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 16 adolescents, 11 mothers, and 11 fathers found remarkably similar economic value orientations, supporting consumer socialization theories. Inclusion of families as socializing agents and knowledge of adolescent development are recommended for consumer education. (SK)

  8. Explaining purchases of organic meat by Dutch consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of economic and marketing variables ( quality, price, and distribution), emotions ( fear, empathy, and guilt), social norms, and environment-related variables ( environmental concern, green behaviour, and perceived consumer effectiveness) on Dutch consumers'

  9. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    Recent economic growth trends in Africa have raised awareness among businesses about the attractiveness of its market potential. There is therefore an increasing academic interest in understanding the attitudes, preferences and behavior of African consumers. This chapter reviews some...

  10. Impact of scarcity on consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.U. Kulakovsky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior and on perception of scarce goods consumer qualities. The author examines and subjects to the critical analysis the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior within economic theory, the theory of reactance and commodity theory. The differences in explaining the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior in economic and psychological sciences is highlighted. The current researcher experimentally proves the impact of the scarcity as an isolated factor on consumer behavior and the impact of scarcity on consumer perception of product quality. According to the reactance theory, an individual perceives scarcity as the restriction of his freedom that causes resistance in response to a possible restriction of freedom of actions. This reinforces the desire to have such a scarce product. To confirm the psychological impact of scarcity on a domestic consumer the author designs and conducts the experiment that confirms the following hypotheses: scarcity affects consumer behavior and stimulates consumers to purchase scarce commodities; scarcity has impact on the perception of scarce product consumer qualities. Such consumer behavior relatively to scarce goods can be used by marketers to promote products on the market.

  11. Teaching about Starbucks and Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczewski, Joan; Plafker-Gutt, Debra; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    One of the great challenges social studies teachers face is promoting economic and consumer literacy among their students. Fostering such literacy helps students to think critically and independently about their own roles as consumers as well as about the claims and promises the corporate world makes through mass advertising and the branding of…

  12. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  13. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  14. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  15. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Core. Module I-A-3: Consumer Rights and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharman

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer rights and responsibilities is the third in a set of four core curriculum modules on consumer approach to homemaking education. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  16. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  17. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  18. PROBLEMS OF CONSUMER PROTECTION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the topic, its extent and importance, were strong arguments for writing this paper - Problems of consumer protection in tourism. To this, also the convergence of the fields that focus on the description of a image in deep of the topic is added, we are talking about economic, legal social features or features that belong to the specifics of tourism and of products and services consumed within it. The multiple dimensions of the approached topic transform it into an exciting topic which proves its usefulness when it is known since each individual can acquire the quality of a consumer, and his rights as a consumer are nothing else but the human rights of which every individual has to be aware. A process of education and information of the citizens regarding the rights they possess as consumers could reduce a part of the problems appearing in the process of consume of tourism products and services but it would contribute to the optimization of the protection of rights and interests of the consumers. In economic terms, democracy also implies ensuring the rights of the consumers and thus their protection, therefore the concept of protection of rights and interests of consumers exists.

  19. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  20. A STUDY ON CHANGING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS FAST MOVING CONSUMABLE GOODS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Deekshitha; M. A. Udaya Kumar; M. D. Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are the king in the modern business world. They are one who buys goods for their consumption to meet their aspirations. Fulfilling consumer desire is the ultimate goal of marketing activities. Indian business are highly influenced by the rapid changes in the technology, improved economic systems, higher purchasing power of consumers, changing life style, online marketing and retail opportunities. Organised retail business has facilitated towards bringing drastic changes in the buyi...

  1. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  2. CONSUMER BIOTECHNOLOGY FOOD AND NUTRITION INFORMATION SOURCES: THE TRUST FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok P.; Muhammad, Safdar; Tegegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra P.

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written on consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods, not much is known about how or where consumers get the information for the decisions they make about genetically modified foods. This paper reports on the media used by consumers in acquiring information about biotech food and nutrition issues, and examines how much trust consumers put in selected information sources. The paper also discusses how socio-economic variables affect level of trust in selected s...

  3. Portrait of an Online Shopper: Understanding and Predicting Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Lerman, Kristina; Aiello, Luca Maria; Grbovic, Mihajlo; Djuric, Nemanja; Radosavljevic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Consumer spending accounts for a large fraction of the US economic activity. Increasingly, consumer activity is moving to the web, where digital traces of shopping and purchases provide valuable data about consumer behavior. We analyze these data extracted from emails and combine them with demographic information to characterize, model, and predict consumer behavior. Breaking down purchasing by age and gender, we find that the amount of money spent on online purchases grows sharply with age, ...

  4. Modeling Business Strategy: A Consumer Value Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Svee , Eric-Oluf; Giannoulis , Constantinos; Zdravkovic , Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Part 3: Business Modeling; International audience; Business strategy lays out the plan of an enterprise to achieve its vision by providing value to its customers. Typically, business strategy focuses on economic value and its relevant exchanges with customers and does not directly address consumer values. However, consumer values drive customers’ choices and decisions to use a product or service, and therefore should have a direct impact on business strategy. This paper explores whether and h...

  5. The supply solutions for isolated rural consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, Gheorghe; Solomon, Petre; Hazi, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This paper establishes the supply optimal solutions for isolated rural consumers. A complex technical-economical calculation method is developed for selection of the best solutions. This analysis is based on the minimization of the net present value, NPV, criterion. Using the results of this calculation, one can select easily the supply solution for a given active power and for a given distance separating the power source and the isolated consumer. (authors)

  6. Consumer boycott, household heterogeneity and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maio, Michele; Fabbri, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Consumer boycott campaigns against goods produced using child labour are becoming increasingly popular. Notwithstanding, there is no consensus on which are the effects of such type of activism on child labour. If some agreement is to be found in the recent economic literature, it is that the boycott does not reduce child labour. We contribute to this debate presenting a simple model which shows, instead, that there are conditions under which a consumer product boycott does reduce child labour...

  7. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  8. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  9. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  10. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  11. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  12. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  13. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  14. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  15. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  16. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  17. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  18. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  19. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  1. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  2. Choice of place of fruit purchase depending on socio-economic and demographic features of consumers Wybór miejsca zakupu owoców w zależności od cech demograficznych i społeczno-ekonomicznych konsumentów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish influence of some consumer features like sex, age, education, income, type of family and source of income for declaration of the place of fruit purchase, reasons of choice of the place of fruit purchase and changeability of consumer preferences between years 2002 and 2006. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from questionnaire studies carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin in the years 2002, 2003 and 2006. Results of the studies point out that the consumers’ demographic and socio-economic features significantly differentiated preferences concerning the choice of the place of apple and citrus fruit purchase and had no effect on the place pf seasonal fruits purchase. Term of studies was significantly influenced by preferences concerning place of apples and seasonal fruits purchase. Place of citrus fruit purchase did not significantly change in the analysed period.

  3. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  4. 25 Years оf Economic Reforms: Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the origins of economic reforms in modern Russia over the period of 25 years. It is shown that by 1991 consequences of unreasoned decisions and hasty actions have reached their culmination point and both political and economic attempts to realize the concept of 'convergence', to implant democracy in totalitarianism and the market in a centralized system of management have failed. At the same time it was impossible for the country's regions to maintain the inter-industry contractual communications and that had destroyed the 'center - regions' relations which had developed over the previous decades. The study and discussion of issues of the last 25 years of reform in Russia are proposed as the main theme for the journal 'Spatial Economics' in the year 2017. The goal of such studies and discussions should be to achieve a systemic i'pression about sources, trends, successes and failures of reforms, as only on this basis the initial model of the Russian socio-economic transformation can be developed. The researcher presumes that this model reviews each region as the most important element of the general system of knowledge and the resource and institutional policy constructed on its basis

  5. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  6. Environmental Economics Research Strategy (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2005 Environmental Economics Research Strategy outlines EPA’s research effort to provide the necessary behavioral science foundation for making decisions and designing environmental policies at the least cost to American businesses and consumers.

  7. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  8. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  9. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  10. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  11. ENGAGEMENT AS A SOURCE OF POSITIVE CONSUMER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ederick Stander

    The results strengthen the theory of fan engagement, which flows from customer ... proposed. Key words: Fan engagement; Customer engagement theory; Consumer behaviour; ... of football in SA is evolving unremittingly, despite challenging economic .... The engaged fan will more likely attend games at the stadium, as this.

