WorldWideScience

Sample records for total scattering losses

  1. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  2. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  3. Total cross sections for electron scattering by He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, F.J.; Jansen, R.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no inelastic processes occur, the total cross sections for scattering are equal to those for elastic scattering. Above 19.8 eV total cross sections for scattering of electrons have been evaluated by adding those for ionisation, excitation and elastic scattering. The total cross sections thus obtained are probably accurate to about 5% over a large part of the energy range. They appear to be in very good agreement with the recent experimental results of Blaauw et al. (J. Phys. B.; 10:L299 (1977)). The present results have already proved useful for application in the dispersion relation for forward scattering in electron-helium collisions. (author)

  4. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.

  5. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  6. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  7. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  8. TOTEM Results on Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section

    CERN Document Server

    Kašpar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    TOTEM is an LHC experiment dedicated to forward hadronic physics. In this contribution, two main parts of its physics programme - proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross-section - are discussed. The analysis procedures are outlined and their status is reviewed.

  9. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  10. Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data

  11. Total cross sections and elastic scattering at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, K.J.

    1985-12-05

    The need is discussed of a special purpose detector for the measurement of elastic scattering at the SSC. The detector would cover as small a solid angle as is practical. Two techniques are described briefly to measure total cross sections at hadron storage rings. The direct method is to measure the interaction rate in an IR of known luminosity - a method that gets more difficult increasing energy. A second method is to use the optical theorem. 6 refs., 1 fig. (LEW)

  12. Total cross sections for electron scattering with halocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghma, Rahla; Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A quantum mechanical model to find elastic, inelastic and total CS by e{sup −} impact. • Spherical complex optical potential formalism is used to find total CS. • Result shows consistency and good agreement with previous data wherever available. • Maiden attempt to find CS for CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3}, CBr{sub 4} and C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules. • Interesting correlation observed between total CS and polarizability of the molecule. - Abstract: A theoretical study on electron collision with chlorinated methanes: CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3}, brominated methanes: CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3} and CBr{sub 4} and some mono chloroalkanes: C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules in gaseous ground state is undertaken to report elastic, inelastic and total cross sections in the 20–5000 eV energy range. The target molecule is represented as a sum of various scattering centres, which are assumed to scatter electrons independently. The spherical complex optical potential (SCOP) is formulated to represent the interaction dynamics between the electron and the constituent scattering centres. Using SCOP, the quantum mechanical scattering problem is solved through partial wave analysis. The results obtained for CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3} are compared with the available experimental and theoretical values. The elastic cross section for CBr{sub 4} shows satisfactory agreement with the previous available data. The cross sections for CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3}, and C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules presented in this work are reported for the first time.

  13. Original Article Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    aid the surgeon in the African region estimate the expected blood loss after total hip replacement. We conducted a study to quantify the blood loss following total hip arthroplasty and to determine the factors .... Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) study: blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in ...

  14. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  15. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance......Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees...... economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows...

  17. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  18. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  19. Total internal reflection and dynamic light scattering microscopy of gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Brian F.

    Two different techniques which apply optical microscopy in novel ways to the study of biological systems and materials were built and applied to several samples. The first is a system for adapting the well-known technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to an optical microscope. This can detect and scatter light from very small volumes, as compared to standard DLS which studies light scattering from volumes 1000x larger. The small scattering volume also allows for the observation of nonergodic dynamics in appropriate samples. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM) forms a gel at low pH which lines the epithelial cell layer and acts as a protective barrier against the acidic stomach environment. The dynamics and microscopic viscosity of PGM at different pH levels is studied using polystyrene microspheres as tracer particles. The microscopic viscosity and microrheological properties of the commercial basement membrane Matrigel are also studied with this instrument. Matrigel is frequently used to culture cells and its properties remain poorly determined. Well-characterized and purely synthetic Matrigel substitutes will need to have the correct rheological and morphological characteristics. The second instrument designed and built is a microscope which uses an interferometry technique to achieve an improvement in resolution 2.5x better in one dimension than the Abbe diffraction limit. The technique is based upon the interference of the evanescent field generated on the surface of a prism by a laser in a total internal reflection geometry. The enhanced resolution is demonstrated with fluorescent samples. Additionally. Raman imaging microscopy is demonstrated using the evanescent field in resonant and non-resonant samples, although attempts at applying the enhanced resolution technique to the Raman images were ultimately unsuccessful. Applications of this instrument include high resolution imaging of cell membranes and macroscopic structures in gels and proteins. Finally, a third

  20. Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.

  1. Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian

    2017-02-22

    Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.

  2. Improvements in in-situ filter test methods using a total light-scattering detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents research aimed at providing useful data on a commonly used technique; a DOP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) aerosol and a total light-scattering photometer. Methods of increasing the sensitivity of this technique are described. Alternative methods of in-situ filter testing are also considered. The sensitivity of a typical, modern, total light-scattering photometer, as a function of particle diameter, has a broad maximum in mass terms between 0.1 and 0.4 um. At its maximum usable sensitivity the instrument can detect approx. 1 particle/cm 3 . This response can be explained by light scattering theory and particle loss in the instrument inlet. The mass median diameter of the aerosols produced by various DOP generators varies from 0.2 to 1.0μm. Experiments with good quality HEPA filters indicate a maximum penetration for particles of 0.15 - 0.2μm. Details of the studies are given and the consequences discussed. It is shown that filter penetration of -3 % can be measured in-situ with existing equipment. Methods of extending the sensitivity to measure a penetration of approx.10 -5 % are described. (author)

  3. Total Blood Loss After Transfemoral Amputations Is Twice the Intraoperative Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Kristensen, Morten T

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Underestimation of the actual blood loss in patients undergoing nontraumatic transfemoral amputation (TFA) can impact negatively on outcome in these often frail patients, with very limited physiological reserves. The primary aim of this study is to estimate the total blood loss (TBL...

  4. Refractive index sensor based on total scattering of plasmonic nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiqiang; Zeng, Qingbing; Hu, Zengrong; Zhan, Yaohui

    2018-03-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can couple free space light into anultrafine space; therefore,they are employed extensively in the refractive index sensors to minimize the device size or further improve the detection sensitivity. In this work, the optical response of the plasmonic nanotube are investigated comprehensively by using full wave finite element method. With a subwavelength scale, the silver nanotube have prominent scattering peaks in the visible range, which is very suitable for observing through the dark field microscope. The geometric dependence of the scattering spectra and the sensing performance are evaluated carefully. Results show that the scattering peaks are in linear relationship to the circumstance refractive index and a sensitivity of 337 nm/RIUcan be achieved easily by such a plasmonicnanotube with an optimized size.

  5. Protein Losses and Urea Nitrogen Underestimate Total Nitrogen Losses in Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Clara; Eaton, Simon; Grimble, George; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-28

    Muscle wasting is associated with increased mortality and is commonly reported in dialysis patients. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatments lead to protein losses in effluent dialysate. We wished to determine whether changes in current dialysis practice had increased therapy-associated nitrogen losses. Cross-sectional cohort study. Measurement of total protein, urea and total nitrogen in effluent dialysate from 24-hour collections from PD patients, and during haemodiafiltration (HDF) and haemodialysis (HD) sessions. One hundred eight adult dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis, high-flux haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration. Total nitrogen and protein losses. Dialysate protein losses were measured in 68 PD and 40 HD patients. Sessional losses of urea (13.9 [9.2-21.1] vs. 4.8 [2.8-7.8] g); protein (8.6 [7.2-11.1] vs. 6.7 [3.9-11.1] g); and nitrogen (11.5 [8.7-17.7] vs. 4.9 [2.6-9.5] g) were all greater for HD than PD, P losses were lower with HD 25.9 (21.5-33.4) versus 46.6 (27-77.6) g/week, but nitrogen losses were similar. We found no difference between high-flux HD and HDF: urea (13.5 [8.8-20.6] vs. 15.3 [10.5-25.5] g); protein (8.8 [7.3-12.2] vs. 7.6 [5.8-9.0] g); and total nitrogen (11.6 [8.3-17.3] vs. 10.8 [8.9-22.5] g). Urea nitrogen (UN) only accounted for 45.1 (38.3-51.0)% PD and 63.0 (55.3-62.4)% HD of total nitrogen losses. Although sessional losses of protein and UN were greater with HD, weekly losses were similar between modalities. We found no differences between HD and HDF. However, total nitrogen losses were much greater than the combination of protein and UN, suggesting greater nutritional losses with dialysis than previously reported. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Angular scattering in electron capture and loss D- beam formation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggiola, M.J.; Hodges, R.V.; Huestis, D.L.; Peterson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of high energy (> 150 keV) neutral beams for heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices depends on the ability to produce well-collimated negative ion beams. The double capture charge-exchange technique is a known, scalable method. In order to maximize the overall efficiency of the process and to achieve the desired beam characteristics, it is necessary to examine the optical qualities of the beams as well as the total efficiency of beam production. A combined modeling and experimental study of the angular scattering effects in negative ion formation and loss processes has therefore been undertaken

  7. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, B K; Joshipura, K N; Mason, N J

    2005-01-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF 4 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 and CF 3 I and the CF x (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF x (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species

  8. Application of the weighted total field-scattering field technique to 3D-PSTD light scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Liu, Lei; Li, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Bo

    2018-04-01

    PSTD (Pseudo Spectral Time Domain) is an excellent model for the light scattering simulation of nonspherical aerosol particles. However, due to the particularity of its discretization form of the Maxwell's equations, the traditional Total Field/Scattering Field (TF/SF) technique for FDTD (Finite Differential Time Domain) is not applicable to PSTD, and the time-consuming pure scattering field technique is mainly applied to introduce the incident wave. To this end, the weighted TF/SF technique proposed by X. Gao is generalized and applied to the 3D-PSTD scattering model. Using this technique, the incident light can be effectively introduced by modifying the electromagnetic components in an inserted connecting region between the total field and the scattering field region with incident terms, where the incident terms are obtained by weighting the incident field by a window function. To optimally determine the thickness of connection region and the window function type for PSTD calculations, their influence on the modeling accuracy is firstly analyzed. To further verify the effectiveness and advantages of the weighted TF/SF technique, the improved PSTD model is validated against the PSTD model equipped with pure scattering field technique in both calculation accuracy and efficiency. The results show that, the performance of PSTD seems to be not sensitive to variation of window functions. The number of the connection layer required decreases with the increasing of spatial resolution, where for spatial resolution of 24 grids per wavelength, a 6-layer region is thick enough. The scattering phase matrices and integral scattering parameters obtained by the improved PSTD show an excellent consistency with those well-tested models for spherical and nonspherical particles, illustrating that the weighted TF/SF technique can introduce the incident precisely. The weighted TF/SF technique shows higher computational efficiency than pure scattering technique.

  9. Model of homogeneous nucleus. Total and inelastic cross sections of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the nucleon-nuckleus scattering amplitude at high energy can be easily calculated by generalization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and satisfies a simple factorization relation. As distinct from the Glauber model, the suggested approach makes no use of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus and the hadron-nucleus scattering amplitude is not expressed in terms of hadron-nucleon scattering amplitudes. The energy dependence of total and inelastic cross sections is successfully described for a number of nuclei

  10. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Beam loss due to the aperture limitation resulting from intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion equation is used to evaluate the beam loss in the presence of aperture limitation resulting from the intrabeam scattering. We discuss the effect of different boundary conditions. Satisfactory beam intensity can be maintained within the proposed RHIC operation time

  12. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  13. Inversion of the total cross sections for electron-molecule and electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun, D.R.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Inverse scattering theory has been applied to construct the interaction potentials from total cross sections as a function of energy for electrons scattered off of atoms and molecules. The underlying potentials are assumed to be real and energy independent and are evaluated using the Eikonal approximation and with real phase shifts determined from the total cross sections. The inversion potentials have been determined using either a high energy limit approximation or by using a fixed energy inversion method at select energies. These procedures have been used to analyse e - - CH 4 , e - - SiH 4 , e - -Kr and e - -Xe scattering data in particular. 14 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Calculation of total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by primary benzene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Naghma, Rahla; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-01

    The total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by benzene, halobenzenes, toluene, aniline, and phenol are reported over a wide energy domain. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential method has been employed to find the total elastic and inelastic cross sections. The total ionization cross section is estimated from total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionization contribution method. In the present article, the first theoretical calculations for electron impact total and ionization cross section have been performed for most of the targets having numerous practical applications. A reasonable agreement is obtained compared to existing experimental observations for all the targets reported here, especially for the total cross section.

  15. Calculation of total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by primary benzene compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suvam; Naghma, Rahla; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2016-07-21

    The total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by benzene, halobenzenes, toluene, aniline, and phenol are reported over a wide energy domain. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential method has been employed to find the total elastic and inelastic cross sections. The total ionization cross section is estimated from total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionization contribution method. In the present article, the first theoretical calculations for electron impact total and ionization cross section have been performed for most of the targets having numerous practical applications. A reasonable agreement is obtained compared to existing experimental observations for all the targets reported here, especially for the total cross section.

  16. 'Shrink' losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M

    2016-01-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure analysis of liquids and disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction and total scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction·total scattering at pulsed neutron source is a powerful method to analyze the complex structure of disordered materials: liquids, glasses, amorphous materials and disordered crystals. The basic idea of the structure of disordered materials, the fundamental diffraction theory for disordered materials, and structure analysis of disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction·total scattering technique (TOF method) are described in detail. In addition, the precise information of the world highest class J-PARC MLF spallation neutron source and typical J-PARC neutron total scattering instrument NOVA are also given. Recent structural modelling methods of disordered materials such like reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation method is briefly described using an example of the analysis of a typical disordered material silica glass. (author)

  18. Spin-flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.; Tosatti, E.

    1981-08-01

    We calculate the spin polarization occuring during electron inelastic scattering from electron-hole pairs in a model ferromagnetic metal. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modeling Fsub(e). The possibilities of comparison with experiments in the presence of simultaneous spin-polarizing elastic scattering are discussed. (author)

  19. Raman scattering and attenuated-total-reflection studies of surface-plasmon polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, K.; Pierce, R.M.; Ushioda, S.; Hemminger, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We have made in situ measurements of attenuated total reflection (ATR) and Raman scattering from a layered structure consisting of a glass prism, a thin silver film, an MgF 2 spacer, and a liquid mixture whose refractive index is matched to that of MgF 2 . When the incident angle of the laser beam coincides with the ATR angle, the surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) of the silver film is excited resonantly and the Raman scattering intensity of the liquid shows a maximum. The same effect is observed at the frequency of the Stokes scattered light. By measuring the decrease of the Raman scattering intensity of the liquid with increase of the thickness of the MgF 2 spacer layer, we have determined the decay length (l/sub d/) of the SPP field into the liquid. The measured value of l/sub d/ = 1539 A agrees with the calculated value, 1534 A

  20. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  1. Effect of finite sample dimensions and total scatter acceptance angle on the gamma ray buildup factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Charanjeet; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous variation of gamma ray buildup factors with absorber thickness (up to 6.5 mfp) and total scatter acceptance angle (which is the sum of incidence and exit beam divergence) in the media of high volume flyash concrete and water was studied experimentally using a point isotropic 137 Cs source

  2. A semi-empirical formula for total cross sections of electron scattering from diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yufang; Sun Jinfeng; Henan Normal Univ., Xinxiang

    1996-01-01

    A fitting formula based on the Born approximation is used to fit the total cross sections for electron scattering by diatomic molecules (CO, N 2 , NO, O 2 and HCl) in the intermediate- and high-energy range. By analyzing the fitted parameters and the total cross sections, we found that the internuclear distance of the constituent atoms plays an important role in the e-diatomic molecule collision process. Thus a new semi-empirical formula has been obtained. There is no free parameter in the formula, and the dependence of the total cross sections on the internuclear distance has been reflected clearly. The total cross sections for electron scattering by CO, N 2 , NO, O 2 and HCl have been calculated over an incident energy range of 10-4000 eV. The results agree well with other available experimental and calculation data. (orig.)

  3. Ethamsylate and blood loss in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, I

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive patients undergoing total hip replacement under epidural anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received 1000 mg of ethamsylate intravenously before induction of anaesthesia. Blood lost during surgery was measured by a colorimetric technique. Closed suction drains were used and all blood lost after operation collected for measurement. Ethamsylate did not decrease the average volumes of blood lost during or after the operation. Neither did it reduce the requirements for blood transfusion. Although there were no side-effects attributable to ethamyslate, there seems to be no indication for its use in total hip replacement under epidural anaesthesia.

  4. Effect of losses on acceleration of energetic particles by diffusive scattering through shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.J.; Morfill, G.E.; Forman, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of local losses on the acceleration of energetic particles by shocks is discussed considering both energy losses of individual particles and damping processes for the scattering hydromagnetic waves. The calculations are all time asymptotic and steady state. For locally plane and infinitely extended shocks, the requirement for acceleration is that the loss time exceed the acceleration time. The resulting modifications of the spatial structure and of the momentum dependence of the cosmic-ray distribution are described. For acceleration to be a local effect within the Galaxy, the local scattering mean free path must be small compared to the effective overall galactic mean free path as deduced from the cosmic-ray escape time. The required strengths of the scattering wave fields are such that neutral molecular clouds do not allow acceleration; in a partially ionized, warm interstellar medium, quite large shock strengths are needed. Such strong shock discontinuities are surrounded by an ionization layer within which Alfven wave damping is presumably negligible. Given the spatial extent of the layer for strong shocks propagating into neutral interstellar clouds, the possibility of localized diffusive acceleration is investigated. The estimated strength and extent of the scattering region is not large enough to confine acceleration within the layer. Rather, it will extend across the whole cloud, whose integrated losses then determine the efficiency

  5. Fast-neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Broad-resolution neutron total cross sections of elemental indium were measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of approx. = 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles in the range 20 to 160 degrees. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  6. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Fast-neutron total cross sections of 103 Rh are measured with 30 to 50 keV resolutions from 0.7 to 4.5 MeV. Differential elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.45 to 3.85 MeV. Scattered-neutron groups corresponding to excited levels at 334 +- 13, 536 +- 7, 648 +- 25, 796 +- 20, 864 +- 22, 1120 +- 22, 1279 +- 50, 1481 +- 27, 1683 +- 39, 1840 +- 79, 1991 +- 71 and 2050 (tentative) keV are observed. An optical-statistical model is derived from the elastic-scattering results. The experimental values are compared with comparable quantities given in the ENDF/B-V evaluation

  7. The justification for the use of table of equivalent squares with respect to reference depth total scatter factor, and phantom scatter factor, for cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of equivalent squares is of great value and importance when determining output and depth dose data for rectangular fields. The variation with field shape of collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S c,p ) were studied using measurements on GWGP 80 cobalt - 60 teletherapy machine at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Measurements of the collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S p ) and total scatter factors (S c, p) were made at the depth of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm in full scatter water phantom for square field side and rectangular fields of varying dimensions. The measurements were done using the source - axis distance (Sad) technique. The values of total scatter factor (S c,p ), phantom scatter factor and collimator scatter factor (S c ) obtained were used to estimate equivalent squares for the rectangular fields at the various depths. The equivalent squares were computed using the method of interpolation which is based on the scatter analysis of these scatter factors and these estimated equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent square fields from BJR (supplement 21) tables of equivalent squares. The research revealed that there were average deviation of 1.5% for smaller rectangular field sizes and 8.8% for elongated rectangular field sizes between the estimated square field sizes and the equivalent square field from BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent square fields. The 8.8% for the elongated rectangular fields is not accepted, though such fields are rarely used in our Hospitals. It was found that the values of the equivalent square at the various depth were very consistent and do not vary with reference depth. These findings confirm that the clinical use of the BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent squares for total scatter factors and phantom scatter related quantities of rectangular fields is

  8. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler BrianM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultraviolet (UV signal transmission undergoes rich scattering and strong absorption by atmospheric particulates. We develop a path loss model for a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS link. The model is built upon probability theory governing random migration of photons in free space, undergoing scattering, in terms of angular direction and distance. The model analytically captures the contributions of different scattering orders. Thus it relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory and provides more realistic results. This allows us to assess the importance of high-order scattering, such as in a thick atmosphere environment, where short range NLOS UV communication is enhanced by hazy or foggy weather. By simulation, it is shown that the model coincides with a previously developed Monte Carlo model. Additional numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of link geometry and atmospheric conditions. The results indicate the inherent tradeoffs in beamwidth, pointing angles, range, absorption, and scattering and so are valuable for NLOS communication system design.

  9. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  10. Universal dependence of the total number albedo of photons on the mean number of photon scatterings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on photon reflection from plane targets based on Monte Carlo simulations performed by the MCNP code. Five materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper are examined in the area of initial photon energies of up to 200 keV. The values of the total number albedo for photons dependent on the initial photon energy or the mean number of photon scatterings are calculated and graphically presented. We have shown that the values of the total number albedo for different target materials, expressed as a function of the mean number of photon scatterings, are in good agreement with each other and can be approximated by simple, universal analytic functions obtained by the least squares method. The accuracy of these analytic appoximations is confirmed by their comparison with the results of PENELOPE and FOTELP Monte Carlo codes.

  11. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  12. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  13. Optimization of loss and gain multilayers for reducing the scattering of a perfect conducting cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Zhong, Yu; Guo-Shu, Zhao; Gang, Sun; Hai-Fei, Si; Zhong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of electromagnetic scattering from a conducting cylinder could be achieved by covering it with optimized multilayers of normal dielectric and plasmonic material. The plasmonic material with intrinsic losses could degrade the cloaking effect. Using a genetic algorithm, we present the optimized design of loss and gain multilayers for reduction of the scattering from a perfect conducting cylinder. This multilayered structure is theoretically and numerically analyzed when the plasmonic material with low loss and high loss respectively is considered. We demonstrate by full-wave simulation that the optimized nonmagnetic gain-loss design can greatly compensate the decreased cloaking effect caused by loss material, which facilitates the realization of practical electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Jinling Institute of Technology, China (Grant No. JIT-B-201426), the Jiangsu Modern Education and Technology Key Project, China (Grant No. 2014-R-31984), the Jiangsu 333 Project Funded Research Project, China (Grant No. BRA2010004), and the University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB520010).

  14. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of 6Li in the few MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 6 Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx. 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;α)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file

  15. Spin flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchetta, C.J.; Tosatti, E.; Yin, S.

    1986-11-01

    A model ferromagnetic metal is used to calculate the spin-polarization which occurs during inelastic electron-metal scattering with the production of an electron-hole pair. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin-flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modelling iron. (author)

  16. Total cross sections for slow-electron (1--20 eV) scattering in solid H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, M.; Sanche, L.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical method is proposed to determine absolute total cross sections per scatterer and related mean free paths for low-energy electron scattering in disordered molecular solid films. The procedure is based on a two-stream multiple-scattering model of the thickness dependence of the film reflectivity for elastic electrons. The expected analytical behavior and accuracy are tested on a model sample whose scattering properties are generated by a Monte Carlo simulation from initially known parameters. The effects of multiple scattering inside the film and at its interfaces are taken into account and discussed. The thickness dependence of the elastic electron reflectivity of H 2 O film condensed at 14 K is reported between 1 and 20 eV incident energy with a spectrometer resolution of 10 MeV. The proposed method is applied to extract from these measurements the energy dependence of the total effective and total inelastic cross sections for electron scattering in amorphous ice

  17. PELINSCA, Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Sections and Polarization by Hauser-Feshbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, C.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Tepel, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Calculates differential and total Cross sections as well as polarization for nuclear elastic scattering of spin 0 or spin 1/2 particles. Calculates Cross sections (differential and total) and decay gamma ray angular correlation for inelastic processes by means of standard Hauser-Feshbach (HF) theory or with modified HF theory including width fluctuation corrections. In elastic scattering optical model parameters may be optimized in a least squares procedure involving experimental measurements. 2 - Method of solution: Schroedinger equation for complex potentials is solved according to Fox-Goodwin method of numerical integration. Coulomb wave functions are calculated by using recurrence relations depending on range of Coulomb and energy parameters. Least squares fits are made using parameter grid and direction of steepest descent. Statistical model calculations are made using closed mathematical expressions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Elastic scattering calculations limited to spin 0 or spin 1/2 particles. Number of partial waves limited to 51. Statistical model calculations on targets with spin less or equal to 5 and with partial waves up to l=6. Not suitable for heavy-ion Hauser- Feshbach calculations without first removing dimensional limitations. Program handles up to 3 reaction types simultaneously, e.g. (p,p), (p,n) and (p,alpha), each reaction channel having up to 33 final nuclear states

  18. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of elemental palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    Neutron total cross sections of palladium are measured from approx. = 0.6 to 4.5 MeV with resolutions of approx. = 30 to 70 keV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV. Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.4 to 3.85 MeV at intervals of 50 to 100 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160/sup 0/. The experimental results are compared with respective quantities given in ENDF/B-V and used to deduce an optical potential that provides a good description of the measured values.

  19. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of elemental palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    Neutron total cross sections of palladium are measured from approx. = 0.6 to 4.5 MeV with resolutions of approx. = 30 to 70 keV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV. Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.4 to 3.85 MeV at intervals of 50 to 100 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 0 . The experimental results are compared with respective quantities given in ENDF/B-V and used to deduce an optical potential that provides a good description of the measured values

  20. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of sup 58 Ni and nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1991-07-01

    The neutron total cross sections of {sup 58}Ni were measured from {approx} 1 to > 10 MeV using white-source techniques. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from {approx} 4.5 to 10 MeV at {approx} 0.5 MeV intervals with {ge} 75 differential values per distribution. Differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured, corresponding to fourteen levels with excitations up to 4.8 MeV. The measured results, combined with relevant values available in the literature, were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels model using both vibrational and rotational coupling schemes. The physical implications of the experimental results nd their interpretation are discussed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive-optical, and coupled-channels models. 61 refs.

  1. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  2. A data reduction program for the linac total-scattering amorphous materials spectrometer (LINDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been written to reduce the data collected on the A.E.R.E., Harwell linac total-scattering spectrometer (TSS) to the differential scattering cross-section. This instrument, used for studying the structure of amorphous materials such as liquids and glasses, has been described in detail. Time-of-flight spectra are recorded by several arrays of detectors at different angles using a pulsed incident neutron beam with a continuous distribution of wavelengths. The program performs all necessary background and container subtractions and also absorption corrections using the method of Paalman and Pings. The incident neutron energy distribution is obtained from the intensity recorded from a standard vanadium sample, enabling the observed differential scattering cross-section dsigma/dΩ (theta, lambda) and the structure factor S(Q) to be obtained. Various sample and vanadium geometries can be analysed by the program and facilities exist for the summation of data sets, smoothing of data, application of Placzek corrections and the output of processed data onto magnetic tape or punched cards. A set of example data is provided and some structure factors are shown with absorption corrections. (author)

  3. Attenuation correction for the HRRT PET-scanner using transmission scatter correction and total variation regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Svarer, Claus; Sibomana, Merence

    2013-01-01

    scatter correction in the μ-map reconstruction and total variation filtering to the transmission processing. Results: Comparing MAP-TR and the new TXTV with gold standard CT-based attenuation correction, we found that TXTV has less bias as compared to MAP-TR. We also compared images acquired at the HRRT......In the standard software for the Siemens high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) positron emission tomography (PET) scanner the most commonly used segmentation in the μ -map reconstruction for human brain scans is maximum a posteriori for transmission (MAP-TR). Bias in the lower cerebellum...

  4. Calculation of total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-02-01

    Total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium are calculated at various energies and compared with experiment. The method use is the coupled-channels-optical method with the equivalent-local polarisation potential, which takes all channels into account. For electrons the calculations are checked by comparison with coupled-channels-optical calculations using a detailed polarisation potential that makes only one approximation, that of weak coupling in the ionisation space. The polarisation potential for positrons includes effects of ionisation and positronium formation. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Blood loss associated with Ring uncemented total knee replacement: comparison between continuous and intermittent suction drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, F W; Ring, P A

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective comparison of blood loss following uncemented total knee replacement, in which either continuous or intermittent suction drainage was used, measured blood loss was significantly greater with continuous drainage. However, a method of calculating actual blood loss demonstrated no significant difference. With intermittent drainage, more blood remains undetected around the knee joint; this technique should therefore be abandoned in favour of continuous suction drainage. PMID:6747978

  6. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20-250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron-furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  7. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-14

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20–250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron–furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  8. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. B.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20–250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron–furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  9. A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2009-10-01

    Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns

  10. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  11. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  12. Direct observation and theory of trajectory-dependent electronic energy losses in medium-energy ion scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, A; Parkinson, G S; Quinn, P D; Muñoz-Márquez, M A; Woodruff, D P; Grande, P L; Schiwietz, G; Bailey, P; Noakes, T C Q

    2009-03-06

    The energy spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H+ ions from the outermost few atomic layers of Cu(111) in different scattering geometries provides direct evidence of trajectory-dependent electronic energy loss. Theoretical simulations, combining standard Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic scattering trajectories with coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter, reproduce the effects well and provide a means for far more complete analysis of medium-energy ion scattering data.

  13. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently (R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 277; R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, NASA-TP-1998-208438), we have extracted nucleon-nucleon (N-N) cross-sections in the medium directly from experiment. The in-medium N-N cross-sections form the basic ingredients of several heavy-ion scattering approaches including the coupled-channel approach developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Here, we investigate the ratio of real to imaginary part of the two-body scattering amplitude in the medium. These ratios are used in combination with the in-medium N-N cross-sections to calculate total proton-nucleus cross-sections. The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  15. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He +58Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Gasques, L.; Morais, M. C.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.; Scarduelli, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Leistenschneider, E.

    2014-11-01

    Elastic scattering measurements of 6He + 58Ni system have been performed at the laboratory energy of 21.7 MeV. The 6He secondary beam was produced by a transfer reaction 9Be (7Li , 6He ) and impinged on 58Ni and 197Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS, installed in the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The elastic angular distribution was obtained in the angular range from 15° to 80° in the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using a hybrid potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  16. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...... to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......-ray Diffraction data with X-ray total scattering with Pair Distribution Function analysis. Powder neutron diffraction will furthermore allow characterization of the cation disorder on the metal sites in the kesterite structure. The nanoparticle ink is also characterized by XRD, EDS, and Raman spectroscopy...

  17. Applications of Total Scattering & Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Birgisson, Steinar; Sommer, Sanna

    structure. At the same time, there is an ongoing debate on whether the SBU is present prior, or during MOF crystallization in MOF chemistry. However, little is known about MOFs formation mechanism. Currently techniques to study the in situ MOF formation process mainly focused on after......-crystallization process, for example in situ XRD and SAXS/WAXS study on MOF formation. However, the pre-crystallization process in the early stage of MOF formation is still unexplored. In this project, total scattering and PDF study will be carried out to explore the MOF formation process in early stage. This includes......Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is constructed by metal-oxide nodes and organic ligands. The formation of different structures of metal-oxide nodes (also called secondary building units, SBU) is crucial for MOF final structures, because the connectivity of SBU greatly influence the final MOF...

  18. Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    1985-01-01

    The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)

  19. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, UCCE Stanislaus, San Joaquin & Merced Counties, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  20. An Evaluation of Intra‑ and Post‑operative Blood Loss in Total Hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... Results: The mean intra‑ and post‑operative blood losses were 1222.7 ... To evaluate blood loss after total hip replacement. 2. To evaluate the .... 12.3. 4.2. 0.1. Median. 400.0. 150.0. 20.0. 3.0. Mode. 400.0. 100.0. 0.0. 3.0. SD.

  1. Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghvaei, A.H.; Shokrollahi, H.; Janghorban, K.; Abiri, H.

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (k b = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (k b = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f 2 ) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f 2 ).

  2. Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K; Bewley, J

    2018-03-20

    Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare. The previous literature on total lameness cost estimates was also summarized. The reviewed studies indicated that previous estimates of total lameness costs are variable and inconsistent in the expenditures and losses they include. Many of the identified expenditure and loss categories require further research to accurately include in total lameness cost estimates. Future research should focus on identifying costs associated with specific lameness conditions, differing lameness severity levels, and differing stages of lactation at onset of lameness to provide better total lameness cost estimates that can be useful for decision making at both the herd and individual cow level.

  3. Attenuation correction for the HRRT PET-scanner using transmission scatter correction and total variation regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sune H; Svarer, Claus; Sibomana, Merence

    2013-09-01

    In the standard software for the Siemens high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) positron emission tomography (PET) scanner the most commonly used segmentation in the μ -map reconstruction for human brain scans is maximum a posteriori for transmission (MAP-TR). Bias in the lower cerebellum and pons in HRRT brain images have been reported. The two main sources of the problem with MAP-TR are poor bone/soft tissue segmentation below the brain and overestimation of bone mass in the skull. We developed the new transmission processing with total variation (TXTV) method that introduces scatter correction in the μ-map reconstruction and total variation filtering to the transmission processing. Comparing MAP-TR and the new TXTV with gold standard CT-based attenuation correction, we found that TXTV has less bias as compared to MAP-TR. We also compared images acquired at the HRRT scanner using TXTV to the GE Advance scanner images and found high quantitative correspondence. TXTV has been used to reconstruct more than 4000 HRRT scans at seven different sites with no reports of biases. TXTV-based reconstruction is recommended for human brain scans on the HRRT.

  4. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.; Whalen, J.F.

    1981-09-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 58 Ni were measured at 25 keV intervals from 0.9 to 4.5 MeV with 50 to 100 keV resolutions. Attention was given to self-shielding corrections to the observed total cross sections. Differential elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured at 50 keV intervals from 1.35 to 4.0 MeV with 50 to 100 keV resolutions. Inelastic excitation of levels at 1.458 +- 0.009, 2.462 +- 0.010, 2.791 +- 0.015, 2.927 +- 0.012 and 3.059 +- 0.025 MeV was observed. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models. A spherical optical-statistical model was found generally descriptive of an energy-average of the experimental results. However, detailed considerations suggested significant contributions from direct-vibrational interactions, particularly associated with the excitation of the first 2+ level

  5. Decisions with Uncertain Consequences-A Total Ordering on Loss-Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Stefan; König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Decisions are often based on imprecise, uncertain or vague information. Likewise, the consequences of an action are often equally unpredictable, thus putting the decision maker into a twofold jeopardy. Assuming that the effects of an action can be modeled by a random variable, then the decision problem boils down to comparing different effects (random variables) by comparing their distribution functions. Although the full space of probability distributions cannot be ordered, a properly restricted subset of distributions can be totally ordered in a practically meaningful way. We call these loss-distributions, since they provide a substitute for the concept of loss-functions in decision theory. This article introduces the theory behind the necessary restrictions and the hereby constructible total ordering on random loss variables, which enables decisions under uncertainty of consequences. Using data obtained from simulations, we demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach.

  6. Decisions with Uncertain Consequences-A Total Ordering on Loss-Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rass

    Full Text Available Decisions are often based on imprecise, uncertain or vague information. Likewise, the consequences of an action are often equally unpredictable, thus putting the decision maker into a twofold jeopardy. Assuming that the effects of an action can be modeled by a random variable, then the decision problem boils down to comparing different effects (random variables by comparing their distribution functions. Although the full space of probability distributions cannot be ordered, a properly restricted subset of distributions can be totally ordered in a practically meaningful way. We call these loss-distributions, since they provide a substitute for the concept of loss-functions in decision theory. This article introduces the theory behind the necessary restrictions and the hereby constructible total ordering on random loss variables, which enables decisions under uncertainty of consequences. Using data obtained from simulations, we demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach.

  7. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  8. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  9. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  10. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  11. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    -I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure.......e., by measuring both the Bragg and diffuse scattering from a sample. This method has rarely been exploited by the non-oxide thermoelectrics community. , , Treating total scattering data by the Pair Distribution Function method is a logical approach to understanding defects, disorder and amorphous components...... to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type...

  12. An Envelope Correlation Formula for (N,N MIMO Antenna Arrays Using Input Scattering Parameters, and Including Power Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. S. Dama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering parameter formulation for the envelope correlation in an (N,N MIMO antenna array has been modified to take the intrinsic antenna power losses into account. This method of calculation provides a major simplification over the use of antenna radiation field patterns. Its accuracy is illustrated in three examples, which also show that the locations of the correlation minima are sensitive to the intrinsic losses.

  13. Preoperative methylprednisolone does not reduce loss of knee-extension strength after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K

    2017-01-01

    tests, rescue analgesic requirements, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) changes. Results - 61 patients completed the follow-up. The loss in quadriceps muscle strength was similar between groups; group MP 1.04 (0.22-1.91) Nm/kg (-89%) vs. group C 1.02 (0.22-1.57) Nm/kg (-88%). Also between......-265) mg/L (p loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response.......Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss...

  14. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  15. Total scattering cross sections and interatomic potentials for neutral hydrogen and helium on some noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Cohen, S.A.

    1985-04-01

    Measurements of energy-dependent scattering cross sections for 30 to 1800 eV D incident on He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, and for 40 to 850 eV He incident on He, Ar, and Kr are presented. They are determined by using the charge-exchange efflux from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak as a source of D or He. These neutrals are passed through a gas-filled scattering cell and detected by a time-of-flight spectrometer. The cross section for scattering greater than the effective angle of the apparatus (approx. =20 mrad) is found by measuring the energy-dependent attenuation of D or He as a function of pressure in the scattering cell. The interatomic potential is extracted from the data

  16. Tolerance to bovine clinical mastitis: Total, direct, and indirect milk losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this paper were to estimate direct and indirect milk losses associated with mastitis. Indirect losses, linked to indirect tolerance, are mediated by the increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC) in response to bacterial infection. Direct losses, linked to weak direct tolerance, are not mediated by the increase in SCC. So far, studies have evaluated milk loss associated with clinical mastitis without considering both components, which may lead to biased estimates of their sum; that is, the total loss in milk. A total of 43,903 test-day records on milk and SCC from 3,716 cows and 5,858 lactations were analyzed with mediation mixed models and health trajectories to estimate the amount of direct, indirect, and total milk losses after adjustment for known and potentially unmeasured (sensitivity analyses) confounding factors. Estimates were formalized under the counterfactual causal theory of causation. In this study, milk losses were mostly mediated by an increase in SCC. They were highest in the first month of lactation, when SCC were highest. Milk losses were estimated at 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1 kg/d in first, second, and third and greater parity, respectively. Two phases described how changes in milk were associated with changes in SCC: on average, one occurred before and one after the day preceding the clinical diagnosis. In both phases, changes in milk were estimated at 1 mg/d per 10 3 cells/mL. After adjusting for known confounders, cow effect accounted for 20.7 and 64.2% of the variation in milk in the first and second phases, respectively. This suggests that deviations from the resilient path were highest during the second phase of inflammation and that selection for cows more tolerant to mastitis is feasible. As discussed herein, epigenetic regulation of macrophage polarization may contribute to the variation in milk observed in the second phase. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV

  18. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Vandervoort, E.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, (Sc,p)fclindet, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied...

  19. Quantifying Blood Loss and Transfusion Risk After Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jared M; Webb, Matthew R; Klika, Alison K; Murray, Trevor G; Barsoum, Wael K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and conversion THA may result in substantial blood loss, sometimes necessitating transfusion. Despite the complexities of the latter, both are grouped in the same category for quality assessment and reimbursement. This study's purpose was to compare both blood loss and transfusion risk in primary and conversion THA and identify their associated predictors. A total of 1616 patients who underwent primary and conversion THA at a single hospital from 2009-2013 were reviewed (primary THA = 1575; conversion THA = 41). Demographics, comorbidities, and perioperative data were collected from electronic records. Blood loss was calculated using a validated method. Transfusion triggers were based on standardized criteria. Separate multivariable regression models for blood loss and transfusion were performed. Conversion THA patients were younger (P = .002), had lower age-adjusted Charlson scores (P = .006), longer surgeries (P quantified in the present study and showed consistent results between the 2 metrics. The differences between these procedures should be addressed during quality assurance because conversion THA is associated with higher resource utilization, which is important in the allocation of resources and tiered reimbursement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 50 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions. In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , they will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|-region, |t| 2 , they plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin states Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied. The relation of pp elastic scattering to the beam polarization measurement at RHIC is also discussed

  1. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  2. Assessment of Corrosion, Fretting, and Material Loss of Retrieved Modular Total Knee Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tranexamic acid for control of blood loss in bilateral total knee replacement in a single stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tranexamic acid (TEA reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA. However, there is not much literature regarding the use of TEA in patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage and the protocols for administration of TEA in such patients are ill-defined. Materials and Methods: We carried out a case control study evaluating the effect of TEA on postoperative hemoglobin (Hb, total drain output, and number of blood units transfused in 52 patients undergoing bilateral TKA in a single stage, and compared it with 56 matched controls who did not receive TEA. Two doses of TEA were administered in doses of 10 mg / kg each (slow intravenous (IV infusion, with the first dose given just before tourniquet release of the first knee and the second dose three hours after the first one. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the total drain output and requirement of allogenic blood transfusion in cases who received TEA, as compared to the controls was observed. The postoperative Hb and Hb at the time of discharge were found to be lower in the control group, and this result was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: TEA administered in patients undergoing single stage bilateral TKA helped reduce total blood loss and decreased allogenic blood transfusion requirements. This might be particularly relevant, where facilities such as autologous reinfusion might not be available.

  4. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, E.A.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Chamon, L.C.; Hussein, M.S.; Moro, A.M.; Arazi, A.; Padron, I.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Assuncao, M.; Barioni, A.; Camargo, O.; Denke, R.Z.; Faria, P.N. de; Pires, K.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The elastic scattering of the radioactive halo nucleus 6 He on 27 Al target was measured at four energies close to the Coulomb barrier using the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) facility. The Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) was used and its diffuseness and imaginary strength were adjusted to fit the elastic scattering angular distributions. Reaction cross-sections were extracted from the optical model fits. The reduced reaction cross-sections of 6 He on 27 Al are similar to those for stable, weakly bound projectiles as 6,7 Li, 9 Be and larger than stable, tightly bound projectile as 16 O on 27 Al

  5. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  6. Blood Loss and Transfusion After Topical Tranexamic Acid Administration in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Bin; Zeng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    There has been much debate and controversy about the safety and efficacy of the topical use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate whether there is less blood loss and lower rates of transfusion after topical tranexamic acid administration in primary TKA. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Embase was undertaken. All randomized, controlled trials and prospective cohort studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid during primary TKA were included. The focus of the analysis was on the outcomes of blood loss results, transfusion rate, and thromboembolic complications. Subgroup analysis was performed when possible. Of 387 studies identified, 16 comprising 1421 patients (1481 knees) were eligible for data extraction and meta-analysis. This study indicated that when compared with the control group, topical application of tranexamic acid significantly reduced total drain output (mean difference, -227.20; 95% confidence interval, -347.11 to -107.30; Ptranexamic acid in primary TKA. Furthermore, the currently available evidence does not support an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism due to tranexamic acid administration. Topical tranexamic acid was effective for reducing postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements without increasing the prevalence of thromboembolic complications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Moments of the Bethe surface and total inelastic x-ray scattering cross sections for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Moments, S(j,K), of the generalized oscillator strength distribution are global properties of the Bethe surface. Apart from S(-1,K) which is related to the Waller-Hartree incoherent scattering factor, little is known about these moments for nonzero K. This paper describes high-accuracy calculations of S(1,K) and S(2,K) for molecular hydrogen. Comparison with experiment is made, and the utility of simple asymptotic approximations is confirmed. The moments are used to calculate differential cross sections for the inelastic scattering of x rays using the constant-momentum-transfer and constant-angle theories of Bonham. These cross sections differ from the Waller-Hartree cross sections at large angles thus demonstrating the importance of making corrections to the Waller-Hartree theory if the incoherent scattering factor S(K) is to be extracted from experimental inelastic cross sections. Total cross sections for scattering of 6- and 7-keV photons from H 2 are compared with synchrotron radiation scattering experiments. The calculations suggest that the Bonham constant-angle cross sections agree best with experiment. However, further experimental and theoretical work is needed to obtain firm conclusions about the limitations of Waller-Hartree theory

  8. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  9. Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Manero, F.

    1996-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron scattering by CO 2 molecules in the energy range 400 endash 5000 eV have been measured with experimental errors of ∼3%. The present results have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the total cross sections on electron energy shows an asymptotic behavior with increasing energies, in agreement with the Born-Bethe approximation. In addition, an analytical formula is provided to extrapolate total cross sections to higher energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1995-01-01

    The author is describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 60 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions .In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , we will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|, |t| ≤ 1.5 (GeV/c) 2 , we plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin stated Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied

  11. Minimizing scatter-losses during pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Awe, Thomas J.; Bliss, David E.; Glinsky, Michael E.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher; Kimmel, Mark W.; Knapp, Patrick; Lewis, Sean M.; Peterson, Kyle; Schollmeier, Marius; Schwarz, Jens; Shores, Jonathon E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Smith, Ian C.; Speas, C. Shane; Vesey, Roger A.; Weis, Matthew R.; Porter, John L.

    2018-02-01

    The size, temporal and spatial shape, and energy content of a laser pulse for the pre-heat phase of magneto-inertial fusion affect the ability to penetrate the window of the laser-entrance-hole and to heat the fuel behind it. High laser intensities and dense targets are subject to laser-plasma-instabilities (LPI), which can lead to an effective loss of pre-heat energy or to pronounced heating of areas that should stay unexposed. While this problem has been the subject of many studies over the last decades, the investigated parameters were typically geared towards traditional laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with densities either at 10% and above or at 1% and below the laser's critical density, electron temperatures of 3-5 keV, and laser powers near (or in excess of) 1 × 1015 W/cm2. In contrast, Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) and Slutz and Vesey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 025003 (2012)] currently operates at 5% of the laser's critical density using much thicker windows (1.5-3.5 μm) than the sub-micron thick windows of traditional ICF hohlraum targets. This article describes the Pecos target area at Sandia National Laboratories using the Z-Beamlet Laser Facility [Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2421 (2005)] as a platform to study laser induced pre-heat for magneto-inertial fusion targets, and the related progress for Sandia's MagLIF program. Forward and backward scattered light were measured and minimized at larger spatial scales with lower densities, temperatures, and powers compared to LPI studies available in literature.

  12. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  13. ATWS analysis for total loss of feedwater sequence in UCN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. D.; Park, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    ATWS is a trip-failed severe accident initiated from the transients like a turbine trip, a control bank withdrawal, and a loss of feedwater which are expected to occur comparatively often (one or two occurrences / year). In this study, an ATWS sequence in Ulchin 3 and 4 is analyzed and the effects of the important systems are studied for accident management purpose using a MIDAS/PK computer code. The MIDAS/PK code has been developed via coupling a point kinetics module with the MELCOR code. The code calculates a primary peak pressure of about 24MPa at 240 seconds for the ATWS initiated by a TLOF (Total Loss of Feedwater) transient. Along with the basic ATWS analysis, several sensitivity runs are performed. From these, the turbines and the safety depressurization system (SDS) are judged to be important. The turbine trip resulting in a loss of offsite power and a RCP trip, degrades primary heat transfer to the secondary sides, and in turn, increases primary coolant temperature which reduces the reactor power due to the negative moderator temperature coefficient. Manual operation of SDS has an effect to lower the primary peak pressure considerably via supplementary depressurization in addition to the PORVs

  14. Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization.

  15. Neutron total, scattering and inelastic gamma-ray cross sections of yttrium at few MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Guenther, P.; Smith, A.; Whalen, J.; McMurray, W.R.; Renan, M.J.; Heerden, I.J. van

    1984-01-01

    Neutron total, scattering and (n; n', γ) cross sections of elemental yttrium ( 89 Y) were measured in the few-MeV region. The neutron total-cross-section measurements were made with broad resolutions from approx.=0.5 to 4.2 MeV in steps of < or approx.0.1 MeV. Neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx.=1.5 to 4.0 MeV, at incident-neutron energy intervals of approx.=50 keV and at ten or more scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees using neutron detection. Inelastic-scattering cross sections were also determined using the (n; n', γ) reaction at incident energies from 1.6 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of 0.1 MeV. Gamma-rays and/or inelastically-scattered neutrons were observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 909.0+-0.5, 1,507.4+-0.3, 1,744.5+-0.3, 2,222.6+-0.5, 2,530+-0.8, 2,566.4+-1.0, 2,622.5+-1.0, 2,871.9+-1.5, 2,880.6+-2.0, 3,067.0+-2.0, 3,107.0+-2.0, 3,140.0+-2.0, 3,410.0+-2.0, 3,450.0+-2.0, 3,504.0+-1.5, 3,514.0+-2.0, 3,556.0+-2.0, 3,619.0+-3.0, 3,629.0+-3.0 and 3,715.0+-3.0 keV. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the spherical-optical-statistical, coupled-channels, and core-coupling models, and in the context of previously reported excited-level structure. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of Elastic Scattering and of Total Cross-Section at the CERN $\\bar{p}p$ Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure elastic scattering and the total cross-section at the $\\bar{p}p$ collider. \\\\ \\\\ Up to 1983 the experimental apparatus was composed of two parts : \\item 1) Telescopes of high accuracy drift and proportional chambers and counters inserted into vertically moveable sections of the vacuum chamber ('Roman pots'), detect elastic scattering in the angular region from .5 mrad up to about 3 mrad. \\item 2) The total inelastic rate is measured with a forward/backward system of drift chambers and counter hodoscopes and the UA2 central detector covering together @= 4@p solid angle. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ With these two set-ups, the measured value of the total cross-section confirms extrapolation with (ln s)|2 behaviour. Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation were measured in the range .03~$<$~-t~$<$~1.6~GeV|2. \\\\ \\\\ From 1984 on, six horizontally moveable ``Roman Pots'' have been installed farther away from the intersection region (up to 100~m). Using an especially desi...

  17. Influence of a variable Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient on the light backscattering in multimode optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyarin, M A; Kotov, O I; Hartog, A H; Liokumovich, L B; Ushakov, N A

    2017-06-01

    The recently developed diffraction technique of analytical investigation of the Rayleigh backscattering produced by an incident fundamental mode in a multimode optical fiber with an arbitrary refractive index profile is supplemented by taking into account the Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient, which could be variable within the fiber cross section. The relative changes in various radial and azimuthal modes' excitation levels, due to some typical radial dependences of this coefficient, are computed for the quadratic- and step-index fibers. It is stated that the excitation efficiency could either rise or decay for different modes. The effect of the variable Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient is shown to be more noticeable in the fibers with a quadratic refractive index profile, whereas it is negligible in actual multimode step-index fibers.

  18. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (ke) and photon scattering correction factor (ksc) are needed. ke factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and ksc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the ke and ksc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  19. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (k e ) and photon scattering correction factor (k sc ) are needed. k e factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and k sc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work k e and k sc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the k e and k sc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  20. Competition Between Radial Loss and EMIC Wave Scattering of MeV Electrons During Strong CME-shock Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M. K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, Z.; Malaspina, D.; Millan, R. M.; Patel, M.; Qin, M.; Shen, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The two strongest storms of Solar Cycle 24, 17 March and 22 June 2015, provide a contrast between magnetospheric response to CME-shocks at equinox and solstice. The 17 March CME-shock initiated storm produced a stronger ring current response with Dst = - 223 nT, while the 22 June CME-shock initiated storm reached a minimum Dst = - 204 nT. The Van Allen Probes ECT instrument measured a dropout in flux for both events which can be characterized by magnetopause loss at higher L values prior to strong recovery1. However, rapid loss is seen at L 3 for the June storm at high energies with maximum drop in the 5.2 MeV channel of the REPT instrument coincident with the observation of EMIC waves in the H+ band by the EMFISIS wave instrument. The rapid time scale of loss can be determined from the 65 minute delay in passage of the Probe A relative to the Probe B spacecraft. The distinct behavior of lower energy electrons at higher L values has been modeled with MHD-test particle simulations, while the rapid loss of higher energy electrons is examined in terms of the minimum resonant energy criterion for EMIC wave scattering, and compared with the timescale for loss due to EMIC wave scattering which has been modeled for other storm events.2 1Baker, D. N., et al. (2016), Highly relativistic radiation belt electron acceleration, transport, and loss: Large solar storm events of March and June 2015, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 6647-6660, doi:10.1002/2016JA022502. 2Li, Z., et al. (2014), Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL 17 January 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: A quantitative comparison of simulation with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8722-8729, doi:10.1002/2014GL062273.

  1. Inelastic energy loss in large angle scattering of Ar9+ ions from Au(1 1 1) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Z.D.; Anton, J.; Bremer, J.H.; Hoffmann, V.; Stolterfoht, N.; Vikor, Gy.; Schuch, R.

    2003-01-01

    The azimuthal angle dependence of the energy loss in large-angle scattering of slow (v∼0.06 a.u.) Ar 9+ ions from a Au(1 1 1) single crystal was investigated. Regarding the kinematics of quasi-single collisions, the smallest energy loss is expected for the azimuthal orientations which correspond to the closest packed atomic row of the crystal. This agrees with the prediction of a trajectory simulation (Marlowe code), but the experimental results don't show such dependence. Thus, we discuss possible inelastic processes as image charge energy gain, electronic energy loss in close collision and the electronic energy loss in the interaction with the electron gas. The observed azimuthal dependence is explained by the change of the electronic stopping power due to the variation of effective electron density sampled by the projectile

  2. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  3. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  4. Use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement: effects on perioperative blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volquind, Daniel; Zardo, Remi Antônio; Winkler, Bruno Costamilan; Londero, Bruno Bertagnolli; Zanelatto, Natália; Leichtweis, Gisele Perondi

    2016-01-01

    The use of tranexamic acid in primary total knee replacement surgeries has been the subject of constant study. The strategies to reduce bleeding are aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusion due to the risks involved. In this study we evaluated the use of tranexamic acid in reducing bleeding, need for blood transfusion, and prevalence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis in primary total knee replacement. 62 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were enrolled in the study, from June 2012 to May 2013, and randomized to receive a single dose of 2.5g of intravenous tranexamic acid (Group TA) or saline (Group GP), 5min before opening the pneumatic tourniquet, respectively. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood loss were recorded 24h after surgery. Deep vein thrombosis was investigated during patient's hospitalization and 15 and 30 days after surgery in review visits. There was no demographic difference between groups. Group TA had 13.89% decreased hematocrit (p=0.925) compared to placebo. Group TA had a decrease of 12.28% (p=0.898) in hemoglobin compared to Group GP. Group TA had a mean decrease of 187.35mL in blood loss (25.32%) compared to group GP (p=0.027). The number of blood transfusions was higher in Group GP (p=0.078). Thromboembolic events were not seen in this study. Tranexamic acid reduced postoperative bleeding without promoting thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    scattering is self -governed, and the distances and angles for different scattering events are conditioned on previous quantities. Therefore, the arrival...solid angle of the receiver determined by the receiver area and distance rn. Note that no integration over rn is needed because it is a function of...www.eurasip.org). This year edition will take place in Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia (Spain), and will be jointly organized by the Centre Tecnològic de

  7. Total electron scattering cross section from pyridine molecules in the energy range 10-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, A. Traoré; Costa, F.; da Silva, F. Ferreira; Limão-Vieira, P.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; García, G.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimental total electron scattering cross-section (TCS) from pyridine (C5H5N) for incident electron energies between 10 and 1000 eV, with experimental uncertainties within 5-10%, as measured with a double electrostatic analyser apparatus. The experimental results are compared with our theoretical calculations performed within the independent atom model complemented with a screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) procedure which has been updated by including interference effects. A good level of agreement is found between both data sources within the experimental uncertainties. The present TCS results for electron impact energy under study contribute, together with other scattering data available in the literature, to achieve a consistent set of cross section data for modelling purposes.