  12. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  13. The contention within health economics: a micro-economic foundation using a macro-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, I L

    1998-03-01

    Health economists claim to use market economics combined with the micro-economic concepts of opportunity cost and the margin to advise on priority setting. However, they are advising on setting priorities through a macro-economic analysis using the costs of the supplier, thus prioritising the producer and not the consumer as the dynamic of economic activity. For health economists any contention within priority setting is due to lack of data not their confusion over fundamental concepts.

  14. Social Planning and Economic Coercion

    OpenAIRE

    Hintermann, Beat; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of social planning with a concern for economic coercion, which we define as the difference between consumers’ actual utility, and the "counterfactual" utility they expect to obtain if they were able to set policy themselves. Reasons to limit economic coercion include protecting minorities, preventing disenfranchised groups from engaging in socially costly behavior, or political economy considerations. As long as consumers are fully rational, limiting coercion is equivale...

  15. Green Product Development with Consumer Heterogeneity under Horizontal Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the pricing and greenness issues of two competitive firms without and with consumer heterogeneity. We derive and compare the optimal solutions and profits employed by firms under different scenarios. Then, we identify the effects of consumer heterogeneity under different competition intensities. The analytical results reveal that if market competition is at a relatively low level, we find that: (i when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is sufficiently small, more consumers have high environmental awareness, and companies easily achieve their environmental goals as well as economic goals; (ii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a medium level, as the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, and the firm might achieve economic goals at the cost of reducing environmental goals; and (iii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a high level, the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, but firms might have more difficulty achieving their environmental and economic goals. On the other hand, if the market competition is at a relatively high level, the presence of consumer heterogeneity can help improve environmental goals, but make achievement of economic goals difficult.

  16. Model evaluation of agricultural consumer cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Oksana Evgen'evna

    2016-10-01

    Subject of research - the system of organization and management and economic relations arising in the process of interaction between business entities. The object of research is the agricultural consumer cooperatives. In the course of the study were actively used different methods and techniques of economic and statistical analysis, with particular, such as the method of comparison, grouping method, the Delphi method, the methods and techniques of factor analysis, economic and statistical methods; techniques used medium, relative and average values ​​of continuous reception and sample surveys, was conducted as a detail, and data compilation.

  17. Border cases between autonomy and relevance: Economic sciences in Berlin--A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, Till

    2015-06-01

    The faculty of economics at today's Humboldt University in Berlin, as no other institution of economics, has witnessed three radical ruptures in its history: in 1933, National Socialism replaced the pluralism prevailing in the Weimar Republic by imposing a "German economics"; after WWII, GDR authorities replaced this NS regime by imposing a Marxist imperative, which after the fall of the wall was replaced by the Western standards of neoclassical economics. In reconstructing these three reforms, institutional history can serve as a context in which questions about the political nature of economic knowledge can be answered that remain speculative in a conceptual context. I thus present a natural experiment in the political epistemology of economics: How do economists respond to, resist, and stabilize, changing political regimes? How do economists renegotiate the autonomy of economic knowledge given changing demands as of its social task? Among others, I show that contrary to Robert Merton's old, but still widely held thesis in political epistemology-that the values of science are compatible only with democratic regimes-the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes created better conditions for methodological pluralism in economics than democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer socialization of children in modern family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač-Žnideršić Ružica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is based on the behavior of a specific segment of consumers - specific for its psychological as well as economic characteristics - segment of kids (children as consumers. Therefore, the kids as consumers and their influence in family decision making process, in the framework of modern ('new' families, are the subject of this research. The aim of the paper is analyising the importance of family as the main driving force of consumer socialization of children in which kids achieve more significant and active participation in making purchasing decisions. Results of empirical research, presented in this paper, are in line with the findings of foreign authors with regards to influence of children in family decision making.

  19. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  20. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  1. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  2. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  3. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  4. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  5. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  6. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  7. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  8. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  9. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  10. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  11. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  12. What do consumer surveys and experiments reveal and conceal about consumer preferences for genetically modified foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Assessing consumer perceptions and willingness to pay for genetically modified (GM) foods has been one of the most active areas of empirical research in agricultural economics. Researchers over the past 15 years have delivered well over 100 estimates of consumers' willingness to pay for GM foods using surveys and experimental methods. In this review, we explore a number of unresolved issues related to three questions that are critical when considering the sum of the individual contributions that constitute the evidence on consumer preferences for GM foods.

  13. [Peculiarity of consumer preference shaping in pharmaceutical market in azerbaijan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurova, L

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical market researches in terms of consumer behavior are topical in current social-economical conditions. Thereby the goal of these researches is studying of particular properties of consumer behavior on the drug market and identifying of factors affect on its formation. The method of questioning was used. The questionnaire has been completed from the point of view of possibilities and interests of common consumer. One part of questions was concerned to demographical and personal characteristics of customers. For the analysis of consumer behavior have been used parameters such as frequency of visits to definite pharmacy, attraction of pharmacy, types of purchases. The survey had been determined the basic factors of pharmacy visitors' consumer behavior. According to the consumers opinion the main criteria of choice of pharmacy were professional knowledge and experience of pharmacy's workers. Some of economical factors, such as affordability and etc. have been analyzed.

  14. Optimizing outlays for transporting agricultural peat to the consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanov, Ye S; Prisadkov, V I; Silant' yeza, G P

    1979-01-01

    An economic-mathematical model is described for supplying the consumers with agricultural peat and the corresponding computer program. Certain results are presented of calculating the optimal plans for transporting peat from the enterprises of the association Kalinintorf.

  15. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  16. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  17. Using big data to understand consumer behaviour on ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chintakayala, PK; Young, CW

    2017-01-01

    The Consumer Data Research Centre (CDRC) was established by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and launched its data services in 2015. The project is led by the University of Leeds and UCL, with partners at the Universities of Liverpool and Oxford. It is working with consumer-related organisations and businesses to open up their data resources to trusted researchers, enabling them to carry out important social and economic research.

  18. Merchandising's Evolving Role in Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Pauline; Collier, Billie J.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Merchandising and consumer economics traditionally have been part of family and consumer sciences (FCS) within the ecosystems framework. The purpose of this article is to examine progress of this sub-system within FCS. Specifically, the authors explore the relevance of the systems approach for merchandising programs and conclude that this model is…

  19. 14 CFR 234.11 - Disclosure to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to consumers. 234.11 Section 234...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.11 Disclosure to consumers. Link to..., § 234.11 was revised, effective Apr. 29, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set...

  20. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  1. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  2. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  3. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  4. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  5. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  6. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  7. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  8. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  9. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  10. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  11. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  12. Consumer Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Consumer Finance Act by making short-term advances to customers who write personal checks in return for substantially smaller amounts of on-the-spot case...practices lawsuit with H&R Block, Inc. forcing tax return company to advertise its "Rapid Refund" program is actually a loan program charging customers ...home equity loans/lines of credit/home improvement loans, etc.) 2. A consumer can have only 9M principal dwelling at a time (includes mobile homes

  13. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  14. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  15. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  16. Sizewell: good value for consumers' money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, G.

    1984-01-01

    For consumers, the overriding issues in electricity policy are always likely to be those which affect prices, both in the near future and over the longer term. It is therefore the 'need and economics' part of the overall case for Sizewell that consumers' representatives chose to scrutinize. This paper argues that there are no compelling short-term reasons to start construction of Sizewell at the earliest possible time. Further, long-term considerations suggest that there are good reasons not to make an early commitment to the Westinghouse four-loop design of PWR, either for Sizewell or for subsequent orders. (author)

  17. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Vulnerable Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    the economic behaviour of consumers ‘below 1 average’ even though the practice does not meet the requirements of professional diligence. The Directive’s adoption of the European Court of Justice’s ‘average consumer’ entails that protection is generally provided only for those who are far from vulnerable......Consumer protection is deeply anchored in EU law, including the Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. This article discusses the concept of consumer vulnerability and how vulnerable consumers are protected in the context of commercial practices which is fully harmonised by the Unfair....... The Directive’s Article 5(3) concerning vulnerable consumers protects only—and to a limited extent—groups who are vulnerable due to mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity. Even though consumers make many good choices, all consumers are vulnerable in certain situations—often due to time constraints...

  18. Teachers’ salaries in the totalitarian system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lisnic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented results of the research of dynamics of teachers' salaries in 1945-1980s, a comparison of the salary with a living wage, as well as a comparison of official data with memories of teachers. There are given data on housing and living conditions of teachers in rural areas, the privileges in buying certain goods for teachers and other members of pedagogical staff in rural schools and loans on subsistence farming and construction of houses. There are examples of the calculation of salaries of teachers by grade in accordance with the provisions of the teachers' salary increase. There are also analyzed teachers' salaries depending on the working time, planning payroll for this category of workers and payments for additional work undertaken by them. The further research in this area will help to more fully understand the real social and financial status of teachers.