  8. A model for the scattering of high-frequency electromagnetic fields from dielectrics exhibiting thermally-activated electrical losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model (ECM) approach is used to predict the scattering behavior of temperature-activated, electrically lossy dielectric layers. The total electrical response of the dielectric (relaxation + conductive) is given by the ECM and used in combination with transmission line theory to compute reflectance spectra for a Dallenbach layer configuration. The effects of thermally-activated relaxation processes on the scattering properties is discussed. Also, the effect of relaxation and conduction activation energy on the electrical properties of the dielectric is described.

  9. The loss rates of O+ in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y.; Shen, C.

    2014-03-01

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O+ (>300 keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O+ to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O+ are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  10. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300 keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  11. Simulation of total loss of feed water in ATLAS test facility using SPACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Central Research Inst.

    2017-08-15

    A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) with additional failures in ATLAS test facility was analyzed using SPACE code, which is an advanced thermal-hydraulic system analysis code developed by the Korea nuclear industry. Partial failure of the safety injection pumps (SIPs) and the pilot-operated safety relief valves (POSRVs) of pressurizer were selected as additional failures. In order to assess the capability of SPACE code, partial failure was modeled, and compared with results of OECD-ATLAS A3.1 results. Reasonably good agreement with major thermal-hydraulic parameters was obtained by analyzing the transient behavior. From the results, this indicated that SPACE code has capabilities to design extension conditions, and feed and bleed operation using POSRVs and SIPs were effective for RCS cooling capability during TLOFW.

  12. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total blood loss (TBL) and the safety with respect to the re-amputation rate after transtibial amputation (TTA) conducted with and without a tourniquet. METHODS: The study was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary TTA admitted between January...... 2013 and April 2015. All patients with a primary TTA were assessed for inclusion if the amputation was performed because of arteriosclerosis or diabetic complications. All patients underwent a standardized TTA procedure that was performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint and performed...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  13. Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

  14. Comparative study of topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid regarding blood loss in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Zekcer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare topical vs. intravenous tranexamic acid (TA in total knee arthroplasty regarding blood loss and transfusion., Methods: Ninety patients were randomized to receive TA intravenously (20 mg/kg in 100 mL of saline; group IV, topically (1.5 g in 50 mL of saline, sprayed over the operated site, before release of the tourniquet; topical group, or intravenous saline (100 mL with anesthesia; control group. The volume of drained blood in 48, h, the amount of transfused blood, and the serum levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after surgery were evaluated., Results: The groups were similar for gender, age, weight, laterality, and preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p> 0.2. The hemoglobin level dropped in all groups when comparing the preoperative and the 48-h evaluations: the control group decreased 3.8 mg/dL on average, while the IV, group had a decrease of 3.0, and the topical group, of 3.2 (p= 0.019. The difference between the control and IV, groups was confirmed by Bonferroni test (p= 0.020. The difference between the control group and the topical group was not significant (p= 0.130, although there was less reduction in hemoglobin in the topical group; the comparison between the IV, group and the topical group was also not significant (p= 1.000. Conclusion: Using topic and IV, tranexamic acid decreased blood loss and the need for transfusion in total knee arthroplasty. Topical application showed results similar to IV use regarding the need for blood transfusion, but without the possible side effects of IV, administration.

  15. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuing versus discontinuing antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, and/or cerebral ameliorators on perioperative total blood loss in total knee arthroplasty without pneumatic tourniquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyuki Tsukada, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although studies have supported the utility of perioperative continuation of antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, and cerebral ameliorators in most procedures, no study compared total volume of blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA in patients continuing and discontinuing these drugs. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 266 consecutive patients undergoing TKA, and included 67 patients (25.2% taking antiplatelet drugs, vasodilators, or cerebral ameliorators in this study. All TKAs were performed without a pneumatic tourniquet. The primary outcome was perioperative total blood loss calculated from blood volume and change in hemoglobin. As subgroup analysis, we compared perioperative total blood loss in patients taking antiplatelet drugs. Results: There was no significant difference between the continuing group (n = 38 and discontinuing group (n = 29 in terms of the perioperative total blood loss (1025 ± 364 vs 1151 ± 327 mL, respectively; mean difference 126 mL; 95% confidence interval −45 to 298 mL; P = .15. No major bleeding or thrombotic events occurred in either group until postoperative 3-month follow-up. In patients taking antiplatelet drugs (n = 51, no significant difference was observed in the total blood loss between the continuing group (n = 30 and discontinuing group (n = 21 (1056 ± 287 vs 1151 ± 305 mL, respectively; mean difference 95 mL; 95% confidence interval −75 to 264 mL; P = .27. Conclusions: No significant differences in terms of perioperative total blood loss were observed between patients continuing and discontinuing study drugs. Continuing these drugs may be preferable in the perioperative period of TKA. Keywords: Knee, Primary arthroplasty, Bleeding events, Thrombotic events, Noncardiac surgery

  17. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  18. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  19. Cobalt coordination and clustering in alpha-Co(OH)(2) revealed by synchrotron X-ray total scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James R; Kurzman, Joshua A; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E

    2010-09-03

    Structures of layered metal hydroxides are not well described by traditional crystallography. Total scattering from a synthesis-controlled subset of these materials, as described here, reveals that different cobalt coordination polyhedra cluster within each layer on short length scales, offering new insights and approaches for understanding the properties of these and related layered materials. Structures related to that of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)] are ubiquitous in the mineral world and offer a variety of useful functions ranging from catalysis and ion-exchange to sequestration and energy transduction, including applications in batteries. However, it has been difficult to resolve the atomic structure of these layered compounds because interlayer disorder disrupts the long-range periodicity necessary for diffraction-based structure determination. For this reason, traditional unit-cell-based descriptions have remained inaccurate. Here we apply, for the first time to such layered hydroxides, synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods-analyzing both the Bragg and diffuse components-to resolve the intralayer structure of three different alpha-cobalt hydroxides, revealing the nature and distribution of metal site coordination. The different compounds with incorporated chloride ions have been prepared with kinetic control of hydrolysis to yield different ratios of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions within the layers, as confirmed by total scattering. Real-space analyses indicate local clustering of polyhedra within the layers, manifested in the weighted average of different ordered phases with fixed fractions of tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt sites. These results, hidden from an averaged unit-cell description, reveal new structural characteristics that are essential to understanding the origin of fundamental material properties such as color, anion exchange capacity, and magnetic behavior. Our results also provide further insights into the detailed

  20. Cobalt Coordination and Clustering in α-Co(OH)2 Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Total Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, James R.; Kurzman, Joshua A.; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Structures of layered metal hydroxides are not well described by traditional crystallography. Total scattering from a synthesis-controlled subset of these materials, as described here, reveals that different cobalt coordination polyhedra cluster within each layer on short length scales, offering new insights and approaches for understanding the properties of these and related layered materials. Structures related to that of brucite (Mg(OH) 2 ) are ubiquitous in the mineral world and offer a variety of useful functions ranging from catalysis and ion-exchange to sequestration and energy transduction, including applications in batteries. However, it has been difficult to resolve the atomic structure of these layered compounds because interlayer disorder disrupts the long-range periodicity necessary for diffraction-based structure determination. For this reason, traditional unit-cell-based descriptions have remained inaccurate. Here we apply, for the first time to such layered hydroxides, synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods - analyzing both the Bragg and diffuse components - to resolve the intralayer structure of three different α-cobalt hydroxides, revealing the nature and distribution of metal site coordination. The different compounds with incorporated chloride ions have been prepared with kinetic control of hydrolysis to yield different ratios of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions within the layers, as confirmed by total scattering. Real-space analyses indicate local clustering of polyhedra within the layers, manifested in the weighted average of different ordered phases with fixed fractions of tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt sites. These results, hidden from an averaged unit-cell description, reveal new structural characteristics that are essential to understanding the origin of fundamental material properties such as color, anion exchange capacity, and magnetic behavior. Our results also provide further insights into the detailed

  1. Beyond deficit or compensation: new insights on postural control after long-term total visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maitê M; Lemos, Thiago; Imbiriba, Luís A; Ribeiro, Nathalia L; Vargas, Claudia D

    2017-02-01

    Loss of vision is well known to affect postural control in blind subjects. This effect has classically been framed in terms of deficit or compensation depending on whether body sway increases or decreases in comparison with that of sighted subjects with the eyes open. However, studies have shown that postural responses can be modulated by the context and that changes in postural sway may not necessarily mean a worsened or improved postural control. The goal of our study was to test whether balance is affected by the context in blind subjects. Additional to the quantification of center of pressure (COP) displacement, measurements of body motion (COG) and the correspondent net neuromuscular response (COP-COG) were evaluated in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Thirty-eight completely blind and thirty-two sighted subjects participated of this study. The volunteers were asked to stand barefoot on a force platform for 60 s in two different conditions: feet apart and feet together. Sighted participants performed the tests with both the eyes open and eyes closed. Results showed that the COP-COG displacements in the blind group were greater than those of the sighted group with eyes open in almost all conditions tested, but not in eyes closed condition. However, the COP and COG results confirmed that the postural responses were context dependent. Together these results suggest that total visual loss does not just lead to a balance deficit or compensation, but to a specific postural signature that might imply in enhancing COP, COG and/or COP-COG in specific postural conditions.

  2. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  3. Total serum bilirubin levels and sensorineural hearing loss in the US adolescents: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Fu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to investigate whether current levels of total serum bilirubin are associated with different subtypes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescents. A set of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) was used. A subset of 1404 adolescents was sampled for measurements of total serum bilirubin, tympanometry, and average pure tone threshold at low-frequencies (LPTA: 500, 1000, 2000 Hz) or high-frequencies (HPTA: 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz). SNHL was defined as the hearing loss that had type A tympanograms with a peak admittance of 0.3 ml or greater. Associations between serum bilirubin (square-root transformed) and different subtypes of SNHL were evaluated using binary or multinomial logistic regression models with 4-year sampling weights. The bootstrap method was used for estimation of variance and 10-fold cross-validation for assessment of overfitting issue. Total serum bilirubin levels were found to be associated with any high-frequency (HPTA>15 dB in at least one ear, adjusted odds-ratio (OR a )(bootstrap 95% confidence interval) = 3.29(1.31-8.19), p = 0.011), but not with any low-frequency (LPTA>15 dB in at least one ear), SNHL in the US adolescents. Furthermore, high-frequency SNHL with HPTA>15 dB in both ears (bilateral) or HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear, compared to that with HPTA>15 dB in one ear only (unilateral) or HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear, had a stronger association with total serum bilirubin levels (OR a  = 5.37(1.27-22.65), p = 0.022 for bilateral; OR a  = 2.64(0.84-8.25), p = 0.094 for unilateral; OR a  = 5.00(0.95-26.58), p = 0.058 for HPTA≥25 dB in at least one ear; as well as OR a  = 3.06(1.15-8.25), p = 0.025 for HPTA = 15-25 dB in at least one ear). No severe overfitting problems were found. Our findings suggest that current levels of total serum bilirubin may be informative in predicting and/or targeting high-frequency SNHL

  4. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  5. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Tahir, N.A.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Ceban, V.; Fromy, P.; Gilles, D.; Leger, D.; Maynard, G.; Tashev, B.; Volpe, L.

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton

  6. Experimental and theoretical total neutron scattering cross-section of water confined in silica microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhrer, G., E-mail: muhrer@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States); Hartl, M.; Mocko, M.; Tovesson, F.; Daemen, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States)

    2012-07-21

    In the search for moderator materials encapsulated materials have been discussed, but very little is known regarding the effect of encapsulation on neutron moderation properties. As a first step toward a better understanding, we present the measured total neutron cross-section of water confined in silica microspheres and compare the measured data to the predicted theoretical cross-section.

  7. Argon intermolecular potential from a measurement of the total scattering cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.W.

    1975-01-01

    An inversion method to obtain accurate intermolecular potentials from experimental total cross section measurements is presented. This method is based on the high energy Massey--Smith approximation. The attractive portion of the potential is represented by a multi-parameter spline function and the repulsive part by a Morse function. The best fit potential is obtained by a least squares minimization based on comparison of experimental cross sections with those obtained by a Fourier transform of the reduced Massey--Smith phase shift curve. An experimental method was developed to obtain the total cross sections needed for the above inversion procedure. In this technique, integral cross sections are measured at various resolutions and the total cross section is obtained by extrapolating to infinite resolution. Experimental results obtained for the Ar--Ar system are in excellent agreement with total cross sections calculated using the Barker-Fisher-Watts potential. Inversion of the data to obtain a potential distinguishable from the BFW-potential requires an extension of the method based on the Massey--Smith approximation to permit use of JWKB phase shifts and was not attempted

  8. STEAM GENERATOR TUBE INTEGRITY ANALYSIS OF A TOTAL LOSS OF ALL HEAT SINKS ACCIDENT FOR WOLSONG NPP UNIT 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEOK-SOON LIM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS and the steam generator (SG secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  9. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo [Korea Htydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seoungrae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident.

  10. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Analysis of A Total Loss of all Heat Sinks Accident for Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Song, Taeyoung; Chi, Moongoo; Kim, Seoungrae

    2014-01-01

    A total loss of all heat sinks is considered a severe accident with a low probability of occurrence. Following a total loss of all heat sinks, the degasser/condenser relief valves (DCRV) become the sole means available for the depressurization of the primary heat transport system. If a nuclear power plant has a total loss of heat sinks accident, high-temperature steam and differential pressure between the primary heat transport system (PHTS) and the steam generator (SG) secondary side can cause a SG tube creep rupture. To protect the PHTS during a total loss of all heat sinks accident, a sufficient depressurization capability of the degasser/condenser relief valve and the SG tube integrity is very important. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the discharge through these valves is necessary to assess the impact of the PHTS overprotection and the SG tube integrity of the primary circuit. This paper describes the analysis of DCRV discharge capacity and the SG tube integrity under a total loss of all heat sink using the CATHENA code. It was found that the DCRV's discharge capacity is enough to protect the overpressure in the PHTS, and the SG tube integrity is maintained in a total loss of all heat accident

  11. Total loss of CNA1 steam generators feed water simulated with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Edgardo J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the calculations are presented carried out by utilizing the code RELAP5/MOD3, upon the basis of the postulated initial event of total loss of feed water to the two steam generators in the nuclear power plant Atucha 1, CNA1. The evolution of the installation systems during the transient was analyzed in different conditions of availability: condenser, relief valve and safety valves in the secondary system, safety valves in the primary system and system of long-term subsequent cooling. Located in the primary and secondary systems of the installation they turn out to be prominent in this event. Upon this basis the sequences of possible evolution were calculated and those that would conduct the system toward the setting called 'damage to the core' were determined. Also those in which would arrive to a state of 'safe shutdown' were determined. These results were utilized in the verification of the tree of events utilized in the Final Report of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis for the sequence of event T9, made from calculations carried out with the code DINETZ. From this compare some differences were determined and are presented in the modified version of tree of events. (author)

  12. Analysis of Total Loss of Feedwater for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Min; Park, Seok Jeong; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Total Loss of FeedWater (TLOFW) event is an accident that main feedwater and auxiliary feedwater of secondary side are not supplied to steam generators. APR1400 uses the Safety Depressurization and Vent System (SDVS) for the F and B operation and SDVS is designed to perform the rapid depressurization function of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) through the remote manual operation when TLOFW is occurred. If RCS pressure falls below a Safety Injection Pump (SIP) working pressure, it can be possible to start the F and B operation which injects SIP flow to RCS and releases the RCS vapor and two-phase flow through Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves (POSRVs) by opening the POSRVs, and then it can be possible to remove the decay heat. The design requirement of SDVS is that the core water level should be maintained at higher than 2 feet from the top of active core during the F and B operation. The TLOFW analysis was carried out to evaluate the capability of decay heat removal for APR1400 using newly developed SPACE code. The analysis results show that the F and B operation with 2 POSRVs and 2 SIPs and the F and B operation with 4 POSRVs and 4 SIPs meet the SDVS design requirement for the fuel cladding temperature. The comparison with RELAP5 shows good agreement and it validates the applicability of SPACE code for this type of accident analysis.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of total loss of steam generator feed water in WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabotinov, L.; Cadet-Mercier, S.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis is carried out for a WWER-440/V270 with upgraded primary safety valves (replacement of the existing PRZ safety valves with Pilot Operated Relief Valves (PORV) of the type SEBIM (France)) The current analysis is focused on the scenario 'Total Loss of SGs Feed Water' with application of the operator action of primary system 'Feed and Bleed' in order to check the effectiveness of the installed pressurizer SEBIM valves and to verify that the operator can cool down the reactor system and cope with this accident. The calculations have been performed at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) in Fontenay-aux-Roses with the computer code CATHARE 2 Version 1.3L1. CATHARE is a French best estimate thermal-hydraulic program for accident analysis in the light water nuclear reactors, developed with the participation of the IPSN (Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire), CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), Framatome and EdF (Electricite de France). (author)

  14. The lowest order total electromagnetic correction to the deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumeiko, N.M.; Timoshin, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Compact formulae for a total 1-loop electromagnetic corrections, including the contribution of electromagnetic hadron effects to the deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons in the quark-parton model have been obtained. The cases of longitudinal and transverse nucleon polarization are considered in detail. A thorough numerical calculation of corrections to cross sections and polarization asymmetries at muon (electron) energies over the range of 200-2000 GeV (10-16 GeV) has been made. It has been established that the contribution of corrections to the hadron current considerably affects the behaviour of longitudinal asymmetry. A satisfactory agreement is found between the model calculations of corrections to the lepton current and the phenomenological calculation results, which makes it possible to find the total 1-loop correction within the framework of a common approach. (Author)

  15. A mathematical model of weight loss under total starvation: evidence against the thrifty-gene hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2013-01-01

    The thrifty-gene hypothesis (TGH posits that the modern genetic predisposition to obesity stems from a historical past where famine selected for genes that promote efficient fat deposition. It has been previously argued that such a scenario is unfeasible because under such strong selection any gene favouring fat deposition would rapidly move to fixation. Hence, we should all be predisposed to obesity: which we are not. The genetic architecture of obesity that has been revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, however, calls into question such an argument. Obesity is caused by mutations in many hundreds (maybe thousands of genes, each with a very minor, independent and additive impact. Selection on such genes would probably be very weak because the individual advantages they would confer would be very small. Hence, the genetic architecture of the epidemic may indeed be compatible with, and hence support, the TGH. To evaluate whether this is correct, it is necessary to know the likely effects of the identified GWAS alleles on survival during starvation. This would allow definition of their advantage in famine conditions, and hence the likely selection pressure for such alleles to have spread over the time course of human evolution. We constructed a mathematical model of weight loss under total starvation using the established principles of energy balance. Using the model, we found that fatter individuals would indeed survive longer and, at a given body weight, females would survive longer than males, when totally starved. An allele causing deposition of an extra 80 g of fat would result in an extension of life under total starvation by about 1.1–1.6% in an individual with 10 kg of fat and by 0.25–0.27% in an individual carrying 32 kg of fat. A mutation causing a per allele effect of 0.25% would become completely fixed in a population with an effective size of 5 million individuals in 6000 selection events. Because there have probably been about 24

  16. Absolute total electronically elastic differential e--H2 scattering cross-section measurements from 1 to 19 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, J.; Mahgerefteh, M.; Golden, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute e - -H 2 total electronically elastic differential scattering cross sections have been determined from relative scattered-electron angular distribution measurements in the energy range from 1 to 19 eV by comparison to absolute e - -He elastic differential scattering cross sections measured in the same apparatus. Integrated total cross sections have been determined as well. Absolute differences as large as 50% between the present results and some previous results have been found, although the agreement as to shape is quite good in many cases. The present results are generally in excellent agreement with recent full rovibrational laboratory-frame close-coupling calculations

  17. Analytic amplitudes for hadronic forward scattering and the Heisenberg ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Basarab [LPNHE, Unite de Recherche des Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, associee au CNRS, Theory Group, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-07-01

    We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes (the COMPETE analysis), and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, {pi}p, Kp, {gamma}p, {gamma}{gamma}, {sigma}p). Although these parametrizations are very close for {radical}s {>=} 9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term {approx} ln{sup 2} s enables one to extend the fit down to {radical}s = 4 GeV. We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude ({rho} parameter) for present and future pp colliders, and on total cross sections for {gamma}p {yields} hadrons at cosmic-ray energies and for it{gamma}{gamma} {yields} hadrons up to {radical}s = 1 TeV. The ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. We present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-sections data, in agreement with the COMPETE analysis.

  18. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the {sup 6}He+{sup 58}Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, V. [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 35900-030, Itabira (Brazil); Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Gasques, L.; Scarduelli, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Leistenschneider, E. [Depto de Física Nuclear, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Mendes Jr, D. R.; Faria, P. N. de [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pires, K. C. C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, 86300-000, Cornélio Procópio (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Bahia (Brazil); Morais, M. C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Shorto, J. M. B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares- IPEN, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Zamora, J. C. [Departament of Physics, Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-11-11

    Elastic scattering measurements of {sup 6}He + {sup 58}Ni system have been performed at the laboratory energy of 21.7 MeV. The {sup 6}He secondary beam was produced by a transfer reaction {sup 9}Be ({sup 7}Li, {sup 6}He) and impinged on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS, installed in the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The elastic angular distribution was obtained in the angular range from 15° to 80° in the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using a hybrid potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  19. The measurement of antiproton-proton total cross sections and small-angle elastic scattering at low momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linssen, L.H.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis two low-momentum antiproton-proton (anti pp) experiments are described. The first one is a set of 24 high statistics anti pp total cross section measurements as a function of the incoming antiproton momentum between p=388 MeV/c and p=599 MeV/c. These measurements simultaneously yield the charge exchange cross section (anti pp → anti nn). The second one comprises two high statistics anti pp small-angle elastic scattering measurements at p=233 MeV/c and p=272 MeV/c. The measurements were carried out using the high quality antiproton beam extracted from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The physics motivation for these experiments is a search for anti pp resonances or bound states on one hand, and a detailed study of the anti pp interaction on the other hand. (orig.)

  20. Comparision of blood loss between computer assisted and conventional total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Kumar Mohanlal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.

  1. Watching Nanoparticles Form: An In Situ (Small-/Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Total Scattering) Study of the Growth of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia in Supercritical Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Pauw, Brian; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding nanoparticle formation reactions requires multitechnique in situ characterisation, since no single characterisation technique provides adequate information. Here, the first combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/total-scattering study of nano...... of nanoparticle formation is presented. We report on the formation and growth of yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) under the extreme conditions of supercritical methanol for particles with Y2O3 equivalent molar fractions of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 25%....

  2. Inelastic energy loss of light particles scattered by solid surfaces at low energy: influence of the 'gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjema, M.; D'bichi, N.; Boudouma, Y.; Chami, A.C.; Arezki, B.; Khalal, K.; Benazeth, C.; Benoit-Cattin, P.

    2000-01-01

    The energy spectra of particles scattered by solid surfaces are used to determine the inelastic energy loss at low energy. Assuming the binary collision approximation, a modified TRIM code provides length distributions which are converted to time-of-flight (TOF) spectra by using the friction coefficient as an adjustable parameter. Owing to the nonlinear effects occurring in this energy range, the theoretical value of the electronic stopping power is performed from electron-particle scattering cross-section using a screened potential and so, the phase shifts, obtained self-consistently in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). In the case of He/a:Si interaction at 4 keV, the standard model leads to a largely overestimated value. This fact has been attributed to the presence of the electron energy gap E G and to the structure of the valence band. We verify this assumption in a non-static model involving all electrons of the valence band with a threshold condition v e '2 >v F 2 +2E G , where v F is the Fermi velocity and v e the electron velocity after scattering (non-static extended collisional model). The theoretical results agree very well with the experimental ones for He colliding three targets: a:Si, a:Ge and polycrystalline Ni at 4 keV. The calculations performed for the velocity range below 1 a.u. confirm the important role of the gap and the band structure in the lowering of stopping power at low velocity

  3. [Total dream loss secondary to left temporo-occipital brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, J J; Martí Massó, J F

    2006-04-01

    Recently the case of a woman who reported cessation of dreaming after a bilateral PCA stroke but without REM sleep loss has been reported, suggesting that deep bilateral occipital lobe damage including the right inferior lingual gyrus may represent the "minimal lesion extension" necessary for dream loss. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who ceased dreaming after a unilateral left temporo- occipital hematoma. The polysomnographic characteristics in rapid eyes movements (REM) sleep were otherwise normal. Our patient demonstrates that a unilateral left temporo-occipital injury could be sufficient for losing dreams.

  4. Is intraarticular administration of tranexamic acid better than its intravenous administration in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Pispati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been well-established now that intravenous (IV tranexamic acid (TXA is a potent agent to control postoperative blood loss following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Recently, intraarticular administration of this agent has also shown good efficacy for the same. Aims: Comparison of postoperative blood loss between IV and topical administration of TXA in TKAs. Materials and Design: Eighty-six TKAs on knees were included in this study. Randomization was done so that 40 TKA received 1 g of IV TXA, while 46 had intraarticular administration of 1 g TXA. Subjets and Methods: We compared the postoperative blood loss by calculating the difference in pre- and postop hemoglobin and need for blood transfusion. Functional assessment was done on basis of Western Ontario McMaster Osteo-Arthritis Index (WOMAC scores and complications like postoperative infection, oozing from the wound site and thromboembolic manifestations. Results: Blood loss was significantly less in the intraarticular administration group as compared to the IV injection group. Total blood loss, blood transfusion group, and drain output was also less but the difference was not significant. The functional assessment (WOMAC scores were equivocal and so were the complications including thromboembolic manifestations (two cases each of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and no cases of pulmonary embolism (PE. Conclusion: Intraarticular administration of TXA to prevent postoperative blood loss in TKA is a safe and effective alternative/adjunct to its IV administration.

  5. Reverse total shoulder glenoid baseplate stability with superior glenoid bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise J; Duquin, Thomas R; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2017-10-01

    Superior wear of the glenoid bone is common in patients with rotator cuff arthropathy. This can become a treatment challenge for patients who require shoulder arthroplasty. In reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), glenoid bone loss may affect the stability of baseplate fixation. The primary purpose of this biomechanical laboratory study was to assess the initial fixation stability of RSA glenosphere baseplates in the presence of variable amounts of superior glenoid bone loss. High-density solid rigid polyurethane foam (30 pounds/cubic foot) was machined to model the glenoid with variable superior defects that provided different levels of support (100%, 90%, 75%, and 50%) for the glenosphere baseplate. The samples were cyclically loaded (0-750 N at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles) at a 60° glenohumeral angle. The micromotion and migration of the baseplate were calculated from displacement data captured during the loading tests with an array of 3 linear variable differential transformers mounted around the baseplate. Micromotion was significantly greater in samples with 50% defects compared with those with smaller defects. Migration was significantly greater after testing for all defect sizes. Initial fixation of RSA glenosphere baseplates was significantly reduced in models with 50% bone loss on the superior edge compared with models with less bone loss in this high-density bone foam model. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of the integrated analysis of safety (ISA) to sequences of Total loss of feed water in a PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Chamorro, P.; Gallego Diaz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to show the current status of the implementation of integrated analysis of safety (ISA) methodology and its SCAIS associated tool (system of simulation codes for ISA) to the sequence analysis of total loss of feedwater in a PWR reactor model Westinghouse of three loops with large, dry containment.

  7. Can a mathematical model predict an individual's trait-like response to both total and partial sleep loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Lu, Wei; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Rupp, Tracy L; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-06-01

    Humans display a trait-like response to sleep loss. However, it is not known whether this trait-like response can be captured by a mathematical model from only one sleep-loss condition to facilitate neurobehavioural performance prediction of the same individual during a different sleep-loss condition. In this paper, we investigated the extent to which the recently developed unified mathematical model of performance (UMP) captured such trait-like features for different sleep-loss conditions. We used the UMP to develop two sets of individual-specific models for 15 healthy adults who underwent two different sleep-loss challenges (order counterbalanced; separated by 2-4 weeks): (i) 64 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and (ii) chronic sleep restriction (CSR) of 7 days of 3 h nightly time in bed. We then quantified the extent to which models developed using psychomotor vigilance task data under TSD predicted performance data under CSR, and vice versa. The results showed that the models customized to an individual under one sleep-loss condition accurately predicted performance of the same individual under the other condition, yielding, on average, up to 50% improvement over non-individualized, group-average model predictions. This finding supports the notion that the UMP captures an individual's trait-like response to different sleep-loss conditions. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  9. Total loss of the covering of a metallic stent during esophageal leak treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Villarreal-Galvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man underwent a Heller myotomy due to achalasia. An unexpected puncture in the esophageal wall was identified during the procedure. A partially covered 15 cm stent (PSEMS (UltraFlex was placed at the mucosal defect. It was removed 26 days later and the endoscopic image showed esophageal tissue embedded in the covered portion of the stent. PSEMS covering loss is a rare complication that can have serious consequences.

  10. Individualized performance prediction during total sleep deprivation: accounting for trait vulnerability to sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss can be considerable, and thus, recent efforts have focused on developing individualized models for predicting the effects of sleep loss on performance. Individualized models constructed using a Bayesian formulation, which combines an individual's available performance data with a priori performance predictions from a group-average model, typically need at least 40 h of individual data before showing significant improvement over the group-average model predictions. Here, we improve upon the basic Bayesian formulation for developing individualized models by observing that individuals may be classified into three sleep-loss phenotypes: resilient, average, and vulnerable. For each phenotype, we developed a phenotype-specific group-average model and used these models to identify each individual's phenotype. We then used the phenotype-specific models within the Bayesian formulation to make individualized predictions. Results on psychomotor vigilance test data from 48 individuals indicated that, on average, ∼85% of individual phenotypes were accurately identified within 30 h of wakefulness. The percentage improvement of the proposed approach in 10-h-ahead predictions was 16% for resilient subjects and 6% for vulnerable subjects. The trade-off for these improvements was a slight decrease in prediction accuracy for average subjects.

  11. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety.

  12. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  13. Investigation of mean energy losses in quasi-elastic 3Hp scattering at 2'5 GeV/c tritium momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, A.V.; Chuvilo, I.V.; Ergakov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The mean energy losses of fast protons in reaction p+sup(3)H→Psub(F)+X were investigated using the 80 cm liquid hydrogen bubble chamber exposed to a 2.5 GeV/c tritium beam. The experimental results are compared with the predictions based on the sum rule for energy losses which are valid in the multiple scattering theory when the completeness condition for the excited nucleus wave functions is combined with the locality of the nuclear potential

  14. A new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 reduces blood loss in a sheep model of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Alberto; Rojas, Santiago; Arias, Belén; Miquel, Ignasi; Sánchez, Pilar; Ureta, Claudia; Rincón, Esther; López, Ramón; Murat, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with blood loss during the intervention and may require allogenic blood transfusion. Treatments such as tranexamic acid and fibrin sealants improved the bleeding control in several clinical trials, but the hemorrhage associated with the intervention is still significant. Thus far, very few studies have evaluated hemostatic treatments in animal models of total knee arthroplasty. This work describes a sheep model of bleeding associated with total knee arthroplasty and investigates a new class of hemostatic treatment based on recombinant tissue factor. Sheep were treated with the anticoagulant heparin, and the joint was accessed by a paramedial incision. Ligaments and menisci were eliminated and femoral condyles and tibia plateau were sectioned exposing the trabecular bone. An intra-articular drain was used to recover and quantify the blood loss during the 90-min period after treatment. The efficacy of one milligram and three milligrams of TT-173 was evaluated and compared with tranexamic acid. The occurrence of analytical alterations and systemic absorption was also investigated. Treatment with TT-173 reduced the blood loss in comparison with control or tranexamic acid. No significant differences were observed between the two doses evaluated. Moreover, a dose of six milligrams of TT-173 did not induce any clinical or analytical alteration, and significant systemic absorption was not observed. Data obtained strongly suggest that TT-173 could be useful in reducing the blood loss associated with total knee arthroplasty and without safety concerns derived from the systemic absorption of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Boschini, M.J.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivantchenko, V.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Tacconi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

  16. Effects of terraces, surface steps and 'over-specular' reflection due to inelastic energy losses on angular scattering spectra for glancing incidence scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Danailov, D; O'Connor, D J

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments and our molecular-dynamics simulations indicate that the main signal of the angular scattering spectra of glancing incidence scattering are not affected by the thermal motion of surface atoms and can be explained by our row-model with averaged cylindrical potentials. At the ICACS-18 Conference [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164-165 (2000) 583] we reported good agreement between experimental and calculated multimodal azimuthal angular scattering spectra for the glancing scattering of 10 and 15 keV [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 180 (2001) 265, Appl. Surf. Sci. 171 (2001) 113] He sup 0 beam along the [1 0 0] direction on the Fe(1 0 0) face. Our simulations also predicted that in contrast to the 2D angular scattering distribution, the 1D azimuthal angular distribution of scattered particles is very sensitive to the interaction potential used. Here, we report more detailed calculations incorporating the influence of terraces and surface steps on surface channeling, which show a reduction of the angular s...

  17. THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS SIMULATION FOR THE TOTAL POWER LOSSES COMPONENTS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Tugay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal is to optimize a structure of Matlab-model of the three-phase energy supply system with power active filter. The mathematical model that describes the energy supply system modes of operation which contains additional losses is proposed. Methodology. We have applied concepts of the electrical circuits theory, mathematical modeling elements based on linear algebra and vector calculus, mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have developed two models of three-phase energy supply system. The first one is based on a vector representation, and the second one on the matrix representation of energy processes. Using these models we have solved the problem of maintaining unchanged the average useful power for 279 cases of energy supply system modes of operation. Originality. We have developed methods of mathematical analysis of a three-phase energy supply systems with polyharmonic voltages and currents in the symmetric and asymmetric modes. Practical value. We have created Matlab-model of a three-phase energy supply system with automated calculation of a correction factor. It allows reducing more than one order the time for energy processes elucidation in multiphase systems.

  18. Measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering and total cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 546 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swol, R.W. van.

    1985-01-01

    The transformation of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) from a fixed target machine into a colliding beam facility allowed the study of antiproton-proton scattering at a centre-of-mass (CM) energy of 546 GeV. This thesis describes the measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering and the antiproton-proton total cross section, sigmasub(tot)(anti pp), at the CERN anti pp Collider. The aim of the experiment is to establish the considerable rise with energy of the total cross section, which was predicted after the discovery of rising proton-proton total cross sections at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), covering an energy range of 20-60 GeV. The experimental method used for measuring sigmasub(tot)(anti pp) with an accuracy of 1-2% consists of the simultaneous measurement of both the elastic scattering event rate at small scattering angles and the inelastic interaction rate. Using the optical theorem, the total and the elastic cross sections can then be obtained without a determination of the machine luminosity. (Auth.)

  19. Custom total knee replacement in a dog with femoral condylar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Eskelinen, Esa V; Sidebotham, Christopher G; Harrysson, Ola L A; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K

    2007-06-01

    To report surgical planning, technique, and outcome of custom total knee replacement (TKR) performed to manage a medial femoral condylar nonunion in a dog. Clinical case report. A 3-year-old, 20 kg Karelian Bear Hound. Computed tomographic scan of the left pelvic limb was used to build a stereolithography model of the distal portion of the femur. The model was used to create a custom augment to replace the missing medial femoral condyle and a custom stem for intramedullary condylar cemented fixation. The augment and stem were adapted to femoral and tibial components already available. The model was used to rehearse the surgery and then the custom prosthesis was implanted. Weight bearing returned 8 hours after surgery and improved thereafter. Joint alignment was normal and prosthetic joint motion was 60-165 degrees postoperatively. The dog resumed moose hunting 3 months after surgery. Peak vertical force and impulse of the operated limb measured 17 months after surgery were 65% and 47% of the normal, contralateral limb. Based on short-term follow-up, cemented canine TKR was successfully achieved for management of a severely abnormal stifle joint. With further refinement and development of commercially available prostheses, TKR should be possible for canine patients.

  20. Comparison of topical and intravenous administration of tranexamic acid for blood loss control during total joint replacement: Review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi P. Georgiev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many randomised controlled trials and meta-analysis studies have presented the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA without an increase of complications. However, questions still remain about the type of administration, optimal dose and secondary outcomes of TXA in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing information in literature concerning the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use. Methods: A literature review containing 63 articles from the PubMed data starting from the first description of tranexamic acid until now was made in trying to present the existing information in a simple and effective way. Results: TXA leads to statistically significant reduction of peri and postoperative bleeding and in that way decreases blood transfusion rates and the infection risk. Topical and intravenous (IV use of TXA revealed similar results, with no increase of deep venous thrombosis. Therefore, topical TXA could be a reasonable alternative in patients with contraindications for IV application of TXA. Conclusions: Blood loss control with TXA, a synthetic analogue of the amino acid lysine, may be an excellent and safe alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of combined IV and topical administration of TXA with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay. The Translational Potential of this Article: This review briefly presents the pharmacological characteristics of TXA, forms, doses, types of application and contraindications for its use with regard to diminishing blood loss and reducing hospital stay for better therapeutic strategies in orthopaedics. Keywords: Arthroplasty, Review, Tranexamic acid

  1. Process Improvement Project Using Tranexamic Acid Is Cost-Effective in Reducing Blood Loss and Transfusions After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Harry A; Lin, Zilan X; Barfield, William R; Wilson, Sylvia H; Robertson, Dawn C; Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2017-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with decreased blood loss and transfusion after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to examine both transfusion utilization and the economic impact of a Process Improvement Project implementing TXA for THA and TKA. After standardization of TXA administration in THA and TKA patients, retrospective data were compared from 12 consecutive months before (group A, n = 336 procedures) and after (group B, n = 436 procedures) project initiation. TXA administration increased with project implementation (group A = 3.57%, group B = 86.01%) and was associated with reductions in perioperative hemoglobin decrement (20.2%), patients transfused (45%), and number of units transfused per patient (61.9%). Cost savings were notable per patient ($128) and annually program wide ($55,884) with the primary THA subgroup contributing the most to the savings. No increase in adverse effects was observed. Standardized administration of TXA is an effective and economically favorable blood-reduction strategy for patients undergoing elective THA or TKA. Although reduction in transfusions with TXA may be greater after TKA, the economic and clinical impact of transfusion reduction is more substantial in THA patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possibilities and consequences of the Total Cumulative Exergy Loss method in improving the sustainability of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stougie, Lydia; Kooi, Hedzer J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The TCExL method can be applied to all kinds of technological systems. • All exergy losses during the lifetime of a technological system are considered. • The results of the TCExL method are independent of time and weighting factors. • Applying the TCExL method can improve the sustainability of power generation. • The system with the lowest TCExL score is not always economically favourable. - Abstract: It is difficult to decide which power generation system is the most sustainable when environmental, economic and social sustainability aspects are taken into account. Problems with conventional environmental sustainability assessment methods are that no consensus exists about the applied models and weighting factors and that exergy losses are not considered. Economic sustainability assessment methods do not lead to results that are independent of time because they are influenced by market developments, while social sustainability assessment methods suffer from the availability and qualitative or semi-quantitative nature of data. Existing exergy analysis methods do not take into account all exergy losses and/or are extended with factors or equations that are not commonly accepted. The new Total Cumulative Exergy Loss (TCExL) method is based on fundamental thermodynamic equations and takes into account all exergy losses caused by a technological system during its life cycle, i.e. internal exergy losses, exergy losses caused by emission abatement and exergy losses related to land use. The development of the TCExL method is presented as well as the application of this method and environmental, economic and social sustainability assessment methods to two case studies: power generation in combination with LNG evaporation and Fossil versus renewable energy sources for power generation. According to the results of the assessments, large differences exist between the environmental sustainability assessment and TCExL methods in the sense that different

  3. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    To support the development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model usable in Riskinformed Applications (RIA) for Korea Standard Nuclear power Plants (KSNP), we have performed a thermal hydraulic analysis of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a 2-inch Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI). The present study focuses on the estimation of the success criteria of ASC, and the enhanced understanding of the detailed thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The results have shown that the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure can be reduced to the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) operation conditions without core damage. It was also shown that more relaxed success criteria compared to those in the previous PSA models of KSNP could be used in the new PSA model. However, it was found that the results could be affected by various parameters related with ASC operation, i.e., reference temperature for the calculation of the cooldown rate and its control method

  4. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in small break loss of coolant accident with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Yang, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). To use RIA, the present study focuses on the detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success criteria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The accident scenario was 2 inch coldleg break LOCA without HPSI, with 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI), and performing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C /hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip, which successively reaches the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that operator should maintain the adequate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate uncertainties arisen from the related parameters of the ASC operation

  5. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Moshari; Bahman Malek; Mohammadreza Minator-Sajjadi; Maryam Vosoghian; Mastaneh Dahi; Mahshid Ghasemi; Razieh Shekari

    2018-01-01

    AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion), were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B) of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (...

  6. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  7. Evaluation of feed and bleed cooling mode in case of total loss of feedwater on 900 MWe PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, M.; Cornille, Y.

    1989-07-01

    The physical studies carried out with the CATHARE code to assess the feed and bleed procedure developed in order to cope with the total loss of feed water on a 900 MWe PWR are presented. These studies allowed the definition of the maximum delays of intervention which would prevent the core from uncovering. Different cases of equipment availability are considered. The data generated will be used in the 900 MWe Probabilistic Safety Assessment which is under way at the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

  8. Comparison of Two Methods of Bolus and Infusion of Tranexamic Acid in Reduction of Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Moshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: So far, many studies have been performed to determine the optimal dose and regimen of tranexamic acid to reduce preoperative and postoperative blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty. In the present study, two different methods of administration (bolus and infusion, were compared.Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomized in the two groups (A and B of 20 patients each. All patients received 500 mg tranexamic acid before inflation of tourniquet. Group A (mean age, 64± 6.1 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid 10 minutes before loosening of tourniquet and group B (mean age, 63.5 ± 7.7 years received 500 mg tranexamic acid through IV infusion during 6 hours from the time of tourniquet loosening (total dose of TA, 1 g in both groups. Intraoperative blood loss,postoperative drainage (in 6 and 12 hours, blood transfusion (in 48 hours, and decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin (6 and 12 hours later, were compared between the two groups.Results: The patients in group B had lower intra- and postoperative blood loss in 6 and 12 hours and also had lower decrease in hemoglobin, and their packed cell transfusion rate was significantly lower compared to the group A.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that infusion administration of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty, was more effective in the reduction of perioperative blood loss as well as need for blood transfusion in 48 hours.

  9. Total electron scattering cross sections of molecules containing H, C, N, O and F in the energy range 0.2–6.0 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, Meera Devi; Ariyasinghe, W.M., E-mail: wickram_ariyasinghe@baylor.edu

    2017-03-15

    Based on the effective atomic total electron scattering cross sections (EATCS) of atoms in a molecular environment, a simple model is proposed to predict the total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of H, C, N, O, and F containing molecules. The EATCS for these five atoms are reported for 0.2–6.0 keV energies. The predicted TCS by this model are compared with experimental TCS in the literature. The experimental TCS of CHF{sub 3}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 4}F{sub 6}, and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} have been obtained for 0.2–4.5 keV electrons by measuring the attenuation of the electron beam through a gas cell.

  10. Elastic scattering of. pi. /sup -/ mesons on protons in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region at 33-60 GeV/c. [Total and differential cross sections,scattering amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apokin, V D; Vasiliev, A N; Derevshchikov, A A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Mysnik, A I; Nurushev, S B; Saraykin, A I; Siksin, V V; Smirnov, E V [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1976-04-19

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of negative pions on protons, as well as total cross sections have been measured for the incident momentum range from 33 up to 60 GeV/c. The values for four-momentum transfer were within the limits of -(10/sup -3/-8x10/sup -2/) (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The energy dependence of the ratio rho(0) of the real part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude to the imaginary part has been determined from the experimental data. The magnitude rho(0) smoothly increases from (-10.9+-1.2)% at momenta 33.52 GeV/c up to (-1.8+-1.8)% at 59.4 GeV/c. The results obtained are compared with the predictions of theoretical models.

  11. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  12. Investigation of the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation we study the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data. The parametrization used for the hadron-hadron total cross sections at high energy is inspired by recent results obtained by Giordano and Meggiolaro [J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2014) 002, 10.1007/JHEP03(2014)002] using a nonperturbative approach in the framework of QCD, and it reads σtot˜B ln2s +C ln s ln ln s . We critically investigate if B and C can be obtained by means of best-fits to data for proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering, including recent data obtained at the LHC, and also to data for other meson-baryon and baryon-baryon scattering processes. In particular, following the above-mentioned nonperturbative QCD approach, we also consider fits where the parameters B and C are set to B =κ Bth and C =κ Cth, where Bth and Cth are universal quantities related to the QCD stable spectrum, while κ (treated as an extra free parameter) is related to the asymptotic value of the ratio σel/σtot. Different possible scenarios are then considered and compared.

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-03-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  14. High resolution measurements of the He-He total scattering cross section for reduced collision energies between 0.2 and 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltgen, R.; Koehler, K.A.; Pauly, H.; Torello, F.; Vehmeyer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy dependence of the total scattering cross section is measured for the isotopic systems He 4 -He 4 and He 3 -He 3 using a velocity selected He primary beam and a He target in a scattering chamber maintained at 1.57 deg K. In the low energy region both systems show a pronounced atomic Ramsauer-Townsend effect. At higher energies 13 backward glory extrema in the case of He 4 -He 4 and 10 extrema for He 3 -He 3 are observed. From these extrema the energy dependence of the s-phase shift can be derived. Applying the semiclassical inversion method proposed by Miller it is possible to compute the repulsive potential in the energy range of the measurement

  15. The Structure of Nuclei Joint Analysis of Elastic, Inelastic Scattering and Total Reactions Cross-Sections for ^{90,94}Zr-Particles Data

    CERN Document Server

    Duysebaev, A D; Kuchtina, I N; Sadykov, B M; Slusarenko, L I; Tokarevsky, V V; Fayans, S A

    2001-01-01

    A complex analysis of experimental data of elastic, inelastic scattering and total reactions cross-sections of alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei is performed. Values of the deformation lengths and neutron-proton multipole matrix elements relations for 2_{1}^{+}- and 3_{1}^{+}-states of ^{90,92,94,96}Zr nuclei for different types of particles are obtained. A comparative analysis is made. Experimental data for inelastic scattering of 35.4, 40.0, 50.1 and 65.0 MeV alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei are analysed for understanding the phase shifts in frames of the unified approach.

  16. Charge dependence of the ratio of double to total ionization of a helium-like ion by Compton scattering of a high energy photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suric, T.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the charge (Z) dependence of the nonrelativistic high energy limit for the double to total ionization ratio by Compton scattering of a photon, as well as by the photoeffect, utilizing our approach based on the impulse approximation or on the generalized shake-off theory. For all Z our high energy Compton ratio is about half the corresponding photoeffect ratio, calculated using the same assumptions or, alternatively, the ratio of double ionization by Compton scattering to double ionization by the photoeffect is about half the ratio for single ionization. We conclude that all current Compton calculations are consistent with this result, and we show that the recent calculation of Amusia and Mikhailov [Phys. Lett. A 199 (1995) 209] corresponds to our high Z results. (orig.)

  17. Study of elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV. [Total and differential cross sections, scattering yields, scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, M.J.

    1979-05-01

    Elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV is analyzed and compared with an optical model theory which incorporates a pion--nucleon range. Excellent fits to the data are obtained in all but one case. The fitted values of the pion--nucleon range, as well as other fitted values are listed. 108 references.

  18. A randomized trial of the effect of low dose epinephrine infusion in addition to tranexamic acid on blood loss during total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Ø.; Grevstad, U.; Mandoe, H.

    2016-01-01

    procedure. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) was administered to all subjects. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss directly measured by drains and weighing swabs. Secondary outcome was total blood loss at 24 h postoperatively calculated using the Gross formula. Results: Of 106 subjects...

  19. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  1. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  2. Total scattering and pair distribution function analysis in modelling disorder in PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Whitfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF analysis of total scattering (TS from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3 has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS. While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separation distances and the fact that 〈110〉 Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½, whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.

  3. Total scattering and pair distribution function analysis in modelling disorder in PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J.; Welberry, T. Richard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separation distances and the fact that 〈110〉 Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF. PMID:26870378

  4. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, T. Csörgő for the TOTEM; :; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV^2. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV^2,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cros...

  5. Measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, R.A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajıcek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macrı, M.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Rodrıguez, F.L.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vıtek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, under various beam and background conditions, luminosities, and Roman Pot positions, TOTEM has measured the differential cross-section for proton-proton elastic scattering as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared t. The results of the different analyses are in excellent agreement demonstrating no sizeable dependence on the beam conditions. Due to the very close approach of the Roman Pot detectors to the beam center ( around 5 $\\sigma$ beam) in a dedicated run with $\\beta$* = 90m, abs(t)-values down to 5 10**-3 GeV**2 were reached. The exponential slope of the differential elastic cross-section in this newly explored abs(t)-region remained unchanged and thus an exponential fit with only one constant B = (19.90+/-0.3)GeV-2 over the large abs(t)-range from 0.005 to 0.2GeV**2 describes the differential distribution well. The high precision of the measurement and the large fit range lead to an error on the slope parameter B which is remarkably small compared to p...

  6. Benefits of bariatric surgery before elective total joint arthroplasty: is there a role for weight loss optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Emanuel E; Santos, Tyler M; Topolski, Mark S; Borgert, Andrew J; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N

    2017-03-01

    The association between obesity and osteoarthritis is well established, as is the increased risk of postoperative complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) among patients with obesity. To evaluate the outcomes after TKA/THA based on whether the surgery was performed before or after bariatric surgery. Integrated, multispecialty, community teaching hospital. The medical records of all patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2001 to 2014 were reviewed. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test and t tests. A P valuebariatric procedure, 66 underwent TKA/THA after their bariatric procedure. TKAs/THAs were performed at a mean of 4.9±3.2 years before and 4.3±3.3 years after bariatric surgery. Body mass index for those undergoing TKA/THA after bariatric surgery was lower than those with TKA/THA before bariatric surgery (37.6±7.4 versus 43.7±5.7 kg/m 2 ; Pbariatric surgery: 81.7±33.9 min versus 117±38.1 min; Pbariatric surgery. Patients who underwent TKA/THA after bariatric surgery had lower body mass index before and 1 year after TKA/THA. Postoperative complication rates were similar. Benefits of bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss should be considered among patients with obesity requiring TKA/THA. Optimal timing of TKA/THA and bariatric surgery has yet to be established. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance evaluation of a biomass boiler on the basis of heat loss method and total heat values of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Alvi, J.Z.; Ashfaq, S.; Ghafoor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan being an agricultural country has large resources of biomass in the form of crop residues like wood, wheat straw, rice husk, cotton sticks and bagasse. Power generation using biomass offers an excellent opportunity to overcome current scenario of energy crises. Of the all biomass resources, bagasse is one of the potential energy sources which can be successfully utilized for power generation. During the last decade, bagasse fired boilers attained major importance due to increasing prices of primary energy (e.g. fossil fuels). Performance of a bagasse fired boiler was evaluated at Shakarganj Sugar Mill, Bhone-Jhang having steam generation capacity of 80 tons h/sup -1/at 25 bar working pressure. The unit was forced circulation and bi-drum type water tube boiler which was equipped with all accessories like air heater, economizer and super-heater. Flue gas analyzer and thermocouples were used to record percent composition and temperature of flue gases respectively. Physical analysis of bagasse showed gross calorific value of bagasse as 2326 kCal kg/sup -1/. Ultimate analysis of bagasse was performed and the actual air supplied to the boiler was calculated to be 4.05 kg per kg of bagasse under the available resources of the plant. Performance evaluation of the boiler was carried out and a complete heat balance sheet was prepared to investigate the different sources of heat losses. The efficiency of the boiler was evaluated on the basis of heat losses through boiler and was found to be 56.08%. It was also determined that 2 kg of steam produced from 1 kg of bagasse under existing condition of the boiler. The performance evaluation of the boiler was also done on the basis of total heat values of steam and found to be 55.98%. The results obtained from both the methods were found almost similar. Effects of excess air, stack and ambient temperature on the efficiency of boiler have also been evaluated and presented in the manuscript. (author)

  8. FORTRAN 4 programs for the extraction of potential well parameters from the energy dependence of total elastic scattering cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to keep the programs as subroutine oriented as possible. Usually only the main programs are directly concerned with the problem of total cross sections. In particular the subroutines POLFIT, BILINR, GASS59/MAXLIK, SYMOR, MATIN, STUDNT, DNTERP, DIFTAB, FORDIF, EPSALG, REGFAL and ADSIMP are completely general, and are concerned only with the problems of numerical analysis and statistics. Each subroutine is independently documented.

  9. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  10. The longitudinal trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss among middle-aged women who had undergone bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Chul Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Middle-aged women are at a higher risk of being obese. We examined the trajectory of post-surgical % total weight loss (%TWL among middle-aged female bariatric patients. We fitted sequential generalized estimating equations models to analyze a sample of women who received bariatric surgery in 1995–2012, aged 40–65 years at the time of surgery (N = 158,292 whose pre-operative body mass index (BMI was ≥30 kg/m2 in the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. The %TWL computed by 100% × (pre-surgery BMI − post-surgery BMI / pre-surgery BMI showed different trajectories depending on type of surgery. For gastric banding, %TWL increased rapidly right after bariatric surgery and started to decrease around 1 year after surgery. For Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy, %TWL overall did not show remarkable changes from around 1 year after surgery. The highest increase in %TWL was observed in patients whose pre-operative BMI was 40 or higher and those who had undergone RYGB (ps < 0.001. Whereas the trajectories of %TWL among patients with sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding did not differ much between different pre-operative BMI groups, the trajectories for RYGB were notably different between different pre-operative BMI groups (ps < 0.001. Middle-aged female bariatric patients are likely to achieve the highest %TWL if they receive RYGB and if their pre-operative BMI is 40 or higher. Further research is warranted to corroborate the present study's finding on the long-term effect of different types of bariatric surgery on %TWL among middle-aged women.

  11. Interfacial phonon scattering and transmission loss in >1 μm thick silicon-on-insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas; Huang, Xi; Koh, Yee Kan

    2018-05-01

    Scattering of phonons at boundaries of a crystal (grains, surfaces, or solid/solid interfaces) is characterized by the phonon wavelength, the angle of incidence, and the interface roughness, as historically evaluated using a specularity parameter p formulated by Ziman [Electrons and Phonons (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960)]. This parameter was initially defined to determine the probability of a phonon specularly reflecting or diffusely scattering from the rough surface of a material. The validity of Ziman's theory as extended to solid/solid interfaces has not been previously validated. To better understand the interfacial scattering of phonons and to test the validity of Ziman's theory, we precisely measured the in-plane thermal conductivity of a series of Si films in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) for a Si film thickness range of 1-10 μm and a temperature range of 100-300 K. The Si /SiO2 interface roughness was determined to be 0.11 ±0.04 nm using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, we compared our in-plane thermal conductivity measurements to theoretical calculations that combine first-principles phonon transport with Ziman's theory. Calculations using Ziman's specularity parameter significantly overestimate values from the TDTR measurements. We attribute this discrepancy to phonon transmission through the solid/solid interface into the substrate, which is not accounted for by Ziman's theory for surfaces. The phonons that are specularly transmitted into an amorphous layer will be sufficiently randomized by the time they come back to the crystalline Si layer, the effect of which is practically equivalent to a diffuse reflection at the interface. We derive a simple expression for the specularity parameter at solid/amorphous interfaces and achieve good agreement between calculations and measurement values.