  19. Functional Detachment of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper describes the systematization process of architectural styles in use during Nazi period in Germany between 1933-45. In the results of the research some regularity about strict concern between function & styling has been observed. Using comparison & case study as well as analytical methods there were pointed out characteristic features of more than 500 objects’ architectural appearance that helped to specify their styling & group them into architectural trends. Ultimately the paper proves that the found trends of architectural styling could be collected by functional detachment key. This observation explains easy to recognize even nowadays traceability - so characteristic to Nazi German architecture. Facing today pluralism in architecture, the findings could be a helpful key in the organization of spatial architectural identification process.

  20. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  1. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  2. Consumer flexibility - State and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarises experiences and results from relevant projects carried out within the area of consumer flexibility in the last years. A general description of the projects is presented. In addition are testing activities, economical signals for motivating the end user for load reductions and appropriate technology for communication and effect management mentioned separately. Briefly summarised is the following achieved: 1) The potential for effect regulating measures in ordinary consumption and in power demanding industry is analysed and estimated to 1750 MW and 3360 MW respectively. 2) Time varied rates are developed and are tested. The NVE has decided on this basis that all the network owners should offer season varied rates to their customers. 3) Test projects in Drammen, Oslo and Trondheim have shown that it is possible to motivate smaller consumers for and implement load reductions. 4) Technology for load management for the end user is evaluated. 5) A survey is made viewing the technology for two way communication. In addition the ''option'' market for the reserves of the Statnett has proved that a steady compensation is a sufficient incentive for producing substantial effect reserves in the load sector (power intensive industry). In the last part of the report the incentives and frame conditions for establishing technical solutions and infrastructure are discussed. Further work will focus on the consumer flexibility in shortage situations. The main challenges are connected to: 1) Establishing a foundation for decisions concerning cost efficient investments in necessary technical equipment. 2) To find an optimal combination of a price flexible and remote controlled load reduction

  3. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  4. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  5. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  6. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  7. Nakupno vedenje slovenskih porabnikov: vloga nacionalne identitete = Consumer Buying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable goods. Consumers evaluated various characteristics of products made in the EU more favorably relative to those made in Slovenia.

  8. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  9. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  10. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  11. Medicalization, markets and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.

  12. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... scoring highly on both issue-relevant knowledge and motivation are the most likely innovators and early adopters. Their high level of expertise means that they do not need a lot of explanation for understanding the label and its self-relevance and their strong motivation means that they will search...

  13. The impact of ethnocentrism on Serbian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of consumer ethnocentrism on the intention to buy local products by Serbian consumers. Modern business trends and market changes are followed by new trends in consumer behaviour. Many changes in all segments of economy and society occurred in last few years in Republic of Serbia. Changes were especially influenced by: strong foreign competition, transition, change in values, economy and society liberalization, local culture, and as well by globalization and all other kinds of socio­economic and psychological factors. The globalization of markets presents considerable challenges and opportunities for domestic and international marketers. All these have been influencing on people differentiation concerning ethnocentrism.

  14. Lawful Distortion of Consumers’ Economic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ‘collateral damage’. In that vein this article discusses situations where consumers may have their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices that are not unfair under the Directive. It is expected that many consumers will make relatively good decisions most of the time...... Visitors’). The article suggests how behavioural sciences may be applied to understand these situations in order to protect more consumers from having their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices. It is suggested that per se prohibitions may be advantageous in some instances as long......The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive prohibits unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices with a view to protect consumers’ economic interests. In a market economy such regulation cannot protect the economic interests of all consumers in all situations – there must inevitably be some...

  15. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  16. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  17. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić Snježana; Jovičić Ana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana

    2014-01-01

    People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...

  18. Attitudes of Chinese consumers towards retail formats

    OpenAIRE

    Staack, Tosten; Schramm, Matthias; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese consumer goods market is widely considered to be one of the economic hot spots of the world. China seems to be the market with the largest growth potential within the next decade. Multina - tional retail companies, for example, Wal-Mart, Metro and Carrefour have made large investments to open up this new market. However, parallel to the positive aspects of the market development, foreign retail companies entering the market encounter numerous risks and difficulties. Whereas questi...

  19. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  20. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    empirical behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Neurologists entering this field of research could profit from the extensive knowledge of the biological foundation of trust that scientists in economically-orientated neurosciences have gained.Fourth, neurologists could contribute significantly to the ethical debate about invasive methods in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Further, neurologists should investigate biological and behavioral reactions of neurological patients to marketing and advertising measures, as they could show special consumer vulnerability and be subject to target marketing.

  1. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    . Third, trust research in the medical context lacks empirical behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Neurologists entering this field of research could profit from the extensive knowledge of the biological foundation of trust that scientists in economically-orientated neurosciences have gained. Fourth, neurologists could contribute significantly to the ethical debate about invasive methods in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Further, neurologists should investigate biological and behavioral reactions of neurological patients to marketing and advertising measures, as they could show special consumer vulnerability and be subject to target marketing. PMID:23383650

  2. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  3. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  4. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  5. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  6. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  7. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  8. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  9. Hermeneutics and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

  10. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  11. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  12. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  13. Consuming the Exotic Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalvani, Suren

    1995-01-01

    Explores the multiple and heterogeneous deployment of the Other within discourses that intersect and contest each other. Shows how the 19th century discourse of "le femme orientale," which informed the Romantic critique of capitalism, was recuperated in a hegemonic manner to promote an expanding consumer culture. Discusses the colonial…

  14. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  15. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...... firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  16. Uruguay; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Uruguay during the 1990s. Real GDP expanded on average by more than 4 percent a year in 1990–94 and fell by 2½ percent in 1995. The rapid growth of output during 1990–94 reflected buoyant external demand from Uruguay’s main trading partners (Argentina and Brazil), as well as progress in strengthening the public finances, reducing wage indexation, opening the economy, and curtailing government intervention. Consumer price inflation fell steadily fr...

  17. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Prior to the civil 2 war, the Syrian economy benefited from tourism 4 , as well as a growing consumer economy driven by a large influx of Iraqi...during civil war in a commodities based economy such as Syria, socio -economic motivations (“loot-seeking”) may be just as or more important than...eliminate non-government registered cell phones. 85 Yet, cell phone use, while impacted in North Korea, has not been 18 stopped, particularly

  18. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  19. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  1. Consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibilities : A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, [No Value

    Based on a consumer survey conducted in France, Germany, and the U.S., the study investigates consumers' readiness to support socially responsible organizations and examines their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of the firm. French and German consumers

  2. Housing, Equipment, and Design Research and Scholarship: A Family and Consumer Sciences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Julia O.; Ahn, Mira; Seiling, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on housing, equipment, and design (n=333) in the Journal of Home Economics/Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences (1985-2000), Home Economics Research Journal/Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (1985- 2000), and Housing and Society (1985-1999) found that articles declined by more than 50% and behavior theories were…

  3. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  4. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  5. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  6. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  7. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  8. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  9. Under consumers' scrutiny - an investigation into consumers' attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Cheung, Tracy T L; De Ridder, Denise D T

    2015-04-09

    Nudging strategies have recently attracted attention from scholars and policy makers for their potential in influencing people's behaviors on large scales. But is the fact that nudges do not forbid any choice-options or significantly alter people's economic incentives sufficient to conclude that nudges should be implemented? While this is discussed amongst scholars from various disciplines the voices of consumers, the target-group of nudges, remain unheard. Since understanding their knowledge about nudging and their opinions on being nudged are crucial for the evaluation of the moral appropriateness of nudging, the current study examines consumers' knowledge of and attitudes toward nudging in general and the realm of health behavior. In this qualitative investigation in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK consumers were conducted to examine consumers' attitudes to four domains of inquiry around which the scholarly discussions about nudging have revolved: consumers' approval of nudging, consumers' views on the origin of nudges, consumers' perceived effectiveness of nudging, and consumers' concerns about manipulative aspects of nudging. Interviews revealed that consumers are largely unfamiliar with the concept of nudging altogether. Once defined and explained to them most consumers approve of the concept, especially in the realm of health behavior, given particular conditions: 1. Nudges should be designed for benefiting individuals and society; 2. consumers comprehend the decision-making context and the reasoning behind the promotion of the targeted behavior. Interviews revealed very limited concerns with manipulative aspects of nudges. These findings call for better information-management to ensure consumers knowledge of nudges and awareness of their current implementation. Under that condition the findings encourage the implementation of nudges benefitting individuals and society in domains that consumers comprehend, such as health behaviors. Further research

  10. Teaching Consumers To Use the Internet To Make Consumer Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An adult-education course familiarized participants with online consumer resources. Beyond teaching the mechanics of Internet use, it showed how to use the Internet as a tool for consumer decision making. (SK)

  11. A Proposal to Revise the Secondary School Curriculum in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Stuart Paul; Richman, Paul Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    Two high school students recommend revision of the economics component of the social studies curriculum to include study of income tax preparation, consumer fraud, investment practices, labor economics, and urban problems. (Author/DB)

  12. Economic Criminalityin the Period ofthe NEP: the Regional Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Lyudmila N. Bekhtereva

    2015-01-01

    The article describesthe main typesof economic(economic) crimes committed in the1920s by thegovernment officials, private entrepreneurs, employees, trade,consumer andproducer cooperatives. Development trends ofeconomic crime, its quantitative and qualitative characteristics are markedinthis article.