  12. Missing mass spectra in pp inelastic scattering at total energies of 23 GeV and 31 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the momentum spectra of protons emitted at small angles in inelastic reactions at the CERN ISR. The data are for total energies s/sup 1///sub 2/ of 23 GeV and 31 GeV. The structure of the peak at low values of the missing mass M (of the system recoiling against the observed proton) is studied. The missing mass distributions have the form (M/sup 2/)-/sup B(t)/ where t is the four-momentum transfer squared. B(t) drops from 0.98+or-0.06 at t=-0.15 GeV/sup 2/ to 0.20+or-0.15 at t=-1.65 GeV/sup 2/. The results are compared with a simple triple-Regge formula. (12 refs).

  13. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  14. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  15. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions as measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, Tamás; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, M R; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Magaletti, L; Magazzù, G; Mercadante, A; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Novák, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Perrot, A-L; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV$^2$. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV$^2$,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is measured to be $(98.3 \\pm 0.2^{stat} \\pm 2.8^{syst})$ mb.

  16. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p Reactions --As Measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at √{s} = 7 TeV--

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörgő, T.; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, M. R.; Janda, M.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Magazzù, G.; Mercadante, A.; Meucci, M.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pedreschi, E.; PetäJäjärvi, J.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vítek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Totem Collaboration

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEMexperiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at √{s} = 7 TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV^{2}. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV^2, and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at √{s} = 7 TeV is measured to be (98.3 ± 0.2^{stat} ± 2.8^{syst}) mb.

  17. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Application of the integrated analysis of safety (IAS) to sequences of Total loss of feed water in a PWR Reactor; Aplicacion del Analisis Integrado de Seguridad (ISA) a Secuencias de Perdidas Total de Agua de Alimentacion en un Reactor PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Chamorro, P.; Gallego Diaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to show the current status of the implementation of integrated analysis of safety (IAS) methodology and its SCAIS associated tool (system of simulation codes for IAS) to the sequence analysis of total loss of feedwater in a PWR reactor model Westinghouse of three loops with large, dry containment.

  19. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  20. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizei, Luiz H.G.; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission.

  2. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    estimated 5097 1+ yr-old caribou in 1980 to fewer than 100 1+ yr-old caribou in 1995 (Gunn & Decker, 1984; Miller, 1997; Gunn & Dragon, 1998; Gunn et al., 2006. This loss of caribou on those islands amounts to a near-total loss of a genetically distinctive group of Arctic-island caribou (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. In contrast, the estimated number of caribou in the geographic population on Boothia Peninsula appeared to increase by 1.4-fold from 4831 to 6658 1+ yr-old caribou between 1985 and 1995, although annual harvesting pressure was heavy. It was biologically impossible for the Boothia Peninsula geographic population at its 1985 estimated size to have persisted until 1995, let alone to have increased, under the estimated average annual harvest regime of 1100 1+ yr-old caribou • yr-1. There is no evidence that the Boothia Peninsula population was underestimated in 1985. It would have required a population in 1985 at least twice as great as the calculated estimate to sustain the estimated annual harvest between 1985 and 1995. An underestimate of such magnitude is too great to be probable. In our examination of the survey results, we could find no reason to question that the calculated population estimates were not reasonable approximations. The fixed-wing aerial surveys in 1980 (Gunn & Decker, 1984, 1985 (Gunn & Ashevak, 1990, and 1995 (Gunn & Dragon, 1998 were highly comparable, well designed and executed, using standard procedures for a fixed-width, strip-transect, systematic aerial survey of caribou. One of the two observers was the same experienced survey biologist in all 3 years, the second observer in 1980 was an experienced survey biologist and in 1985 and 1995 was an experienced Inuit hunter familiar with the area, and the pilot was the same on all surveys and had flown many systematic surveys of caribou on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and mainland Canada. Helicopter searches of known caribou ranges on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands that were

  3. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  4. Analysis of total productive maintenance (TPM) implementation using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and six big losses: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martomo, Zenithia Intan; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo

    2018-02-01

    In improving the productivity of the machine, the management of the decision or maintenance policy must be appropriate. In Spinning II unit at PT Apac Inti Corpora, there are 124 ring frame machines that often have breakdown and cause a high downtime so that the production target is not achieved, so this research was conducted on the ring frame machine. This study aims to measure the value of equipment effectiveness, find the root cause of the problem and provide suggestions for improvement. This research begins with measuring the achievement of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) value, then identifying the six big losses that occur. The results show that the average value of OEE in the ring frame machine is 79.96%, the effectiveness value is quite low because the standard of OEE value for world class company ideally is 85%. The biggest factor that influences the low value of OEE is performance rate with percentage factor six big losses at reduced speed losses of 17.303% of all time loss. Proposed improvement actions are the application of autonomous maintenance, providing training for operators and maintenance technicians and supervising operators in the workplace.

  5. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  6. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  7. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  8. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  9. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  10. Fingerprinting analysis of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds using high energy X-rays and the total scattering pair distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timur D.

    2011-12-01

    In the development of new medicinal products, poor oral bioavailability, due to the low solubilities of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), is increasingly a barrier for treatments to be administered using tablet or capsule formulations and one of the main challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry. Non-crystalline phases such as the amorphous and nanostructured states can confer increased solubility to a drug, and therefore, have recently garnered a lot of interest from pharmaceutical researchers. However, little is known about local ordering in non-crystalline pharmaceuticals due to the lack of reliable experimental probes, hindering the clinical application of these compounds. The powerful tools of crystallography begin to lose their potency for structures on the nanoscale; conventional X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns become broad and featureless in these cases and are not useful for differentiating between different local molecular packing arrangements. In this thesis, we introduce the use of high energy X-rays coupled with total scattering pair distribution function (TSPDF) and fingerprinting analysis to investigate the local structures of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds. The high energy X-rays allow us to experimentally collect diffuse scattering intensities, which contain information about a sample's local ordering, in addition to the Bragg scattering available in conventional XRPD experiments, while the TSPDF allows us to view the intra- and inter-molecular correlations in real space. The goal of this study was to address some fundamental problems involving fingerprinting non-crystalline APIs using TSPDF in order to lay the groundwork for the proper use of the technique by the pharmaceutical community. We achieved this by developing the methodology as well as the exploring the scientific implications. On the methodology side, we introduced PDFGetX3, a new software program for calculating TSPDFs that simplifies the procedure

  11. Synergistic effects of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangwei; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Qiaojie; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-04-01

    Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty, and no related prospective randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in revision total knee arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted this work to evaluate the synergistic effects of intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss compared with intra-articular tranexamic acid alone in revision total knee arthroplasty. This prospective, controlled study randomized 96 patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty into two groups: an intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group (48 patients who received 20 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid); and an intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (48 patients who received the same intravenous volume of normal saline and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid). The primary outcome was hemoglobin loss. Secondary outcomes included the volume of drain output, the percentage of patients who received transfusions, the number of units transfused, and thromboembolic events. The baseline data, preoperative hemoglobin, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. There was significantly less hemoglobin loss in the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group compared with the intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL and 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL; p tranexamic acid alone group, the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group also had significantly less drain output, fewer patients who received transfusions, and fewer units transfused (all p tranexamic acid alone, combined intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid significantly reduced hemoglobin loss and the need for transfusion without an apparent increase in thromboembolic events in patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. © 2018 AABB.

  12. Total 'shrink' losses, and where they occur, in commercially sized silage piles constructed from immature and mature cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, P; Meyer, D M

    2016-07-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., fresh chop crop lost between ensiling and feedout) represents losses of potential animal nutrients which degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds. Regulatory efforts have, in some cases, resulted in semi-mandatory mitigations (i.e., dairy farmers select a minimum number of mitigations from a list) to reduce silage shrink, mitigations often based on limited data of questionable relevance to large commercial silage piles where silage shrink may or may not be a problem of a magnitude equal to that assumed. Silage 'shrink' is generally ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost during oven drying (vcoDM). As no research has documented shrink in large cereal silage piles, 6 piles ranging from 1456 to 6297tonnes (as built) were used. Three used cereal cut at an immature stage and three at a mature stage. Physiologically immature silages had generally higher (Plosses (vcoDM) of large well managed cereal silage piles were relatively low, and a lower potential contributor to aerosol emissions of volatile carbon compounds than has often been assumed. Losses from the silage mass and the exposed silage face were approximately equal contributors to vcoDM shrink. Mitigations to reduce these relatively low emission levels of volatile organic compounds from cereal silage piles should focus on the ensiled mass and the exposed silage face. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Loss of total 5-methylcytosine from the genome during cell culture aging coincides with the Hayflick limit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1993-01-01

    Analyzing the data about the age-related 5-methylcytosine (5mC) loss from DNA of cell cultures, the following conclusions have been made: 1. The rate of 5mC loss from DNA does not depend on the cell donor age; it remains constant during the logarithmic phase of cell growth, and may vary significantly in different cell lines. 2. The rate is inversely proportional to their Hayflick limit and to the species lifespan of cell donors. 3. In immortal cell lines the 5mC content in DNA is stable or increases with aging. 4. Hayflick limit estimations coincide with or are lower than the number of cell population doublings that corresponds to all 5mC loss from cell genome. A simple and fast method has been proposed for Hayflick limit prognostication by analysis of the rate of DNA hypomethylation. It may be used for early diagnosis of precrisis and immortal cell lines. Evidence has been obtained that age-dependent 5mC loss from DNA is the result of accumulating 5mC-->T+C substitutions that occur during DNA methylation in every cell division. The loss of all genomic 5mC residues during the lifespan may correspond to accumulation of about 3 x 10(6) 5mC-->T transitions or, on average, one mutation per gene. This may be one of the main reasons of the "catastrophe of errors" and cessation of cell proliferation. It is calculated that the rate of 5mC-->T transitions in normal cells may be 2.3 x 10(-5) per site in each cell doubling in human, 6 x 10(-5) in hamster, and 4.6 x 10(-4) in mouse. DNA methylation as a generator of mutations may be a "counter" of cell divisions and thus be one of the molecular mechanisms of the Hayflick phenomenon. The conclusion is made that the DNA methylation system may be considered as a genetically programmed mechanism for accumulating mutations during cell aging.

  14. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  15. Relative contributions of wind and water erosion to total soil loss and its effect on soil properties in sloping croplands of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Dengfeng; Xu, Mingxiang; Gao, Guangyao

    2018-08-15

    Wind and water erosion are two dominant types of erosion that lead to soil and nutrient losses. Wind and water erosion may occur simultaneously to varying extents in semi-arid regions. The contributions of wind and water erosion to total erosion and their effects on soil quality, however, remains elusive. We used cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) inventories to estimate the total soil erosion and used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to quantify water erosion in sloping croplands. Wind erosion was estimated from the subtraction of the two. We also used 137 Cs inventories to calculate total soil erosion and validate the relationships of the soil quality and erosion at different slope aspects and positions. The results showed that wind erosion (1460tkm -2 a -1 ) on northwest-facing slope was responsible for approximately 39.7% of the total soil loss, and water erosion (2216tkm -2 a -1 ) accounted for approximately 60.3%. The erosion rates were 58.8% higher on northwest- than on southeast-facing slopes. Northwest-facing slopes had lower soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, clay, and silt contents than southeast-facing slopes, and thus, the 137 Cs inventories were lower, and the total soil erosions were higher on the northwest-facing slopes. The variations in soil physicochemical properties were related to total soil erosion. The lowest 137 Cs inventories and nutrient contents were recorded at the upper positions on the northwest-facing slopes due to the successive occurrence of more severe wind and water erosion at the same site. The results indicated that wind and water could accelerate the spatial variability of erosion rate and soil properties and cause serious decreases in the nutrient contents in sloping fields. Our research could help researchers develop soil strategies to reduce soil erosion according to the dominant erosion type when it occurs in a hilly agricultural area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcome of revision total knee arthroplasty with the use of trabecular metal cone for reconstruction of severe bone loss at the proximal tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Olsen, Nikolaj Winther; Schrøder, Henrik M

    2014-01-01

    technology (TMT) cones for the reconstruction of tibial bone loss at the time of rTKA. METHODS: Thirty-six patients had rTKA with the use of a TMT Cone. Bone loss was classified according to the AORI classification and 25% of the patients suffered from T3 AORI defects and 75% of the patients from T2 AORI...... defects. Implants used were from the NexGen series. At follow-up, radiographs were evaluated according to the Knee Society Roentgenographic Scoring System. Knee and function score was calculated using the Knee Society Clinical Rating System. Average follow-up time was 47 months (range 3-84 months......BACKGROUND: The relative effectiveness of different methods for reconstructing large bone loss at the proximal tibia in revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome after the use of trabecular metal...

  17. Copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, total scattering, and powder diffraction--a benchmark structure-property study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Nina; Jensen, Ellen M L; Mi, Jianli; Mamakhel, Aref; Norén, Katarina; Qingbo, Meng; Iversen, Bo B

    2013-07-14

    Metal functionalized nanoparticles potentially have improved properties e.g. in catalytic applications, but their precise structures are often very challenging to determine. Here we report a structural benchmark study based on tetragonal anatase TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0-2 wt% copper. The particles were synthesized by continuous flow synthesis under supercritical water-isopropanol conditions. Size determination using synchrotron PXRD, TEM, and X-ray total scattering reveals 5-7 nm monodisperse particles. The precise dopant structure and thermal stability of the highly crystalline powders were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and multi-temperature synchrotron PXRD (300-1000 K). The combined evidence reveals that copper is present as a dopant on the particle surfaces, most likely in an amorphous oxide or hydroxide shell. UV-VIS spectroscopy shows that copper presence at concentrations higher than 0.3 wt% lowers the band gap energy. The particles are unaffected by heating to 600 K, while growth and partial transformation to rutile TiO2 occur at higher temperatures. Anisotropic unit cell behavior of anatase is observed as a consequence of the particle growth (a decreases and c increases).

  18. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  19. The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Guanghui; Ma, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  1. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  2. Avaliação da perda sanguínea na artroplastia total do joelho com e sem soltura do torniquete Blood loss in total knee arthroplasty with and without tourniquet release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perda sanguínea em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total cimentada do joelho com e sem soltura trans-operatória do torniquete pneumático para a hemostasia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 72 pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total, num total de 80 joelhos, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 onde se manteve o torniquete pneumático até a sutura e curativo da ferida operatória, e Grupo 2 onde foi realizada a soltura do torniquete pneumático após a cimentação da prótese, com realização de hemostasia direta, antes da sutura e curativo. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao sangramento pelo dreno de sucção e à contagem de hemoglobina e hematócrito, considerando os intervalos de duas, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significante entre os dois grupos quanto ao sangramento pós-operatório e decréscimo dos parâmetros hematimétricos. Somente um paciente do Grupo 2 necessitou transfusão de concentrado de hemáceas no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O sangramento pós-operatório na ATJ mostrou-se igual com e sem a soltura do torniquete pneumático para a realização da hemostasia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood loss in patients submitted to cemented total knee arthroplasty with and without perioperative tourniquet release for hemostasis. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (eighty knees were submitted to total knee arthroplasty, allocated into two groups: in Group 1, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was maintained until suture and dressing of the operated wound, and Group 2, in which the pneumatic tourniquet was released intraoperatively after cementing the prosthesis, with direct hemostasis, before the suture and dressing. The patients were evaluated for blood loss by the suction drain, and hemoglobin and hematocrit counts, at intervals of 2, 24 and 48 hours in the postoperative period tube. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative blood

  3. Peri-Implant Distribution of Polyethylene Debris in Postmortem-Retrieved Knee Arthroplasties: Can Polyethylene Debris Explain Loss of Cement-Bone Interlock in Successful Total Knee Arthroplasties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndari, Karen I; Goodheart, Jacklyn R; Miller, Mark A; Oest, Megan E; Damron, Timothy A; Mann, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    Loss of mechanical interlock between cement and bone with in vivo service has been recently quantified for functioning, nonrevised, cemented total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The cause of interlocking trabecular resorption is not known. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of PE debris at the cement-bone interface and determine if polyethylene (PE) debris is locally associated with loss of interlock. Fresh, nonrevised, postmortem-retrieved TKAs (n = 8) were obtained en bloc. Laboratory-prepared constructs (n = 2) served as negative controls. The intact cement-bone interface of each proximal tibia was embedded in Spurr's resin, sectioned, and imaged under polarized light to identify birefringent PE particles. PE wear particle number density was quantified at the cement-bone interface and distal to the interface, and then compared with local loss of cement-bone interlock. The average PE particle number density for postmortem-retrieved TKAs ranged from 8.6 (1.3) to 24.9 (3.1) particles/mm 2 (standard error) but was weakly correlated with years in service. The average particle number density was twice as high as distal (>5mm) to the interface compared to at the interface. The local loss of interlock at the interface was not related to the presence, absence, or particle density of PE. PE debris can migrate extensively along the cement-bone interface of well-fixed tibial components. However, the amount of local bone loss at the cement-bone interface was not correlated with the amount of PE debris at the interface, suggesting that the observed loss of trabecular interlock in these well-fixed TKAs may be due to alternative factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fitness-related differences in the rate of whole-body total heat loss in exercising young healthy women are heat-load dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Dallon T; Notley, Sean R; Poirier, Martin P; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Aerobic fitness modulates heat loss, albeit the heat load at which fitness-related differences occur in young healthy women remains unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate using direct calorimetry that fitness modulates heat loss in a heat-load dependent manner, with differences occurring between young women of low and high fitness and matched physical characteristics when the metabolic heat load is at least 400 W in hot, dry conditions. Although fitness has been known for some time to modulate heat loss, our findings define the metabolic heat load at which fitness-related differences occur. Aerobic fitness has recently been shown to alter heat loss capacity in a heat-load dependent manner in young men. However, given that sex-related differences in heat loss capacity exist, it is unclear whether this response is consistent in women. We therefore assessed whole-body total heat loss in young (21 ± 3 years old) healthy women matched for physical characteristics, but with low (low-fit; 35.8 ± 4.5 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ) or high aerobic fitness (high-fit; 53.1 ± 5.1 ml O 2  kg -1  min -1 ; both n = 8; indexed by peak oxygen consumption), during three 30 min bouts of cycling performed at increasing rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 W (Ex3), each separated by a 15 min recovery, in hot, dry conditions (40°C, 11% relative humidity). Whole-body total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat content was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss. Total heat loss did not differ during Ex1 (low-fit, 215 ± 16 W; high-fit, 231 ± 20 W; P > 0.05) and Ex2 (low-fit, 278 ± 15 W; high-fit, 301 ± 20 W; P > 0.05), but was lower in the low-fit (316 ± 21 W) compared with the high-fit women (359 ± 32

  5. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  6. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Sartorius, Alexander; Welzel, Helga; Walter, Sigrid; Skopp, Gisela; Ende, Gabriele; Mann, Karl

    2007-06-01

    Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = .0003). The NAA/tCr in the putamen/globus pallidum region correlated significantly with cannabidiol (R(2) = .66, p = .004). Results of the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Trail making Test, and D2 test for attention were influenced by cannabinoids. Chronic recreational cannabis use is associated with an indication of diminished neuronal and axonal integrity in the DLPFC in this study. As chronic cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, these results are interesting because diminished NAA/tCr ratios in the DLPFC and neuropsychological deficits were also reported in schizophrenia. The strong positive correlation of NAA/tCr and cannabidiol in the putamen/globus pallidum is in line with neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol, which were also observed in in vitro model studies of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  8. No Effect of a Bipolar Sealer on Total Blood Loss or Blood Transfusion in Nonseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty-A Prospective Study With Matched Retrospective Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Gromov, Kirill; Jans, Øivind; Troelsen, Anders; Husted, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative anemia is frequent after revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with reported transfusion rates up to 83%. Despite increased efforts of reducing blood loss and enhancing fast recovery within the fast-track setup, a considerable transfusion rate is still evident. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of a bipolar sealer on blood loss and transfusion in revision TKA. In this single-center prospective cohort study with retrospective controls, 51 patients were enrolled in a fast-track setup for revision TKA without the use of a tourniquet. Twenty-five prospectively enrolled patients received treatment with both a bipolar sealer and electrocautery, whereas 26 patients had received treatment with a conventional electrocautery only in the retrospective group. No significant differences were found neither for calculated blood loss, with 1397 (standard deviation, ± 452) mL in the bipolar sealer group vs 1452 (SD, ± 530) mL in the control group (P = .66), nor for blood transfusion rates of 53% and 46% (P = .89), respectively. Four controls were readmitted within 90 days follow-up. The use of a bipolar sealer in a TKA revision setting without the use of a tourniquet did not reduce blood loss or blood transfusion rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. No Effect of a Bipolar Sealer on Total Blood Loss or Blood Transfusion in Nonseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty-A Prospective Study With Matched Retrospective Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Gromov, Kirill; Jans, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    deviation, ± 452) mL in the bipolar sealer group vs 1452 (SD, ± 530) mL in the control group (P = .66), nor for blood transfusion rates of 53% and 46% (P = .89), respectively. Four controls were readmitted within 90 days follow-up. CONCLUSION: The use of a bipolar sealer in a TKA revision setting without......BACKGROUND: Postoperative anemia is frequent after revision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with reported transfusion rates up to 83%. Despite increased efforts of reducing blood loss and enhancing fast recovery within the fast-track setup, a considerable transfusion rate is still evident. The aim......-five prospectively enrolled patients received treatment with both a bipolar sealer and electrocautery, whereas 26 patients had received treatment with a conventional electrocautery only in the retrospective group. RESULTS: No significant differences were found neither for calculated blood loss, with 1397 (standard...

  10. Topical fibrin sealant versus intravenous tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of topical application of a fibrin sealant (FS) compared with intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical application of FS or intravenous administration of TXA on blood loss after TKA. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing FS with TXA for TKA patients. The mean difference (MD) of blood loss, hemoglobin value, and odds ratios (ORs) of transfusion requirements and adverse events in FS and TXA groups were pooled throughout the study. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Five studies involving 359 patients were included (181 FS vs. 178 TXA). TXA use had a significantly lower prevalence of blood transfusion (OR = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67 to 5.90, P = 0.0004) and higher hemoglobin level (MD = -1.23; 95% CI, -2.19 to -0.27, P = 0.01) than FS in the early postoperative period. No significant difference was seen in total blood loss between the two groups (MD = 198.06; 95% CI, -267.45 to 663.57; P = 0.40). There were no significant differences in adverse events, superficial infections, or deep-vein thrombosis among study groups. Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous administration of TXA for patients undergoing TKA may reduce blood-transfusion requirements and maintain higher hemoglobin levels compared with topical application of FS in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in total calculated blood loss and prevalence of complications between the two groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodology for obtaining a solution for the three-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation and an expression for the calculation of the total doses considering Compton scattering simulated by Klein-Nishina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Barbara A.; Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio

    2005-01-01

    In this work we would like to obtain a formulation of an analytic method for the solution of the three dimensional transport equation considering Compton scattering and an expression for total doses due to gamma radiation, where the deposited energy by the free electron will be considered. For that, we will work with two equations: the first one for the photon transport, considering the Klein-Nishina kernel and energy multigroup model, and the second one considering the free electron with the screened Rutherford scattering. (author)

  12. The measurement of the real part of the proton-antiproton elastic scattering amplitude at a C.M.S. energy of 546 GEV and the rise of the total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the experimental study of the elastic scattering of protons and anti-protons at a centre of mass energy of 546 GeV at the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN. The measurement of ρ, i.e. the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear part of elastic scattering amplitude for proton-antiproton at zero momentum transfer squared (-t = 0 GeV 2 ), at a centre of mass energy of √s = 546 GeV is described. The implications of the result of this measurement for the behaviour of the total cross section in the TeV domain are derived. The hypothesis is investigated whether there is a relation between the rise of the total cross section and the rise of the total jet cross section, as calculated in perturbative QCD and observed by the UA1 experiment. 104 refs.; 40 figs.; 16 tabs

  13. Determination of the total cross section in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV from elastic scattering using the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Christian; Dueren, Michael; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Stenzel, Hasko [JLU Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) Roman Pot detector system is part of the forward instrumentation of ATLAS located about 240 m away from the interaction point in the LHC tunnel. ALFA consists of a scintillating fibre tracker housed in vertical Roman Pots which enables the measurement of elastic proton-proton scattering at small scattering angles. In 2012 data were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s) = 8 TeV during a fill with special beam optics of the LHC with β* = 90 m and parallel-to-point focusing. The four-momentum transfer t is measured for elastically scattered protons and the differential elastic cross section is measured. In this talk a preliminary determination of the total cross section and of the slope of the elastic cross section at small vertical stroke t vertical stroke obtained from a fit to the differential cross section using the optical theorem is reported.

  14. The impact of pre-operative weight loss on incidence of surgical site infection and readmission rates after total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Raman, Rema; Macera, Caroline A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Shaffer, Richard A; Fithian, Donald C

    2014-03-01

    This study characterized a cohort of obese total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (1/1/2008-12/31/2010) and evaluated whether a clinically significant amount of pre-operative weight loss (5% decrease in body weight) is associated with a decreased risk of surgical site infections (SSI) and readmissions post-surgery. 10,718 TKAs and 4066 THAs were identified. During the one year pre-TKA 7.6% of patients gained weight, 12.4% lost weight, and 79.9% remained the same. In the one year pre-THA, 6.3% of patients gained weight, 18.0% lost weight, and 75.7% remained the same. In TKAs and THAs, after adjusting for covariates, the risk of SSI and readmission was not significantly different in the patients who gained or lost weight pre-operatively compared to those who remained the same. © 2013.