  13. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  14. Exploring the Future of Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Carter

    1980-01-01

    The direction home economists are taking toward the future is examined from the standpoints of the role of homemaker, the consumer culture, the part that media plays, advertising, economics, lifestyles, medical care, skill development, and community life. (CT)

  15. Optimal demand shaping strategies for dual-channel retailers in the face of evolving consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Nevin

    2016-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has not only enabled traditional brick-and-mortar retailers to open online channels, but also provided a platform that facilitated consumer-to-consumer information exchange on retailers and/or products. As a result, the purchasing decisions of today's consumers are often affected by the purchasing decisions of other consumers. In this dissertation, we adopt an interdisciplinary approach that brings together tools and concepts from operations management, economics, ...

  16. Behaviour of Millenial wine consumers in southern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Vladimir; Petrović Jelena; Radovanović Blaga

    2017-01-01

    Consumer behaviour when purchasing wine is the result of a complementary operation of the large number of different factors, which may include economic, geographic, social, psychological, and other. Discovering consumer preferences for wine and their buying behavior would allow the application of an appropriate marketing strategy to increase the sales of wine. Special attention was given to one of the most promising new demographic segments that likes to buy – Millennial generation. The main ...

  17. Boycott or buycott?: Internal politics and consumer choices

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Cuadras Morató; Josep M. Raya

    2014-01-01

    Do political tensions affect economic relations? In particular, does politics significantly affect consumer choices? Firms are often threatened by consumer boycotts that pretend to modify their business strategies and behavior. Sometimes these are caused by general political conflicts. The main objective of the paper is to study the consequences of political conflicts between Spain and Catalonia (a region of Spain) and the subsequent boycott calls on sales of Catalan sparkling ...

  18. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....

  19. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  20. Consumer networks and firm reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....

  1. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  2. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  3. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  4. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  6. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... The new threshold for exempt consumer leases in the CLA goes into effect on July 21, 2011. Accordingly... and 213.4) and when the availability of consumer leases on particular terms is advertised (Sec. 213.7... regulation also contain rules about advertising consumer leases. The information collection pursuant to...

  7. U.S. consumer attitudes and expectations about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCicco, John; Yan, Ting; Keusch, Florian; Muñoz, Diego Horna; Neidert, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of energy is important for informing energy-related business, research and policy strategies. To this end, a new U.S. consumer survey probes core attitudes about the reliability, affordability and environmental impact of energy. Appended quarterly to the long-running monthly survey of 500 households that produces the Index of Consumer Sentiment, this instrument inherits the sample design and statistical rigor of that household economic survey. First-year results yield several notable findings. Home energy bills are viewed as unaffordable if they were to double for consumers in the lower income tercile but only if they were to triple for consumers in the upper income tercile. Regarding the cost increases deemed unaffordable, consumers report much greater sensitivity to higher gasoline prices than to higher home energy bills. Moreover, consumers express at least as much concern about the environmental impact of energy as they do about its affordability, a result that shows some regional variation but which holds across income brackets. Several other findings are of likely interest to energy researchers and policymakers, and the unique data series generated by this survey will enable deeper analyses of attitudinally related energy topics as time goes on. - Highlights: • Views of energy reliability, affordability and environmental impact were surveyed. • Consumers seem less tolerant of rising costs for gasoline than for home energy. • Consumers are as concerned about energy's environmental impact as its affordability. • This survey's findings add to policymaker understanding of consumer views on energy.

  8. A Dynamic Economic Model with Discrete Time and Consumer Sentiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dobrescu

    2009-01-01

    is replaced by a (quasi periodic motion. We associate the difference stochastic equation to the model by randomizing the control parameter d and by adding one stochastic control. Numerical simulations are made for the deterministic and stochastic models, for different values of the control parameter d.

  9. Numerical semigroups in a problem about economic incentives for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M.; Rosales, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a promotion to increase the number of musical downloads, we introduce the concept of $C$-incentive and show an algorithm that compute the smallest $C$-incentive containing a subset $X \\subseteq {\\mathbb N}$. On the other hand, in order to study $C$-incentives, we see that we can focus on numerical $C$-incentives. Then, we establish that the set formed by all numerical $C$-incentives is a Frobenius pseudo-variety and we show an algorithmic process to recurrently build such a pseud...

  10. Research of consumer motives and attitudes about tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on consumer behavior and the consumption system is one of the crucial tasks for destination marketing. The information on consumers' needs, priorities in satisfying them, motives, their solvency and the degree of realized satisfaction represent the basis for the development of marketing strategies and value creation. It is of special importance to identify and clarify the factors that determine consumers' preferences in the process of different options evaluation and the choice of a tourist destination. Consumer behavior and the consumption system are determined by the influence of a large number of factors: geographical, economic, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Only through simultaneous interaction of these factors, the complex processes of translating stimuli in the minds of consumers into their certain reactions in the process of purchasing and using the products could be understood.

  11. Big Data, the perfect instrument to study today's consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STOICESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior study is a new, interdisciplinary and emerging science, developed in the 1960s. Its main sources of information come from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology and artificial intelligence. If a century ago, most people were living in small towns, with limited possibilities to leave their community, and few ways to satisfy their needs, now, due to the accelerated evolution of technology and the radical change of life style, consumers begin to have increasingly diverse needs. At the same time the instruments used to study their behavior have evolved, and today databases are included in consumer behavior research. Throughout time many models were developed, first in order to analyze, and later in order to predict the consumer behavior. As a result, the concept of Big Data developed, and by applying it now, companies are trying to understand and predict the behavior of their consumers.

  12. Development of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Narimanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research is to develop an anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system. The main requirements for this system are formulated, the choice of method of consumer product authentication is substantiated. The scheme of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system is developed basing on previously proposed method of checking the QR-code integrity and authenticity. The proposed within the system consumer product authentication technology is simple, economical for implementation, does not require the external changes of product packaging, does not affect existing production process. The technology can be recommended for the use to private businesses and government institutions that are interested in the security of their products from counterfeiting, as well as tracking and removing from circulation the counterfeit consumer products.

  13. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  14. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1......Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...

  15. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...... choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1...

  16. Motives for food choice among Serbian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.

  17. Energy policy in the consumer interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struempel, B

    1983-01-01

    How does the energy problem faced by Western societies affect the consumer 10 years after the oil embargo. The steep increase in the energy bill has led to severe strains on the social fabric in terms of maldistribution, social conflict, and probably also of unemployment. This is so because by and large the hard, supply-oriented path of merely substituting domestic energies and nuclear power for imported oil was chosen, and the task of conservation was left to the price mechanism. The fact that up to now the soft path has been largely neglected, is traced to three factors: to the inertia of institutions, first the energy industry, second the political system at large, and third to an ''ideological lag'' in popular beliefs abouth the economy. The implications for policy are drawn. Rather than only an individual economic choice via information and motivation, consumer research and action in the energy field ought to focus on collective choice as well.

  18. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived......Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...

  19. Consumer focus can spur group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M S; Draper, A

    2001-06-01

    Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure.

  20. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  1. Scottish economic bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The evidence of recovery in the United Kingdom (UK) economy, which had tentatively emerged in the second half of 1992, became stronger in the first half of this year. Examination of the components of total final demand shows that the UK has a longstanding preference to consume rather than to save and invest. Government policy in the 1990s will seek to create the conditions in which this balance can be altered. Given that consumer spending accounts for over half of final demand, the behaviour of the consumer remains a key determinant of the timing and strength of economic recovery. Data for the service sector in Scotland show that employment levels have held up much better than in Great Britain as a whole, although there is some evidence of the later impact of the recession on Scotland. The short-term prospects for the Scottish economy continue to be critically dependent on the export sector, given the depreciation of sterling since the suspension of exchange rate mechanism (ERM) membership, the fall in short-term UK interest rates and the continued improvement in relative manufacturing unit costs. The principal worry concerns the demand prospects in Scotland's major export markets, especially in Europe. Most independent economic forecasters expect that gross domestic product (GDP) growth in Scotland will be below that of the UK in 1993 and 1994. However, the unemployment rate is expected to remain lower in Scotland than in the UK over this period. (author)

  2. Marketing and Advertising: Procter & Gamble Insights into Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Robert; And Others

    Featuring real-life examples that show economic principles at work, this document contains teaching units which are designed to supplement basic economics and consumer education textbooks in social studies, home economics, and business education classes. Written for grades 9-12, and adaptable for grades 7-8, the materials bring economic principles…

  3. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the…

  4. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper-consuming

  5. Strategic interactions in environmental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Pim

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the strategic interactions important to environmental economics. That includes a wide range of topics: environmental groups influencing or informing consumers, the reaction to taxation by car and fuel producers, the spread of an innovative tax and binary public good games.

  6. Afghanistan Economic Update, April 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Joya, Omar; Khan, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Economic growth slowed considerably to 3.6 percent (estimated) in 2013 despite robust agricultural production, as heightened uncertainty surrounding the political and security transition led to a slump in investor and consumer confidence. Growth is projected to remain weak in 2014, while a smooth political and security transition would help restore confidence in the economy and enable a pi...

  7. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  8. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  9. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  10. Consumer Protection in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.

  11. THE CONCEPT OF REFLEXIVE MANAGEMENT OF CONSUMER DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Mavrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of theoretical approaches of demand management is conducted from the moment of awareness of the importance of this concept. Many models of individual consumers were developed. However, to predict the reaction of consumers to the commercial policy of the enterprise, exact methods do not exist yet because the available ones are mostly empirical in nature. Models of behaviour often do not provide the expected result because they use an erroneous approach to the analysis of the mechanism of demand formation. The subject of the research is the theoretical and methodological basis, methods of assessment, and reflexive management of consumer demand of commercial enterprises. The purpose of the paper is developing a concept of reflexive management of consumer demand. To achieve the research goal, the following tasks are set and solved: to substantiate the theoretical and methodological foundations of reflexive consumer management, to analyse existing approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour; to improve the model of consumer behaviour; to develop a concept of reflexive management of consumer behaviour. Methodology. In the paper, we use such methods and approaches to research as: reflexive approach (phenomenological method, behavioural economic theory, marketing approach, abstract-logical analysis, analysis of theoretical approaches to the modelling of consumer behaviour. Results. Modern approaches to modelling of consumer behaviour are mostly empirical in nature and have shortcomings of general models. In them, there is no description of specific situations of the purchase of goods. They cannot be quantified. Therefore, they cannot be practical models. But they have a weighty advantage in a comprehensive look at motivated purchases, what makes it possible to evaluate the relevance of individual variables and to understand the fundamental processes of consumer behaviour. It makes possible to identify the variables necessary for the

  12. Economizing behaviour during travel: strategies and information sources used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the consumer was hit hard by the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis. The crisis affected consumer spending in general and tourism in particular. In 2009, data was collected in the Netherlands about how people economize during travel, which can help to find out what

  13. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  14. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  15. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  16. Consumer Generated Advertising and Brand Trust in The Consumer Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, C

    2010-01-01

    Increasing media clutter now exposes consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten, 2007). The advent of the internet and technology over the past twenty years now means consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites are a further source (Gritten, 2007). Building brand trust remains, now more than ever, crucial to corporate marketers, in a world where consumers are losing faith in traditional marketing strategies. Social media has give...

  17. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, Willem

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers to know how transparent pricing is in reality. Commercial practices involving price intransparency can be detrimental to consumer decision making and may be associated with marke...

  18. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  19. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  20. Aspects regarding the analysis of the rationality of the buying decision of the Romanian consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina PELĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of economic theory is to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of economic activities and processes. In terms of consumer behavior this can be defined by the rationality of the buying decision. In this article there are presented several theories that have defined over time and still influence the rationality of the consumer. There are also presented the results of a research which aims to analyze the rationality of the consumer. In particular there are analyzed the relations between different quantitative aspects of the buying decision and the impulsive buying reactions of the consumer.

  1. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  2. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  3. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  4. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  5. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  6. Change of values in the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austruma S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of our age is orientation of young people towards transitional values. Economic partnership of consumer society has a direct impact on values of society and even if the process of change of values can be affected by formers of education politics, economists and politicians, young people still choose values, which conform with their own lifestyle. Content of educational subjects is connected with study, succession of cultural values, study of classified knowledge and skills, which is also a prerequisite of formation of personality. Societies of all ages has formed according to the specific mechanism, accumulating and integrating general, notable at that time ideas, preserving and transforming their own social experience to the next generations. Each culture declares itself from its scale of values and norms. Priority of change of post material and material values changes together with conditions of cultural, historical and social-political life. Change of paradigms is change of viewpoint of the world, therefore conditions of value choice relate not only to separate groups, but to whole cultures. Young people, similar to other members of society, are forced to construct their own identity and to form their own life insurance strategies offered by the consumer society. Consumer society forms its values and it is creator of its own significance, but young people as social agents are reproducers of values of consumer society. Research results of World Value Surveys (WVS from six continents discovered big differences in value priorities between younger and older generations, which indicates not only inter-generation value change, but also changes in the whole society. The research “Value choice of young people in consumer society” in our country shows, that although the lifestyle of young people is pragmatic, traditional value – family is also one of the most often mentioned and important values in consumer society. But

  7. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  8. Enacting Green Consumers: The Case of the Scandinavian Preppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytic approach that brings the active making and makings of green consumer images to the fore. Efforts to "know" the green consumers have generated multiple representations. Enactments of the green consumer are not innocent but also play a role in shaping how we understand and approach sustainable consumption. Because of this it is important to examine and critically discuss how green consumers are enacted today. This paper develops an approach that allows us to examine how green consumers are enacted and discuss the consequences these constructions might have for sustainability. Theoretically, a performativity approach drawing on theories from Science and Technology Studies (STS and economic sociology is used to discuss the enactment of green consumers. Empirically, focus is on Boomerang � a Swedish fashion retailer, brand, and producer � and its marketing practices. The analysis shows how the marketing work of the Boomerang Company leads to the enactment of the Green Scandinavian Preppy. This specific version of the green consumer is a combination of the knowledgeable green connoisseur - a consumer that knows quality when he/she sees it - and the green hedonist in search of the good life. The Green Scandinavian Preppy wants to enjoy nature, go sailing, and do so wearing fashionable quality clothes. This is a consumer that knows quality, appreciates design, and has the means to pay for both. While this is a version of the green consumer that might be appealing and thus have the potential to pro-mote a version of green consumption, it is also a green consumer image that has lost much of its political power as green consumption is framed as simply another source of pleasure and identity-making.

  9. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density......Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...

  11. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  12. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  13. Do attitudes predict consumer's behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelošević Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.

  14. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  15. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  16. Women as Video Game Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...

  17. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  18. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

  19. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  20. Consumer viewpoints on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, A.

    1985-01-01

    The International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), a non-profit, non-party political foundation that represents the interests of consumers worldwide. It consists of some 1,140 organizations in over 50 countries of the world in the North, South, East and West. IOCU also represents the interest of the consumers in the U N system and enjoys consultative status with many of its various organs and agencies. This paper also speaks from the additional perspective of a Third World person who active in consumer public affairs issues over the last two decades

  1. Consumer behavior and energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A conference was convened to provide an overview of major empirical studies in the area of behavioral research related to energy consumption and conservation. Papers were presented in the areas of national and international perspectives of consumer energy behaviors, methodological issues in consumer behavior research, consumers and travel, energy conservation programs implemented by governments and electric utilities, household energy decision making, financial incentives and disincentives, energy information and its relation to product purchase decisions, solar energy and the consumer, and the impact of conservation programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 29 papers from this conference.

  2. 77 FR 24687 - Impact of Overdraft Programs on Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ..., is extended. Responses must now be received on or before June 29, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit...' operating policies; The economics of overdraft programs; and Long-term impacts on Consumers. The comment... period allotted for comments received pursuant to the Overdraft Notice. The comment period will now close...