  15. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  17. Disparities in total knee replacement: Population losses in quality-adjusted life years due to differential offer, acceptance, and complication rates for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Hannah M; Smith, Savannah R; Smith, Karen C; Collins, Jamie E; Suter, Lisa G; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2018-01-24

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). American racial minorities undergo fewer TKRs than Whites. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost for Black knee OA patients due to differences in TKR offer, acceptance, and complication rates. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a computer simulation of knee OA, to predict QALY outcomes for Black and White knee OA patients with and without TKR. We estimated per-person QALYs gained from TKR as the difference between QALYs with current TKR use and QALYs when no TKR was performed. We estimated average, per-person QALY losses in Blacks as the difference between QALYs gained with White rates of TKR and QALYs gained with Black rates of TKR. We calculated population-level QALY losses by multiplying per-person QALY losses by the number of persons with advanced knee OA. Finally, we estimated QALYs lost specifically due to lower TKR offer and acceptance and higher complications among Black knee OA patients. Black men and women gain 64,100 QALYs from current TKR use. With white offer and complications rates, they would gain an additional 72,000 QALYs. Because these additional gains are unrealized, we call this a loss of 72,000 QALYs. Black Americans lose 67,500 QALYs because of lower offer, 15,800 QALYs because of lower acceptance, and 2,600 QALYs because of higher complications. Black Americans lose 72,000 QALYs due to disparities in TKR offer and complication rates. Programs to decrease disparities in TKR use are urgently needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  19. Hard X-ray total scattering study on the structure of Si-dopped ferric oxyhydroxides and products of their transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczara, Gabriela; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Manecki, Maciej; Rzepa, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the results of a detailed structural investigation, using synchrotron-based pair distribution function analyses (PDF) and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), on a series of Si-bearing synthetic analogues of ferrihydrite with a range of Si/Fe ratio relevant to geological environments and on products of their thermal transformation. Hard X-ray total scattering data suitable for PDF analyses have been collected at the PDF-dedicated beamline 11-ID-B and the HR-XRD data at beamline 11-BM of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Ferrihydrite is a poorly crystalline, nano-sized hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide with a nominal/ideal formula Fe5HO8•4H2O. Its chemical composition however, can vary significantly and the atomic structure is yet to be fully understood despite multitude of structural studies undertaken over the past two decades (Michel et al., 2007; Manceau, 2009). One of the most commonly discussed and still unsettled contention points regarding the structural arrangements of ferrihydrite is related to the presence or absence of tetraherdally coordinated iron(III) within its structure. The majority of experimental work carried out to date focused on pure, synthetic ferrihydrite analogues with chemical composition close to ideal/nominal. This approach is clearly a significant oversimplification of natural ferrihydrite which always contains substantial amounts of admixtures, with Si, C, P, As, Ca, S and Al being the most common. One of the most important and the most commonly encountered impurities is Si, in the form of silicate ion that has strong affinity for ferrihydrite. SiO2content in natural ferrihydrites can vary substantially but generally falls with the range of 2.6-31.5 wt% (Cismasu et al., 2011). In certain environments however, such as modern seafloor hydrothermal vents, higher Si/Fe ratios (up to ca. 3) have been reported (Sun et al., 2013). The results of previous reports indicate that silicate

  20. Segmental acetabular rim defects, bone loss, oversizing, and press fit cup in total hip arthroplasty evaluated with a probabilistic finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni F; Walia, Amit; Gonzalez, Mark; Bobko, Aimee

    2017-08-01

    Management of segmental rim defects and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the elderly prior to total hip replacement is unclear within classification systems for acetabular bone loss. In this study, our objectives were (1) to understand how a reduction in BMD in the elderly affects the oversizing of a press-fit cup for primary fixation and (2) to evaluate whether the location of the segmental defect affected cup fixation. A finite element (FE) model was used to simulate and evaluate cup insertion and fixation in the context of segmental rim defects. We focused on the distribution of patients over age 70 and used BMD (estimated from CT) as a proxy for aging's implications on THR and used probabilistic FE analysis to understand how BMD loss affects oversizing of a press-fit cup. A cup oversized by 1.10 ± 0.28 mm provides sufficient fixation and lower stresses at the cup-bone interface for elderly patients. Defects in the anterior column and posterior column both required the same mean insertion force for cup seating of 84% (taken as an average of 2 anterior column and 2 posterior column defects) compared to the control configuration, which was 5% greater than the insertion force for a superior rim defect and 12% greater than the insertion force for an inferior rim defect. A defect along the superior or inferior rim had a minimal effect on cup fixation, while a defect in the columns created cup instability and increased stress at the defect location.

  1. Global distribution of GPS losses of phase lock and total electron content slips during the 2005 May 15 and the 2003 November 20 magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, Yuriy; Astafeva, Elvira; Givetev, Ilya; Maksikov, Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Using data of worldwide network of GPS receivers we investigated losses of GPS phase lock (LoL) during two strong magnetic storms. At fundamental L1 frequency, LoL density is found to increase up to 0.25 % and at L2 frequency the increase is up to 3 %. This is several times as much compared with the background level. During the 2003 November 20 magnetic storm, the number of total electron content (TEC) slips exceeded the background level ~50 times. During superstorms, the most number of GPS LoL is observed at low and high latitudes. At the same time, the area of numerous TEC slips correspond to auroral oval boundaries.

  2. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  3. Energy loss, range and fluence distributions, total reaction and projectile fragment production cross sections for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L.; Kanai, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computer code for calculations of energy loss (dE/dx) and range distributions for heavy ions in any media. The results from our calculations are in very good agreement with previous calculations. We have developed semiempirical total reaction cross section formulae for proton-nucleus (with Z p ≤26) and nucleus-nucleus (with Z p and Z t ≤26) reactions. These formulae apply for incident energies above 15 MeV and 100 MeV/nucleon respectively. From the total reaction cross sections, we can calculate the mean free paths and the fluence distributions of protons and heavy ions in any media. We have compared all the calculated reaction cross sections and the mean free paths with experimental data, and the agreement is good. We have also constructed a procedure for calculating projectile fragment production cross sections, by scaling semiempirical proton-nucleus partial cross section systematics. The scaling is performed using a scaling parameter deduced from our reaction cross sections formulae, and additional enhancements factors. All products with atomic number ranging from that of the projectile (Z p ) down to Z=2 can be calculated. The agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is better than earlier published results. (author)

  4. A New Scientific use of Total Eclipses of the Moon: Studies of the Generation and Loss of Atmospheres of Primitives Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported observational campaigns to record the size and brightness of the lunar atmosphere as seen in sodium gas (Na) emissions during the totality phase of lunar eclipses. Three eclipse events were attempted, two from the Mc Donald Observatory in Fort Davis Texas, and one from the site of Italy's Galileo National Telescope (GNT) in La Palma, in the Canary Islands. In all three cases, clear skies prevailed and excellent datasets were obtained. Following the observational component of the grant, a period of detailed processing and analysis began. Eclipse events were chosen for study because when the moon is in full phase it has been within the terrestrial magnetosphere for a few days, thereby shielded from solar wind impact upon its surface. Since sputtering of Na from the lunar regolith by solar wind particles had been proposed as a source of the Moon's atmosphere, this was a test of the mechanism. If the lunar Na appeared to be diminished in comparison to abundances seen at other phases (e.g., at quarter phase when the moon is directly in the solar wind), the solar wind sputtering would indeed be a major source of lunar Na. These experiments could not be conducted during any full moon night because scattering of bright moonlight is so strong that low-light-level imaging of the lunar atmosphere could not be achieved. Hence, the use of eclipses. The final result of these experiments was, for once, clear and unambiguous. The robust size and Na brightness levels measured during all of the eclipses showed that solar wind sputtering could not be a major source of the lunar atmosphere. A major paper on this conclusion was published in ICARUS, and an oral presentation of partial results given at the The Three Galileos conference in Padova (Italy) in January 1997 and at the DPS meeting in Cambridge, MA, in July 1997.

  5. Measurement of the proton-proton total cross section at √(s) = 7 TeV via elastic scattering with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Dueren, Michael; Heinz, Christian; Stenzel, Hasko [2. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) detector is one of the ATLAS forward detectors located about 240 m away from the interaction point in the LHC tunnel. ALFA is a scintillating fibre tracking detector housed in Roman pots and designed to measure elastic proton-proton scattering up to the smallest scattering angles. In 2011 data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s) = 7 TeV during a special low intensity fill of LHC with high β* = 90 m beam optics. Results of the measurement of the differential elastic cross section dσ/dt, the total cross section σ{sub tot}, the nuclear slope B and other derived quantities are presented in this talk. In the analysis the luminosity determination, the fine tuning of beam optics parameters and a data-driven method to determine the reconstruction efficiency are emphasized.

  6. Scattering angle-integrated (total) and magnetic sublevel cross-sections and degree of linear polarization for electron and proton induced excitation [HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5)] of helium

    CERN Document Server

    Merabet, H; Hanni, J; Bailey, M; Godunov, A L; McGuire, J H; Fursa, D V; Bray, I; Bartschat, K; Tseng, H C; Lin, C D

    2003-01-01

    Experimental scattering-angle-integrated (total) cross-sections sigma-bar, (scattering) angle-integrated magnetic sublevel cross-sections sigma-bar sub M sub sub L , and degree of linear polarization data have been measured in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region following decay of HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5) states induced by electron and proton impact on a neutral helium target. These measurements are compared with a first Born approach as well as more sophisticated theoretical calculations. Specifically, theoretical values for electron impact include convergent close-coupling (CCC) and R-matrix with pseudo states (RMPS) methods in addition to first Born (Born 1) approximation while proton induced excitation cross-sections are compared with atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC) and first Born predictions.

  7. Effect of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral bone mineral density loss following total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Gao, Chong; Li, Hui; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Chang; Ran, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficiency of intravenous administration of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-2017.07.31), PubMed (1966-2017.07.31), Embase (1980-2017.07.31), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.07.31) and the Cochrane Library (1966-2017.07.31). Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and publication bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four studies including 185 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 (SMD = 0.752, 95% CI: 0.454 to 1.051, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.524, 95% CI: 0.230 to 0.819, P = 0.000), 4 (SMD = 0.400, 95% CI: 0.107 to 0.693, P = 0.008), 6 (SMD = 0.893, 95% CI: 0.588 to 1.198, P = 0.000) and 7 (SMD = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.677 to 1.300, P = 0.000). Intravenous administration of zoledronic acid could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone mineral density loss (Gruen zone 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7) after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. High-quality RCTs with large sample size were still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of rs1501299 variant in the adiponectin gene on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-11-14

    Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A Caucasian population of 82 obese patients was analyzed, before and after 3 months on a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. After dietary treatment and in wild type group, weight, BMI, fat mass, leptin levels, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreases were similar to the mutant type group. In wild type group, the decrease in total cholesterol was -28.1±15.3 mg/dl (mutant group: -12.6±16.7 mg/dl:p=0.009), LDL- cholesterol was -31.8±20.5 mg/dl (-12.2±11.5 mg/dl:p=0.006), fasting glucose plasma -4.8±2.5 mg/dL (-0.5±0.1 mg/dL:p=0.02), insulin -3.6±1.5 mUI/L (+0.6±1.1 mUI/L:p=0.02) and HOMA-IR -1.2±0.9 (-0.1±1.1:p=0.03). The present study suggests that T allele of ADIPO (rs1501299) could be a predictor of a lack of response of HOMA-IR, insulin, fasting glucose and LDL cholesterol secondary to a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms (N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, As, Se, Br, Kr) between 0.5-10 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williart, A.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms which are close to the noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr), for electron energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 keV, have been obtained in this study. We have shown, previously, that molecular total cross sections, at these energies, depend on target polarizability and the number of target electrons. A similar behaviour has been supposed for total cross sections of some atoms (N, O, F, P, S, Cl, As, Se and Br). The obtained expression depends on atomic parameters and it is based in some correlation derived from noble gases. The applicability of the formula has been checked by comparison with available data for atomic oxygen. (orig.)

  10. Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms (N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, As, Se, Br, Kr) between 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williart, A. [Univ. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de los Materiales; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-10-01

    Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms which are close to the noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr), for electron energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 keV, have been obtained in this study. We have shown, previously, that molecular total cross sections, at these energies, depend on target polarizability and the number of target electrons. A similar behaviour has been supposed for total cross sections of some atoms (N, O, F, P, S, Cl, As, Se and Br). The obtained expression depends on atomic parameters and it is based in some correlation derived from noble gases. The applicability of the formula has been checked by comparison with available data for atomic oxygen. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z. [University of West Bohemia, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Avati, V. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berardi, V.; Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D' Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Csoergo, T. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); KRF University College, Gyoengyoes (Hungary); Deile, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Doubek, M.; Vacek, V. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Kaspar, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Lami, S.; Scribano, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10{sup -4} to 0.2 GeV{sup 2}. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ{sub tot} = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z.; Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Quinto, M.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N.; Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E.; Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F.; Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C.; Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R.; Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J.; Lami, S.; Scribano, A.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Minafra, N.; Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10"-"4 to 0.2 GeV"2. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ_t_o_t = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  13. Determination of the total cross section in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at √(s) = 8 from elastic scattering using the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Christian; Stenzel, Hasko; Dueren, Michael [2. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) Roman Pot detector system is part of the forward instrumentation of ATLAS located about 240 m away from the interaction point in the LHC tunnel in both directions. ALFA consists of a scintillating fibre tracker housed in vertical Roman Pots which enables the measurement of elastic proton-proton scattering at small scattering angles. In 2012 data were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s) = 8 TeV during a fill with special beam optics of the LHC with β* = 90 m and parallel-to-point focusing. The four-momentum transfer t is measured for elastically scattered protons and used to extract the differential elastic cross section. In this talk a preliminary determination of the total cross section and of the slope of the elastic cross section at small vertical stroke t vertical stroke obtained from a fit to the differential cross section using the optical theorem is reported. In addition a second run at √(s) = 8 TeV with a special beam optics of β* = 1 km, providing access to the Coulomb-nuclear interference region, is being analysed. Preliminary analysis results from this run are presented as well.

  14. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  15. A comparative simulation of feed and bleed operation during the total loss of feedwater event by RELAP5/MOD3 and CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.M.; Ro, T.S.; Song, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, which are two-loop 2,825 MW(thermal) pressurized water reactors designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, adopted a safety depressurization system (SDS) to mitigate the beyond-design-basis event of a total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). A comparative simulation by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM and RELAP5/MOD3 computer codes for the TLOFW event without operator recovery and the TLOFW event with feed and bleed (F and B) operation is performed for Ulchin 3 and 4. In the analyses, the SDS bleed paths are modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer, where the analytical area of the bleed path is based on the Ulchin 3 and 4 SDS design flow capacity. An additional case, where the SDS piping and valves are modeled explicitly, is considered for the RELAP5 analysis. The predictions by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM of the transient two-phase system behavior show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those by the RELAP5 simulation. The RELAP5 case with explicit piping results in less repressurization and lower reactor coolant system pressure than that of the case without explicit SDS modeling. However, the two cases of RELAP5 analyses result in essentially the same transient scenarios for TLOFW with F and B operation. The results of the simulation demonstrate the validity of the Ulchin 3 and 4 design approach, which employs CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer code and SDS bleed paths modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer. The results also indicate that the decay heat removal and core inventory makeup function can be successfully accomplished by F and B operation by using the SDS for Ulchin 3 and 4

  16. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  17. Transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton and a resulting model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhenyu

    2007-02-15

    In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  18. Transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton and a resulting model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhenyu

    2007-02-01

    In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  19. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  20. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaboud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at s=8 TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of 500 μb−1 was accumulated in a special run with high-β⋆ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the −t range from 0.014 GeV2 to 0.1 GeV2 to extrapolate t→0, the total cross section, σtot(pp→X, is measured via the optical theorem to beσtot(pp→X=96.07±0.18(stat.±0.85(exp.±0.31(extr.mb, where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation t→0. In addition, the slope of the exponential function describing the elastic cross section at small t is determined to be B=19.74±0.05(stat.±0.23(syst.GeV−2.

  1. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; 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Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; 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Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; López, Jorge Andrés; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-10-10

    A measurement of the total $pp$ cross section at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of $500$ $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ was accumulated in a special run with high-$\\beta^{\\star}$ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable $t$. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the $-t$ range from $0.014$ GeV$^2$ to $0.1$ GeV$^2$ to extrapolate $t\\rightarrow 0$, the total cross section, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{tot}}(pp\\rightarrow X)$, is measured via the optical theorem to be: $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{tot}}(pp\\rightarrow X) = \\mbox{96.07} \\; \\pm 0.18 \\; ({\\mbox{stat.}}) \\pm 0.85 \\; ({\\mbox{exp.}}) \\pm 0.31 \\; (\\mbox{extr.}) \\; \\mbox{mb} \\;,$ where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation $t\\rightarrow 0$. In addition, the slope of the exponen...

  2. Time evolution of the characteristic electron energy losses spectra of the electrons scattered on polycrystal samples of Al mechanically cleaned in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczesny, R.; Baranowski, A.; Beliczynski, J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements by the reflection technique of characteristic electron energy losses (CEEL) with a primary electron beam of energy E 0 =1 keV have been carried out on polycrystal samples of Al. The sample surfaces have been mechanically cleaned in a dinamical vacuum of the order 10 -6 Tr before each measurement. The CEEL spectra have been corrected for the resolving power of the apparatus by the deconvolution method. We have ascertained that the measuring technique and elaboration data method are useful for quickly obtaining the plasmon energy loss spectrum for an investigated material. (author)

  3. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  4. Fiscal 1998 research report on the total electric power loss reduction project for Myanmer; 1998 nendo Myanmer koku denryoku soshitsu sogo teigen project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of Japanese clean development mechanism, study was made on reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission from thermal power plants by reduction of power transmission and distribution losses of power systems in Myanmer. Study was made on technical power transmission and distribution losses for the national grid transmission system, 33kV sub- transmission system of Thaketa substation in Yangong city, and 6.6kV and 400V distribution systems of Latha and Lanmadaw townships in the downtown area of Yangong. Countermeasures for power loss reduction were considered on the basis of the study result. The loss reduction project plan includes a construction cost of 5,134,000US$, loss reduction of 7,726kW, and loss reduction of 33,213,000kWh. The project feasibility and profitability were evaluated by comparison between a financial internal rate of return (FIRR) and an opportunity cost assuming that a discount rate is the opportunity cost. As a result, FIRR was 17.36% and the discount rate was 8.89% in Myanmer. (NEDO)

  5. Assessment of the ripple effects and spatial heterogeneity of total losses in the capital of China after a great catastrophic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    introduce the sectors' losses caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (2008 WCE in Beijing, utilizing the Adaptive Regional Input–Output (ARIO model and the Inter-regional ripple effect (IRRE model. The purpose is to assess the ripple effects of indirect economic loss and spatial heterogeneity of both direct and indirect economic loss at the scale of the smallest administrative divisions of China (streets, villages, and towns. The results indicate that the district of Beijing with the most severe indirect economic loss is the Chaoyang District; the finance and insurance industry (15, see Table 1 of Chaowai Street suffers the most in the Chaoyang District, which is 1.46 times that of its direct economic loss. During 2008–2014, the average annual GDP (gross domestic product growth rate of Beijing was decreased 3.63 % by the catastrophe. Compared with the 8 % of GDP growth rate target, the decreasing GDP growth rate is a significant and noticeable economic impact, and it can be efficiently mitigated by increasing rescue effort and by supporting the industries which are located in the seriously damaged regions.

  6. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  7. Updated of the events tree of total loss of power at the site, SBO, taking into account the results of stress tests and methodological updates, convolution, and hydraulic power recovery from model RCPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lorenzo, M. A.; Perez Martin, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, is described a tree of events to an accident loss total power at the site (SBO) considering, first the results of stress tests arising from the Fukushima accident and moreover, various methodological updates related to this initiating event.

  8. Elastic scattering and total cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1983-01-01

    We confront recent data pp and panti p at the ISR and at the collider with rigorous results and with various models. We show that precise measurements at presently available energies and at higher energies will allow us to clarify the situation. (orig.)

  9. Total scattering of disordered crystalline functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-Ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2009-01-01

    There are disorders in some modern functional materials. As an example, the crystalline phase of an optical recording material has low thermal conductivity but high electrical conductivity, simultaneously. This contradiction is a challenge to material scientists in designing good functional materials, which should have at least two types of crystallographic sites. One site limits thermal conductivity while the other site carries electrons or holes with high mobility. This problem exists with not only optical recording materials but also thermoelectric materials. The periodic boundary condition gets lost in the disordered parts. This therefore, makes atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis with a wide range of real space suitable for investigating the form and size of crystalline parts as well as disordered parts in the material. Pulsed neutron powder diffraction is one of the best tools for use in this new type of emerging research, together with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction.

  10. Total Scattering Analysis of Disordered Nanosheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Peter C.

    Two dimensional materials are of increasing interest as building blocks for functional coatings, catalysts, and electrochemical devices. While increasingly sophisticated processing routes have been designed to obtain high-quality exfoliated nanosheets and controlled, self-assembled mesostructures, structural characterization of these materials remains challenging. This work presents a novel method of analyzing pair distribution function (PDF) data for disordered nanosheet ensembles, where supercell stacking models are used to infer atom correlations over as much as 50 A. Hierarchical models are used to reduce the parameter space of the refined model and help eliminate strongly correlated parameters. Three data sets for restacked nanosheet assemblies with stacking disorder are analyzed using these methods: simulated data for graphene-like layers, experimental data for 1 nm thick perovskite layers, and experimental data for highly defective delta-MnO2 layers. In each case, the sensitivity of the PDF to the real-space distribution of layer positions is demonstrated by exploring the fit residual as a function of stacking vectors. The refined models demonstrate that nanosheets tend towards local interlayer ordering, which is hypothesized to be driven by the electrostatic potential of the layer surfaces. Correctly accounting for interlayer atom correlations permits more accurate refinement of local structural details including local structure perturbations and defect site occupancies. In the delta-MnO2 nanosheet material, the new modeling approach identified 14% Mn vacancies while application of 3D periodic crystalline models to the < 7 A PDF region suggests a 25% vacancy concentration. In contrast, the perovskite nanosheet material is demonstrated to exhibit almost negligible structural relaxation in contrast with the bulk crystalline material from which it is derived.

  11. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    loss mechanisms are discussed in terms of compositions, crystal structures, temperature, domain configurations, domain sizes and grain boundaries. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the total energy dissipation are quantified. In domain engineered ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, polarization rotations, domain wall motions and mechanical wave scatterings at grain boundaries are believed to control the mechanical quality factors of piezoelectric resonators. We show that a thorough understanding on the kinetic processes is critical in analyzing energy loss behavior and other time-dependent properties in ferroelectric materials. At the end of the review, existing challenges in the study and control of losses in ferroelectric materials are analyzed, and future perspective in resolving these issues is discussed. PMID:25814784

  12. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    loss mechanisms are discussed in terms of compositions, crystal structures, temperature, domain configurations, domain sizes and grain boundaries. The intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the total energy dissipation are quantified. In domain engineered ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, polarization rotations, domain wall motions and mechanical wave scatterings at grain boundaries are believed to control the mechanical quality factors of piezoelectric resonators. We show that a thorough understanding on the kinetic processes is critical in analyzing energy loss behavior and other time-dependent properties in ferroelectric materials. At the end of the review, existing challenges in the study and control of losses in ferroelectric materials are analyzed, and future perspective in resolving these issues is discussed.

  13. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    ). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R......) was also insignificant. Three BIA equations from the literature, which were not specific for the degree of obesity in the present study group, predicted changes in FFM (from 0.5 + 3.6 to 2.4 +/- 4.4kg, p > 0.05) that were comparable with those estimated by the reference methods. Eight equations from...

  14. The Presenilin-1 ΔE9 Mutation Results in Reduced γ-Secretase Activity, but Not Total Loss of PS1 Function, in Isogenic Human Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Woodruff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PS1 is the catalytic core of γ-secretase, which cleaves type 1 transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP. PS1 also has γ-secretase-independent functions, and dominant PS1 missense mutations are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD. Whether PS1 FAD mutations are gain- or loss-of-function remains controversial, primarily because most studies have relied on overexpression in mouse and/or nonneuronal systems. We used isogenic euploid human induced pluripotent stem cell lines to generate and study an allelic series of PS1 mutations, including heterozygous null mutations and homozygous and heterozygous FAD PS1 mutations. Rigorous analysis of this allelic series in differentiated, purified neurons allowed us to resolve this controversy and to conclude that FAD PS1 mutations, expressed at normal levels in the appropriate cell type, impair γ-secretase activity but do not disrupt γ-secretase-independent functions of PS1. Thus, FAD PS1 mutations do not act as simple loss of PS1 function but instead dominantly gain an activity toxic to some, but not all, PS1 functions.

  15. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  16. DRYING TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF GRANULE CONTAINING OIL COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS-KAFFIR LIME LEAVES ON TOTAL LOSS OF OIL AND LARVICIDE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Granules of lemongrass and kaffir lime oil are reported to have larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with LC50 of 38.30ppm and 39.58ppm, while LC90 of 51.57ppm and 79.43ppm respectively. During the manufacture of granules, loss of oil are reported by 64.20% to 65.91% for lemongrass and kaffir lime oil. This research aims to make granules combination from lemongrass and kaffir lime oils by varying the temperature of the drying granules and testing its larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. Oil combination is selected by using analysis simplex lattice design, and the combination chosen is made of granules, in drying room temperature for 24h, a temperature of 50°C for 2h 30min and a temperature of 70°C for 1h. Larvicidal activity testing against larvae of Ae. aegypti is done by using the third instar larvae 20 for each granule solution made in 5 series of concentration, and left exposed for 24h. The number of deaths of larvae is calculated and analyzed by modified probit analysis Finney to determine LC50 and LC90. The results showed the combination lemongrass-kaffir lime oil is selected ratio of 9:1, and drying the granules with a temperature of 70°C for 1h produces the greatest larvicidal activity with 63.17ppm LC50 and LC90 of 85.04ppm.

  17. Fragmentation of Rapid Eye Movement and Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep without Total Sleep Loss Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Fear Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Katsuyama, Ângela M; Duge, Leanne S; Sriram, Chaitra; Krushelnytskyy, Mykhaylo; Kim, Jeansok J; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is important for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. It is hypothesized that the temporal sequence of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the weakening of nonadaptive memories and the subsequent transfer of memories temporarily stored in the hippocampus to more permanent memories in the neocortex. A great body of evidence supporting this hypothesis relies on behavioral, pharmacological, neural, and/or genetic manipulations that induce sleep deprivation or stage-specific sleep deprivation. We exploit an experimental model of circadian desynchrony in which intact animals are not deprived of any sleep stage but show fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep within nonfragmented sleep bouts. We test the hypothesis that the shortening of NREM and REM sleep durations post-training will impair memory consolidation irrespective of total sleep duration. When circadian-desynchronized animals are trained in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning task they show normal short-term memory but impaired long-term memory consolidation. This impairment in memory consolidation is positively associated with the post-training fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep but is not significantly associated with the fragmentation of total sleep or the total amount of delta activity. We also show that the sleep stage fragmentation resulting from circadian desynchrony has no effect on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and no effect on hippocampus-independent cued fear-conditioning memory. Our findings in an intact animal model, in which sleep deprivation is not a confounding factor, support the hypothesis that the stereotypic sequence and duration of sleep stages play a specific role in long-term hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  19. Does a thrombin-based topical haemostatic agent reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements after total knee revision surgery? A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Carlo L; Monti, Lorenzo; Logoluso, Nicola; Romanò, Delia; Drago, Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a thrombin-based topical haemostatic in reducing blood requirements after total knee replacement (TKR) revision surgery. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed to evaluate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of a thrombin-based topical haemostatic (Floseal) versus standard treatment in patients receiving total knee revision arthroplasty. The decrease in haemoglobin values postsurgery and the blood units transfused were recorded. The decision to transfuse was made by a surgeon blinded to the patient's group allocation. Forty-eight patients were enroled in the study; twenty-four patients each were randomized to the treatment and control groups, respectively. The median decrease in haemoglobin concentration on the first postoperative day was 2.2 g/dL in the treatment group and 2.7 g/dL in the control group. A significant reduction in units of blood transfused was also observed in the treatment group compared with the control group [1.1 ± 1.13 (range 0-4) vs. 1.9 ± 1.41 (range 0-5) blood units; P = 0.04]. No major treatment-related adverse events were recorded in the study. This study shows that a thrombin-based topical haemostatic reduces the need for blood transfusion in TKR revision surgery. A thrombin-based topical haemostatic agent can be an appropriate solution to enhance haemostasis and vessel sealing at the operative site in TKR revision surgery, in order to reduce the need for blood transfusion after surgery. II.

  20. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  1. Features of the non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering controlled by elastic waves with elevated linear losses: potentials for multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2017-12-01

    During subsequent development of the recently proposed multi-frequency parallel spectrometer for precise spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals, we study potentials of new acousto-optical cells exploiting selected crystalline materials at the limits of their capabilities. Characterizing these wide-aperture cells is non-trivial due to new features inherent in the chosen regime of an advanced non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering by elastic waves with significantly elevated acoustic losses. These features can be observed simpler in uniaxial, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals possessing linear acoustic attenuation. We demonstrate that formerly studied additional degree of freedom, revealed initially for multi-phonon regimes of acousto-optical interaction, can be identified within the one-phonon geometry as well and exploited for designing new cells. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using the identified degree of freedom. Therewith, we are strongly restricted by a linear regime of acousto-optical interaction to avoid the origin of multi-phonon processes within carrying out a multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative technique for an advanced spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals with the improved resolution in an extended frequency range.

  2. Light Scatter in Optical Materials: Advanced Haze Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    contrast sensitivity with glare. This study measured angular scatter in the test articles , and showed that the cumulative (total) scatter beyond...Sample under laser illumination for angular scatter measurements ................................4  Figure 3: Scatter measurement system at a small...scatter effects image quality , visual performance and user acceptance. The purpose of the present effort was to develop a computational model that

  3. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  4. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  5. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  6. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  7. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  8. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  9. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine and life......Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine...... and lifestyle change on levels of total bilirubin in an overweight or obese, cardiovascular high-risk population. Data from the first 4 weeks of the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome study were analyzed. A total of 10 198 patients provided body weight measurements before and after 4 weeks...... of sibutramine treatment (10 mg daily), of whom 1059 (10.4%) gained weight, 1467 (13.7%) lost greater than 0% to 1%, 2492 (23.2%) lost greater than 1% to 2%, 2280 (21.2%) lost greater than 2% to 3%, 1498 (13.9%) lost greater than 3% to 4%, and 1402 (13.1%) lost greater than 4% of their initial weight...

  10. The optimal protocol to reduce blood loss and blood transfusion after unilateral total knee replacement: Low-dose IA-TXA plus 30-min drain clamping versus drainage clamping for the first 3 h without IA-TXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Choi, Sung Wook; Shin, Eun Ho; Park, Myung Hoon; Kim, Myung Ku

    2017-01-01

    Although intraarticular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA) administration or drainage clamping are popular methods used to reduce blood loss after total knee replacement (TKR), the protocol remains controversial. We aimed (1) to establish new protocols through investigating whether two methods, that is, low-dose (500 mg) IA-TXA plus 30-min drain clamping and drainage clamping for the first 3 h without IA-TXA, can reduce blood loss and blood transfusion after unilateral TKR and (2) to make recommendations related to clinical application. This study, conducted from September 2014 to June 2016 related to enrolled 95 patients with primary osteoarthritis who were to have a unilateral cemented TKR, was nonrandomized and retrospective. In group A, the drain was released following tourniquet deflation. In group B, 500-mg TXA was injected into the knee joint via a drain tube after fascia closure and the drain was clamped for the first 30 min to prevent leakage. In group C, the drain was clamped for the first 3-h postoperation. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were collected, including the levels of hematocrit (Hct), the total blood loss (TBL), drained blood volume (BV), the amount of blood transfused, and any complications that developed. We found a significantly lower postoperative TBL, drained BV, decreasing Hct level, and less transfused BV in the IA-TXA injection group (group B) and the 3-h drainage clamping group (group C) compared to the conventional negative drainage group (group A; p optimal than drainage clamping in patients with high bleeding tendency or lateral retinacular release during TKR, who would be concerned about postoperative wound complication.

  11. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  12. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  13. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  14. Structure-related bulk losses in ZrO sub 2 optical thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duparre, A; Welsch, E; Walther, H G [Sektion Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (German Democratic Republic); Kaiser, N; Mueller, H [Physikalisch-Technisches Inst. der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Jena (German Democratic Republic); Hacker, E; Lauth, H; Meyer, J; Weissbrodt, P [Kombinat VEB Carl Zeiss, Jena (German Democratic Republic)

    1990-06-01

    Results of measurements of bulk scattering as well as absorption losses of evaporated ZrO{sub 2} single-layer films are presented. A special layer design was used to eliminate the losses originating from the film interfaces. The scattering and absorption measurements are performed at {lambda}=515 nm by means of total integrated scattering and photoacoustic techniques, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs of C-Pt replicas of cross-sections and electron diffraction studies reveal the correlations between bulk losses and morphology. The compositional depth profiles of the films were investigated by secondary neutral mass spectrometry. The observed absorption can be explained by contaminations homogeneously distributed throughout the film thicknss. The results are discussed with respect to different deposition conditions and post-deposition annealing. (orig.).

  15. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  16. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  17. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  18. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  19. Measurement of Elastic pp Scattering at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region – Determination of the $\\rho$ Parameter and the Total Cross-Section

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069260; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Broulím, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Campanella, C.E.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Paločko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Procházka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, $|t|$, from $6\\times10^{-4}$ GeV$^2$ to 0.2 GeV$^2$. Near the lower end of the $t$-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the $\\rho$-pa...

  20. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  2. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  3. Resonantly scattering crystals and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.; Mahon, P.J.

    1990-12-01

    We examine coherence effects from forming a crystal of resonant scatterers by generalising the Fano model for autoionising resonances in electron scattering from atoms to a lattice of such scatterers. (We have in mind the case of neutron scattering from nuclei.) We solve this problem to yield two branches to the dispersion relation for the neutron in general and three when the resonance coincides with a Brillouin Zone boundary. The 'width' of the resonance is enhanced over the isolated nucleus, the best candidate for observation being the 2eV 185 Re resonance near the Bragg condition. We use these results to calculate the reflection coefficient from a surface, revealing total external reflection near resonance. We discuss experimental feasibility in both the neutron and electron cases. (author)

  4. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  5. Total internal reflection tomography of small objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method is applied to determine the locations of a collection of small anisotropic spherical scatterers in the framework of the total internal reflection tomography. Multiple scattering between scatterers is considered and the inverse scattering problem is nonlinear, which, however, is solved by the proposed fast analytical approach where no associated forward problem is iteratively evaluated. The paper also discusses the role of the polarization of incidence waves, the incidence angle, the separation of scatterers from the surface of the substrate, and the level of noise on the resolution of imaging.

  6. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  7. Updated of the events tree of total loss of power at the site, SBO, taking into account the results of stress tests and methodological updates, convolution, and hydraulic power recovery from model RCPs; Actualizacion del arbol de sucesos de perdida total de suministro electro en el emplazamiento, SBO, teniendo en cuenta los resultados de los estres tests y actualizaciones metodologicas, convolucion, recuperacion desde centrales hidraulicas y modelo de sellos de las RCPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lorenzo, M. A.; Perez Martin, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, is described a tree of events to an accident loss total power at the site (SBO) considering, first the results of stress tests arising from the Fukushima accident and moreover, various methodological updates related to this initiating event.

  8. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  10. Diffraction scattering of strongly bound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1982-04-01

    The scattering of a hadron on a strongly bound system of two hadrons (dihadron) is considered in the high-energy limit for the relative hadron-dihadron motion. The dihadron scatterer motion and the internal interaction are included in our consideration. It is shown that only small values of the internal transfer momentum of dihadron particles bring the principal contribution to the three-particle propagator in eikonal approximation. On the basis of the exact analytical solution of the integral equation for the total Green function the scattering amplitude is derived. It is shown that the scattering amplitude contains only single, double, and triple scattering terms. The three new terms to the Glauber formula for the total cross section are obtained. These terms decrease both the true total hadron-hadron cross section and the screening correction. (orig.)

  11. Pre-transplant soluble CD30 in combination with total DSA but not pre-transplant C1q-DSA predicts antibody-mediated graft loss in presensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, S M; Süsal, C; Opelz, G; Döhler, B; Becker, L E; Klein, K; Sickmüller, S; Waldherr, R; Macher-Goeppinger, S; Schemmer, P; Beimler, J; Zeier, M; Morath, C

    2016-02-01

    Presensitized kidney transplant recipients are at high-risk for early antibody-mediated rejection. We studied the impact of pre- and post-transplant donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) and T-cell-activation on the occurrence of antibody-mediated rejection episodes (AMR) and graft loss (AMR-GL) in a unique cohort of 80 desensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Patients with pre-transplant DSA demonstrated more AMR episodes than patients without DSA, but did not show a significantly increased rate of AMR-GL. The rates of AMR and AMR-GL were not significantly increased in patients with complement split product (C1q)-binding pre-transplant DSA. Pre-transplant C1q-DSA became undetectable post-transplant in 11 of 13 (85%) patients; 2 (18%) of these 11 patients showed AMR but no AMR-GL. In contrast, the post-transplant presence of C1q-DSA was associated with significantly higher rates of AMR (86 vs 33 vs 0%; P transplant DSA without C1q-binding or the absence of DSA. Patients with both pre-transplant DSA and evidence of pre-transplant T-cell-activation as indicated by soluble CD30-positivity showed a significantly increased risk for AMR-GL [HR = 11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-73.4; log-rank P = 0.013]. In these high-risk patients, AMR-GL was associated with total DSA in combination with T-cell-activation pre-transplant, and de novo or persistent C1q-binding DSA post-transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  13. The threshold behaviour of scattering phase shifts in singular potentials; Das Schwellenverhalten von Streuphasen in singulaeren Potentialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnecke, Florian

    2009-01-19

    In this thesis we have studied the threshold behaviour od scattering phases in attactive, singular potentials proportional to -1/r{sup {alpha}}, {alpha}>2, in two and three dimensions. Total absorption on the surface was described by incoming boundary condition in form of WKB waves, so that the scattering phase {delta}(k) is because of the particle loss a complex quantity and the S matrix no longer unitary. As application example we use the scattering behaviour of ultracold atoms on an absorbing sphere. The parameters were so chosen that they correspond to those of metastable helium (2{sup 3}S) atoms respectively sodium atoms in the ground state and a radius of the sphere of 200 respectively 2000 a. u. The final chapter presents a survey about the scattering on a circularly symmetric potential in two dimensions.

  14. Incoherent Thomson scattering as a diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wavelength is much smaller than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  16. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  17. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  18. Fatigue and damage tolerance scatter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikher, Veniamin L.

    1994-09-01

    Effective Total Fatigue Life and Crack Growth Scatter Models are proposed. The first of them is based on the power form of the Wohler curve, fatigue scatter dependence on mean life value, cycle stress ratio influence on fatigue scatter, and validated description of the mean stress influence on the mean fatigue life. The second uses in addition are fracture mechanics approach, assumption of initial damage existence, and Paris equation. Simple formulas are derived for configurations of models. A preliminary identification of the parameters of the models is fulfilled on the basis of experimental data. Some new and important results for fatigue and crack growth scatter characteristics are obtained.

  19. Evaluation of blood loss after early or late release of ischemia in patients undergoing total knee replacement Avaliação da perda sanguínea após a liberação precoce ou tardia da isquemia em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: compare blood loss in 40 patients underwent to unilateral total knee replacement with the release of ischemia before and after skin closure and compressive dressing. METHODS: in a prospective randomized study, in 40 patients underwent to total knee replacement, dividing then into two groups: group A in which the ischemia was released before skin closure, allowing bleeding control and group B where the ischemia was released after skin suture and pressure dressing. We compared the results of laboratory tests of serum hemoglobin before surgery and 48 hours postoperatively, the blood volume contained in vacuum suction drain and the transfusions that was necessary. RESULTS: As a result, the post operative serum hemoglobin levels had a mean decrease of 3.57 g/dL in group A and 4.24 g/dL in group B with an average of 0.67g/dL difference between them, statistically insignificant.The observed mean drainage, in the vacuum drain, were 705 mL in group A and 700 mL in group B. The 5ml difference between medians was considered statistically insignificant. The number of patients who received transfusions was four patients in both groups and all received two units of red blood cells. CONCLUSION: the post operative serum hemoglobin levels, as well as the need of blood transfusion, in the patient underwent to total knee replacement, where the ischemia was released before wound closure, has no statistical effect in comparison with patients where the sutures and bandages were done after the ischemia release. Level of Evidence IB - Individual randomized controlled trial with narrow confidence interval. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comparativamente a perda sanguínea em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho, com liberação da isquemia antes e após suturas e curativo compressivo. MÉTODOS: Fez-se um estudo prospectivo randomizado em 40 pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro grupo a isquemia foi

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  1. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  2. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  4. Cooperative scattering of scalar waves by optimized configurations of point scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Frank; Eckert, Felix; Wellens, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We investigate multiple scattering of scalar waves by an ensemble of N resonant point scatterers in three dimensions. For up to N = 21 scatterers, we numerically optimize the positions of the individual scatterers, to maximize the total scattering cross section for an incoming plane wave, on the one hand, and to minimize the decay rate associated to a long-lived scattering resonance, on the other. In both cases, the optimum is achieved by configurations where all scatterers are placed on a line parallel to the direction of the incoming plane wave. The associated maximal scattering cross section increases quadratically with the number of scatterers for large N, whereas the minimal decay rate—which is realized by configurations that are not the same as those that maximize the scattering cross section—decreases exponentially as a function of N. Finally, we also analyze the stability of our optimized configurations with respect to small random displacements of the scatterers. These results demonstrate that optimized configurations of scatterers bear a considerable potential for applications such as quantum memories or mirrors consisting of only a few atoms.

  5. Nucleon-nucleon scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.

    1981-01-01

    The present review contains a compilation of p-p, n-n, n-p and p-n elastic scattering data, total cross sections for elastic and inelastic nucleon-nucleon processes as well as the slope parameters and the ratios of the real to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude measured at all energies. The data are given in detailed tables with comments on each measurement. Summary tables, nucleon-nucleon kinematics formulae, transformation tables for kinematics, a detailed list of references and an author index complete the paper. (orig.)

  6. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  7. SU-F-P-48: The Quantitative Evaluation and Comparison of Image Distortion and Loss of X-Ray Images Between Anti-Scattered Grid and Moire Compensation Processing in Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W; Jung, J; Kang, Y; Chung, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyze the influence image processing for Moire elimination has in digital radiography by comparing the image acquired from optimized anti-scattered grid only and the image acquired from software processing paired with misaligned low-frequency grid. Methods: Special phantom, which does not create scattered radiation, was used to acquire non-grid reference images and they were acquired without any grids. A set of images was acquired with optimized grid, aligned to pixel of a detector and other set of images was acquired with misaligned low-frequency grid paired with Moire elimination processing algorithm. X-ray technique used was based on consideration to Bucky factor derived from non-grid reference images. For evaluation, we analyze by comparing pixel intensity of acquired images with grids to that of reference images. Results: When compared to image acquired with optimized grid, images acquired with Moire elimination processing algorithm showed 10 to 50% lower mean contrast value of ROI. Severe distortion of images was found with when the object’s thickness was measured at 7 or less pixels. In this case, contrast value measured from images acquired with Moire elimination processing algorithm was under 30% of that taken from reference image. Conclusion: This study shows the potential risk of Moire compensation images in diagnosis. Images acquired with misaligned low-frequency grid results in Moire noise and Moire compensation processing algorithm used to remove this Moire noise actually caused an image distortion. As a result, fractures and/or calcifications which are presented in few pixels only may not be diagnosed properly. In future work, we plan to evaluate the images acquired without grid but based on 100% image processing and the potential risks it possesses.

  8. Convergence of the multiple scattering expansion in XAFS and XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion of XAFS and XANES by explicit path-bypath calculations. The approach is based on the fast scattering matrix formalism of Rehr and Albers, together with an automated path finder and filters that exclude negligible paths. High-order scattering terms are found to be essential, especially at low energies. Several factors including the magnitude of curved wave scattering amplitudes, inelastic losses and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors control convergence of the expansion. The convergence is illustrated explicitly for the case of diatomic molecules

  9. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  10. Influence of X-ray scatter radiation on image quality in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.J.; Di Maria, S.; Baptista, M.; Belchior, A.; Afonso, J.; Venâncio, J.; Vaz, P.

    2017-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a quasi-three-dimensional imaging technique that was developed to solve the principal limitation of mammography, namely the overlapping tissue effect. This issue in standard mammography (SM) leads to two main problems: low sensitivity (difficulty to detect lesions) and low specificity (non-negligible percentage of false positives). Although DBT is now being introduced in clinical practice the features of this technique have not yet been fully and accurately assessed. Consequently, optimization studies in terms of choosing the most suitable parameters which maximize image quality according to the known limits of breast dosimetry are currently performing. In DBT, scatter radiation can lead to a loss of contrast and to an increase of image noise by reducing the signal-to-difference-noise ratio (SDNR) of a lesion. Moreover the use of an anti-scatter grid is a concern due to the low exposure of the photon flux available per projection. For this reason the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the scatter radiation on image quality and the dose delivered to the breast. In particular a detailed analysis of the scatter radiation on the optimal energy that maximizes the SDNR was performed for different monochromatic energies and voltages. To reach this objective the PenEasy Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool imbedded in the general-purpose main program PENELOPE, was used. After a successful validation of the MC model with measurements, 2D projection images of primary, coherent and incoherent photons were obtained. For that, a homogeneous breast phantom (2, 4, 6, 8 cm) with 25%, 50% and 75% glandular compositions was used, including a 5 mm thick tumor. The images were generated for each monochromatic X-ray energies in the range from 16 keV to 32 keV. For each angular projection considered (25 angular projections covering an arc of 50°) the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the signal

  11. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  12. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  13. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  14. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  15. Neutron Scattering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  16. Magnetic photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)

  17. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  18. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  19. Elastic and quasielastic scattering of light nuclei in the theory of multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismatov, E.I.; Kuterbekov, K.A.; Dzhuraev, Sh.Kh.; Ehsaniyazov, Sh.P.; Zholdasova, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the work the calculation method for diffraction scattering amplitudes of light nuclei by heavy nuclei is developed. For A 1 A 2 -scattering effects of pair-, three-fold, and four-fold screenings are estimated. It is shown, that in amplitude calculations for A 1 A 2 elastic scattering it is enough come to nothing more than accounting of total screenings in the first order. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus scattering sensitive characteristics to choice of single-particle nuclear densities parametrization is carried out

  20. Wigner representation in scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger

  1. Avaliação da perda de mercúrio total em peixe antes e após os processos de fritura e cocção Determination of mercury losses in fish after cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aricelso Maia LIMAVERDE FILHO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A perda de mercúrio contido em músculo de peixes (Piraíba, Brachyplatystoma ssp; Traíra, Hoplias malabaricus submetidos a dois distintos processos de cozimento foi investigada. Os resultados mostraram perdas variando entre 0 e 30% (base seca, indicando que a maior parte do mercúrio foi retida. Assim, tais processos não protegem as populações, que deles se utilizam, contra a exposição por ingestão ao mercúrio originariamente contido na amostra "in natura".Mercury losses from flesh fish after two cooking process were investigated. Results showed losses ranging from 0 to 30% (dry weight basis. Such result indicates that fish consuming populations are not protected from mercury exposition by the studied cooking processes.

  2. Losses in variable fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronca, G.; Fevrier, A.; Genevey, P.; Perot, J.

    1974-01-01

    After a recall of the theory of losses in type 11 superconductors and review of recent work on this topic, the characteristics of what should be an ideal conductor for a pulsed magnet are given. The requirements of pulsed magnets for high energy physics are reviewed and total losses for a 1000 GeV synchrotron estimated. Finally, recent results of prototypes are reported along with the projects of superconducting synchrotron accelerators through the world. (author)

  3. Resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Soroka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses peculiarities of the resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerators. The expediency of the use has been confirmed by experiment. Peculiarities are caused because elastic resonance scattering through the stage of compound nucleus is always accompanied by potential and Coulomb scattering. These three components interfere and for that reason the resonance form de-pends on a scattering angle and total angular moment of a compound nucleus level. However, possessing neces-sary information in the given field of nuclear spectroscopy enables the selection of resonance with the character-istics suitable for the calibration purpose. Considerable increase of the scattering cross section in the resonance region saves the time and simplifies the experiment technical maintenance. The experiments were performed at the 10 MeV tandem accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, after its modernization. Silicon and oxygen were used as the targets. Silicon targets were of two types of thickness: 1 the target of complete absorption, 2 the target with the thickness in which the loss of protons ener-gy exceeded the width of the selected resonance. The elastic and non elastic scattering from silicon were used in region of the 3,100 MeV proton energy resonance. Oxygen target, as component of the surface oxidizing layer on beryllium had the thickness which in terms of the loss of proton energy was less than the width of the selected elastic narrow resonance at 3,470 MeV proton energy. As result of the measurement the corrections concerning the energy scale of the accelerator and protons energy spread in the beam were proposed.

  4. Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt

  5. Raman scattering of light off a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuden, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    Raman scattering off a superconducting surface is formulated using Kubo's nonlinear response theory in a form suitable for systematic diagrammatic expansion. The effects of the sample surface are correctly taken into account. It is shown that in the presence of vacuum polarization processes, the contribution to the scattering efficiency from the density-density correlation function considered in the literature, is reduced. The relevant four-vertex parts, describing inelastic scattering of light by electronic excitations via intermediate interband states in a superconductor, are calculated. Frequency and temperature dependence of the relative scattering efficiency for the large momentum transfer (Pippard limit), and constant transition matrix elements, are obtained. The estimated magnitude of the total scattering efficiency is of the order of 10 -11

  6. S-wave scattering of fermion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2011-01-01

    A model where a Dirac fermion is coupled to background dilaton field is considered to study s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that an uncomfortable situation towards information loss scenario arises when one loop correction gets involved during bosonization.

  7. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  8. Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)

  9. Results in pion proton scattering near the higher resonances (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.

    1961-01-01

    We present briefly the available Information on the total cross sections for pion proton scattering in the energy region from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. We also have collected all results on total cross sections for particular channels like elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and charge exchange. Using new results on the total cross section for neutral events, we have plotted separately the cross section for elastic and for inelastic scattering in the T = 1/2 state. (authors) [fr

  10. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  11. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  12. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  13. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  14. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion: Atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past three years of the grant. This research project is designed to study various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements will provide total cross sections (TCS) initially, and once the angular positioning apparatus is installed, will provide angular differential cross sections (ADCS)

  15. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  16. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  17. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  18. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  20. Quantum theory of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ta You

    1962-01-01

    This volume addresses the broad formal aspects and applications of the quantum theory of scattering in atomic and nuclear collisions. An encyclopedic source of pioneering work, it serves as a text for students and a reference for professionals in the fields of chemistry, physics, and astrophysics. The self-contained treatment begins with the general theory of scattering of a particle by a central field. Subsequent chapters explore particle scattering by a non-central field, collisions between composite particles, the time-dependent theory of scattering, and nuclear reactions. An examinati

  1. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  2. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  3. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  4. Astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering: Dust scattered gamma radiation from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A.; Gupta, S.K. Sen

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary, and perhaps the first, study of astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering in a gamma-ray emitting celestial object like a gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been made. At energies≥100 MeV the elastic scattering of gamma-ray photons off the molecular dust surrounding the GRB site is dominated by Delbrück scattering. Expressions for Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray flux as a function of time has been obtained for a few selected energies by assuming a simple model of GRB. These are compared with Compton-scattered flux. At certain situations, interestingly, the former is found to exceed the latter for the first few milliseconds of the burst. The issue of detectability of Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray echo from the cloud of a GRB is discussed. Although it is observed that the detection of such an echo is not within the capability of the presently operating gamma-ray missions such as Fermi LAT, a rough estimate shows that one can be optimistic that future generation gamma-ray telescopes might be able to see such photons' contribution to the total flux. - Highlights: ► Astrophysical application of Delbrück scattering in a GRB has been made. ► Initially, the Delbrück scattering may dominate the scattering of GeV γ-rays. ► The issue of detectability of such radiations is discussed

  5. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  6. Toward a new polyethylene scattering law determined using inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, C.M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Stone, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S(Q,E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for ambient temperatures (∼300K), and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 294 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, describe the experimental methods, and compare computations using these models to the measured S(Q,E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the one phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work. -- Highlights: ► Polyethylene at 5 K and 300 K is measured using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). ► Measurements conducted at the Wide Angular-Range Chopper Spectrometer at SNS. ► Several models for Polyethylene are compared to measurements. ► Improvements to existing models for the polyethylene scattering law are suggested. ► INS is shown to be highly valuable tool for scattering law development

  7. Pion-pion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnelt, H.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss a few properties of scattering amplitudes proved within the framework of the field theory and their significance in the derivation of quantitative statements. The state of the boundaries for the scattering lengths is to be especially discussed as well as the question as to how far it is possible to exclude various solutions from phase displacement analyses. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  9. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  10. Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text

  11. Regularization of the Coulomb scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskii, V.G.; Feranchuk, I.D.; Kats, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb potential is used within the scope of both stationary and time-dependent scattering theories in order to find the parameters which determine the regularization of the Rutherford cross section when the scattering angle tends to zero but the distance r from the center remains finite. The angular distribution of the particles scattered in the Coulomb field is studied on rather a large but finite distance r from the center. It is shown that the standard asymptotic representation of the wave functions is inapplicable in the case when small scattering angles are considered. The unitary property of the scattering matrix is analyzed and the 'optical' theorem for this case is discussed. The total and transport cross sections for scattering the particle by the Coulomb center proved to be finite values and are calculated in the analytical form. It is shown that the effects under consideration can be important for the observed characteristics of the transport processes in semiconductors which are determined by the electron and hole scattering by the field of charged impurity centers

  12. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  13. Introductory theory of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1986-12-01

    The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)

  14. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  15. Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical–cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.

  16. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  17. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  18. Coherence in electron energy loss spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattschneider, P.; Werner, W.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence effects in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and in energy filtering are largely neglected although they occur frequently due to Bragg scattering in crystals. We discuss how coherence in the inelastically scattered wave field can be described by the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF), and how it relates to the density matrix of the scattered electrons. Among the many aspects of 'inelastic coherence' are filtered high-resolution images, dipole-forbidden transitions, coherence in plasma excitations, errors in chemical microanalysis, coherent double plasmons, and circular dichroism

  19. Positron scattering from noble gases future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mitroy, J, E-mail: acj107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a [Faculty of Education Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, NT (Australia)

    2009-11-01

    Recent results for positron scattering from noble gases over an energy range from 0.5 to 60eV are presented. Measurements include the grand total ({sigma}{sub GT}), Ps formation ({sigma}{sub Ps}) and Grand total - Ps formation (({sigma}{sub GT}-P{sub s}) cross sections. Some preliminary DCS results will also be presented. Work on a formulation of modified effective range theory (MERT) is being undertaken to determine the value of the scattering length which may be useful for identifying a bound state. Plans for experiments on metal atoms will be outlined.

  20. Analytic scattering kernels for neutron thermalization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1990-01-01

    Current plans call for the inclusion of a liquid hydrogen or deuterium cold source in the NRU replacement vessel. This report is part of an ongoing study of neutron thermalization in such a cold source. Here, we develop a simple analytical model for the scattering kernel of monatomic and diatomic liquids. We also present the results of extensive numerical calculations based on this model for liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and mixtures of the two. These calculations demonstrate the dependence of the scattering kernel on the incident and scattered-neutron energies, the behavior near rotational thresholds, the dependence on the centre-of-mass pair correlations, the dependence on the ortho concentration, and the dependence on the deuterium concentration in H 2 /D 2 mixtures. The total scattering cross sections are also calculated and compared with available experimental results

  1. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  2. Do Cloaked Objects Really Scatter Less?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Monticone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the global scattering response of invisibility cloaks over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from static to very high frequencies. Based on linearity, causality, and energy conservation, we show that the total extinction and scattering, integrated over all wavelengths, of any linear, passive, causal, and nondiamagnetic cloak, necessarily increase compared to the uncloaked case. In light of this general principle, we provide a quantitative measure to compare the global performance of different cloaking techniques and we discuss solutions to minimize the global scattering signature of an object using thin, superconducting shells. Our results provide important physical insights on how invisibility cloaks operate and affect the global scattering of an object, suggesting ways to defeat countermeasures aimed at detecting cloaked objects using short impinging pulses.

  3. Electromagnetic Scattering from a PEC Wedge Capped with Cylindrical Layers with Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ozturk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic scattering from a layered capped wedge is studied. The wedge is assumed infinite in z-direction (longitudinal and capped with arbitrary layers of dielectric with varying thicknesses and dielectric properties including conductive loss. Scalar Helmholtz equation in two dimensions is formulated for each solution region and a matrix of unknown coefficients are arrived at for electric field representation. Closed form expressions are derived for 2- and 3-layer geometries. Numerical simulations are performed for different wedge shapes and dielectric layer properties and compared to PEC-only case. It has been shown that significant reduction in scattered electric field can be obtained with 2- and 3-layered cap geometries. Total electric field in the far field normalized to incident field is also computed as a precursor to RCS analysis. Analytical results can be useful in radar cross section analysis for aerial vehicles.