  3. Consumer Cost Differences for Traditional and Internet Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael J.; Strader, Troy J.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses research issues related to the economics of electronic, Internet-based markets. Discusses consumer cost-based differences for traditional and electronic markets; revenue implications for sellers and transaction intermediaries; and results of an empirical, survey-based study of an electronic market in the sports trading-card industry.…

  4. Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Wit, de W.; Timmers, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In response to the potential for negative economic and societal effects resulting from a low level of consumer confidence in food safety, it is important to know how confidence is potentially influenced by external events. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a monitor

  5. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Hooge, de I.E.; Amani, P.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Oostindjer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are

  6. Consumer search and pricing behavior in Internet markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout economic history, changes in technology have had a substantial impact on consumers' search and transportation costs and, consequently, on the size of the relevant market. One example is the progressive decline in transportation costs that historically has taken place through the use of

  7. A consumer perspective of the South African red meat classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... The South African consumer market is characterised by socio-economic and ... the red meat knowledge, usage and perceptions regarding beef and sheep meat ... The paper also briefly reports on an in-store 'observational' research project that was ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Consumer Behavior: Developing Skills for Assertiveness. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Lou

    The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…

  9. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  10. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is

  11. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  12. Russian consumers' motives for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.

  13. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  14. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual......'s striving for sustainability. The relevant external conditions are an extremely diverse set of factors, perhaps their only commonality being that, unless making an organized effort, consumers can do nothing about them. Because external conditions influence all or many consumers, making them more...... facilitating for sustainable consumption can be much more effective than anything an individual consumer can do. Many of the external constraints facing consumers who want to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle are of a relative nature and their impact depends on the individual's resources. For instance...

  15. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  16. Decision-Based Design Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Wassenaar, Henk Jan

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the fundamental principles of decision theory, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design presents an analytical approach to enterprise-driven Decision-Based Design (DBD) as a rigorous framework for decision making in engineering design.  Once the related fundamentals of decision theory, economic analysis, and econometrics modelling are established, the remaining chapters describe the entire process, the associated analytical techniques, and the design case studies for integrating consumer preference modeling into the enterprise-driven DBD framework. Methods for identifying key attributes, optimal design of human appraisal experiments, data collection, data analysis, and demand model estimation are presented and illustrated using engineering design case studies. The scope of the chapters also provides: •A rigorous framework of integrating the interests from both producer and consumers in engineering design, •Analytical techniques of consumer choice model...

  17. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  18. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying

  19. Attention, motivation, and consumer judgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...

  20. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  1. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  2. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  3. Consumer and media viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, S.

    1988-01-01

    The future of the nuclear community will not resemble the past. Suddenly gone are the years of blind public trust, cheers for building the bomb that ended a world war, and the unquestioned alliance of patriotism and Pu. Awakened by the radioactivity cloud from Chernobyl and recent revelations of major releases during Hanford's early years, the public is demanding to play a part in its own future in suddenly jam-packed hearings. After four decades, nuclear pioneers should consider that a technology fashioned largely in the vacuum of war-driven secrecy is now being judged--fairly or not--alongside the rather unforgiving measures of present-day politics, economics and morality. The spiral of distrust may continue without a semblance of the following remedies. (1) The press and the public need to become better educated in radiation basics to start making more informed decisions on multi-billion-dollar issues. (2) Because reasoned public discussions of anything nuclear is at an impasse, supporters and critics of nuclear activities should spend less time trying to discredit their opponents and more time trying to understand why they think as they do. (3) The radiation-protection community should welcome scrutiny for one simple reason: no other way exists to regain public trust and respect

  4. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  5. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  6. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  7. Profile of organic food consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranjac Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prove that profile of organic food consumers is dependent on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as to shape universal organic food consumer profile. The survey included 398 consumers in Serbia. Results indicate existence of typical consumer's profile. The findings could be generalized proving that socio-demographic profiles in a larger population are strictly related to the decision to utilize organic food. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes can help all of them to play more active role in this supply chain. It should stimulate the personalized approach to the particular groups of consumers based on socio-demographic characteristics in order to intensify consumption of organic food and to create different marketing plans dependent on the particular countries or areas.

  8. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  9. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  10. Consumer protection in energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl

  11. The Role of Consumer's Identification in Consumer Behavior and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Razeghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between congruity of consumer and brand values, brand identification, brand commitment, and word of mouth. In order to test the relationships between variables 600 questionnaire were distributed in Dubai Malls (Sun and Sand Sports and 334 of questionnaires were received and analyzed. To verify the validity of the questionnaire and to test the significance of observer variables (questionnaire and latent variables (factors, confirmatory factor analysis was used, and Cronbach's alpha was employed to test the reliability. To evaluate the association between variables, the Pearson correlation test is used, and then to verify the conceptual model test the structural equation modeling (SEM and LISREL software are deployed. The result shows that Value congruity positively influences consumers' identification with a brand and Value congruity positively influences consumers ‘commitment to brand. The result also shows that Consumer identification has a positive influence on brand commitment and mediating variable between value congruity and brand commitment and Consumers commitment to a brand has a positive influence on positive WOM and mediating variable between consumers' identification and WOM. The results also demonstrate that Consumer identification positively influences positive WOM.

  12. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  13. CLUSTERING OF THE COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO CONSUMER CONFIDENCE INDEX AND EVALUATING WITH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda BAĞDATLI KALKAN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer confidence index is a national indicator that suggest about current and future expectations of the economic conditions. With consumer confidence index, it is aimed to determine the trends and expectations of consumers according to their general economic situation, employment opportunities, their financial situations and developments in the markets. Another parameter is also the Human Development Index (HDI. This index is an indicator that examines the development of countries both economically and socially. Countries are sorted by these two indices and are considered as basic parameters in international platforms. The purpose of this study is to group the selected countries according to the consumer confidence index and reveal the features of the groups and then determine the position of the grouped countries with the Human Development Index. According to the results of cluster analysis, it is shown that India, China, Sweden and USA have the highest total consumer confidence index, employment, expectation and investment index

  14. Sustainability. An economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The economic perspective of sustainability focuses on the trade off of current consumption for future consumption. This was the question that faced the economists of the late 19th century such as Malthus who noticed growth in the population outpaced that of food. Yet, Malthusian prediction of famine and disaster did not come to pass due to technological innovation. There was a substitution of created capital (machines) for natural capital (labor and land). Thus, whether created- and natural capital are substitute or complementary goods is key to sustainability. Many economists believe we can maintain current consumption and that technological innovation will take care of the needs of future generations. However other economists believe that created capital and natural capital are complementary goods; as we consume more created capital, we will also have to consume more natural capital. The relationship between natural and created capital has an impact on what policies and incentives we consider for the preservation of opportunities for future generations. If they are substitutes, current efforts need to focus on development of new technologies which will allow us to do more with less. If they are complements we need to consider efforts of preservation and conservation. We understand that we cannot have our cake and eat it too. The debate is whether we emphasize finding a new way to bake more cake, or carefully consume the cake we have

  15. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  16. Australian Consumers' Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kerry; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Motley, Crystal; Crump, Anna; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel

    2018-04-19

    Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods) and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits) or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  17. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  18. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China's Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, III, James A

    2008-01-01

    China's central government's response to the current challenge of consumer product safety in the food and drug arena could be a determining factor in its ability to sustain robust economic growth over the next decade...

  19. Comparison of district heating expansion potential based on consumer-economy or socio-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundahl, Lars; Nielsen, Steffen; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a high share of district heating is an important part of a future sustainable energy system or smart energy system with a high renewable energy penetration. These studies also show socio-economic benefits of expanding the district heating coverage. However, in order...... to implement such an expansion, district heating needs to be economically feasible for the heat consumers. This aspect is often not investigated and hence it is unknown if calculations based on consumer-economy, where tax payment is included, will yield the same potential of expansion. This study identifies...... the differences in the expansion potential of district heating calculated with a socio-economic and a consumer-economic approach, respectively, in a case study of Denmark. By also investigating the consumer-economy of expanding district heating, a deeper insight is obtained of possible locations for expanding...

  20. To buy or not to buy? An experimental study of consumer boycotts in retail markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyran, J. R.; Engelmann, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 285 (2005), s. 1-16 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : retail market * consumers * prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2005

  1. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  2. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  3. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  4. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  5. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  6. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  7. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  8. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  9. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    (g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.

  10. Attitudes of Consumers from Podgorica toward Advertising through Sport among the Question how often Consumers purchase Sporting Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Djurisic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there were significant differences showed up between the consumers who purchase sport goods. The significant differences were found in two of three variables, while the consumers who purchase sport goods less than 3 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.

  11. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Virginia Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the Small Wind Electric Systems Consumer's: A Virginia Consumer's Guide is to provide consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system will work for them based on their wind resource, the type and size of their sites, and their economics. The cover of this guide contains a Virginia wind resource map and information about state incentives and contacts for more information.

  12. A predictive model for e-commerce consumer expenditure in EC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Zlatko

    2004-01-01

    Describing and predicting consumer expenditure on a country or cross-national level has a long tradition in theoretical and applied economics and econometrics. This paper is a first attempt in describing aggregate eCommerce consumer expenditure among European Commission (EC) countries. After brief introduction of possible theoretical models which explain the variation in eCommerce consumer expenditure among observed countries, a list of important predictors has been discussed. The results gen...

  13. Your Credit Rights: An Instructional Unit on Consumer Credit Protection. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Barbara J.; And Others

    This instructional guide adds two new sections to the original guide published in May 1982. The guide was designed to assist educators in teaching the topics of consumer credit and consumer credit protection to secondary and postsecondary students in various economics and business courses, as well as in adult and community education courses. The…

  14. On the Demand for Consumer Credit: an Islamic Setting (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Bendjilali, Boualem

    1995-01-01

    The study discusses the economic implication of the main axioms that govern the consumer credit in an Islamic framework. It derives the demand function for consumer credit, using the Murabaha modes. A simple econometric model is built to estimate the demand for credit in an Islamic setting.

  15. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  16. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  17. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  18. Marketing research of consumer perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception involves the collection, processing and interpretation of information through sensory receptors and represents the reality of an individual. Collecting customer information is imperative for marketing, because consumers are in the focus of defining all its objectives, strategies and plans. The result of the perception depends on a number of factors and that is why people do not experience stimuli in the same way. A marketing research of consumer perceptions has been carried out in order to identify the habits and understand the behavior of consumers when choosing products with special emphasis on the influence of perception, stimuli from the environment and perceptions of risk in their decision. .

  19. Economic analysis in support of broad scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    The US has a century of experience with the development of forest policies that have benefited from or been influenced by economic research activities in the forest sector. At the same time, increasing rigor in policy debates stimulated economics research. During the past four decades economic research has evolved to include increased understanding of consumer demands...

  20. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  1. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  2. Consumer Education in Any Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  3. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  4. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  5. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  6. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  7. Utility shopping: are consumers ready?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrados, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of public readiness to deal with deregulation of the electric power industry , based on an analysis of public reaction to the deregulation of the transportation, telecommunications and natural gas industries which already have taken place. The report also examines the reasons why residential consumers have reason to be wary of deregulation. These include the likelihood of slow development of the intended competition, the consequent limits on consumer choices, the possibility of increased prices, decreased quality of service and erosion of social values such as affordability and accessibility. The report concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring the existence of workable competition for residential consumers, that reliable and meaningful information is available as competition in deregulated markets gets underway, that independent sources of information are widely available, and that basic consumer protection against deceptive and borderline marketing practices, a regulatory oversight mechanism and public reporting mechanisms are in place before competition begins. 33 refs

  8. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying process by focusing their marketing efforts on elements shaping the customer's virtual experience, the Web experience. Identifying the Web experience components and understanding their role as inpu...

  9. Consumer Behavior dan Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Pura A, Agus Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Marketing concept emerged since business philosophy shifted to a customer-centered, the job is to find the right products for your choosen target markets. The reason for customer orientation in which all functions work together to respond to, Serve, and satisfy customer. To satisfy consumer (end user) the marketing concept use integrated marketing, that is segmenting, Targeting, positioning, and marketing mix (4p/7p). And to.be success, marketer have to understand the behavior of consumers of...

  10. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  11. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  12. Consumer Behaviour in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hasslinger, Anders; Hodzic, Selma; Opazo, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how the consumer perceives online purchases. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad. Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was ...

  13. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  14. Consumer perceptions of free will

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Joseph W.; Vanhouche, Wouter; van Osselaer, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    The topic of free will has a long and distinguished history in philosophy and psychology. Consumer research has implicitly confronted the issue through empirical investigation of psychological processes that speak to the existence of free will; more recently, consumer psychologists have explicitly debated the question and its implications for decision making. The present research takes a different approach by investigating consumers’ perceptions of their free will. Our results suggest that...

  15. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  17. Essays on Economics of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Valei, Azamat

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies two topics in economics of advertising in the framework of Industrial Organization. Particularly, it considers a role of advertising in the markets with network externalities in consumption and advertising as a strategic response of incumbent to new entry. The first chapter investigates the incentives for a monopolistic firm producing a good with network externalities to advertise when consumers face imperfect information and therefore must search to realize their act...

  18. Economic value of walkability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2004-10-12

    Traditional transportation planning and evaluation practices treat walking as a minor transport mode. However, it is evident that walking is a critical component of the transport system. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate the value of walking and walkability, which is defined as the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience. The socio-economic benefits of walking and walkability were discussed, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings and reduced external costs. Efficient land use, community livability, improved public health, economic development and support for equity objectives were also presented as potential benefits. It was concluded that walking receives less than its appropriate share of transportation resources, and that improvements in walkability can provide a high economic return on investment. Increased government funding to walking facilities and programs was recommended. Other recommendations included: shifting road space from traffic and parking lanes to sidewalks and paths; and policies to create more walkable safety and comfort. These recommendations comply with other transport and land use management reforms to reduce automobile dependency and create greater accessibility. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Economic fables

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Shane

    2010-01-01

    I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...

  20. Protection of consumer rights in the field of economic services of general economic interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the demand for services of general interest and the manner they are provided have evolved significantly. Services that the state would traditionally provide in a direct form have been increasingly outsourced by national, regional and local authorities, and are now often provided by the private sector (with or without profit. This changed approach is driven by the processes of deregulation, the changes in government policies and the changing needs and expectations of users According to its European definition, a general interest service is a service that "public authorities classify as being general interest, and is subject to specific public service obligations". These services were identified as having a central role in the European model of society that the European Union has been built on, because they meet people’s basic needs.

  1. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  2. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  3. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  4. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... living at home and where the children had left home. In order to illustrate how dietary patterns affect the various daily practices of different ways of life another important selection criterion was to choose four families within each way of life: the wage earner w life, the career way of life...... explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products...

  5. Consumer Perception and Preference of Drinking Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source.

  6. Practical PRA applications at Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Consumers Power Company has completed two probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), one each at its Big Rock Point and Midland plants and is in the process of performing a third study at its Palisades Plant. Each PRA is summarized briefly in this paper. Each PRA has been used to evaluate specific plant design features and make operating and design recommendations to plant and Company management as well as to the regulator. This paper is a sumary of those issues on which Consumers Power Company has applied PRAs to date. The technique used in applying PRA to these issues has varied as more was learned about the plants from the PRA and about PRA itself. Some issue resolutions involved deriving technical arguments from small parts of the PRA only, such as the logic models or consequence analysis. Still others required use of the entire PRA including sequence quantification, plant and containment response, consequence analysis and eventually cost-benefit evaluation of proposed resolutions. The benefits derived from these analyses have also varied and include not only a perceived reduction in the risks associated with plant operation but also economic benefit to the Company in that cost-effective alternatives to resolving safety issues have been permitted

  7. Assessing Projection Bias in Consumers' Food Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers' purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction, where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP. The results confirm the existence of projection bias when consumers made their decisions on food products. In particular, projection bias existed because currently hungry participants were willing to pay a higher price premium for cheeses than satiated ones, both in hungry and satiated future states. Moreover, participants overvalued the food product more when they were delivered in the future hungry condition than in the satiated one. Our study provides clear, quantitative and meaningful evidence of projection bias because our findings are based on economic valuation of food preferences. Indeed, the strength of this study is that findings are expressed in terms of willingness to pay which is an interpretable amount of money.