  4. Light scattering studies at UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Salzberg, J.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Frota Pessoa, S.; Reis, F.G. dos; Ferrari, C.A.; Algarte, C.A.S.; Tenan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on light scattering spectroscopy at UNICAMP is presented briefly, such as: inelastic scattering of radiation from a solid state plasma; resonant Ramman scattering; high excitation effects; saturated semiconductors and glasses

  5. Neutron transfer with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Haggag, M.H.; Saad, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The finite slab problem is reduced to a semi-infinite one by adding an infinitesimally thick layer such that both the added layer and the total layer are semi-infinite. The relation between the reflection and transmission functions for a finite slab and those for an infinite one are obtained in terms of an operator which satisfies a semigroup equation. The method is applied to anisotropic scattering with azimuthal dependence. Numerical calculations are made and the results compared with those of other workers. (author)

  6. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things

  7. Ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Asonuma, Sanae; Mitamura, Hayato; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-09-18

    To evaluate ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye. Thirty-five eyes in 35 patients with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The 35 dry eyes were classified into two groups according to whether superficial punctate keratopathy in the central 6-mm corneal zone (cSPK) was present or not. Ocular forward light scattering was quantified with a straylight meter. Corneal backward light scattering from the anterior, middle, and posterior corneal parts was assessed with a corneal densitometry program using the Scheimpflug imaging system. Both dry eye groups had significantly higher intraocular forward light scattering than the control group (both Pdry eye group with cSPK had significantly higher values in anterior and total corneal backward light scattering than the other two groups. Moderate positive correlations were observed between the cSPK score and corneal backward light scattering from the anterior cornea (R=0.60, Pdry eyes than in normal eyes. Increased corneal backward light scattering in dry eye at least partially results from cSPK overlying the optical zone. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Low-energy scattering data for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey of literature data of the scattering lengths of oxygen is performed, and these values are compared to low-energy precise total cross-section data. To check the quality of the data and the correctness of the relation between coherent scattering lengths and low-energy total cross-sections the situation is examined first for carbon. A value and uncertainty for the coherent scattering length of oxygen is recommended for use in future evaluations of 16 O. This coherent scattering length is fully consistent with the high-precision, low-energy total cross-section data. The consistency requires the use of a larger uncertainty than claimed in the most accurate cross-section papers. This larger uncertainty is nevertheless very small and well within the requirements of applications of this cross-section. The recommended value is b c ( 16 O) = 5.816±0.015 fm and the associated total cross-section for the neutron-energy range 0.5 to 2 000 eV is 3.765±0.025 b. The stated uncertainties are one standard deviation total uncertainty. (authors)

  9. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  10. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  11. Scattering on magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent scattering theory of charged particles on magnetic monopoles is investigated within a mathematical frame-work, which duely pays attention to the fact that the wavefunctions of the scattered particles are sections in a non-trivial complex line-bundle. It is found that Moeller operators have to be defined in a way which takes into account the peculiar long-range behaviour of the monopole field. Formulas for the scattering matrix and the differential cross-section are derived, and, as a by-product, a momentum space picture for particles, which are described by sections in the underlying complex line-bundle, is presented. (orig.)

  12. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  13. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C

    2017-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)

  14. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  15. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  16. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  18. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  19. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  20. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  1. Rough surface scattering simulations using graphics cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Poruba, Ales; Necas, David; Ohlidal, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present results of rough surface scattering calculations using a graphical processing unit implementation of the Finite Difference in Time Domain algorithm. Numerical results are compared to real measurements and computational performance is compared to computer processor implementation of the same algorithm. As a basis for computations, atomic force microscope measurements of surface morphology are used. It is shown that the graphical processing unit capabilities can be used to speedup presented computationally demanding algorithms without loss of precision.

  2. Classical theory of atom-surface scattering: The rainbow effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador; Pollak, Eli

    2012-07-01

    The scattering of heavy atoms and molecules from surfaces is oftentimes dominated by classical mechanics. A large body of experiments have gathered data on the angular distributions of the scattered species, their energy loss distribution, sticking probability, dependence on surface temperature and more. For many years these phenomena have been considered theoretically in the framework of the “washboard model” in which the interaction of the incident particle with the surface is described in terms of hard wall potentials. Although this class of models has helped in elucidating some of the features it left open many questions such as: true potentials are clearly not hard wall potentials, it does not provide a realistic framework for phonon scattering, and it cannot explain the incident angle and incident energy dependence of rainbow scattering, nor can it provide a consistent theory for sticking. In recent years we have been developing a classical perturbation theory approach which has provided new insight into the dynamics of atom-surface scattering. The theory includes both surface corrugation as well as interaction with surface phonons in terms of harmonic baths which are linearly coupled to the system coordinates. This model has been successful in elucidating many new features of rainbow scattering in terms of frictions and bath fluctuations or noise. It has also given new insight into the origins of asymmetry in atomic scattering from surfaces. New phenomena deduced from the theory include friction induced rainbows, energy loss rainbows, a theory of super-rainbows, and more. In this review we present the classical theory of atom-surface scattering as well as extensions and implications for semiclassical scattering and the further development of a quantum theory of surface scattering. Special emphasis is given to the inversion of scattering data into information on the particle-surface interactions.

  3. Atmospheric scattering corrections to solar radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, M.A.; Deepak, A.

    1979-01-01

    Whenever a solar radiometer is used to measure direct solar radiation, some diffuse sky radiation invariably enters the detector's field of view along with the direct beam. Therefore, the atmospheric optical depth obtained by the use of Bouguer's transmission law (also called Beer-Lambert's law), that is valid only for direct radiation, needs to be corrected by taking account of the scattered radiation. In this paper we shall discuss the correction factors needed to account for the diffuse (i.e., singly and multiply scattered) radiation and the algorithms developed for retrieving aerosol size distribution from such measurements. For a radiometer with a small field of view (half-cone angle 0 ) and relatively clear skies (optical depths <0.4), it is shown that the total diffuse contributions represents approximately l% of the total intensity. It is assumed here that the main contributions to the diffuse radiation within the detector's view cone are due to single scattering by molecules and aerosols and multiple scattering by molecules alone, aerosol multiple scattering contributions being treated as negligibly small. The theory and the numerical results discussed in this paper will be helpful not only in making corrections to the measured optical depth data but also in designing improved solar radiometers

  4. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  5. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  7. Performance of the electron energy-loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the electron energy-loss spectrometer incorporating a new high-resolution hemispherical monochromator are reported. The apparatus achieved an energy-resolution of 25 meV in the elastic scattering mode, and angular distributions of elastically scattered electrons were in excellent agreement with previous workers. Preliminary energy-loss spectra for several atmospheric gases demonstrate the excellent versatility and stable operation of the improved system. 12 references

  8. In vivo imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and tissue scattering in rat brain using a surgical microscope camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Kanie, Takuya; Mustari, Afrina; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu; Kokubo, Yasuaki

    2018-02-01

    We investigated a rapid imaging method to monitor the spatial distribution of total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT), the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), and the scattering power b in the expression of musp=a(lambda)^-b as the scattering parameters in cerebral cortex using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for light transport in brain tissue is used to specify a relation among the RGB-values and the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO), that of deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR), and the scattering power b. In the present study, we performed sequential recordings of RGB images of in vivo exposed brain of rats while changing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), using a surgical microscope camera system. The time courses of CHbO, CHbR, CHbT, and StO2 indicated the well-known physiological responses in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, a fast decrease in the scattering power b was observed immediately after the respiratory arrest, which is similar to the negative deflection of the extracellular DC potential so-called anoxic depolarization. It is said that the DC shift coincident with a rise in extracellular potassium and can evoke cell deformation generated by water movement between intracellular and extracellular compartments, and hence the light scattering by tissue. Therefore, the decrease in the scattering power b after the respiratory arrest is indicative of changes in light scattering by tissue. The results in this study indicate potential of the method to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions and loss of tissue viability in brain tissue.

  9. Total scattering cross-sections for the systems nH2 + nH2, pH2 + pH2, nD2 + nD2, oD2 + oD2 and HD + HD for relative energies below ten milli-electron volts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Relative total scattering cross sections for nH 2 + nH 2 , pH 2 + pH 2 , nD 2 + nD 2 , oD 2 + oD 2 , and HD + HD were measured with inclined nozzle beams derived from nozzle sources and intersecting at 21 0 . Both nozzles could be varied in temperature from 4.2K to 300K to provide the velocity range for the cross sections. The use of a parahydrogen converter allowed the measurement of the pH 2 + pH 2 and oD 2 + oD 2 cross sections. Cross sections for the H 2 + H 2 were measured over a relative velocity range of 200 m/s to 1450 m/s. The nH 2 + nH 2 results show an undulation in the velocity range between 350 m/s and 400 m/s that corresponds to a l = 3 orbiting resonance. Analysis of the pH 2 + pH 2 cross section indicates a l = 4 orbiting resonance near 586 m/s. This resonance has a peak energy of 1.79 meV and a measured energy width of 1.05 meV, both which agree well with theoretical predictions. The D 2 + D 2 cross sections have been measured in the velocity range between 190 m/s and 1000 m/s. No orbiting resonances have been observed, but in the oD 2 + oD 2 cross section a deep minimum between the l = 4 and the l = 5 resonances at low velocities is clearly suggested. Initial measurements of the HD + HD cross section suggests the presence of the l = 4 orbiting resonance near a relative velocity of 300 m/s. The experimental results for each system were normalized to the total cross sections, which were convoluted to account for experimental velocity and angular dispersions. Three different potentials were considered, but a chi-square fit of the data indicates that the Schaefer and Meyer potential, which has been theoretically obtained from first principles, provides the best overall description of the hydrogen systems in the low collisional energy range

  10. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge

    2008-01-01

    In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (k i a || 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then k i a || 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.

  11. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field tries to drive the electron with its frequency. If the applied field is of the form E = E0eiωt , the driving ..... (CARS),8 coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS), ... gain or loss process in which only two beams are required and it is a self ...

  12. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  14. Changing the scattering of sheltered targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yang; He Lianxing; Wang Yu; Chan, Helen L.W.; Zhu Shouzheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a kind of illusion cloak that does not provide invisibility but instead changes the scattering of a coated target to that of a totally different one. Different from other illusion cloaks such as those based on 'anti-object' or active sources, the proposed one is independent of the information of concealed targets or incident waves and can reshape the scattering of any targets. In addition, we also provide a general method to imitate arbitrary conductor line segments, as a special case of conductor reshaper. Electromagnetic (EM) simulations by a finite-element solver on detailed examples have been carried to validate the design.

  15. ELASTIC SCATTERING: How goes the Odderon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Kang, Kyungsik; Tan, C-I

    1994-01-01

    Spurred by new measurements of total reaction rates and associated parameters by groups at CERN, DESY, and Fermilab, and with the scent of possible solutions to past controversies in the air, some 110 experimental and theoretical highenergy physicists gathered at Brown University (Providence, Rhode Island) for the fifth traditional 'Blois' Workshop on High-Energy Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. Very much alive is the 'Odderon' - the extra effect to explain the difference between proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering.

  16. Quasielastic electron scattering from 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Schmitt, W.M.; Osborn, M.; Deady, M.; Zimmerman, P.D.; Blatchley, C.C.; Seth, K.K.; Sarmiento, M.; Parker, B.; Jin, Y.; Wright, L.E.; Onley, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differential cross sections for quasielastic electron scattering on 40 Ca have been measured at laboratory scattering angles of 45.5 degree, 90 degree, and 140 degree with bombarding energies ranging from 130 to 840 MeV. Transverse and longitudinal response functions have been extracted for momentum transfers from 300 to 500 MeV/c. Contrary to some previously reported results, the total observed longitudinal strength agrees with the relativistic Fermi gas prediction to within ±18%. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  18. A Sudden Total Loss of Vision After Routine Cataract Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We share our experience of a 50-year-old controlled hypertensive woman who had routine cataract surgery in her left eye. She was given retrobulbar Xylocaine with adrenalin and postoperative gentamycin. She subsequently became blind in the operated eye after developing macular infarction by the first day post ...

  19. 24 CFR 266.648 - Items included in total loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS... payments that the HFA made from its own funds and not from project income for: (1) Taxes, special... from project income for: (1) Preservation, operation and maintenance of the property; (2) Repairs...

  20. 24 CFR 266.650 - Items deducted from total loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not limited to returned premiums from canceled insurance policies, interest on investments of reserve...) Any net income from the mortgaged property/project that the HFA received after the date of default. (e...

  1. Total perinatally related losses at Tygerberg Hospital – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the leading causes of perinatal deaths and to evaluate any changes, with the inclusion of placental histology. Method. At perinatal mortality meetings, primary and final causes of death were assigned for the period 1 July 2006 - 30 June 2007. All singleton babies born to women residing in the ...

  2. Impact parameter dynamics in quantum theory in large angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyanov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    High energy behaviour of a free particle Green's function is studied for construction of the scattering amplitude. The main part of the Green's function is determined by eikonal scattering along the mean moment and by the total scattering along the transfered momentum. This ''impact'' approximation may be included as a first approximation in the iteration scheme for the scattering amplitude along the mean momentum, i.e. the ''impact'' perturbation theory. With the help of the ''impact'' approximation an expansion of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter depending on interaction is obtained. These expansions are more correct than the eikonal expansions at large angle scattering. The results are illustrated grafically foe the exponential and the Yukawa potentials

  3. Haag-Ruelle scattering theory as a scattering theory in different spaces of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshmanenko, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the paper is the extraction of the abstract content from the Haag-Ruelle theory, i.e. to find out the total mathematical scheme of the theory without the account of physical axiomatics. It is shown that the Haag-Ruelle scattering theory may be naturally included into the scheme of the abstract theory of scattering with the pair of spaces, the wave operators being determined by the method of bilinear functionals. A number of trivial features of the scattering operator is found in the abstract theory. The concrete prospects of the application of the data obtained are outlined in the problem of the scattering of the field quantum theory

  4. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  5. Diffuse scattering from laser-irradiated plane targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.G.M. van; Olsen, J.N.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.; Eidmann, K.; Godwin, R.P.

    1976-11-01

    Optical calorimetry of the laser radiation scattered from plane targets irradiated by 0.3 Joule/30 ps Nd-laser pulses with intensities up to 10 16 W cm -2 has been performed with an emphasis on diffuse scattering. Diffuse scattering outside the solid angle of the focusing lens is found to be a major reflection loss from the target. A fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 of the incident pulse energy was absorbed in the target with only a very weak dependence on pulse energy and target material. (orig.) [de

  6. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  7. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  8. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  9. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  10. Λ scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  11. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  12. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  13. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  14. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  15. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  16. Slow neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a versatile technique that has been successfully applied to condensed-matter physics, biology, polymer science, chemistry, and materials science. The United States lost its leadership role in this field to Western Europe about 10 years ago. Recently, a modest investment in the United States in new facilities and a positive attitude on the part of the national laboratories toward outside users have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of US scientists involved in neutron scattering research. Plans are being made for investments in new and improved facilities that could return the leadership role to the United States. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  17. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  18. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  19. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  20. SCAP-82, Single Scattering, Albedo Scattering, Point-Kernel Analysis in Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Vogtman, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SCAP solves for radiation transport in complex geometries using the single or albedo scatter point kernel method. The program is designed to calculate the neutron or gamma ray radiation level at detector points located within or outside a complex radiation scatter source geometry or a user specified discrete scattering volume. Geometry is describable by zones bounded by intersecting quadratic surfaces within an arbitrary maximum number of boundary surfaces per zone. Anisotropic point sources are describable as pointwise energy dependent distributions of polar angles on a meridian; isotropic point sources may also be specified. The attenuation function for gamma rays is an exponential function on the primary source leg and the scatter leg with a build- up factor approximation to account for multiple scatter on the scat- ter leg. The neutron attenuation function is an exponential function using neutron removal cross sections on the primary source leg and scatter leg. Line or volumetric sources can be represented as a distribution of isotropic point sources, with un-collided line-of-sight attenuation and buildup calculated between each source point and the detector point. 2 - Method of solution: A point kernel method using an anisotropic or isotropic point source representation is used, line-of-sight material attenuation and inverse square spatial attenuation between the source point and scatter points and the scatter points and detector point is employed. A direct summation of individual point source results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The SCAP program is written in complete flexible dimensioning so that no restrictions are imposed on the number of energy groups or geometric zones. The geometric zone description is restricted to zones defined by boundary surfaces defined by the general quadratic equation or one of its degenerate forms. The only restriction in the program is that the total

  1. Plane-dependent ML scatter scaling: 3D extension of the 2D simulated single scatter (SSS) estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Salvo, Koen; Vahle, Thomas; Panin, Vladimir; Casey, Michael; Boada, Fernando; Defrise, Michel; Nuyts, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Scatter correction is typically done using a simulation of the single scatter, which is then scaled to account for multiple scatters and other possible model mismatches. This scaling factor is determined by fitting the simulated scatter sinogram to the measured sinogram, using only counts measured along LORs that do not intersect the patient body, i.e. ‘scatter-tails’. Extending previous work, we propose to scale the scatter with a plane dependent factor, which is determined as an additional unknown in the maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, using counts in the entire sinogram rather than only the ‘scatter-tails’. The ML-scaled scatter estimates are validated using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a NEMA-like phantom, a phantom scan with typical contrast ratios of a 68Ga-PSMA scan, and 23 whole-body 18F-FDG patient scans. On average, we observe a 12.2% change in the total amount of tracer activity of the MLEM reconstructions of our whole-body patient database when the proposed ML scatter scales are used. Furthermore, reconstructions using the ML-scaled scatter estimates are found to eliminate the typical ‘halo’ artifacts that are often observed in the vicinity of high focal uptake regions.

  2. Plasmonic nanoparticle scattering for color holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Tenorio-Pearl, Jaime Oscar; Williams, Calum; Zhang, Shuang; Milne, William Ireland; Wilkinson, Timothy David

    2014-09-02

    This work presents an original approach to create holograms based on the optical scattering of plasmonic nanoparticles. By analogy to the diffraction produced by the scattering of atoms in X-ray crystallography, we show that plasmonic nanoparticles can produce a wave-front reconstruction when they are sampled on a diffractive plane. By applying this method, all of the scattering characteristics of the nanoparticles are transferred to the reconstructed field. Hence, we demonstrate that a narrow-band reconstruction can be achieved for direct white light illumination on an array of plasmonic nanoparticles. Furthermore, multicolor capabilities are shown with minimal cross-talk by multiplexing different plasmonic nanoparticles at subwavelength distances. The holograms were fabricated from a single subwavelength thin film of silver and demonstrate that the total amount of binary information stored in the plane can exceed the limits of diffraction and that this wavelength modulation can be detected optically in the far field.

  3. Sum rules for quasifree scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The areas d σ /d Ω of fitted quasifree scattering peaks from bound nucleons for continuum hadron-nucleus spectra measuring d2σ /d Ω d ω are converted to sum rules akin to the Coulomb sums familiar from continuum electron scattering spectra from nuclear charge. Hadronic spectra with or without charge exchange of the beam are considered. These sums are compared to the simple expectations of a nonrelativistic Fermi gas, including a Pauli blocking factor. For scattering without charge exchange, the hadronic sums are below this expectation, as also observed with Coulomb sums. For charge exchange spectra, the sums are near or above the simple expectation, with larger uncertainties. The strong role of hadron-nucleon in-medium total cross sections is noted from use of the Glauber model.

  4. Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)

  5. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  6. Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Benr-Wei; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering, modified fragmentation functions and radiative energy loss of a heavy quark propagating in a nuclear medium are investigated in perturbative QCD. Because of the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the medium size dependence of heavy quark energy loss is found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss is also significantly suppressed relative to a light quark due to the suppression of collinear gluon emission by a heavy quark

  7. Phonon scattering in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1976-04-01

    Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism

  8. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  9. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  10. Radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation backscattering techniques are useful when access to an item to be inspected is restricted to one side. These techniques are very sensitive to geometrical effects. Scattering processes and their application to the determination of voids, thickness measuring, well-logging and the use of x-ray fluorescence techniques are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Scattering theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2016-07-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  12. Lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmolders, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are reviewed: 1. the structure functions measured in deep inelastic e-N, μ-N and ν-N scattering; 2. nuclear effects on the structure functions; 3. nuclear effects on the fragmentation functions; 4. the spin dependent structure functions and their interpretation in terms of nucleon constituents. (orig./HSI)

  13. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  14. Symposium on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Saenger, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Dachs, H.

    1984-01-01

    Extended abstracts of the named symposium are presented. The first part of this report contains the abstracts of the lectures, the second those of the posters. Topics discussed on the symposium include neutron diffraction and neutron scattering studies in magnetism, solid state chemistry and physics, materials research. Some papers discussing instruments and methods are included too. (GSCH)

  15. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  16. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  17. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  18. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  19. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  20. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  1. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  2. Superradiative scattering magnons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    A magnon-photon interaction for the magnetic vector of the electromagnetic wave perpendicular to the direction of magnetization in a ferromagnet is constructed. The magnon part of the interaction is reduced with the use of Bogoliubov transformation. The resulting magnon-photon interaction is found to contain several interesting new radiation effects. The self energy of the magnon is calculated and life times arising from the radiation scattering are predicted. The magnon frequency shift due to the radiation field is found. One of the terms arising from the one-magnon one-photon scattering gives a line width in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured value of ferromagnetic resonance line width in yttrium iron garnet. Surface magnon scattering is indicated and the contribution of this type of scattering to the radiative line width is discussed. The problem of magnetic superradiance is indicated and it is shown that in anisotropic ferromagnets the emission is proportional to the sqare of the number of magnons and the divergence is considerably minimized. Accordingly the magnetic superradiance emerges as a hyperradiance with much more radiation intensity than in the case of disordered atomic superradiance. (author)

  3. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  4. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  5. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  6. Total cross section of furfural by electron impact: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré Dubuis, A; Verkhovtsev, A; Ellis-Gibbings, L; Krupa, K; Blanco, F; Jones, D B; Brunger, M J; García, G

    2017-08-07

    We present experimental total cross sections for electron scattering from furfural in the energy range from 10 to 1000 eV, as measured using a double electrostatic analyzer gas cell electron transmission experiment. These results are compared to theoretical data for furfural, as well as to experimental and theoretical values for the structurally similar molecules furan and tetrahydrofuran. The measured total cross section is in agreement with the theoretical results obtained by means of the independent-atom model with screening corrected additivity rule including interference method. In the region of higher electron energies, from 500 eV to 10 keV, the total electron scattering cross section is also estimated using a semi-empirical model based on the number of electrons and dipole polarizabilities of the molecular targets. Together with the recently measured differential and integral cross sections, and the furfural energy-loss spectra, the present total cross section data nearly complete the data set that is required for numerical simulation of low-energy electron processes in furfural, covering the range of projectile energies from a few electron volts up to 10 keV.

  7. Total cross section of furfural by electron impact: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré Dubuis, A.; Verkhovtsev, A.; Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Krupa, K.; Blanco, F.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.

    2017-08-01

    We present experimental total cross sections for electron scattering from furfural in the energy range from 10 to 1000 eV, as measured using a double electrostatic analyzer gas cell electron transmission experiment. These results are compared to theoretical data for furfural, as well as to experimental and theoretical values for the structurally similar molecules furan and tetrahydrofuran. The measured total cross section is in agreement with the theoretical results obtained by means of the independent-atom model with screening corrected additivity rule including interference method. In the region of higher electron energies, from 500 eV to 10 keV, the total electron scattering cross section is also estimated using a semi-empirical model based on the number of electrons and dipole polarizabilities of the molecular targets. Together with the recently measured differential and integral cross sections, and the furfural energy-loss spectra, the present total cross section data nearly complete the data set that is required for numerical simulation of low-energy electron processes in furfural, covering the range of projectile energies from a few electron volts up to 10 keV.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Optical scattering characteristic of annealed niobium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Fachun; Li Ming; Wang Haiqian; Hu Hailong; Wang Xiaoping; Hou, J.G.; Song Yizhou; Jiang Yousong

    2005-01-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 200 to 1600 nm were deposited on fused silica at room temperature by low frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system. In order to study the optical losses resulting from the microstructures, the films with 500 nm thickness were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1100 deg. C, and films with thicknesses from 200 to 1600 nm were annealed at 800 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images show that the root mean square of surface roughness, the grain size, voids, microcracks, and grain boundaries increase with increasing both the annealing temperature and the thickness. Correspondingly, the optical transmittance and reflectance decrease, and the optical loss increases. The mechanisms of the optical losses are discussed. The results suggest that defects in the volume and the surface roughness should be the major source for the optical losses of the annealed films by causing pronounced scattering. For samples with a determined thickness, there is a critical annealing temperature, above which the surface scattering contributes to the major optical losses. In the experimental scope, for the films annealed at temperatures below 900 deg. C, the major optical losses resulted from volume scattering. However, surface roughness was the major source for the optical losses when the 500-nm films were annealed at temperatures above 900 deg. C

  10. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  11. Chapter 6 Quantum Mechanical Methods for Loss-Excitation and Loss-Ionization in Fast Ion-Atom Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    Inelastic collisions between bare nuclei and hydrogen-like atomic systems are characterized by three main channels: electron capture, excitation, and ionization. Capture dominates at lower energies, whereas excitation and ionization prevail at higher impact energies. At intermediate energies and in the region of resonant scattering near the Massey peak, all three channels become competitive. For dressed or clothed nuclei possessing electrons, such as hydrogen-like ions, several additional channels open up, including electron loss (projectile ionization or stripping). The most important aspect of electron loss is the competition between one- and two-electron processes. Here, in a typical one-electron process, the projectile emits an electron, whereas the target final and initial states are the same. A prototype of double-electron transitions in loss processes is projectile ionization accompanied with an alteration of the target state. In such a two-electron process, the target could be excited or ionized. The relative importance of these loss channels with single- and double-electron transitions involving collisions of dressed projectiles with atomic systems is also strongly dependent on the value of the impact energy. Moreover, impact energies determine which theoretical method is likely to be more appropriate to use for predictions of cross sections. At low energies, an expansion of total scattering wave functions in terms of molecular orbitals is adequate. This is because the projectile spends considerable time in the vicinity of the target, and as a result, a compound system comprised of the projectile and the target can be formed in a metastable molecular state which is prone to decay. At high energies, a perturbation series expansion is more appropriate in terms of powers of interaction potentials. In the intermediate energy region, atomic orbitals are often used with success while expanding the total scattering wave functions. The present work is focused on

  12. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  13. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  14. Toward quantitative core-loss EFTEM tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Phillipp, N.Y.; Koch, C.T.; Aken, P.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Core-loss EFTEM tomography provides three-dimensional structural and chemical information. Multiple inelastic scattering occurring in thick specimens as well as orientation-dependent diffraction contrast due to multiple elastic scattering, however, often limit its applications. After demonstrating the capability of core-loss EFTEM tomography to reconstruct just a few monolayers thin carbon layer covering a Fe catalyst particle we discuss its application to thicker samples. We propose an approximate multiple-scattering correction method based on the use of zero-loss images and apply it successfully to copper whiskers, providing a significant improvement of the reconstructed 3D elemental distribution. We conclude this paper by a general discussion on experimental parameters affecting the accuracy of EFTEM 3D elemental mapping. -- Research highlights: → EFTEM 3D elemental mapping has been applied to a catalyst particle from which a CNT has grown and a copper whisker. → Correction of multiple inelastic scattering shows significant improvements in the reconstruction of 3D elemental maps. → Experimental parameters affecting the accuracy of EFTEM 3D elemental mapping are discussed.

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  16. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  17. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  18. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  19. A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2012-01-01

    A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.

  20. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.