  8. Website quality indicators for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2005-11-15

    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  9. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  10. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  11. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  12. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  13. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  14. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  16. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  17. Obesity: can behavioral economics help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, David R; Payne, Collin R

    2009-12-01

    Consumers regularly and predictably behave in ways that contradict standard assumptions of economic analysis such that they make decisions that prevent them from reaching rationally intended goals. These contradictions play a significant role with respect to consumers' food decisions and the effect these decisions have on their health. Food decisions that are rationally derived include those that trade short-term gains of sensory pleasure (hedonic) for longer term gains of health and wellness (utilitarian). However, extra-rational food decisions are much more common. They can occur because of the contexts in which they are made--such as being distracted or pressed for time. In these contexts, heuristics (or rules of thumb) are used. Because food decisions are made with little cognitive involvement, food policies designed to appeal to highly cognitive thought (e.g., fat taxes, detailed information labels) are likely to have little impact. Furthermore, food marketing environments influence not only what foods consumers buy but also how much. As a general principle, when individuals do not behave in their own interest, markets will feed perverse and sub-optimal behaviors. Given the limited ability of individuals to retain and use accurate health information coupled with varying levels of self control, profit motivations of marketers can become predatory--though not necessarily malicious. Alternative policy options that do not restrict choice are outlined, which enable consumers to make better decisions. These options allow for profit motivations of marketers to align with the long-term well being of the consumer.

  18. Consumer involvement profiles: An application of consumer involvement in mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Rahbarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates consumer involvement profile among people who intend to purchase mobile devises. The study considers the effects of various factors influencing on purchase intention including consumers’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income as well as some external factors including advertisement. The study uses a questionnaire in Likert scale, originally developed by O’Cass (2000 [O’Cass, A. (2000. An assessment of consumers' product, purchase decision, advertising and consumption involvement in fashion clothing. Journal of Economic Psychology, 21, 545-576.]. The questionnaire has been distributed among 385 people, randomly who purchased mobile devices from a mall in city of Tehran, Iran. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has concluded that oral advertisement as well as consumer purchase involvement have positive and strong relationship with consumer’s purchase intention. In terms of age, people aged 20-30 maintained the highest purchase intention. In addition, in terms of gender, men had more purchase involvement than women did.

  19. Consumer engagement in social networks brand community

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakovas, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...

  20. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  1. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  2. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  3. To Save or to Consume: Linking Growth Theory with the Keynesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yun-kwong

    2007-01-01

    In the neoclassical growth theory, higher saving rate gives rise to higher output per capita. However, in the Keynesian model, higher saving rate causes lower consumption, which may lead to a recession. Students may ask, "Should we save or should we consume?" In most of the macroeconomics textbooks, economic growth and Keynesian economics are in…

  4. Rethinking European Competition Law : From a consumer welfare to a capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger; Gerbrandy, Anna

    2016-01-01

    European competition law is predominantly focused on maximizing consumer welfare. This overarching purpose (which is supported by economic theory) leaves little place for safeguarding non-economic values, such as sustainability. This makes it difficult to allow cooperation between companies to

  5. Rethinking European Competition Law: from a consumer welfare to a capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger; Gerbrandy, Anna

    European competition law is predominantly focused on maximizing consumer welfare. This overarching purpose (which is supported by economic theory) leaves little place for safeguarding non-economic values, such as sustainability. This makes it difficult to allow cooperation between companies which

  6. Three empirical essays in energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Jacquelyn Ryan

    This dissertation explores society's relationship with energy systems. Focusing on two areas of energy economics---electricity reliability and clean energy technology adoption---my objective is to provide insights on energy markets that can contribute towards informing energy policy and improving quality of life. In the first chapter, I examine how firm-level corruption on the demand side of the electricity sector impacts electricity reliability in developing countries. Showing that bribes for electricity connections are closely related to power outages experienced by firms, this chapter demonstrates how consumer-level corrupt behavior negatively impacts electricity service provision. In the second chapter, I study homeowners' stated information searching about solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption in California's residential market. Exploring differences between the types of information sought by consumers adopting solar through third-party ownership (TPO) relative to consumers who purchase solar systems outright (host-ownership (HO)), this chapter sheds light on differences between business model consumer preferences in the residential solar PV market. Lastly, in the third chapter I estimate solar subsidy pass-through to the prices faced by consumers in California's residential solar PV market and ask whether incidence differs for TPO consumers where subsidies are directed to the third party owner of the system (or the "seller") and HO consumers where subsidies go directly to the consumer (or the "buyer"). I find that TPO consumers capture more than 100 percent of every dollar of solar subsidy while HO consumers capture less than 100 percent of every dollar. This is surprising because standard economic theory predicts that the relative benefit of a subsidy does not depend on to whom it is directed.

  7. Consumer behaviour and the environment: Which role for information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for promoting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this workshop is organized by a network of economists, I will start with the importance...... of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis will be on the importance of information for creating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving environmental problems that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information...... may be even more important for furthering other important types of behaviour, such as voter behaviour or activist behaviour, but I won't discuss the specific issues about promoting these types of behaviour today....

  8. Consumer Perception of Competitiveness – Theoretical-Instrumental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duralia Oana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorist economic approach has recorded a quantum leap in a relatively short period of time, as studying the relationship between consumer behavior and companies’ strategic decisions based on market competitiveness are no longer an unknown area. However, this issue remains actual in view of the fact that during the decision process of purchase, consumers do not always behave rationally, as they are the only ones who can appreciate if the offer of the company, in terms of range, quality, price and auxiliary services meet their needs or not. In this context, this paper aims to deepen the existing interconnection between the market decisions of the enterprise and consumer behavior, as measure standard for the competitiveness of a firm on a certain market.

  9. Behaviour of Millenial wine consumers in southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour when purchasing wine is the result of a complementary operation of the large number of different factors, which may include economic, geographic, social, psychological, and other. Discovering consumer preferences for wine and their buying behavior would allow the application of an appropriate marketing strategy to increase the sales of wine. Special attention was given to one of the most promising new demographic segments that likes to buy – Millennial generation. The main purpose of this research is to find out if the wine attributes of the Millennials are different from other generations in southern Serbia. Results of this research are shown that when choosing wine, the quality of wine has the biggest impact on consumers, rather than others wine attributes. The paper also asserts that, the wine industry should particularly focus on marketing to Millennial age group, as this segment has a high willingness to experiment.

  10. CONSUMER PREFERENCES AND DRIVERS OF CHOICE REGARDING LOCAL RECREATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria SAVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rapidly growing industry of leisure has displayed some signs of overcrowding on account of the diminished capacities of turning employed resources into profit and the lowered personnel productivity in Romania. Economic agents striving to succeed in this rapidly evolving economic sector should reconsider their position and plan a strategy to grow or reinforce their business. The present paper provides a starting point in outlying the local recreation market specificity by investigating consumer preferences and drivers of choice. Results show that although there is an active demand for commercial recreational activities, its quantum is rather low. Moreover, the study shows that service-related factors (such as quality, personnel qualification, price and novelty appear to have the highest importance for consumers, that positive word of mouth is a rather strong influencer, while advertising and location-related factors rank lowest on the list of priorities when choosing a recreation provider.

  11. Bidding price analysis for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Wei; Luonan Chen; Hsiao Dong Chiang

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to analyze the bidding price of each participant (power suppliers and large consumers) in a pay-as-bid market. The bidding price will be decomposed into a variety of components corresponding to five factors, such as the incremental values of the subject bidder's generation on the system operational costs, on the income or payment of other bidders, and on the binding tradable constraints, and the first-order approximation of the subjective participant's bidding price. From an economic viewpoint, each component provides useful information for participants to design the strategic planning. The advantages of the method include that the decomposition is well defined without assumptions and that each decomposition term has its own economical and/or engineering meaning. The proposed method is numerically verified through computer simulations on a three-bus example system and a modified IEEE 30-bus power system with both generator and large consumer bidding. (author)

  12. Patterns of Reinforcement and the Essential Value of Brands: II. Evaluation of a Model of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji; Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We…

  13. Economic enterprise during economic dowturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Niedzielski

    2015-12-01

    The analysis showed, among others, that after a marked deterioration in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector in 2009 there was a gradual improvement of the financial situation and development of companies. Also, last year the level of optimism of entrepreneurs in the perception of the economic situation increased significantly.

  14. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  17. Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    The methodology used to arrive at the conclusions in the U.S. papers WG 5A-19 and WG 5A-22 with respect to the economics of fast breeders relative to LWR's is developed in detail in this contribution. In addition, sample calculations of the total levelized power cost of a standard LWR at $40/pound for U 3 O 8 and an FBR at a capital cost of 1.5 times that of an LWR are included. The respective total levalized power costs of the above two examples are 21.29 mills/kwh for the standard LWR and 28.48 mills/kwh for the FBR. It should be noted that the economic data used in these analyses are contained in the U.S. contribution, WG 5A-41

  18. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... sustainability. To illustrate the theoretical discussion, the paper gives some practical examples from the reprocessing industry in Norway. Findings - The paper finds, first, effective and efficient use of natural resources is necessary to implement circular value chains. Second, sustainable development...

  19. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  20. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)